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1

The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that

L. W. Braile; R. B. Smith; J. Ansorge; M. R. Baker; M. A. Sparlin; C. Prodehl; M. M. Schilly; J. H. Healy; St. Mueller; K. H. Olsen

1982-01-01

2

Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain  

SciTech Connect

Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that the crust of the ESRP is highly anomalous. Approximately 3 to 6 km of volcanic rocks (with some interbedded sediments) overlie an upper-crustal layer (compressional velocity approx. =6.1 km/s) which thins southwestward along the ESRP from a thickness of 10 km near Island Park Caldera to 2 to 3 km beneath the central and southwestern portions of the ESRP. An intermediate-velocity (approx. =6.5 km/s) layer extends from approx. =10 to approx. =20 km depth. a thick (approx. =22 km) lower crust of compressional velocity 6.8 km/s, a total crustall thickness of approx. =42 km, and a P/sub n/ velocity of approx. =7.9 km/s is observed in the ESRP, similar to the western Snake River Plain and the Rocky Mountains Provinces. High attenuation is evident on the amplitude corrected seismic data due to low-Q values in the volcanic rocks (Q/sub p/ = 20 to 200) and throughout the crust (Q/sub p/ = 160 to 300). Based on these characteristics of the crustal structure and volcanic-age progression data, it is suggested that the ESRP has resulted from an intensitive period of intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic magma into the upper crust generating explosive silicic volcanism and associated regional uplift and caldera collapse. This activity began about 15 m.y. ago in southwestern Idaho and has migrated northeast to its present position at Yellowstone. Subsequent cooling of the intruded upper crust results in the 6.5 km/s velocity intermediate layer. Crustal subsidence and periodic basaltic volcanism as represented by the ESRP complete the sequence of crustal evolution.

Braile, L.W.; Smith, R.B.; Ansorge, J.; Baker, M.R.; Sparlin, M.A.; Prodehl, C.; Schilly, M.M.; Healy, J.H.; Mueller, S.; Olsen, K.H.

1982-04-10

3

Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plan, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and ...

G. S. Carpenter J. L. Casper R. P. Smith S. M. Jackson

2006-01-01

4

Geothermal significance of magnetotelluric sounding in the eastern Snake River Plain-Yellowstone region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetotelluric sounding along a profile extending from the Raft River geothermal area in southern Idaho to Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming reveal a highly anomalous crustal structure involving a conductive zone at depths that range from 18 km in the central park of the eastern Snake River Plain to 7 km beneath the Raft River thermal area and as little

W. D. Stanley; J. E. Boehl; F. X. Bostick; H. W. Smith

1977-01-01

5

Solute geochemistry of the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios of the groundwater with those in the aquifer framework. The geothermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer system was examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable isotope ratios of geothermal water, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating. Water budgets, hydrologic arguments, and isotopic analyses for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system demonstrate that most, if not all, water is of local meteoric and not juvenile or formation origin. Solute balance, isotopic, mineralogic, and thermodynamic arguments suggest that about 20% of the solutes are derived from reactions with rocks forming the aquifer framework. Reactions controlling solutes in the western Snake river basin are believed to be similar to those in the eastern basin but the regional geothermal system that underlies the Snake river Plain contains total dissolved solids similar to those in the overlying Snake River Plain aquifer system but contains higher concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, silica, fluoride, sulfate, chloride, arsenic, boron, and lithium, and lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen. 132 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs.

Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

1987-01-01

6

Heat flow and seismicity patterns in the vicinity of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

New heat flow data and thermal modeling are used to calculate crustal temperatures in and adjacent to the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). The estimated crustal temperature are then used to investigate the relationship between crustal strength and the observed parabolic pattern of seismicity around the SRP. Heat flow below the SRP aquifer in deep wells on the Idaho National

Blackwell; S. A. D. D. Kelley; J. L. Steele

1993-01-01

7

Compressional Wave Velocity Structure of the Upper 350 km Under the Eastern Snake River Plain Near Rexburg, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative travel time residuals for teleseismic P and PKIKP are used to determine the compressional velocity structure under the eastern Snake River Plain at Rexburg, Idaho. Damped least squares inversion of travel time residuals (modified from the method of Aki) indicates a large body of 3.5 +2.5% low relative velocity material centered under the northwest edge of the Snake River

John R. Evans

1982-01-01

8

Processes of mantle enrichment and magmatic differentiation in the eastern Snake River Plain: Th isotope evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ? 85 km long Great Rift of southern Idaho bisects the volcanic depression that forms the eastern Snake River Plain. Thorium isotope systematics of compositionally diverse lavas of the Great Rift, including those of Craters of the Moon, record a spectrum of crust and mantle processes. (230Th)(232Th) ratios range from 0.87 to 1.11 and are enriched in (230Th) with

Mary R. Reid

1995-01-01

9

Processes of mantle enrichment and magmatic differentiation in the eastern Snake River Plain: Th isotope evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ˜ 85 km long Great Rift of southern Idaho bisects the volcanic depression that forms the eastern Snake River Plain. Thorium isotope systematics of compositionally diverse lavas of the Great Rift, including those of Craters of the Moon, record a spectrum of crust and mantle processes. ( 230Th) /( 232Th) ratios range from 0.87 to 1.11 and are enriched in ( 230Th) with respect to ( 238U) by up to 13%. Covariations in Th isotope systematics in lavas from Craters of the Moon reflect crustal assimilation accompanied by fractional crstallization involving accessory phases. Temperatures based on apatite and zircon saturation confirm other estimates of magmatic temperatures and, considered together with volcanic histories, suggest cooling in upper crustal magma chambers at rates of > 10° C/ka. Thermal and chemical evolution of the Great Rift basalts support their differentiation at lower crustal conditions. Although basalts of the eastern Snake River Plain are generally interpreted as having originated in ancient enriched mantle lithosphere beneath southern Idaho, they share remarkable chemical similarities with oceanic basalts derived from enriched sources attributed to mantle plumes. Thorium isotope signatures of the Great Rift basalts are those of depleted mantle, resulting in the most extreme case of disparity between 232Th/238U ratios delimited by Th and Pb isotope systematics. It is difficult to account for this decoupling by invoking subduction-related U enrichment. A more likely explanation is metasomatism of hybrid lithospheric mantle in the wake of the Yellowstone plume.

Reid, Mary R.

1995-04-01

10

Sediment-Basalt Architecture, Pliocene and Pleistocene Eastern and Central Snake River Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is a synthesis of known stratigraphic studies of the Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene basalts and interbedded sedimentary beds on the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This information is important for understanding the post-caldera tectonic evolution of the ESRP, especially for tracking patterns of volcanic eruption and changes in topography. Geophysical surveys and existing well logs indicate the depth of the basalt sequence is usually 2 km or less, even near the axis of the Plain. An alteration horizon, the product of high heat-flow in the wake of the Yellowstone hot spot, moderated by cold-water recharge in the thick and highly-transmissive Snake River Aquifer, has variable depth. The surface and near-surface of the lava fields are mainly basalts less than a half a million years old, from Island Park to Twin Falls/Shoshone. Near the junction of the Eastern and Western Snake River Plains, these youngest late Pleistocene basalts, many less than 100,000 years old, overlie early Pleistocene basalts more than a million and a half years old. Most basalt flows have been erupted from NW-trending volcanic rift zones like the Great Rift of Idaho or from the Axial Volcanic High (AVH). The AVH is a constructional axial ridge formed by multiple volcanic vents, small shield volcanoes and rhyolitic domes which run the length of the ESRP. A combination of previous and new stratigraphic and geochronology studies, including U-Pb detrital-zircon geochronology on sediments, reveals several lake sequences, formed by the damming of rivers. These tend to be thickest in upstream, valley-mouth, and Plain-marginal locations where the rivers were trapped. The lake beds generally pinch out toward the AVH. The most notable of these are the Mid-Pleistocene Raft Formation, the Late Pleistocene American Falls Lake Beds, at least two mid-Pleistocene sequences of ponded sediment from the Big Lost River at its egress onto the ESRP, and a 2.5 to 1.6 Ma sequence in the Big Lost Trough (BLT). Argon-argon dating of intercalated basalts demonstrates that the Big Lost River was trapped in the BLT starting about ~2Ma. Egress was blocked by the AVH to the southeast and by constructional volcanic rift zones to the southwest. Channel deposits of the ancestral Big Lost River are present in well logs, with one 20 m thick sequence traceable to the southwest under the Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) between 1430 and 1380 m MSL. Other lake sequences in the ESRP subsurface include two mid-Pleistocene 30 to 50m thick sequences of clayey sediments in the BLT, near the southeast corner of the Idaho National Laboratory at ~250 to ~300 m depths. Two other fine-grained sediment sequences of unknown age are found at similar depths south of COM. Lake Terreton and its predecessors can be traced from Howe to Menan in the northeastern ESRP. Fluvial sediments here are coarse-grained gravels and sands of the Snake River, exposed near Blackfoot and logged in many well logs. Other notable fluvial sediments include the southwest-trending channel deposits and the two previously-mentioned clay sequences south of COM may prove to be parts of a paleo-Big Lost River that flowed to the southwest before 2 Ma.

Helm-Clark, C. M.; Link, P. K.

2006-12-01

11

Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau  

SciTech Connect

Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56{degree}E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

Rodgers, D.W.; Hackett, W.R.; Ore, H.T. (Idaho State Univ., Pocatello (USA))

1990-11-01

12

Bimodal magmatism, basaltic volcanic styles, tectonics, and geomorphic processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geology presented in this field guide covers a wide spectrum of internal and surficial processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, one of the largest components of the combined late Cenozoic igneous provinces of the western United States. Focus is on widespread Quaternary basaltic plains volcanism that produced coalescent shields and complex eruptive centers that yielded compositionally evolved magmas. The guide is constructed in several parts beginning with discussion sections that provide an overview of the geology followed by road directions, with explanations, for specific locations. The geology overview briefly summarizes the collective knowledge gained, and petrologic implications made, over the past few decades. The field guide covers plains volcanism, lava flow emplacement, basaltic shield growth, phreatomagmatic eruptions, and complex and evolved eruptive centers. Locations and explanations are also provided for the hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, and environmental issues such as range fires and cataclysmic floods associated with the region.

Hughes, S. S.; Smith, R. P.; Hackett, W. R.; McCurry, M.; Anderson, S. R.; Ferdock, G. C.

1997-01-01

13

Crustal Deformation in the Eastern Snake River Plain and Yellowstone Plateau Observed by SAR Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain-Yellowstone tectono-volcanic province was created when North America migrated over a fixed hotspot in the mantle. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) has been applied in this study to address the recent tectono-volcanic activity in the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) and the southwestern part of Yellowstone Plateau. InSAR results show that crustal deformation across the tectono-volcanic province is episodic. An episode of uplift (about 1 cm/yr) along the ESRP axial volcanic zone, directly southwest of Island Park, has been detected from a time-series of independent differential interferograms created for the 1993-2000 period. Episodes of subsidence (1 cm/yr) during 1997-2000 and uplift (3 cm/yr) during 2004-2006 have been also detected in the active Yellowstone caldera, just northeast of Island Park. The detected interferometric signals indicate that deformation across the axial volcanic zone near Island Park is inversely linked to deformation in the active Yellowstone caldera. One explanation is that the inverse motions reflect a flexure response of the ESRP crust to magma chamber activity beneath the active caldera, although other interpretations are possible. The time-series of differential interferograms shows that no regional deformation has occurred across the central part of ESRP during the periods of observations, but local surface displacements of 1-3 cm magnitude have been detected in the adjacent Basin-Range province. Differential surface movements of varying rates have been also detected along Centennial, Madison, and Hebgen faults between 1993 and 2006.

Aly, M. H.; Hughes, S. S.; Rodgers, D. W.; Glenn, N. F.; Thackray, G. D.

2007-12-01

14

Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.

Tullis, J.A.

1995-09-01

15

Contemporary Tectonic Motion of the Eastern Snake River Plain: A Campaign Global Positioning System Study  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of precision campaign GPS data from 1995 and 2004 from ten benchmarks on the eastern Snake River Plain (eSRP) has revealed that the province moved 2.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr to the SW (232.4 ± 6.3°) relative to a fixed North American reference frame. The benchmarks had no measurable displacement relative to one another at the resolution of the GPS during the nine-year study, evidence that the province moves as a rigid, non-extending block. This scenario is supported by the aseismic nature of the province and the lack of measurable horizontal stress in boreholes. However, an additional small component of intra-plain extension must also be invoked to account for the observed NW-trending volcanic rift zones that transect the eSRP. We suggest that intra-plain extension is too slow (<1 mm/yr) to measure using our campaign GPS methods, but may be sufficient over millennial time scales to accommodate rift zone formation. Slower velocities measured on three benchmarks within the neighboring Basin and Range ‘seismic parabola’ are consistent with this region serving as a zone of detachment between the North American craton and the faster-moving eSRP.

Suzette Payne; John Chadwick; Dave Rodgers; Teresa Vanhove

2007-11-01

16

Contemporary tectonic motion of the eastern Snake River Plain: A campaign global positioning system study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of precision campaign GPS data from 1995 and 2004 from 10 benchmarks on the eastern Snake River Plain (eSRP) has revealed that the province moved 2.8 ± 0.3 mm/a to the SW (232.4 ± 6.3°) relative to a fixed North American reference frame. The benchmarks had no measurable displacement relative to one another at the resolution of the GPS during the 9-annum study, evidence that the province moves as a rigid, nonextending block. This scenario is supported by the aseismic nature of the province and the lack of measurable horizontal stress in boreholes. However, an additional small component of intraplain extension must also be invoked to account for the observed NW-trending volcanic rift zones that transect the eSRP. We suggest that intraplain extension is too slow (<1 mm/a) to measure using our campaign GPS methods, but may be sufficient over millennial timescales to accommodate rift zone formation. Slower velocities measured on three benchmarks within the neighboring Basin and Range "seismic parabola" are consistent with this region serving as a zone of detachment between the North American craton and the faster-moving eSRP.

Chadwick, D. J.; Payne, S. J.; van Hove, T.; Rodgers, D. W.

2007-12-01

17

Solute geochemistry of the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios

W. W. Wood; W. H. Low

1987-01-01

18

Lower crustal flow: The origin of Late Cenozoic extension north of the eastern Snake River Plain  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has shown that the initiation of late Cenozoic faulting and concomitant footwall uplift north of the eastern Snake River Plain (eSRP) are much younger than previously thought. Examples of these young ages include the Centennial Range (< 2.0 Ma), Gravely Range (< 2.0 Ma), Lemhi Range (< 6.6 Ma), Beaverhead Mts. (< 6.6 Ma), Tendoy Mts. (< 6.6 Ma). Basins south of the eSRP exhibit a bi-modal distribution of growth ages during the Neogene. Seismic moment tensor and earthquake rupture data define extension directions that are both oblique to and symmetric about the axis of the eSRP. However, extension directions on the eSRP itself are parallel to the axis. The authors propose that the orientations of extension are a response to lower crustal flow in a conduit formed between the mid-crust and the upper mantle. Estimates of the lower crustal pressure gradients, geothermal gradient, and channel dimensions are used calculate a lower crustal flux between the extending regions north of the eSRP and the eSRP. This value is three orders of magnitude greater than the estimated flux based on geologically determined strain rates. These calculations suggest that lower crustal flow is a viable mechanism to explain extension north of the eSRP as well as to explain the origin of the extension throughout the Intermountain seismic belt. The advantage of this model is that upper crustal extension does not have to couple with upper mantle extension and thereby it is not necessary to invoke far field stress changes to explain changes in the local stress field.

Anders, M.H.; Hopper, J.R.; Abad, R.; Spiegelman, M. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

1993-04-01

19

Pb Isotopic Compositions of Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions in Continental Basalt, Eastern Snake River Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies of melt and mineral inclusions from oceanic island basalts found Pb isotopic variability more than five times than that exhibited by the basalts themselves and values that encompass much of the variability exhibited in mantle products erupted worldwide. In our study, in situ Pb isotopic analyses of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from an intracontinental basalt from the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP) of southern Idaho were obtained using a Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe in order to investigate the role of diverse magma sources in the genesis of these magmas. Analyses of 14 melt inclusions in zoned olivines (Fo = 78-83) in a magnesian Pleistocene SRP basalt yield an average isotopic composition of 208Pb/206Pb = 2.121 and 207Pb/206Pb = 0.8671, essentially identical to that of the whole rock. However, duplicate analyses of one melt inclusion yield distinctly lower ratios (208Pb/206Pb = 2.052; 207Pb/206Pb = 0.8424), outside all published SRP fields. The dominant phases contained within the melt inclusions are silicate glass, clinopyroxene (cpx) and trace amounts of plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxides. Most cpx associated with these melt inclusions are more calcic (Wo = 48-53) than other SRP cpx (Wo = 35-45, including both phenocrystic and groundmass cpx). The Mg# of the less radiogenic melt inclusion is higher (37-48) than that of the other included cpx (23-38). Our preliminary results for an intracontinental basalt find less heterogeneity than that obtained in previous studies which focused on oceanic basalts, even though the basalts are equally magnesian. Either the source is more uniform in composition or homogenization of disparate melt fractions occurs at an earlier stage in the melt aggregation process. The less radiogenic isotopic compositions of one inclusion may be explained by entrapment of melt that was affected by incipient crustal contamination, possibly at the margins of the magma chamber, or may be evidence of small-scale mantle source variability. Further study, including analyses of additional basalts, is being conducted to distinguish between these two possibilities.

Cooper, L. B.; Reid, M. R.; Bryce, J. G.

2003-12-01

20

Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational ...

J. M. McCarthy R. C. Arnett R. M. Neupauer

1995-01-01

21

Using Environmental Isotopes, Geochemistry, and Aquifer Temperature to Address Flow Regimes Within the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1997 a series of studies utilizing uranium and strontium isotopes were undertaken to characterize the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies identified fast flow and slow flow zones within the ESRP aquifer at the INEEL. The work presented here is the result of continued study to characterize

T. L. McLing; R. P. Smith; R. C. Roback; J. G. Elizabeth; D. D. Blackwell

2002-01-01

22

Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The southern termination of the Howe segment of the Lemhi fault was placed between Howe lines H1 and H2, 2.2 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. In the adjacent basin, south-dipping normal faults at the northern end of Howe line 81-3 and two southwest-dipping normal faults at the northeastern end of Howe line 82-2 that can be correlated with Howe segment. South of the surface expression, two southwest-dipping normal faults on Howe line H1 can be correlated with the Howe segment. Further into the ESRP, Howe lines H2, H3, and S4 show continuous flat lying reflectors and indicate no fault offset. The southern termination of the Arco segment of the Lost River fault was placed between Arco lines S2 and A3, a distance of 4.6 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. Within the basin, west-dipping normal faults interpreted on Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2 can be correlated with the Arco segment. Further south within the Arco volcanic rift zone (VRZ), three seismic lines (Arco lines A2, S2, and A3) permit two interpretations. The west- and south-dipping normal faults on Arco lines A2 and S2 could be associated with slip along the Arco segment. These normal faults have an opposite dip to an east-dipping fault on Arco line A3. The observed small-offsets (< 85 m) along the oppositely dipping normal faults can be interpreted as a graben structure that resulted from dike intrusion within the Arco VRZ. Arco line A4 further south within the Arco VRZ shows flat lyin

S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

2006-10-01

23

Analysis of steady-state flow and advective transport in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer System, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The regional aquifer system of the eastern Snake River Plain is an important component of the hydrologic system in eastern Idaho. The aquifer was thought to be the largest unified ground-water reservoir on the North American continent but is probably second to the Floridian aquifer in the southeastern United States. Flow in the aquifer is from major recharge areas in the northeastern part of the plain to discharge areas in the southwestern part. A comprehensive analysis of the occurrence and movement of water in the aquifer was presented by Garabedian. The analysis included a description of the recharge and discharge, the hydraulic properties, and a numerical model of the aquifer. The purposes of this report are to: (1) describe compartments in the aquifer that function as intermediate and regional flow systems, (2) describe pathlines for flow originating at or near the water table, and (3) quantify traveltimes for adjective transport originating at or near the water table. The model constructed for this study and described in this report will aid those concerned with the management and protection of the aquifer. The model will serve as a tool to further our understanding of the aquifer and will aid in assessing the needs for future flow and transport studies of the aquifer.

Ackerman, D.J.

1995-10-01

24

Application of a parameter-estimation technique to modeling the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River plain, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nonlinear, least-squares regression technique for the estimation of ground-water flow model parameters was applied to the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The technique uses a computer program to simulate two-dimensional, steady-state ground-water flow. Hydrologic data for the 1980 water year were used to calculate recharge rates, boundary fluxes, and spring discharges. Ground-water use was estimated from irrigated land maps and crop consumptive-use figures. These estimates of ground-water withdrawal, recharge rates, and boundary flux, along with leakance, were used as known values in the model calibration of transmissivity. Leakance values were adjusted between regression solutions by comparing model-calculated to measured spring discharges. In other simulations, recharge and leakance also were calibrated as prior-information regression parameters, which limits the variation of these parameters using a normalized standard error of estimate. Results from a best-fit model indicate a wide areal range in transmissivity from about 0.05 to 44 feet squared per second and in leakance from about 2.2x10 -9 to 6.0 x 10 -8 feet per second per foot. Along with parameter values, model statistics also were calculated, including the coefficient of correlation between calculated and observed head (0.996), the standard error of the estimates for head (40 feet), and the parameter coefficients of variation (about 10-40 percent). Additional boundary flux was added in some areas during calibration to achieve proper fit to ground-water flow directions. Model fit improved significantly when areas that violated model assumptions were removed. It also improved slightly when y-direction (northwest-southeast) transmissivity values were larger than x-direction (northeast-southwest) transmissivity values. The model was most sensitive to changes in recharge, and in some areas, to changes in transmissivity, particularly near the spring discharge area from Milner Dam to King Hill.

Garabedian, Stephen P.

1986-01-01

25

Emplacement of Large-volume rhyolite lavas in the Eastern Snake River Plains: The Reynolds Creek flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although less well known than their smaller counterparts, large-volume (>4 km3) evolved lavas (SiO2 > 60%) are common and contribute significantly to the volume of continental crust. However, little is known about the eruption and emplacement of evolved flows as they have not yet been observed while active. In the western Snake River Plains (SRP), Idaho, there are a number

A. Semple; T. Gregg; B. Bonnichsen; M. Godchaux

2004-01-01

26

Shear-wave splitting beneath the Snake River Plain suggests a mantle upwelling beneath eastern Nevada, USA*1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snake River Plain (SRP), a 90-km-wide topographic depression in southern Idaho, is a topographically anomalous feature in the western U.S. Previous seismic studies focused on the northeastern SRP to study its relationship with the Yellowstone hotspot. We present new teleseismic shear-wave splitting data from six broadband seismic stations deployed along the axis of the SRP from June 2000 to

Kristoffer T. Walker; Götz H. R. Bokelmann; Simon L. Klemperer

2004-01-01

27

Evidence for Right-lateral Shear Along the Northwest Margin of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous investigators have proposed that extension within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is accommodated by intrusion of dikes at a rate similar to the rate of extension in the surrounding Basin and Range. This hypothesis is primarily based on the lack of strike-slip offset along the northwest physiographic boundary of the ESRP, the lack of seismicity within the ESRP relative to the surrounding active Basin and Range, and the presence of NW-trending volcanic rift zones within the ESRP. The ESRP is a 400-km long region within the track of the Yellowstone Hotspot that extends from southern Idaho northeast into northwestern Wyoming. GPS data compiled for this study are used to test this hypothesis. Several institutions including the Idaho National Laboratory, National Geodetic Survey, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and University of Utah observed GPS stations from 1994 to 2007 within the ESRP and surrounding region. The GPS velocities show the average orientation of horizontal GPS velocities in the adjacent northwest Basin and Range region is similar to the average orientation for the ESRP (N113°W vs N91°W, respectively), but the average magnitude of horizontal GPS velocities in the Basin and Range (1.4 ± 0.3 mm/yr) is less than that for the ESRP (2.2 ± 0.3 mm/yr). Additionally, the adjacent northwest Basin and Range extends at about 9 x 10-9 /yr with most of the deformation localized along three NW-trending normal faults (Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead). In contrast, the ESRP extends at a rate that is an order of magnitude lower than the adjacent northwest Basin and Range and we see little indication of extension along the Great Rift or other volcanic rift zones over the 400 km length. The GPS differential motion along the region of the ESRP adjacent to the northwest Basin and Range indicates a NE-trending zone of right-lateral shear. Preliminary inversions of GPS velocities, earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features indicate this zone of right-lateral shear is located 10-20 km from the physiographic boundary between the ESRP and adjacent Basin and Range.

Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.

2007-12-01

28

Emplacement of Large-volume rhyolite lavas in the Eastern Snake River Plains: The Reynolds Creek flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although less well known than their smaller counterparts, large-volume (>4 km3) evolved lavas (SiO2 > 60%) are common and contribute significantly to the volume of continental crust. However, little is known about the eruption and emplacement of evolved flows as they have not yet been observed while active. In the western Snake River Plains (SRP), Idaho, there are a number (~10-15) of rhyolite flows each with volumes of ~10-200 km3; we are investigating these to understand the eruption and emplacement of large-volume evolved flows. Here, we present the preliminary results of our investigation of the Reynolds Creek Rhyolite in the western SRP. This flow is useful for investigation because it is well preserved and accessible. Previous work revealed that the Reynolds Creek flow is smaller than most of the rhyolites of the SRP at 2.5-3.5 km3 and was probably not more than twice this volume at its greatest. It is a high-silica rhyolite (SiO2 = 75%) which erupted from a fissure ~0.4 km long and flowed mostly to the NE. In total, it is about 9 km long, smaller in the proximal region (0.2 km), widening distally (4 km in the NE) and ranges from 50-150 m thick. Results from Jeffrey's equation suggest that the Reynolds Creek flow may have had a flow velocity of up to 9 m/day, indicating emplacement in about 2-3 years. Graetz number calculations yield an effusion rate of ~40 m3s-1, suggesting an eruption duration of 1.5-3 years. These calculations all suggest that the volume of this flow was emplaced in months to years, rather than decades. These eruption duration calculations are comparable to that estimated for the 15 km3 Badlands flow (also in the Eastern Snake River Plains), at 6 - 16 years; and the Ben Lomond Flow, New Zealand, calculated at 1.5 - 6 years. In contrast, the Mount St Helens dacite has an estimated effusion rate of 1.4-40 m3s-1 for single lobes and the Santiaguito dacite, Guatemala, is estimated at 0.6-1.9 m3s-1; this may be due to periods of repose still included in the estimates. Yield strength estimates for the Reynolds Creek flow, based on flow thickness and underlying slope, range from 104-105 Pa which are comparable to the 8 x 105 Pa estimated for the large-volume (26 km3) Chao Dacite, Chile, suggesting similar rheologies and emplacement behaviors. The Mount St Helens dacite also falls within the same yield strength rate on the order of 1-2 x 105 Pa. Continued investigations will reveal whether the large-volume evolved flows have fundamentally different emplacement styles than the more familiar, small-volume domes.

Semple, A.; Gregg, T.; Bonnichsen, B.; Godchaux, M.

2004-12-01

29

Analysis of steady-state flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative estimates of ground-water flow directions and traveltimes for advective flow were developed for the regional aquifer system of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The work included: (1) descriptions of compartments in the aquifer that function as intermediate and regional flow systems, (2) descriptions of pathlines for flow originating at or near the water table, and (3) quantitative estimates of traveltimes for advective transport originating at or near the water table. A particle-tracking postprocessing program was used to compute pathlines on the basis of output from an existing three-dimensional steady-state flow model. The flow model uses 1980 conditions to approximate average annual conditions for 1950-80. The advective transport model required additional information about the nature of flow across model boundaries, aquifer thickness, and porosity. Porosity of two types of basalt strata has been reported for more than 1,500 individual cores from test holes, wells, and outcrops near the south side of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The central 80 percent of samples had porosities of 0.08 to 0.25, the central 50 percent of samples, O. 11 to 0.21. Calibration of the model involved choosing a value for porosity that yielded the best solution. Two radiologic contaminants, iodine-129 and tritium, both introduced to the flow system about 40 years ago, are relatively conservative tracers. Iodine- 129 was considered to be more useful because of a lower analytical detection limit, longer half-life, and longer flow path. The calibration value for porosity was 0.21. Most flow in the aquifer is contained within a regional-scale compartment and follows paths that discharge to the Snake River downstream from Milner Dam. Two intermediate-scale compartments exist along the southeast side of the aquifer and near Mud Lake.One intermediate-scale compartment along the southeast side of the aquifer discharges to the Snake River near American Fails Reservoir and covers an area of nearly 1,000 square miles. This compartment, which receives recharge from an area of intensive surface-water irrigation, is apparently fairly stable. The other intermediate-scale compartment near Mud Lake covers an area of 300 square miles. The stability and size of this compartment are uncertain, but are assumed to be in a state of change. Traveltimes for advective flow from the water table to discharge points in the regional compartment ranged from 12 to 350 years for 80 percent of the particles; in the intermediate-scale flow compartment near American Falls Reservoir, from 7 to 60 years for 80 percent of the particles; and in the intermediate-scale compartment near Mud Lake, from 25 to 100 years for 80 percent of the particles. Traveltimes are sensitive to porosity and assumptions regarding the importance of the strength of internal sinks, which represent ground-water pumpage. A decrease in porosity results in shorter traveltimes but not a uniform decrease in traveltime, because the porosity and thickness is different in each model layer. Most flow was horizontal and occurred in the top 500 feet of the aquifer. An important limitation of the model is the assumption of steady-state flow. The most recent trend in the flow system has been a decrease in recharge since 1987 because of an extended drought and changes in land use. A decrease in flow through the system will result in longer traveltimes than those predicted for a greater flow. Because the interpretation of the model was limited to flow on a larger scale, and did not consider individual wells or well fields, the interpretations were not seriously limited by the discretization of well discharge. The interpretations made from this model also were limited by the discretization of the major discharge areas. Near discharge areas, pathlines might not be representative at the resolution of the grid. Most improvement in the estimates of ground-waterflow directions and travelt

Ackerman, D. J.

1995-01-01

30

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

2010-10-01

31

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

2009-10-01

32

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

2007-10-01

33

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

2006-10-01

34

In Situ Production of Chlorine-36 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho: Implications for Describing Ground-Water Contamination Near a Nuclear Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the calculated contribution to ground water of natural, in situ produced 36Cl in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and to compare these concentrations in ground water with measured concentrations near a nuclear facility in southeastern Idaho. The scope focused on isotopic and chemical analyses and associated 36Cl in situ production calculations on 25 whole-rock samples from 6 major water-bearing rock types present in the eastern Snake River Plain. The rock types investigated were basalt, rhyolite, limestone, dolomite, shale, and quartzite. Determining the contribution of in situ production to 36Cl inventories in ground water facilitated the identification of the source for this radionuclide in environmental samples. On the basis of calculations reported here, in situ production of 36Cl was determined to be insignificant compared to concentrations measured in ground water near buried and injected nuclear waste at the INEEL. Maximum estimated 36Cl concentrations in ground water from in situ production are on the same order of magnitude as natural concentrations in meteoric water.

L. D. Cecil; L. L. Knobel; J. R. Green (USGS); S. K. Frape (University of Waterloo)

2000-06-01

35

Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was developed to support Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-04 groundwater flow and transport studies. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational tools designed to numerically model the regional groundwater flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The objective of developing the current model was to create a tool for defining the regional groundwater flow at the INEL. The model was developed to (a) support future transport modeling for WAG 10-04 by providing the regional groundwater flow information needed for the WAG 10-04 risk assessment, (b) define the regional groundwater flow setting for modeling groundwater contaminant transport at the scale of the individual WAGs, (c) provide a tool for improving the understanding of the groundwater flow system below the INEL, and (d) consolidate the existing regional groundwater modeling information into one usable model. The current model is appropriate for defining the regional flow setting for flow submodels as well as hypothesis testing to better understand the regional groundwater flow in the area of the INEL. The scale of the submodels must be chosen based on accuracy required for the study.

McCarthy, J.M.; Arnett, R.C.; Neupauer, R.M. [and others

1995-03-01

36

Geothermal features of Snake River plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Snake River plain is the track of a hot spot beneath the continental lithosphere. The track has passed through southern Idaho as the continental plate has moved over the hot spot at a rate of about 3.5 cm/yr. The present site of the hot spot is Yellowstone Park. As a consequence of the passage, a systematic sequence of geologic and tectonic events illustrates the response of the continental lithosphere to this hotspot event. The three areas that represent various time slices in the evolution are the Yellowstone Plateau, the Eastern Snake River plain downwarp, and the Western Snake River plain basin/Owhyee Plateau. In addition to the age of silicic volcanic activity, the topographic profile of the Snake River plain shows a systematic variation from the high elevations in the east to lowest elevations on the west. The change in elevation follows the form of an oceanic lithosphere cooling curve, suggesting that temperature change is the dominant effect on the elevation.

Blackwell, D.D.

1987-08-01

37

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2007-10-01

38

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife...

2006-10-01

39

33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117.1058...Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington...Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco...

2009-07-01

40

33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117.1058...Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington...Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco...

2007-07-01

41

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. ...Resources, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, or at the National...

2009-10-01

42

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205...River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. ...Resources, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, or at the National...

2010-10-01

43

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

44

5. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK OF SNAKE RIVER LYONS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK OF SNAKE RIVER LYONS FERRY BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, JOSO HIGH (UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD) BRIDGE TO THE LEFT - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

45

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. NOTE BANK REINFORCEMENT ON LEFT AND SPILLWAY ON RIGHT. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

46

3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER SHOWING HEADGATE ON THE NORTH BANK. VIEW IS TO THE NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

47

Earthquake catalog for the eastern Snake River Plain region, Idaho (43. 0°-44. 5°N, 111. 5°-114. 0°W), October 1972June 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has deployed a network of short-period high-gain vertical seismographs since December 1971 to monitor earthquake activity on and about the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. This report summarizes the earthquakes located within a designated Special Study Area (43.0° - 44.5°N, 111.5° - 114.0°W) from October 1972 to June 1982. Seventy-eight events were located

J. J. King; T. E. Doyle

1982-01-01

48

1978 Yellowstone-eastern Snake River Plain seismic profiling experiment: Data and upper crustal structure of the Yellowstone region  

SciTech Connect

Eleven in-line refraction profiles, recorded to distances of 300 km, and one azimuthal fan plot were constructed from data recorded with a 150-station array in the Yellowstone National Park area during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic experiment. Interpretations of the data suggest that the crustal P wave velocity model for the Yellowstone region is characterized by (1) an averaged 10-km-thick upper crustal layer, V/sub p/ = 6.0 km/s, (2) an average crustal velocity of 6.3 km/s, and (3) a total crustal thickness of 44 km. Velocity models are presented for profiles that emphasize the upper crust and show (1) a decrease in the depth to the top of the upper crustal crystalline basement from 5 km in southwestern Yellowstone near Island Park to 1 km at the northeast side of the Yellowstone Plateau that is interpreted as a progressive thinning of the silicic surface volcanic layer to the northeast and (2) evidence for a large lateral inhomogeneity interpreted to be a low-velocity body, with a decrease of at least 10% in P wave velocity, located beneath the northeast corner of the Yellowstone Plateau. The low-velocity zone coincides with a local -30-mgal residual gravity anomaly and is located beneath part of the Sour Creek resurgent dome and part of the Hot Springs Basin, the largest hydrothermal system in Yellowstone. The low-velocity body has a maximum depth to the top of 3 km and a minimum depth to the bottom of 9 km and may represent a zone of partial melt. In comparison to the thermally undisturbed upper crust of the surrounding Rocky Mountains the upper crust of the northeastern Yellowstone plateau appears laterally inhomogeneous in velocity and layer thickness, suggesting effects of thermal and magma intrusion, whereas the lower crust appears relatively homogeneous.

Schilly, M.M.; Smith, R.B.; Braile, L.W.; Ansorge, J.

1982-04-10

49

33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

50

Snakes! Snakes! Snakes!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for students in grades 4-6, the teaching unit presents illustrations and facts about snakes. Topics include common snakes found in the United States, how snakes eat, how snakes shed their skin, poisonous snakes, the Eastern Indigo snake, and the anatomy of a snake. A student page includes a crossword puzzle and surprising snake facts. A…

Nature Naturally, 1983

1983-01-01

51

33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw...located near the north end, upstream side, of the Washington State highway bridge at mile 2.2. These lights...

2013-07-01

52

2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

53

Optimization of water-level monitoring networks in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer using a kriging-based genetic algorithm method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-term groundwater monitoring networks can provide essential information for the planning and management of water resources. Budget constraints in water resource management agencies often mean a reduction in the number of observation wells included in a monitoring network. A network design tool, distributed as an R package, was developed to determine which wells to exclude from a monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information. A kriging-based genetic algorithm method was used to optimize the monitoring network. The algorithm was used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the smallest increase in the weighted sum of the (1) mean standard error at all nodes in the kriging grid where the water table is estimated, (2) root-mean-squared-error between the measured and estimated water-level elevation at the removed sites, (3) mean standard deviation of measurements across time at the removed sites, and (4) mean measurement error of wells in the reduced network. The solution to the optimization problem (the best wells to retain in the monitoring network) depends on the total number of wells removed; this number is a management decision. The network design tool was applied to optimize two observation well networks monitoring the water table of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho; these networks include the 2008 Federal-State Cooperative water-level monitoring network (Co-op network) with 166 observation wells, and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey-Idaho National Laboratory water-level monitoring network (USGS-INL network) with 171 wells. Each water-level monitoring network was optimized five times: by removing (1) 10, (2) 20, (3) 40, (4) 60, and (5) 80 observation wells from the original network. An examination of the trade-offs associated with changes in the number of wells to remove indicates that 20 wells can be removed from the Co-op network with a relatively small degradation of the estimated water table map, and 40 wells can be removed from the USGS-INL network before the water table map degradation accelerates. The optimal network designs indicate the robustness of the network design tool. Observation wells were removed from high well-density areas of the network while retaining the spatial pattern of the existing water-table map.

Fisher, Jason C.

2013-01-01

54

Steady-State and Transient Groundwater Flow and Advective Transport, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and Vicinity, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport through the fractured basalts and interbedded sediments of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The model domain covers an area of 1,940 square miles that includes most of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A 50-year history of waste disposal at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the aquifer. Numerical models simulated 1980 steady-state conditions and transient flow for 1980-95. In the transient model, streamflow infiltration was the major stress. The models were calibrated using the parameter-estimation program incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. The steady-state model reasonably simulated the observed water-table altitude and gradients. Simulation of transient conditions reproduced changes in the flow system resulting from episodic infiltration from the Big Lost River. Analysis of simulations shows that flow is (1) dominantly horizontal through interflow zones in basalt, vertical anisotropy resulting from contrasts in hydraulic conductivity of different types of basalt and the interbedded sediments, (2) temporally variable due to streamflow infiltration from the Big Lost River, and (3) moving downward downgradient of the INL. Particle-tracking simulations were used to evaluate how simulated groundwater flow paths and travel times differ between the steady-state and transient flow models, and how well model-derived groundwater flow directions and velocities compare to independently-derived estimates. Particle tracking also was used to simulate the growth of tritium plumes originating at two INL facilities over a 16 year period under steady-state and transient flow conditions (1953-68). The shape, dimensions, and areal extent of these plumes were compared to a map of the plumes for 1968 from tritium releases beginning in 1952. Collectively, the particle-tracking simulations indicate that groundwater flow paths and velocities, based on uncalibrated estimates of porosity, are influenced by the dynamic character of the water table and the large contrasts in the hydraulic properties of the media, primarily hydraulic conductivity. Simulation results also indicate that temporal changes in the local hydraulic gradient can account for some of the observed dispersion of contaminants in the aquifer near the major sources of contamination and perhaps the majority of the observed dispersion several miles downgradient of these facilities. The distance downgradient of the facilities where simulated particle plumes were able to reasonably reproduce the 1968 tritium plume extended only to the boundary separating sediment-rich from sediment-poor aquifer layers about 4 mi downgradient of the contaminant source. Particle plumes simulated beyond this boundary were narrow and long, and did not reasonably reproduce the shape, dimensions, or position of the leading edge of the tritium plume; however, few data were available to characterize its true areal extent and shape.

Fisher, J. C.; Ackerman, D. J.; Rousseau, J. P.; Rattray, G. W.

2009-12-01

55

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon...COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226âHydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye...

2012-10-01

56

27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-04-01 2007-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name . The name...viticultural area described in this section is âSnake River Valleyâ. For purposes of part 4...

2007-04-01

57

High-precision provenance determination using detrital-zircon ages and petrography of Quaternary sands on the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Big Lost trough is an upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary basin containing volcanic sills in the northeastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The basin receives sediment primarily from Basin and Range fluvial systems of the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Creek. The Big Lost trough contains a >200-m-thick succession of lacustrine, fluvial, eolian, and playa sediments, recording high-frequency Quaternary climatic fluctuations interbedded with basalt flows. Alternating deposition of clay-rich lacustrine sediments and sandy fluvial and eolian sediments in the central part of the basin was in response to the interaction of fluvial and eolian systems with Pleistocene Lake Terreton. The source areas for modern sands from the fluvial systems can be differentiated by using both petrography and U/Pb age spectra from detrital-zircon populations. Provenance data from subsurface sands indicate that the Big Lost trough was supplied with sand largely deposited by the Big Lost River, with local redeposition by eolian processes, similar to the modern depositional system. Provenance and stratigraphic data suggest that during Pleistocene wet climate cycles, the center of the basin was dominated by lacustrine sedimentation; during dry climate cycles, the base level dropped, the Big Lost River prograded across the basin, and the eolian system became active. At least seven climate oscillations are recorded in strata deposited between {approximately}140 and {approximately}1250 ka.

Geslin, J.K.; Link, P.K. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Dept. of Geology; Fanning, C.M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

1999-04-01

58

Paleomagnetic correlation of the surface and subsurface stratigraphy in the southern part of the Idaho National Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To refine the geologic framework used in conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at and near the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), cross sections of the subsurface stratigraphy have been created using paleomagnetic inclination and polarity measurements on basalt flows from 51 coreholes and 83 surface sites. Paleomagnetic data were used to correlate surface and subsurface basalt stratigraphy, determine relative ages, and, in conjunction with other studies, determine the absolute age of some basalt flows. From stratigraphic top to bottom, key results include: Quaking Aspen Butte flows erupted from Quaking Aspen Butte south of the INL, flowed northeast, and are found in the subsurface in corehole USGS 132. Vent 5206 flows, erupted near the southwestern border of the INL, flowed north and east, and are found in the subsurface in coreholes USGS 132, USGS 129, USGS 131, USGS 127, USGS 130, USGS 128, and STF-AQ-01. Mid Butte flows erupted north of U.S. Highway 20, flowed northwest, and are found in the subsurface at coreholes ARA-COR-005 and STF-AQ-01. High K20 flows erupted from a vent near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, flowed south and east, and are found in the subsurface in coreholes USGS 131, USGS 127, USGS 130, USGS 128, USGS 123, STF-AQ-01, and ARA-COR-005. Vent 5252 flows erupted just south of U.S. Highway 20 near Middle and East Buttes, flowed northwest and are found in the subsurface in coreholes ARA-COR-005, STF-AQ-01, USGS 130, USGS 128, ICPP 214, USGS 123, ICPP 023, USGS 121, USGS 127, and USGS 131. The Big Lost Reversed Polarity Cryptochron flows erupted from a now-buried vent near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, flowed southwest to corehole USGS 135, and northeast to coreholes USGS 132, USGS 129, USGS 131, USGS 127, USGS 130, STF-AQ-01, and ARA-COR-005. AEC Butte flows erupted from AEC Butte near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and flowed south to corehole Middle 1823, northwest to corehole USGS 134, northeast to coreholes USGS 133 and NRF 7P, and south to coreholes USGS 121, ICPP 023, USGS 123, and USGS 128. These results demonstrate that coreholes a few kilometers apart have stratigraphic successions that correlate over tens to hundreds of meters of depth. Correlations between coreholes separated by greater distances are less consistent since some stratigraphic sequences are missing and (or) added, or are at different depths. The Big Lost, AEC Butte, and flows of similar age show subsidence towards the Big Lost Trough. Cross-sections in the southwestern INL, through the unsaturated zone and the top of the saturated zone of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer show very slight tilting to the southeast towards the Axial Volcanic Zone.

Hodges, M. K.; Davis, L. C.; Champion, D. E.

2010-12-01

59

Invertebrate drift in the Snake River, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drifting invertebrates were collected hourly during 24-hour sampling periods at two stations in the Snake River. The greatest number of invertebrates was collected on 8 and 15 July 1966 at station 1 between 9:00 p. m. and 12 midnight, then the numbers gradually decreased until the low daylight drift rate was reached at dawn. On 26 and 27 August 1966

Richard L. Kroger

1974-01-01

60

Snake River Aquatic Species Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On December 14, 1992, the Service added 5 aquatic snails from the Snake River in south central Idaho to the Federal list of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife (57 FR 59244). The Service determined the Idaho springsnail or Homedale Creek springsnail (Pyrgu...

1995-01-01

61

Geohydrology and simulation of flow and water levels in the aquifer system in the Mud Lake area of the eastern Snake River plain, eastern Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface and ground water is used to irrigate crops and maintain lakes on wildlife refuges in the 2,200-square-mile Mud Lake study area of eastern Idaho. Ground-water withdrawals increased from about 240,000 acre-feet in 1983 to about 370,000 acre-feet in 1990. Of the 660,000 acre-feet total estimated recharge from precipitation and irrigation in the study area in 1980, half was in an area where, according to an independent study, recharge was predicted to decline by 95,000 acre-feet. Water managers need the ability to evaluate effects of water-use changes on the future supply of surface and ground water. A five-layer, three-dimensional, finite-difference, numerical ground-water flow model was calibrated by trial and error to assumed 1980 steady-state hydrologic conditions to obtain a better understanding of the geohydrology and provide a tool to evaluate water-use alternatives. Water-level gradients simulated by the model were similar to gradients measured in 1980. Simulated underflow across model boundaries for 1980 was 932,000 acre-feet. Simulated losses from and gains to most streams and lakes were within 2 percent of values calculated using streamflow measurements and estimates. Simulated discharge from flowing wells matched measurements for 1980. An attempt to calibrate the numerical model to transient hydrologic conditions in monthly increments from 1981 to 1990 was discontinued because of data limitations.

Spinazola, J. M.

1993-01-01

62

Progressive Neogene Drainage Capture by Western Snake River System, Idaho and Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital zircon provenance analysis of Holocene and Neogene fluvial systems in the western Snake River Plain demonstrate the eastward and southward migration of a topographic divide during the 17 to 0 Ma passage of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic high. Initial fluvial sands (16-10 Ma) of the western Snake River Plain and Oregon-Idaho graben were sourced in the Idaho batholith to the north. Late Miocene (7 to 4 Ma) sands deposited on the shores of Lake Idaho received input from streams draining late Eocene volcanic terranes in northern Nevada, demonstrating the southward migration of the drainage divide. Pliocene fluvial sands near Twin Falls contain diverse recycled Proterozoic zircon grains, derived from erosion of the central and eastern Idaho thrust belts. These appear in the central and western Snake River Plain only after the east- migrating drainage divide, centered on the hotspot, crossed into Phanerozoic rocks of these thrust belts.

Link, P. K.; Beranek, L. P.

2006-12-01

63

Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q; Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Clark, D.R. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

64

Geology of the Arco-Big Southern Butte area, eastern Snake River Plain, and volcanic hazards to the radioactive waste management complex, and other waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Arco-Big Southern Butte area of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, includes a volcanic rift zone and more than 70 Holocene and late Quaternary basalt volcanoes. The Arco volcanic rift zone extends southeast for 50 km from Arco to about 10 km southeast of Big Southern Butte. The rift zone is the locus of extensional faults, graben, fissure basaltic volcanic vents, several rhyolite domes at Big Southern Butte, and a ferrolatite volcano at Cedar Butte. Limited radiometric age data and geological field criteria suggest that all volcanism in the area is younger than 700,000 years; at least 67 separate basaltic eruptions are estimated to have occurred within the last 200,000 years. The average volcanic recurrence interval for the Arco-Big Southern Butte area is approximately one eruption per 3,000 years. Radioactive waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory may be subject to potential volcanic hazards. The geologic history and inferred past volcanic events in the Arco-Big Southern Butte area provide a basis for assessing the volcanic hazard. It is recommended that a radiometric age-dating study be performed on rocks in cored drill holes to provide a more precise estimate of the eruption recurrence interval for the region surrounding and including the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. It is also recommended that several geophysical monitoring systems (dry tilt and seismic) be installed to provide adequate warning of future volcanic eruptions.

Kuntz, Mel A.; Kork, John O.

1978-01-01

65

INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report; Volume 1 - Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences Governing Subsurface Contaminant Transport in the INEEL Subregion of the Eastern Snake River Plain  

SciTech Connect

The National Research Council has defined a conceptual model as ''an evolving hypothesis identifying the important features, processes, and events controlling fluid flow and contaminant transport of consequence at a specific field site in the context of a recognized problem''. Presently, several subregional conceptual models are under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Additionally, facility-specific conceptual models have been described as part of INEEL environmental restoration activities. Compilation of these models is required to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can be used to strategically plan for future groundwater research activities at the INEEL. Conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL include the description of the geologic framework, matrix hydraulic properties, and inflows and outflows. They also include definitions of the contaminant source term and contaminant transport mechanisms. The geologic framework of the INEEL subregion is described by the geometry of the system, stratigraphic units within the system, and structural features that affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These elements define geohydrologic units that make up the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conceptual model encompasses approximately 1,920 mi2 of the eastern Snake River Plain. The Waste Area Group (WAG)-10 model includes the USGS area and additional areas to the northeast and southeast. Both conceptual models are bounded to the northwest by the Pioneer Mountains, Lost River Range, and Lemhi Mountains. They are bounded to the southeast by groundwater flow paths determined from aquifer water-level contours. The upgradient extent of the USGS model is a water-level contour that includes the northeastern boundary of the INEEL. The WAG-10 model includes more of the Mud Lake area to utilize previous estimates of underflow into the subregion. Both conceptual models extend approximately 25 miles to the southwest of the INEEL, a distance sufficient to include known concentrations of contaminant tracers. Several hypotheses have been developed concerning the effective thickness of the SRPA at the INEEL. The USGS model has defined the effective thickness from electrical resistivity and borehole data to be as much as 2,500 ft in the eastern part of the subregion and as much as 4,000 ft in the southwestern part. The WAG-10 model has developed two alternatives using aquifer-temperature and electrical resistivity data. The ''thick'' aquifer interpretation utilizes colder temperature data and includes a northtrending zone in which the thickness exceeds 1,300 ft and with a maximum thickness of 1,700 ft. The ''thin'' aquifer interpretation minimizes aquifer thickness, with thickness ranging from 328 to 1,300 ft. Facility-specific models generally have focused efforts on the upper 250 ft of saturation. Conceptual models have utilized a stratigraphic data set to define geohydrologic units within the INEEL subregion. This data set, compiled from geophysical logs and cores from boreholes, correlates the thick, complex stack of basalt flows across the subregion. Conceptual models generally concur that the upper geohydrologic unit consists of a section of highly fractured, multiple, thin basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. Beneath this unit is an areally extensive, thick, unfractured basalt flow that rises above the water table southwest of the INEEL. The bottom unit consists of a thick section of slightly- to moderately-altered basalt. A key objective of the DOE water-integration project at the INEEL is to coordinate development of a subregional conceptual model of groundwater flow and contaminant transport that is based on the best available understanding of geologic and hydrologic features. The first step in this process is to compile and summarize the current conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL that have been developed from extensive geohydrologic studies con

Wichlacz, Paul Louis; Orr, Brennan

2002-08-01

66

Ecological Risk Assessment for the Middle Snake River, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ecological risk assessment was completed for the Middle Snake River, Idaho. In this assessment, mathematical simulations and field observations were used to analyze exposure and ecological effects and to estimate risk.

D. W. Karna J. R. Yearsley M. Falter P. A. Cirone T. V. Royer

2002-01-01

67

Raptor Survey of the Lower Salmon and Snake Rivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve raptor species were recorded during surveys conducted along the Lower Salmon and Snake River canyons, April 2 - April 14, 1993. Golden eagles were the most commonly observed species, followed by red-tailed hawks and American kestrels. Prairie falco...

C. Bradford F. Cassirer

1994-01-01

68

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

69

Fall Chinook Salmon survival and supplementation studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River reservoirs, 1997: Annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

M. B. Eppard E. E. Hockersmith W. D. Muir S. G. Smith

1999-01-01

70

Silicic phreatomagmatism in the Snake River Plain: the Deadeye Member  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-welded rhyolitic pyroclastic units in the central Snake River Plain are interbedded with the much better exposed, large-volume `Snake-River type' rheomorphic welded rhyolitic ignimbrites and rhyolite lavas. We document one such unit to investigate why it is so different from the interbedded welded ignimbrites. The newly recognised Deadeye Member of southern Idaho is a soil-bounded eruption-unit that comprises ashfall layers and a 4-m-thick ignimbrite that extends for >35 km. The ignimbrite is non-welded, lithic-clast poor and varies from massive to diffuse low-angle cross-bedded. It contains abundant angular clasts of non-vesicular black glass, and upper parts contain accretionary lapilli. The ashfall layers above it contain coated ash pellets and ash clumps, which record moist aggregation of fine ash. The magmas of the Deadeye eruption were closely similar in composition and temperature to those that generated the intensely welded rheomorphic ignimbrites of the central Snake River Plain. We infer that the marked contrast in physical appearance of the Deadeye ignimbrite compared to the other, more typical Snake-River-type welded ignimbrites was the result of emplacement at relatively low temperatures during an eruption in a lacustrine environment. Magmatic volatile-driven fragmentation of the rhyolitic magma was influenced by interaction with lake water that also led to cooling. The Deadeye Member is the first-recorded example of explosive silicic phreatomagmatism in the central Snake River Plain.

Ellis, B.; Branney, M. J.

2010-12-01

71

77 FR 42327 - Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rules for the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area AGENCY...700-acre Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA...Record of Decision (ROD). The Snake River Birds of Prey NCA RMP identifies...

2012-07-18

72

Snake Hill — reconstructing eastern Taconic foreland basin litho- and biofacies from a giant mélange block in eastern New York, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic lithofacies and faunas have long been known from Snake Hill, eastern New York, USA. The faunally diverse, sandstone-dominated Upper Ordovician succession at Snake Hill sharply contrasts with surrounding tectonized sparsely fossiliferous distal shale. Re-examination of the Snake Hill section shows that it is a storm- and wave-dominated near-shore facies with a benthic fauna analogous to that of the younger

Adam M. English; Ed Landing; Gordon C. Baird

2006-01-01

73

WATER QUALITY STUDY: MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO, 1970  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality study of the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101, 17050201) was initiated in July 1968 to gather data in support of Department of the interior testimony presented before the Federal Power Commission license application hearings on High Mountain Sheep Dam. Unus...

74

WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY, MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

On February 5, 1964, the Federal Power Commission issued a license to Pacific Northwest Power Company for construction and operation of its proposed High Mountain Sheep Project on the Snake River (170602, 170501). This investigation by the Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis...

75

SPECIES PROFILE: EASTERN INDIGO SNAKE (DTYMARCHON CORAIS COUPERI) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The eastern indigo snake (Dtymarchon corais couperi) is an uncommon, large-bodied snake occurring in the southeastern United States, primarily in southern Alabama and Georgia and most of Florida. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the species as Federally threatened in 197...

76

Live blind snakes ( Leptotyphlops dulcis ) in eastern screech owl ( Otus asio ) nests: a novel commensalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern screech owls bring live blind snakes to their nestlings, whereas all other prey are delivered dead. Some of the snakes are eaten but most live in nest debris, where they eat soft-bodied insect larvae from the decomposer community in fecal matter, pellets, and uneaten prey. Consumption of larvae may reduce larval parasitism on owl nestlings or larval competition with

F. R. Gehlbach; R. S. Baldridge

1987-01-01

77

Riparian vegetation of the Snake River in Washington State  

SciTech Connect

In January 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers selected reservoir drawdown and lowered pool elevation as the preferred alternative in the Columbia River Salmon Flow Measured Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). During March 1992, reservoirs upstream from Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams on the Snake River were drawn down below the minimum operating pool (MOP), which is 5 vertical feet below ordinary high water level (0@) level. The reservoir upstream from Lower Granite Dam was drawn down to approximately 37 ft below 0 while that upstream of Little Goose Dam was drawn down to approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) below MOP. Following the drawdown (March 1--31, 1992), the reservoirs of all four dams in the Snake River of Washington State (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor) were maintained at MOP (April 1--July 31,1992). This allowed a defined portion of shoreline to be exposed for an extended period. The objectives of the study were to monitor impacts to the associated upland, riparian/wetland, and aquatic vegetation and newly exposed shorelines of four reservoirs of the Snake River during the flow measures study; and monitor the newly exposed shorelines for invasion of pioneering species during the entire period of the wildlife monitoring study.

Phillips, R.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mettler, L. [US Army Corps of Engineers (United States)

1994-06-01

78

Tree ring record of streamflow and drought in the upper Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree ring samples collected near the Snake River headwaters were augmented with preexisting tree ring chronologies to create a 415 year reconstruction of upper Snake River streamflow, extending the short instrumental record and providing the first description of multicentury water supply variability in this river. Results indicate that the region's early 21st century drought is severe even in the context

Erika K. Wise

2010-01-01

79

Water Cycle Dynamics in the Snake River Basin, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska’s Seward Peninsula is underlain in the south by areas of near-freezing, continuous and discontinuous permafrost. These conditions make it susceptible to changing climatic conditions such as acceleration of the hydrologic cycle or general atmospheric warming. This study looks at the hydrologic record of the Snake River over the mid-twentieth century through present. The Snake River basin drains an area of about 22 square kilometers into Norton Sound near the Bering Strait, off the western coast of Alaska. Climate for this area is maritime in summer and somewhat continental in winter once the sea ice forms. Hydrometeorological parameters have been measured locally for more than fifty years with temperature being measured regularly over the last 100 years. Discharge has been measured in the Snake River intermittently over that time period as well. This study looks closely at drivers of inter-annual variations in soil moisture in the basin over the observational record using a physically based numerical hydrological model. Unlike many areas of Alaska, the meteorological record at Nome, located at the mouth of the watershed, shows no statistically significant increase in precipitation over either the last 30 years or the last 100 years. However, there has been a small increase in temperature over the 100 year time period.

Busey, R.; Hinzman, L. D.

2009-12-01

80

Heavy metal levels in ribbon snakes (Thamnophis sauritus) and anuran larvae from the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta, Alabama, USA.  

PubMed

The Mobile-Tensaw River Delta (MTD) drains more than 75% of the state of Alabama and leads into Mobile Bay and the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Although it is a relatively healthy watershed, the MTD is potentially impacted by inputs of contaminants such as heavy metals. The levels of lead, copper, cadmium, and mercury were measured in whole body samples of Eastern Ribbon Snakes (Thamnophis sauritus) collected from the MTD. Lead, copper, and cadmium levels were also measured in anuran larvae (Rana catesbeiana, R. clamitans, and Hyla cinerea). These organisms were chosen because they are abundant in the MTD and are underrepresented in environmental contaminant biomonitoring studies. Ribbon snakes had significantly lower levels of lead, copper, and cadmium compared to whole body levels in anuran larvae, indicating that these metals were not biomagnifying through upper trophic levels. Copper and mercury levels were significantly correlated with age/growth indices in ribbon snakes. Although detectable levels of all metals were found in anuran larvae and ribbon snakes, these levels appear to be less than body burdens that would be associated with toxic effects. Populations of ribbon snakes in our particular collection sites within the MTD appear to be at minimal risk of exposure to toxic levels of metals. However, the MTD contains low- and high-impact areas, and other populations within this watershed could be at higher risk of exposure to heavy metals. We found the Eastern Ribbon Snake to be an excellent snake model for contaminant biomonitoring because of its abundance, reasonable size, and ease of collection. PMID:17713811

Albrecht, J; Abalos, M; Rice, T M

2007-08-20

81

Contemporary Deformation within the Snake River Plain and Northern Basin and Range Province, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS velocities, earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features are used to evaluate contemporary deformation within the Snake River Plain (SRP) and surrounding northern Basin and Range Province. The SRP is a prominent low- relief physiographic feature that extends from eastern Oregon through southern Idaho and into northwestern Wyoming, USA. The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is a 400-km long, NE-trending volcanic province that is characterized by bimodal volcanism, which represents the track of the Yellowstone Hotspot currently located in Wyoming. The Western Snake River Plain (WSRP) is a 300-km long, NW-trending graben that extends into eastern Oregon. The WSRP is an extensional basin that formed adjacent to an earlier position of the Yellowstone Hotspot in southern Idaho. Previous geodetic investigations suggest the ESRP and, perhaps the WSRP, have GPS velocities indicative of rigid block motion of the SRP along its physiographic boundaries. GPS data compiled for this study are used to test this hypothesis. Several institutions including the National Geodetic Survey, Idaho National Laboratory, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and University of Utah observed GPS stations from 1994 to 2006 within the SRP and surrounding region. Horizontal velocities show generally consistent N110°W orientations with an average rate of 1.5 ± 0.3 mm/yr (for 11 stations) along most of the ESRP and adjacent northwest Basin and Range, although some Basin and Range velocities are less and may be influenced by post viscoelastic relaxation following the 1983 Mw 6.9 normal-faulting Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake. GPS velocities with an average rate of 1.9 ± 0.3 mm/yr (for 5 stations) change orientation to N95°W at a distance of 190 km from the Yellowstone Hotspot within the southern region of the ESRP and adjacent Basin and Range. Within the WSRP, GPS velocities have an average rate of 2.0 ± 0.5 mm/yr (for 7 stations) and change orientation to N40°W. These GPS velocities are more consistent with those in eastern Oregon, a region that is rotating clockwise relative to North America. To assess possible rotations and strain rates, we invert GPS horizontal velocities, geologic fault slip rates, earthquake-derived fault slip vector azimuths, and volcanic dike extension rates. We interpret GPS velocities to describe the relative motions of coherent regions of consistent strain within the SRP and surrounding Basin and Range Province.

Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.

2007-05-01

82

78 FR 23588 - Final Supplementary Rules for the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rules for the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, ID...700-acre Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA...Record of Decision (ROD). The Snake River Birds of Prey NCA RMP identifies...

2013-04-19

83

BIOSTIMULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES AND RECEIVING WATERS OF THE SNAKE RIVER BASIN, 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Field Investigations Center, Denver and Region 10, EPA conducted a 4 phase study concentrating on nutrient caused algal growth problems in the Snake River Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501). The study area included the Snake River and principal tributaries between Hei...

84

Genetic Characterization of Naturally Spawned Snake River Fall-Run Chinook Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled juvenile Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to genetically characterize the endangered Snake River fall-run population. Juveniles from fall and spring–summer lineages coexisted in our sampling areas but were differentiated by large allozyme allele frequency differences. We sorted juveniles by multilocus genotypes into putative fall and spring lineage subsamples and determined lineage composition using maximum likelihood estimation methods.

Anne R. Marshall; H. Lee Blankenship; William P. Connor

2000-01-01

85

Migrational Behavior and Seaward Movement of Wild Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow augmentation increases flow and decreases temperature in reservoirs in the lower Snake River during the seaward migration of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. A study of the migrational behavior and seaward movement of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River was necessary to help understand the efficacy of flow augmentation. We studied fall chinook salmon

William P. Connor; R. Kirk Steinhorst; Howard L. Burge

2003-01-01

86

Home Range Size and Spatial Ecology of Eastern Hognose Snakes (Heterodon platirhinos) at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once considered an abundant species on Long Island the eastern hognose snake, Heterodon platirhinos, is now found only in small fragmented portions of its former island range. After 1996, H. platirhinos was incorrectly believed to be extirpated from Long Island as there were no sightings of the species until 2001 when the species was rediscovered at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL).

WENDY FINN; JEREMY FEINBERG; TIMOTHY GREEN

87

Implications of a Drawdown of the Snake-Columbia River on Barge Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The listing of the Snake-Columbia River salmon under the Endangered species Cut will lead to a set of river management changes aimed at species recovery. One measure almost certain to be implemented is a periodic river drawdown. A drawdown will speed fish migration downriver but will also temporarily close the river to barge transportation. Grain shippers in the region rely

Michael Martin; Joel R. Hamilton; Ken Casavant

1992-01-01

88

Regional geophysical setting of the Yellowstone Hotspot track along the Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the regional geophysical setting of the Yellowstone Hotspot track along the Snake River Plain (SRP) and surrounding regions in support of a proposed scientific drilling program for one of the world's youngest, best-preserved intra-continental hotspots. The preliminary scientific drilling plan is to core a series of intermediate-depth drill holes near the axes of the western and eastern regions of SRP to understand the lithospheric response to the influence of the Yellowstone Hotspot. Geophysics plays an important role in all aspects of the proposed drilling activities: site selection prior to drilling, measuring physical rock properties during drilling, and perhaps long-term monitoring within one of the completed drill holes. To aid in the site- selection process, we compile existing geophysical data that includes seismic, gravity, magnetic, heat flow, and magnetotelluric data. We also compiled rock property measurements (e.g., density, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic remanence) and geologic data from maps and boreholes. Based on this compilation, we perform a regional assessment of major geophysically-defined structural features in the mid to upper crust of the SRP that may be specific targets for drilling. Such features include the prominent linear magnetic and gravity anomalies in the western SRP that may represent important feeders to early SRP volcanism. In the eastern Snake River Plain, the features include linear and curvilinear magnetic and gravity anomalies that may represent upwelling of mantle material or caldera rims. We present preliminary suggestions for possible areas of drill sites and identify the type of detailed geophysical surveys needed to select a suitable location. Additionally, this data set may serve as the start of a project-wide drilling database.

Glen, J. M.; Payne, S. J.; Bouligand, C.; Helm-Clark, C. M.; Champion, D. E.

2006-12-01

89

Geochemistry of Central Snake River Plain Basalts From Camas Prairie to Glenns Ferry, Southern Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain (SRP) of southern Idaho represents the track of a hot-spot (mantle plume) which links voluminous flood basalts of the Miocene Columbia River province to Quaternary volcanic centers at Island Park and Yellowstone. However, much of the volcanism associated with this province either lies off the main volcanic trend or differs in age from the postulated plume passage. The Camas Prairie and the Mount Bennett Hills lie north of the Snake River-Yellowstone plume track, near the intersection of the eastern and western Snake River Plain trends. Young basalt flows cap highlands overlooking the Snake River near King Hill, but farther north in the Mount Bennett Hills and Camas Prairie these young lava flows are juxtaposed against older basalts along a series of WNW trending normal faults. These older basalt flows rest directly on rhyolite of the Mount Bennett Hills, making them the oldest basalts known in outcrop in this area. The older basalts in the Mount Bennett Hills include at least six major flows with a total thickness of 110 m. Although they have been strongly dissected by erosion, they still cover an outcrop area of 300 km2 . Eighty samples were collected as part of our petrologic survey of basaltic volcanism in the central Snake River Plain. These samples were studied petrographically and analyzed for their major elements, trace elements, and REE. The basalts consist of plagioclase and olivine microphenocrysts set in a groundmass of olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, oxides and interstitial glass. The majority of samples have Mg# ranging from 50- 59. However there are samples that are more evolved as indicated by Mg# ranging from less than 50 to 29. The high Mg# samples have the following chemical ranges: TiO2 0.87 - 2.6 wt.%; FeO 9.95 - 13.7 wt.%; Nb 8 to 23 ppm; Zr 111 to 243 ppm; Ni 81 to 151 ppm; La 10.9 to 26.9 ppm. The more evolved samples have TiO2 1.4 3.93 wt.%; FeO 9.7 16.8 wt%; Nb 11 to 40 ppm; Zr 110 to 500 ppm; Ni 4 to 85 ppm; La 67 to 97 ppm. All magmas exhibit the typical SRP LREE enrichment. The high Mg# samples have La = 35 to 85x chondrite and Lu = 14 to 25x chondrite. The evolved samples have La = 200 to 300x chondrite and Lu = 30 to 40x chondrite. The high Mg# basalts resemble older off-axis basalts of the Boise River Group [Vetter and Shervais, 1992, JGR]. Rayleigh fractionation modeling of incompatible elements shows >80% olivine and plagioclase fractionation is needed to create the evolved magmas from the high Mg# basalts. Presents of these older basalts north of the main SRP trend maybe associated with the tilt of the plume as imaged by seismic tomography.

Vetter, S. K.; Johnston, S. A.; Shervais, J.; Hanan, B.

2006-12-01

90

Snakes of the Savannah River Plant with Information About Snakebite Prevention and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to provide information on the snakes of South Carolina, to point out the necessary steps to avoid a snakebite, and to indicate the current medical treatment for poisonous snakebite. It includes a checklist of South Carolina reptiles and a taxonomic key for the identification of snakes in the Savannah River Plant. Three…

Gibbons, Whit

91

Ecology and Management of the South Fork Snake River Cottonwood Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes an investigation of the cottonwood ecosystem along with the South Fork Snake River from Palisades Dam to Heise, Idaho. Vegetation dynamics in time and space, with an emphasis on the cottonwood component, was the primary focus. Becau...

M. F. Merigliano

1996-01-01

92

Bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism in the central and western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this trip is to examine Miocene to Pleistocene basalt and rhyolite flows, ignimbrites and hypabyssal intrusions in a transect from the western Snake River Plain graben across the older part of the Snake River Plain "hot-spot-track." The earlier, dominantly explosive rhyolitic phase of volcanism will be examined primarily in the Cassia Mountains, near Twin Falls, Idaho. The second day of the field trip will focus on the Graveyard Point intrusion, a strongly differentiated diabase sill in easternmost Oregon. This late Tertiary sill is well exposed from floor to roof in sections up to 150 m thick, and is an example of the type of solidified shallow magma chamber that may be present beneath some Snake River Plain basalt volcanoes. The field trip will conclude with an examination of the diverse styles of effusive and explosive basaltic volcanism in the central and western Snake River Plain.

McCurry, M.; Bonnichsen, B.; White, C.; Godchaux, M. M.; Hughes, S. S.

1997-01-01

93

WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATIONS OF SNAKE RIVER AND PRINCIPAL TRIBUTARIES FROM WALTERS FERRY TO WEISER, IDAHO. 1971  

EPA Science Inventory

Stream surveys conducted from 18 October to 10 November 1971 revealed that water upstream of the Boise River was relatively unpolluted, however, bacterial standards were violated. In the reach of the Snake River between the mouth of the Boise River and Weiser (170501), gross vio...

94

Downstream Passage of Steelhead Kelts through Hydroelectric Dams on the Lower Snake and Columbia Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

After spawning, iteroparous steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Columbia River basin must navigate several hydroelectric dams on their way to the Pacific Ocean. We used radiotelemetry to investigate migration rates, downstream passage routes, and success of adult steelhead kelts migrating past lower Snake River and Columbia River dams during the springs of 2001 and 2002. Seaward-migrating kelts were collected, radio-tagged,

Robert H. Wertheimer; Allen F. Evans

2005-01-01

95

Time-dependent inversion of three-component GPS time series for steady and transient effects of the Yellowstone Hotspot on the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal deformation in the Northern Basin and Range and Snake River Plain results from extension overprinted by volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot. The Snake River Plain is a seismically quiet, low-relief physiographic feature that extends from eastern Oregon through southern Idaho and into northwestern Wyoming. The Northern Basin and Range surrounds the Snake River Plain and is distinguished by its higher elevations, higher rates of seismicity, and active normal faulting. Horizontal GPS velocities indicate the strain rate in the Snake River Plain is an order of magnitude lower than in the Northern Basin and Range and that a zone of right-lateral shear extends along the northern Snake River Plain boundary to accommodate the different strain rates. The 2004-2009 inflation of the Yellowstone caldera and subsidence adjacent to northern caldera rim resulting from magma intrusion and withdrawal are transient effects embedded in GPS velocities and may impact interpretations of regional kinematics. We invert continuous GPS time series from Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) along with survey-mode GPS site time series to estimate simultaneously the long-term steady motions and short-term transient magma intrusion in the Snake River Plain and Northern Basin and Range. We model the magma intrusion as Mogi sources beneath the Yellowstone caldera at shallow depths. The steady motions are described by crustal block rotations and strain rates that together predict spatially smooth variations in surface velocities. We estimate fault locking and block rotations that have been corrected for transient motions resulting from magma intrusion. From this we estimate that the magmatic deformation outside of the caldera at distances of 160-180 km, where we observe the largest differential strain rates, contributes less than about 0.3 mm/yr to the overall velocities and does not contribute to the difference in strain rates currently observed.

Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.

2009-12-01

96

Effects of dams and impoundments on migrations of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead from the Snake River, 1966 to 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrations of juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, from tributaries of the Snake River were monitored as far downstream as the Dalles Dam on the Columbia River in most years during the period 1966 to 1975. New dams constructed on the Snake River adversely affected survival and delayed migrations of juveniles. Significant loses of juveniles in 1972

HOWARD L. RAYMOND

1979-01-01

97

A review of crust and upper mantle structure studies of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system: A major lithospheric anomaly in the western U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system is one of the largest, basaltic, volcanic field in the world. Here, there is clear evidence for northeasterly progression of rhyolitic volcanism with its present position in Yellowstone. Many theories have been advanced for the origin of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone system. Yellowstone and Eastern Snake River Plain have been studied intensively using various geophysical techniques. Some sparse geophysical data are available for the Western Snake River Plain as well. Teleseismic data show the presence of a large anomalous body with low P- and S-wave velocities in the crust and upper mantle under the Yellowstone caldera. A similar body in which compressional wave velocity is lower than in the surrounding rock is present under the Eastern Snake River Plain. No data on upper mantle anomalies are available for the Western Snake River Plain. Detailed seismic refraction data for the Eastern Snake River Plain show strong lateral heterogeneities and suggest thinning of the granitic crust from below by mafic intrusion. Available data for the Western Snake River Plain also show similar thinning of the upper crust and its replacement by mafic material. The seismic refraction results in Yellowstone show no evidence of the low-velocity anomalies in the lower crust suggested by teleseismic P-delay data and interpreted as due to extensive partial melting. However, the seismic refraction models indicate lower-than-normal velocities and strong lateral inhomogeneities in the upper crust. Particularly obvious in the refraction data are two regions of very low seismic velocities near the Mallard Eake and Sour Creek resurgent domes in the Yellowstone caldera. The low-velocity body near the Sour Creek resurgent dome is intepreted as partially molten rock. Together with other geophysical and thermal data, the seismic results indicate that a sub-lithospheric thermal anomaly is responsible for the time-progressive volcanism along the Eastern Snake River Plain. However, the exact mechanism responsible for the volcanism and details of magma storage and migration are not yet fully understood. ?? 1984.

Iyer, H. M.

1984-01-01

98

Bold Colors in a Cryptic Lineage: Do Eastern Indigo Snakes Exhibit Color Dimorphism?  

PubMed Central

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences.

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M.; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

99

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them in two reaches of the Snake River. Also, subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at Lyons Ferry Hatchery were PIT tagged at the hatchery, transported, and released weekly at Pittsburg Landing on the Snake River and Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River to collect data on survival detection probabilities, and travel time.

Williams, John G.; Bjornn (Bjomn), Theodore C.

1998-05-01

100

Complex storage of rhyolite in the central Snake River Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of hundreds of co-existing individual clinopyroxene crystals and crystal aggregates from rhyolitic ignimbrites of the central Snake River Plain has revealed that magma storage prior to eruption was complex. Crystal aggregates are dominated by plagioclase, augite, pigeonite, ilmenite, magnetite and zircon, and commonly lack sanidine and quartz which may be present as single crystals. In the ignimbrites, multiple compositions of pigeonite and augite may occur as single crystals, yet within the crystal aggregates, only single compositions of augite and pigeonite are recorded. Multiple crystal aggregates may be present within a deposit containing the whole spectrum of clinopyroxene compositions within the unit, yet only one pair of clinopyroxene compositions occur in a single aggregate. Evidence of compositional zonation is rare to absent both throughout the deposit as a whole and within individual pyroxene grains. The restricted compositions of the crystal aggregates are interpreted as reflecting a magmatic system in which the magma was physically segregated into a number of separate bodies evolving in parallel prior to eruption. One case was recorded whereby the composition of a crystal aggregate did not agree with the compositions of single crystals in that ignimbrite. This aggregate represents a silicic magma not currently recognised in surface outcrops and reflects entrainment of surrounding crystal mush. Although multiple compositions of pigeonite and augite appear to be present only in ignimbrites, no relationship exists between the volume of erupted material and the number of clinopyroxene compositions present within the deposit.

Ellis, Ben S.; Wolff, John A.

2012-01-01

101

Ecology in policymaking: Water and the restoration of America's Snake River Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myth presented as science complicates green engineering attempts to restore the natural condition of degraded ecosystems. Ecologists have yet to provide a widely accepted theory of how rivers and wetlands functioned before human disturbance, and engineers cannot restore what science cannot describe. In the American West, where the powerful Snake River feeds the Columbia en route to the Pacific Ocean,

Todd Shallat

2000-01-01

102

Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental baseline data for the Snake River Plain known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) are evaluated for geothermal development. The objective is to achieve a sound data base prior to geothermal development. These KGRAs are: Vulcan Hot Springs, Crane Creek, Castle Creek, Bruneau, Mountain Home, Raft River, Island Park, and Yellowstone. Air quality, meteorology, hydrology, water quality, soils, land use, geology,

S. G. Spencer; B. F. Russell; J. F. Sullivan

1979-01-01

103

State Route 193, Snake River Bridge, Asotin and Whitman Counties, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project consists of constructing a highway bridge across the Snake River, for State Route 193, in the vicinity of Clarkston, Washington. The proposed 15th Street structure will be 1,450 feet long and will span a section of the river scheduled for inun...

1973-01-01

104

Geology and Wine 11. Terroir of the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article explores unique factors that shape the terroir of Idaho’s principal wine grape-growing district. Most Idaho wine grape vineyards are located in the Western Snake River Plain (WSRP) rift basin (~43°N, ~114°W) on soils derived from lake, river, or wind-blown sediments, volcanic events, a...

105

Organochlorine residue levels in Mississippi River water snakes in southern Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to determine the usefulness of water snakes in pollution monitoring. This was accomplished by assessing the organochlorine load in tissues of snakes inhabiting three sites along the Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Two species of water snakes, Nerodia rhombifera and Nerodia cyclopion, were chosen for analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Fishes account for 95.2 and 98.4%, respectively, of the total volume of food consumed by N. rhombifera and N. cyclopion. Thus, the organochlorine load of both species should reflect considerable biomagnification relative to water column levels.

Sabourin, T.D.; Stickle, W.B.; Michot, T.C.; Villars, C.E.; Garton, D.W.; Mushinsky, H.R.

1984-04-01

106

Inventory and Monitoring of Bald Eagles and Other Raptorial Birds of the Snake River, Idaho (1998-2000).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Snake River Bald Eagle and Raptor Project, a five-year effort, was initiated in 1994 with two primary objectives: (1) to monitor bald eagle productivity in Southeast Idaho, and (2) to develop a monitoring program for raptorial birds in the Snake River...

M. B. Whitfield

2000-01-01

107

Inventory and Monitoring of Bald Eagles and Other Raptorial Birds of the Snake River, Idaho. 1996-1997 Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Snake River Bald Eagle and Raptor Project, a five-year effort, was initiated in 1994 with two primary objectives: (1) to monitor bald eagle productivity in Southeast Idaho, and (2) to develop a monitoring program for raptorial birds in the Snake River...

M. B. Whitfield M. E. Maj

1998-01-01

108

Inter- and intraspecific variation in mercury bioaccumulation by snakes inhabiting a contaminated river floodplain.  

PubMed

Although mercury (Hg) is a well-studied contaminant, knowledge about Hg accumulation in snakes is limited. The authors evaluated Hg bioaccumulation within and among four snake species (northern watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon; queen snakes, Regina septemvittata; common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis; and rat snakes, Elaphe obsoleta [Pantherophis alleghaniensis]) from a contaminated site on the South River (Waynesboro, VA, USA) and two nearby reference sites. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in northern watersnake tail tissue at the contaminated site ranged from 2.25 to 13.84 mg/kg dry weight (mean: 4.85 ± 0.29), or 11 to 19 times higher than reference sites. Blood THg concentrations (0.03-7.04 mg/kg wet wt; mean: 2.24 ± 0.42) were strongly correlated with tail concentrations and were the highest yet reported in a snake species. Within watersnakes, nitrogen stable isotope values indicated ontogenetic trophic shifts that correlated with THg bioaccumulation, suggesting that diet plays a substantial role in Hg exposure. Female watersnakes had higher mean THg concentrations (5.67 ± 0.46 mg/kg) than males (4.93 ± 0.49 mg/kg), but no significant differences between sexes were observed after correcting for body size. Interspecific comparisons identified differences in THg concentrations among snake species, with more aquatic species (watersnakes and queen snakes) accumulating higher mean concentrations (5.60 ± 0.40 and 4.59 ± 0.38 mg/kg in tail tissue, respectively) than the more terrestrial species, garter snakes and rat snakes (1.28 ± 0.32 and 0.26 ± 0.09 mg/kg, respectively). The results of the present study warrant further investigation of potential adverse effects and will aid in prioritizing conservation efforts. PMID:23401211

Drewett, David V V; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Chin, Stephanie Y; Hopkins, William A

2013-04-01

109

75 FR 9521 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...the Berkley Bridge across the Eastern Branch of the Elizabeth River, mile 0.4...Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA, in the Federal...

2010-03-03

110

Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project--initial report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake River volcanic province (SRP) overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle; it represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America. The primary goal of this project is to evaluate geothermal potential in three distinct settings: (1) Kimama site: inferred high sub-aquifer geothermal gradient associated with the intrusion of mafic magmas, (2) Kimberly site: a valley-margin setting where surface heat flow may be driven by the up-flow of hot fluids along buried caldera ringfault complexes, and (3) Mountain Home site: a more traditional fault-bounded basin with thick sedimentary cover. The Kimama hole, on the axial volcanic zone, penetrated 1912 m of basalt with minor intercalated sediment; no rhyolite basement was encountered. Temperatures are isothermal through the aquifer (to 960 m), then rise steeply on a super-conductive gradient to an estimated bottom hole temperature of ~98°C. The Kimberly hole is on the inferred margin of a buried rhyolite eruptive center, penetrated rhyolite with intercalated basalt and sediment to a TD of 1958 m. Temperatures are isothermal at 55-60°C below 400 m, suggesting an immense passive geothermal resource. The Mountain Home hole is located above the margin of a buried gravity high in the western SRP. It penetrates a thick section of basalt and lacustrine sediment overlying altered basalt flows, hyaloclastites, and volcanic sediments, with a TD of 1821 m. Artesian flow of geothermal water from 1745 m depth documents a power-grade resource that is now being explored in more detail. In-depth studies continue at all three sites, complemented by high-resolution gravity, magnetic, and seismic surveys, and by downhole geophysical logging.

Shervais, J. W.; Nielson, D.; Lachmar, T.; Christiansen, E. H.; Morgan, L.; Shanks, W. C.; Delahunty, C.; Schmitt, D. R.; Liberty, L. M.; Blackwell, D. D.; Glen, J. M.; Kessler, J. A.; Potter, K. E.; Jean, M. M.; Sant, C. J.; Freeman, T.

2012-01-01

111

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing. The authors PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1993, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary Dams during spring, summer, and fall 1994. This report details their findings.

Achord, Stephen; Matthews, Gene M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

1995-09-01

112

Crustal deformation of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcano-tectonic system: Campaign and continuous GPS observations, 1987-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain tectonomagmatic province resulted from Late Tertiary volcanism in western North America, producing three large, caldera-forming eruptions at the Yellowstone Plateau in the last 2 Myr. To understand the kinematics and geodynamics of this volcanic system, the University of Utah conducted seven GPS campaigns at 140 sites between 1987 and 2003 and installed a network of 15 permanent stations. GPS deployments focused on the Yellowstone caldera, the Hebgen Lake and Teton faults, and the eastern Snake River Plain. The GPS data revealed periods of uplift and subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera at rates up to 15 mm/yr. From 1987 to 1995, the caldera subsided and contracted, implying volume loss. From 1995 to 2000, deformation shifted to inflation and extension northwest of the caldera. From 2000 to 2003, uplift continued to the northwest while caldera subsidence was renewed. The GPS observations also revealed extension across the Hebgen Lake fault and fault-normal contraction across the Teton fault. Deformation rates of the Yellowstone caldera and Hebgen Lake fault were converted to equivalent total moment rates, which exceeded historic seismic moment release and late Quaternary fault slip-derived moment release by an order of magnitude. The Yellowstone caldera deformation trends were superimposed on regional southwest extension of the Yellowstone Plateau at up to 4.3 ± 0.2 mm/yr, while the eastern Snake River Plain moved southwest as a slower rate at 2.1 ± 0.2 mm/yr. This southwest extension of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain system merged into east-west extension of the Basin-Range province.

Puskas, C. M.; Smith, R. B.; Meertens, C. M.; Chang, W. L.

2007-03-01

113

Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA)

2002-09-01

114

Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River During Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Migration  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10°C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir’s epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four lower Snake reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water’s surface, and during periods of low river discharge, often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The depth of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may also be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. This report describes field data collection, modeling, and analysis of hydrodynamic and temperature conditions in the Lower Granite Reservoir during the summer flow augmentation periods of 2002, 2003, and 2004 plus a brief one-week period in 2005 of Lower Monumental, Little Goose, and Lower Granite Reservoirs. Circulation patterns in all four lower Snake River reservoirs were numerically simulated for periods of 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 using CE-QUAL-W2. Simulation results show that these models are sufficiently capable of matching diurnal and long term temperature and velocity changes in the reservoirs. In addition, the confluence zone of the Clearwater and Snake rivers was modeled using the 3-D model Flow3-D. This model was used to better understand mixing processing and entrainment. Once calibrated and validated, the reservoir models were used to investigate downstream impacts of alternative reservoir operation schemes, such as increasing or decreasing the ratio of Clearwater to Snake discharge. Simulation results were also linked with the particle tracking model FINS to better understand alterations of integrated metrics due to alternative operation schemes. These findings indicate that significant alterations in water temperature throughout the lower Snake River are possible by altering hypolimnetic discharges from Dworshak Reservoir and may have a significant impact on the behavior of migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon during periods of flow augmentation.

Cook, Chris B.; Dibrani, Berhon; Richmond, Marshall C.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Fu, Tao

2006-01-30

115

Postrelease Performance of Hatchery Yearling and Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released into the Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two rearing treatments are used at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to produce yearling (age-1) and subyearling (age-0) fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for supplementing production of wild fish in the Snake River. We compared four indicators of yearling and subyearling postrelease performance, namely, seaward movement, condition factor, growth rate, and survival. A standard rearing treatment was used to grow yearlings slowly

William P. Connor; Steven G. Smith; Todd Andersen; Steven M. Bradbury; Douglas C. Burum; Eric E. Hockersmith; Mark L. Schuck; Glen W. Mendel; Robert M. Bugert

2004-01-01

116

Diel Periodicities and Drift Indices of Insects in the Snake River, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Insect drift in the Snake River was monitored in 1966 as part of an ecological and classification study of the invertebrates. One-hour collections of drifting insects were continuously made during two 24-hour sampling periods in two riffles. Diel periodic...

R. L. Kroger

1972-01-01

117

Genetic Variation and Structure of Chinook Salmon Life History Types in the Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated 25 inland populations of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River with 13 microsatellite loci to test for contemporary genetic differentiation at three scales: Between life history types, among regions within life history types, and among populations within regions. The genetic distance and diversity of natural Chinook salmon populations were also contrasted with those of Chinook salmon

Shawn R. Narum; Jeffrey J. Stephenson; Matthew R. Campbell

2007-01-01

118

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

1999-03-01

119

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1995 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during spring and summer 1996.

Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

1997-07-01

120

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the

Paul A. Kline; Jeff A. Heindel; Catherine Willard

2003-01-01

121

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1992 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We PIT tagged wild spring and summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1991, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary Dams during spring and summer 1992. This report details our findings.

Achord, Stephen; Marsh, Douglas M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Division, Seattle, WA)

1994-09-01

122

Identification and Enumeration of Steelhead Kelts at a Snake River Hydroelectric Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of iteroparity rates in U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed Snake River populations of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss requires a means of distinguishing prespawn (mature) steelhead from postspawners (kelts) and sufficient kelt abundance to aid recovery efforts. We used ultrasound imaging of gonads to identify and enumerate prespawn steelhead and kelts incidentally collected in the juvenile bypass facility at Lower Granite

Allen F. Evans; Roy E. Beaty; Martin S. Fitzpatrick; Ken Collis

2004-01-01

123

Monitoring the migrations of Wild Snake River spring and summer chinook salmon smolts, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We tagged wild spring and summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1991, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary Dams during spring and summer 1992. This report detai...

S. Achord G. M. Matthews D. M. Marsh B. P. Sandford D. J. Kamikawa

1994-01-01

124

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the 1999 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

Achord, Stephen

2001-06-01

125

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the 2000 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

Achord, Stephen (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2001-08-01

126

Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

127

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.  

SciTech Connect

The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.

Harrell, Lee W.

1985-02-01

128

Growth of Wild Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth is an important determinant of life history development for juvenile anadromous salmonids. We collected juvenile fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in two reaches of the Snake River to describe growth in fork length (mm\\/d) and to test for a relation between growth and water temperature. Growth rate during shoreline rearing was significantly higher (P = 0.003) for parr in

William P. Connor; Howard L. Burge

2003-01-01

129

Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River During Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released f...

B. Dibrani C. B. Cook M. C. Richmond P. S. Titzler T. Fu

2006-01-01

130

The River Dammed: The Proposed Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a dilemma case in which a congresswoman must cast her vote on the removal of the lower Snake River dams. Students assume the roles of stakeholders in this decision who represent government agencies, small businesses, large industries, farmers, local tribes, environmentalists, and sports fishermen. Some of the stakeholders are members of the congresswoman's family. This activity will help students understand the effect of dams on physical stream processes, demonstrate how physical alterations of streams lead to long-term effects on habitat both upstream and downstream from the alteration, illustrate how human systems become dependent on large environment-altering structures and, help students become aware of how enmeshed various government agencies are in this and other water issues. Students will also become aware that the point-of-view of each stakeholder often determines how facts are interpreted and presented to defend or oppose a proposed action.

Price, Alan

131

Scientific Drilling in the Snake River Plain: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River-Yellowstone volcanic province has long been linked to the concept of lithospheric drift over a fixed mantle thermal anomaly or hotspot. This concept is reinforced by seismic tomography that images this anomaly to depths around 500 km, but alternative proposals still present a serious challenge. Basaltic volcanism spans a significant age range and basaltic volcanism in the western SRP lies well off the hotspot track and cannot be related directly to the hotspot in any simple way. The plume-track age progression is documented by rhyolite volcanic centers, but even these represent extended time periods that overlap in age with adjacent centers. Scientific drilling projects carried out over the last two decades have made significant contributions to our understanding of both basaltic and rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Snake River-Yellowstone hotspot system. Because these drill holes also intercept sedimentary interbeds or, in the case of the western SRP, thick sections of Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments, they have also contributed to our understanding of basin formation by thermal collapse in the wake of the hotspot passage or by rifting, paleoclimate of the interior west, and groundwater systems in volcanic rocks. Many of these drill holes are associated with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the eastern plain; others were drilled for geothermal or petroleum exploration. The latter include older holes that were not instrumented or logged in detail, but which still provide valuable stratigraphic controls. We focus here on the result of basalt drilling, which have been high-lighted in recent publications. Basaltic volcanism in the Snake River plain is dominated by olivine tholeiites that have major and trace element characteristics of ocean island basalt: the range in MgO is similar to MORB, but Ti, Fe, P, K, Sr, Zr and LREE/HREE ratios are all higher. Recent studies of basalts from the drill holes show that they evolved by fractionation in a mid-crustal sill complex that has been imaged seismically. Further, the chemical and isotopic systematics of these basalts require assimilation of consanguineous mafic material inferred to represent previously intruded sills. Major and trace element modeling suggest formation of the primary melts by melting of a source similar to E- MORB source. Trace element systematics document mixing between a plume-like source and a more depleted source that is not DMM. A similar more depleted source is inferred for Hawaii, suggesting that it is not continental lithosphere. Future scientific drilling in the SRP is the focus of Project HOTSPOT, a multi-disciplinary initiative that seeks to document time-space variations in the SRP-Yellowstone volcanic system. A workshop sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program was held in May 2006 to develop a targeted program of scientific drilling that examines the entire plume-lithosphere system across a major lithospheric boundary, with holes targeting basalt, rhyolite, and sediments. These drill holes will complement geophysical studies of continental dynamics (e.g., Earthscope), as well as current studies centered on Yellowstone. Additional components of a targeted drilling program include studies of lacustrine sediments that document paleoclimate change in North America during the Pliocene—Pleistocene and fluid flow at deeper crustal levels.

Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Hughes, S. S.; Geist, D.; Vetter, S. K.

2006-12-01

132

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.  

SciTech Connect

This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.

Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-09-15

133

Kinematics of the Snake River Plain and Centennial Shear Zone, Idaho, from GPS and earthquatte data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities at 405 sites using GPS phase data collected from 1994 to 2010 along with earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features reveal how contemporary strain is accommodated in the Northern Basin and Range Province. The 1994-2010 velocity field has observable gradients arising from both rotation and strain. Kinematic interpretations are guided by using a block-model approach and inverting velocities, earthquake slip vector azimuths, and dike-opening rates to simultaneously solve for angular velocities of the blocks and uniform horizontal strain rate tensors within selected blocks. The Northern Basin and Range block model has thirteen blocks representing tectonic provinces based on knowledge of geology, seismicity, volcanism, active tectonic faults, and regions with differences in observed velocities. Ten variations of the thirteen blocks are tested to assess the statistical significance of boundaries for tectonic provinces, motions along those boundaries, and estimates of long-term deformation within the provinces. From these tests, a preferred model with seven tectonic provinces is determined by applying a maximum confidence level of ?99% probability to F-distribution tests between two models to indicate one model with added boundaries has a better fit to the data over a second model. The preferred model is varied to test hypotheses of post-seismic viscoelastic relaxation, significance of dikes in accommodating extension, and bookshelf faulting in accommodating shear. Six variations of the preferred model indicate time-varying components due to viscoelastic relaxation from the 1959 Hebgen Lake, Montana and 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquakes have either ceased as of 2002 or are too small to be evident in the observed velocities. Inversions with dike-opening models indicate that the previously hypothesized rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones to keep pace with normal faulting is not currently occurring in the Snake River Plain. Alternatively, the preferred model reveals a low deforming region (-0.1 +/- 0.4 x 10-9 yr -1, which is not discernable from zero) covering 125 km x 650 km within the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau that is separated from the actively extending adjacent Basin and Range regions by narrow belts of localized shear. Velocities reveal rapid extension occurs to the north of the Snake River Plain in the Centennial Tectonic Belt (5.6 +/- 0.7 x 10 -9 yr-1) and to the south in the Intermountain Seismic Belt and Great Basin (3.5 +/- 0.2 x 10-9 yr-1). The "Centennial Shear Zone" is a NE-trending zone of up to 1.5 mm yr -1 of right-lateral shear and is the result of rapid extension in the Centennial Tectonic Belt adjacent to the low deforming region of the Snake River Plain. Variations of the preferred model that test the hypothesis of bookshelf faulting demonstrate shear does not drive Basin and Range extension in the Centennial Tectonic Belt. Instead, the velocity gradient across the Centennial Shear Zone indicates that shear is distributed and deformation is due to strike-slip faulting, distributed simple shear, regional-scale rotation, or any combination of these. Near the fastest rates of right-lateral slip, focal mechanisms are observed with strike-slip components of motion consistent with right-lateral shear. Here also, the segment boundary between two E-trending Basin and Range faults, which are oriented subparallel to the NE-trending shear zone, provides supporting Holocene to mid-Pleistocene geologic evidence for accommodation of right-lateral shear in the Centennial Shear Zone. The southernmost ends of NW-trending Basin and Range faults in the Centennial Tectonic Belt at their juncture with the eastern Snake River Plain could accommodate right-lateral shear through components of left-lateral oblique slip. Right-lateral shear may be accommodated by components of strike-slip motion on multiple NE-trending faults since geologic evidence does not support slip along one continuous NE-trending fault along the boundary

Payne, Suzette J.

134

Habitat use in basking Northern water ( Nerodia sipedon ) and Eastern garter ( Thamnophis sirtalis ) snakes in urban New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The habitat use of basking northern water (Nerodia sipedon) and Eastern garter (Thamnophis sirtalis) snakes was examined along the Raritan Canal, an urbanized area of central New Jersey. There were significant differences between the two species with respect to cloud cover, canopy cover, and the distance to the path and the water, but not with respect to percent of the

Joanna Burger; Christian Jeitner; Heather Jensen; Megan Fitzgerald; Stacey Carlucci; Sheila Shukla; Sean Burke; Robert Ramos; Michael Gochfeld

2004-01-01

135

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (8) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

Kohler, Andre E. [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; Griswold, Robert G. [Biolines Environmental Consulting; Taki, Doug [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

2009-07-31

136

Inventory and Monitoring of Bald Eagles and Other Raptorial Birds of the Snake River, Idaho. 1995 Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Snake River Raptor Project, a five-year effort, was initiated in 1994, with two primary objectives: (1) to monitor bald eagle productivity in Southeast Idaho, and (2) to develop a monitoring program for raptorial birds in the study area. The Snake Riv...

M. B. Whitfield M. E. Maj

1996-01-01

137

Summary of Radiological Monitoring of Columbia and Snake River Sediment, 1988 Through 2004  

SciTech Connect

From 1988 through 2004, samples of upper-layer sediments from the Columbia River and Snake River were collected under the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project to document concentrations and trends of radionuclides. Low concentrations of potassium-40, cesium-137, uranium isotopes, and plutonium isotopes were detected consistently in sediment samples over the entire sampling period. The concentrations of most radionuclides were similar to values measured upstream of the Hanford Site behind Priest Rapids Dam. For all locations, the concentrations of radionuclides in sediment samples from the Columbia and Snake rivers were below concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical exposed individual using a shoreline exposure scenario (i.e., 500 hr/yr of external dose). The DOE limit for public exposure is 100 mrem/yr.

Patton, Gregory W.; Dirkes, Roger L.

2007-10-01

138

Genetic monitoring and evaluation program for supplemented populations of salmon and steelhead in the Snake River Basin. Annual report, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study aims to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (0. mykiss) in the Snake River Basin and summarizes the first two years of electroph...

R. S. Waples O. W. Johnson P. B. Aebersold C. K. Shiflett D. M. VanDoornik

1993-01-01

139

Archaeological Test Excavation and Evaluation of Three Prehistoric Sites at Swift Bar, on the Lower Snake River, Southeastern Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Test excavations and controlled surface collections were conducted at three sites on Swift Bar, on the Lower Snake River in southeastern Washington. All three sites are subject to adverse effects through erosion and habitat restoration activities. Cascade...

R. L. Sappington C. D. Carley

1984-01-01

140

Population genetic structure and life history variability in Oncorhynchus nerka from the Snake River basin. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors used protein electrophoresis to examine genetic relationships among samples of sockeye salmon and kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) from the Snake River basin. A few collections from elsewhere in the Pacific Northwest were also included to add pers...

R. S. Waples P. B. Aebersold G. A. Winans

1997-01-01

141

Raptor Electrocutions and Associated Fire Hazards in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. Challenge Cost Share.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1999, we began an assessment of raptor electrocutions on power lines in and near the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in southwestern Idaho. The study will allow us to estimate electrocution rates, identify electrocution hazar...

R. N. Lehman J. S. Barrett

2000-01-01

142

Improving connectivity between freshwater and marine environments for salmon migrating through the lower Snake and Columbia River hydropower system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snake River stream-type Chinook salmon smolts migrate >1000km from rearing habitats to the Pacific Ocean and return 1–3 years later for their upstream spawning migration. Construction of 8 mainstem dams on the Snake\\/Columbia River that fish must pass has greatly altered the connectivity between their freshwater spawning and rearing habitats and the ocean. In addition to direct mortality to smolts

William D. Muir; John G. Williams

143

Project Hotspot: Subsurface Stratigraphy and Petrologic Evolution of Snake River Plain Basalts from Kimama Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key to understanding the volcanic and magmatic history of the Snake River Plain is identifying stratigraphic and geochemical trends through time. Project Hotspot, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, seeks to understand the long-term volcanic and sedimentary history of the Snake River volcanic province and its potential as a geothermal resource through the detailed logging of the Kimama drill core. One of three new, deep drill holes in the Snake River Plain (SRP), the Kimama drill hole (1912 m depth) is located along the volcanic axis of the central SRP. As one of the deepest coreholes on the Snake River Plain, Kimama core provides the opportunity to identify and evaluate these trends to better understand the sequence of magma genesis and volcanism. Detailed lithologic logging has identified at least 550 basalt flows (0.1-50 m thick) grouped into at least 30 flow groups, or individual magmatic episodes, that range in thickness from 13 m to 170 m thick (most 20-100 m thick). Basalt flows are designated based upon morphological characteristics including the presence of rubbly, highly fractured flow tops, massive to vesicular flow interiors, and rubbly flow bases. Flow groups are commonly separated by sedimentary interbeds, which range in thickness from 3 m to 52 m and indicate hiatuses in volcanic activity. The compilation of well log data shows an apparent agreement between lithologic and geophysical stratigraphy, with observed basalt flow group breaks and sediment interbeds at least roughly mirrored by spikes and dips in natural gamma and neutron log signals. Previous studies have shown that Snake River Plain basalt flow groups typically progress from less-evolved, more primitive basalts at depth to more evolved basalts upsection. These inter-flow group fractionation cycles are visible in preliminary plots of element concentrations by depth from the Kimama core. However, basalt flows at depths of 318.7 m and 526.6 m show higher values of Fe2O3 wt. % as well as higher incompatible element concentrations outside of expected ranges, indicating more evolved compositions similar to those at Craters of the Moon, Idaho. These data suggest the presence of multiple magma sources at varying depths that fed simultaneous eruptions. Additionally, they have broader implications for the source of mafic volcanism on the SRP and the overall evolution of Yellowstone Hotspot volcanism through time.

Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.; Christiansen, E. H.; Bradshaw, R. W.

2011-12-01

144

Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on

Michael P. Faler; Glen Mendel; Carl Fulton

2008-01-01

145

Harvest Management and Recovery of Snake River Salmon Stocks : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 7 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

Management measures to regulate salmon fishing harvest have grown increasingly complex over the past decade in response to the needs for improved protection for some salmon runs and to alter harvest sharing between fisheries. The development of management plans that adequately address both needs is an immensely complicated task, one that involves a multitude of stocks, each with its own migration patterns and capacity to sustain exploitation. The fishing industry that relies on these fish populations is also highly diverse. The management task is made especially difficult because the stocks are often intermingled on the fishing grounds, creating highly mixed aggregates of stocks and species on which the fisheries operate. This situation is the one confronting harvest managers attempting to protect Snake River salmon. This report provides an overview of some of the factors that will need to be addressed in assessing the potential for using harvest management measures in the recovery of Snake River salmon stocks. The major sections of the report include the following: perspectives on harvest impacts; ocean distribution and in-river adult migration timing; description of management processes and associated fisheries of interest; and altemative harvest strategies.

Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Gilbertson, Larry G.

1993-06-01

146

Snake River Plain, Idaho: Representative of a new category of volcanism  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the volcanic geology of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, and comparison with other basaltic regions suggest a new category of volcanic activity, termed basaltic plains volcanism. Typified by the Snake River Plain, this style of volcanism is intermediate between basaltic flood (or plateau) eruptions and Hawaiian volcanism. Characteristics that are common to both Hawaiian and plains volcanism are: multiple lava flow units which erupt primarily from point sources, formation of low shields, and frequent emplacement through lava tubes channels. Characteristics that are common to both flood basalts and plains volcanism are: high volume flows, vents aligned along rift zones, and planar surfaces. The recognition of plains in other areas provides a means to interpret the style of eruption and volcanic history.

Greeley, R.

1982-04-10

147

Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)  

SciTech Connect

Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

Not Available

1993-03-01

148

River Runoff Sensitivity in Eastern Siberia to Global Climate Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

During several last decades significant climate warming is observed in permafrost regions of Eastern Siberia. These changes include rise of air temperature as well as precipitation. Changes in regional climate are accompanied with river runoff changes. The analysis of the data shows that in the past 25 years, the largest contribution to the annual river runoff increase in the lower

A. G. Georgiadi; I. P. Milyukova; E. Kashutina

2008-01-01

149

Movement and Spawner Distribution of Hatchery Fall Chinook Salmon Adults Acclimated and Released as Yearlings at Three Locations in the Snake River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the supplementation program for fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River basin, yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery were released at acclimation facilities stationed along the lower Clearwater River and the lower and upper reaches of the Snake River. The distance required for migration out of the release reach was greatest for juveniles released in the

Aaron P. Garcia; William P. Connor; Deborah J. Milks; Stephen J. Rocklage; R. Kirk Steinhorst

2004-01-01

150

Winter Habitat Use by Cutthroat Trout in the Snake River near Jackson, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter habitat use by Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri was monitored with radiotelemetry during November–March 1998–2001 in channelized and unaltered sections of the Snake River near Jackson, Wyoming. The use of run and off-channel pool habitat was significantly correlated to water temperature; run use was most frequent when mean water temperature exceeded 1.0°C, and off-channel pool use was greatest

David D. Harper; Aïda M. Farag

2004-01-01

151

Fish Assemblages and Environmental Correlates in Least-Disturbed Streams of the Upper Snake River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish assemblages and environmental variables were evaluated from 37 least-disturbed, 1st- through 6th-order streams and springs in the upper Snake River basin, western USA. Data were collected as part of the efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program and the Idaho State University Stream Ecology Center to characterize aquatic biota and associated habitats in least-disturbed coldwater

Terry R. Maret; Christopher T. Robinson; G. Wayne Minshall

1997-01-01

152

THE VALUE OF SPORT FISHING IN THE SNAKE RIVER BASIN OF CENTRAL IDAHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of sportfishing in the Snake River Basin in Central Idaho was measured using a two-stage\\/disequilibrium travel model. The two-stage\\/disequilibrium model does not require monetization of recreationists? travel time as required of traditional equilibrium labor market travel cost models. The model was estimated using Poisson regression, appropriate for count data when over-dispersion is absent, and adjusted for endogenous stratification

John R. McKean; Donn M. Johnson; R. Garth Taylor

2001-01-01

153

Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

Stovall, Stacey H.

1994-08-01

154

South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

NONE

1995-09-01

155

Population dynamics of the Concho Water Snake in rivers and reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Concho Water Snake (Nerodia harteri paucimaculata) is confined to the Concho-Colorado River valley of central Texas, thereby occupying one of the smallest geographic ranges of any North American snake. In 1986, N. h. paucimaculata was designated as a federally threatened species, in large part because of reservoir projects that were perceived to adversely affect the amount of habitat available to the snake. During a ten-year period (1987-1996), we conducted capture-recapture field studies to assess dynamics of five subpopulations of snakes in both natural (river) and man-made (reservoir) habitats. Because of differential sampling of subpopulations, we present separate results for all five subpopulations combined (including large reservoirs) and three of the five subpopuiations (excluding large reservoirs). We used multistate capture-recapture models to deal with stochastic transitions between pre-reproductive and reproductive size classes and to allow for the possibility of different survival and capture probabilities for the two classes. We also estimated both the finite rate of increase (??) for a deterministic, stage-based, female-only matrix model using the average litter size, and the average rate of adult population change, ??, which describes changes in numbers of adult snakes, using a direct capture-recapture approach to estimation. Average annual adult survival was about 0.23 and similar for males and females. Average annual survival for subadults was about 0.14. The parameter estimates from the stage-based projection matrix analysis all yielded asymptotic values of ?? < 1, suggesting populations that are not viable. However, the direct estimates of average adult ?? for the three subpopulations excluding major reservoirs were ?? = 1.26, SE??(??) = 0.18 and ?? = 0.99, SE??(??) = 0.79, based on two different models. Thus, the direct estimation approach did not provide strong evidence of population declines of the riverine subpopulations, but the estimates are characterized by substantial uncertainty. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Whiting, M. J.; Dixon, J. R.; Greene, B. D.; Mueller, J. M.; Thornton, Jr. , O. W.; Hatfield, J. S.; Nichols, J. D.; Hines, J. E.

2008-01-01

156

Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Escapement estimates for fall of 2000 indicate more than 9000 adult fall Chinook salmon returned to this area, accounting for more than 2100 redds within a 5 km section of river.

Hanrahan, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-01-08

157

A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Northern Basin and Range Province, USA, we estimate horizontal velocities for 405 sites using Global Positioning System (GPS) phase data collected from 1994 to 2010. The velocities, together with geologic, volcanic, and earthquake data, reveal a slowly deforming region within the Snake River Plain in Idaho and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau in Oregon separated from the actively extending adjacent Basin and Range regions by shear. Our results show a NE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.6 ± 0.7 × 10-9 yr-1 in the Centennial Tectonic Belt and an ˜E-oriented extensional strain rate of 3.5 ± 0.2 × 10-9 yr-1 in the Great Basin. These extensional rates contrast with the very low strain rate within the 125 km × 650 km region of the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, which is indistinguishable from zero (-0.1 ± 0.4 × 10-9 yr-1). Inversions of the velocities with dyke-opening models indicate that rapid extension by dyke intrusion in volcanic rift zones, as previously hypothesized, is not currently occurring in the Snake River Plain. This slow internal deformation, in contrast to the rapidly extending adjacent Basin and Range regions, indicates shear along the boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.3-1.4 mm yr-1 along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic Belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm yr-1 along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic Belt. The fastest lateral shearing evident in the GPS occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic Belt, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and eastern Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is not locally driven by Yellowstone hotspot volcanism, but instead by extension to the south across the Wasatch fault due to gravitational collapse and by shear in the Walker Lane belt resulting from Pacific-Northern America relative plate motion.

Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

2012-04-01

158

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

2003-12-01

159

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

2004-02-01

160

UPPER SNAKE RIVER, MAIN STEM (LAKE WALCOTT TO IDAHO-WYOMING BORDER), IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

This study sampled 17 water quality stations in the Upper Snake River, Idaho (1704) on a bi-weekly basis. The area extended from Heise and Rexburg to the Raft River. Two point sources (Idaho Falls and Blackfoot Sewage Treatment Plants) and 2 tributaries (Blackfoot and Raft Rive...

161

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 2,420 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2000, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho and Washington State University. Two large freezer tanks are located at each university, each of which holds approximately 25% of the cryopreserved sperm. One tank at each university is considered long-term archival storage, while the other is short-term. Fertility trials were conducted at each university to test the viability of the cryopreserved chinook salmon sperm. The experiments on the 2000 frozen and thawed sperm at both universities found a fertility rate of 60-70%. This document also summarizes 1999-2000 steelhead genetic analysis report. The results of mitochondrial, nuclear DNA and microsatellite analysis found differences and shared haplotypes between the stocks of fish sampled for cryopreservation. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, a greater emphasis on cryopreserving wild fish, continued fertility trials, exploring field cryopreservation and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)

2001-06-01

162

Petrology, Geochemistry, and Geodynamics of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain Hotspot: Implications for Supercontinent Dispersal (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) hotspot system is one of the few places on Earth where plume-lithosphere interaction can be observed in process. This interaction commenced circa 17 Ma when the YSRP plume first encountered continental lithosphere beneath eastern Oregon. Geophysical and geologic observations show that plume material impinged on the lithosphere near 44 degrees N latitude, close to the interface between accreted oceanic terranes (to the north) and thinned continental lithosphere (to the south). The plume tilted to the southeast as it was squeezed against the steep Idaho-Oregon Shear Zone to the north, guided by topography in the base of the lithospheric mantle. Once ensconced in this position, it continued to rise into the channel that formed as it thermally and mechanically eroded the base of the lithosphere. This channel allows the plume to rise and melt adiabatically despite the thickness of the surrounding lithosphere [Shervais and Hanan, Tectonics, 2008]. The most voluminous eruptions are hot, dry, A-type (anorogenic) rhyolites that precede most basalt eruptions and migrate progressively to the NE along the topographic central and eastern Snake River Plain. Isotope data document >60% mantle Nd, consistent with their formation by fractionation of mantle-derived mafic melts, with only minor crustal melting [Nash et al EPSL 2006; McCurry and Rodgers JVGR 2009]. Geochemical and isotopic data for basalts show that the lithosphere thickens from west to east, and that lithosphere to the west is younger and more heterogeneous than that which underlies the Yellowstone plateau. Basalts erupted along the track of the hotspot have major and trace element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (e.g., Hawaii) but have isotopic compositions that reflect assimilation of an ancient enriched component derived from the subcontinental mantle lithosphere. This dichotomy reflects a balance between the mass fractions of sublithospheric OIB and enriched SCLM components [Hanan et al., Geology, 2008]. The SRP geochemical signature corresponds to Stage II magmatism, associated with the dispersal of super-continents [Hanan et al., this session]. The parity between the SRP geochemical signature and Stage II rift lavas indicates that lithosphere thinning is required before the plume or sub-lithospheric mantle can contribute melt to the rift magmas.

Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.

2010-12-01

163

Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.  

SciTech Connect

The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River was small (n=6). In spite of this project's shortcomings, bull trout continue to be observed in low numbers at Snake River dam fish facilities. It is highly possible that bull trout observed at the Snake River dam fish facilities are originating from sources other than the Tucannon River. We suggest that these fish might come from upstream sources like the Clearwater or Salmon rivers in Idaho, and are simply following the outmigration of juvenile anadromous fish (a food supply) as they emigrate toward the Pacific Ocean. Based on our study results, we recommend abandoning radio telemetry as a tool to monitor bull trout movements in the mainstem Snake River. We do recommend continuing PIT tagging and tag interrogation activities to help determine the origin of bull trout using the Snake River hydropower facilities. As a complementary approach, we also suggest the use of genetic assignment tests to help determine the origin of these fish. Lastly, several recommendations are included in the report to help manage and recover bull trout in the Tucannon subbasin.

Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2008-11-20

164

System Dynamics to Climate-Driven Water Budget Analysis in the Eastern Snake Plains Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability, weather extremes and climate change continue to threaten the sustainability of water resources in the western United States. Given current climate change projections, increasing temperature is likely to modify the timing, form, and intensity of precipitation events, which consequently affect regional and local hydrologic cycles. As a result, drought, water shortage, and subsequent water conflicts may become an increasing threat in monotone hydrologic systems in arid lands, such as the Eastern Snake Plain Aquifer (ESPA). The ESPA, in particular, is a critical asset in the state of Idaho. It is known as the economic lifeblood for more than half of Idaho’s population so that water resources availability and aquifer management due to climate change is of great interest, especially over the next few decades. In this study, we apply system dynamics as a methodology with which to address dynamically complex problems in ESPA’s water resources management. Aquifer recharge and discharge dynamics are coded in STELLA modeling system as input and output, respectively to identify long-term behavior of aquifer responses to climate-driven hydrological changes.

Ryu, J.; Contor, B.; Wylie, A.; Johnson, G.; Allen, R. G.

2010-12-01

165

Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts.  

PubMed

Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ?50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. "Delayed" mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750?km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry. PMID:22690317

Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M; McKern, John L

2012-06-11

166

Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. This report describes field data collection, modeling, and analysis of hydrodynamic and temperature conditions in the Lower Granite Reservoir during the summer flow augmentation periods of 2002, 2003, and 2004. Although temperature, and hence density, differences during flow augmentation periods between the Clearwater and Snake rivers were approximately equal (7-12 C) for all four years, the discharge ratio varied which resulted in significant differences in entrainment of cooler Clearwater River water into the Lower Granite Reservoir epilimnion. However, as a direct result of system management, Lower Granite Dam tailrace temperatures were maintained near 20 C during all years. Primary differences in the other three lower Snake River reservoirs were therefore a result of meteorological conditions and dam operations, which produced variations in wind setup and surface heating. Circulation patterns in all four lower Snake River reservoirs were numerically simulated for periods of 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 using CE-QUAL-W2. Simulation results show that these models are capable of matching diurnal and long-term temperature and velocity changes in the reservoirs. In addition, the confluence zone of the Clearwater and Snake rivers was modeled using the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic model Flow3D. Once calibrated and validated, the reservoir models were used to investigate downstream impacts of alternative reservoir operation schemes, such as increasing or decreasing the ratio of Clearwater to Snake river discharge. Simulation results were linked with the particle tracking model FINS to develop reservoir-integrated metrics that varied due to these alternative operation schemes. Findings indicate that significant alterations in water temperature throughout the lower Snake River are possible by altering hypolimnetic discharges from Dworshak Reservoir, which may also impact the behavior of migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon during periods of flow augmentation.

Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2006-01-01

167

Migration of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Past Dams and Through Reservoirs in the Lower Snake River and into Tributaries - 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the upstream migration of adult spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steel head 0. mykiss past the four lower Snake River dams, through the reservoirs, and into the tributaries of the Snake River drainage was initiated ...

J. P. Hunt K. R. Tolotti P. J. Keniry R. R. Ringe T. C. Bjornn

1995-01-01

168

Migration of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Past Dams and through Reservoirs in the Lower Snake River and into Tributaries - 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the upstream migration of adult spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steel head O, mykiss past the four lower Snake River dams, through the reservoirs, and into the tributaries of the Snake River drainage was initiated ...

T. C. Bjomn R. R. Ringe K. R. Tolotti P. J. Keniry J. P. Hunt

1992-01-01

169

Quantifying recreation use values from removing dams and restoring free-flowing rivers: A contingent behavior travel cost demand model for the Lower Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A travel cost demand model that uses intended trips if dams are removed and the river restored is presented as a tool for evaluating the potential recreation benefits in this counterfactual but increasingly policy relevant analysis of dam removal. The model is applied to the Lower Snake River in Washington using data from mail surveys of households in the Pacific

John Loomis

2002-01-01

170

Geochronology, paleomagnetism and petrology of the Upper Cenozoic Bruneau Formation in the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined application of potassium-argon and paleomagnetic techniques revealed an understanding of the sequence of geologic events during the last 2.2 m.y. in the western part of the Snake River Plain. Two factors introduce large errors in the whole-rock K-Ar dating of fine-grained, glass-rich, geologically young Snake River basalts: a low potassium content which is not uniformly distributed; and the presence of large amounts of extraneous, occluded and atmospheric argon. Therefore, paleomagnetism has been applied as a supporting technique. Basalts of the Bruneau Formation display field, petrographic, and petrologic characteristics similar to other Snake River basalts. Olivine has undergone no reaction with the residual liquid, and the sole pyroxene is a Ca-rich augite. They contain both olivine and hypersthene in the norm and display characteristics transitional between tholeiitic and alkali basalts. Accordingly they have been classified as hypersthene-normative alkalic basalts.

Amini, M. H.

171

Genetic isolation of previously indistinguishable chinook salmon populations of the Snake and Klamath Rivers: Limitations of negative data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anomalous inabil­ ity to distinguish certain geograph­ ically-separated chinook salmon On­ corkynckus tskaWlJtsCka. populations of the Snake River and the Klamath River from a survey of 18 polymor­ phic loci led to a prediction that distinction would ultimately be found through sampling of additional poly­ morphic loci. Recently published studies involving pertinent groups within each of these rivers included

Fred M. Utter; Robin S. Waples; David J. Teel

172

Three-Dimensional Geophysical Structure of the Yellowstone / Snake River Plain Hotspot System: Is a Deep Mantle Plume Required?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing new constraints on the origin of the Yellowstone / Snake River Plain (YSRP) hotspot system is an important contribution enabled the EarthScope program. This age-progressive track of rhyolitic volcanism has long been hypothesized as resulting from a deep mantle plume. Here we present an integrated view of new results from EarthScope seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data that shed new light on the deep structure and dynamics of the YSRP system. Nearly all new body wave tomographic models utilizing EarthScope data show a distinct swath of strongly reduced seismic wavespeeds extending laterally from the central SRP to Yellowstone, extending to depths of no greater than ~200 km. There is no evidence for a singular, concentrated conduit of reduced velocities below 200 km, as expected from a focused mantle plume upwelling. Surface wave tomography shows similar patterns for the YSRP region, with shear wavespeeds consistent with partial melt zones within the YSRP crust and uppermost mantle extending to depths of ~125 km, and aligned with the widespread distribution of Quaternary basaltic volcanism all along the SRP. Results from regional 3D MT models show focused zones of highly conductive crust and upper mantle, with the strongest conductivities in the uppermost mantle residing beneath the central Snake River Plain and the largest contrasts extending to ~100km depth. Given the paucity of evidence for a present-day plume, we explore geophysical proxies in the mantle flow field for past plume-related dynamics, appealing to proxies for mantle flow. Data from several seismic anisotropy studies confirm that the Yellowstone region exhibits little evidence for vertical mantle flow across the region. Further, the downgoing Juan de Fuca plate, imaged clearly in the tomographic studies, would provide a barrier to an upwelling mantle plume. An alternative to the plume model involves mantle flow around a stranded fragment of the Farallon plate whose northern edge parallels the SRP, and whose eastern edge is beneath Yellowstone. Flow of deep mantle around this sinking portion of the Farallon would introduce ascending mantle beneath the whole of the YSRP, not just Yellowstone, and could also explain the significant tectonomagmatism of the Columbia River flood basalt event and continuing volcanic activity on the High Lava Plains.

Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.; Kelbert, A.; Egbert, G. D.; Wagner, L. S.; Carlson, R. W.; Roth, J. B.

2011-12-01

173

Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. In 1994, the authors estimated the total September Redfish Lake O. nerka population at 51,529 fish (95% CI, {+-} 33,179). The Alturas Lake O. nerka population was estimated at 5,785 fish ({+-} 6,919). The total density and biomass of Alturas Lake was estimated at 27 fish/hectare ({+-} 33) and 0.7 kg/hectare, respectively. The total O. nerka population estimate for Pettit Lake was 14,743 fish ({+-} 3,683). Stanley Lake O. nerka total population size, density, and biomass was estimated at 2,695 fish ({+-} 963), 37 fish/hectare ({+-} 13), and 0.5 kg/hectare, respectively. Estimated numbers of O. nerka outmigrant smolts passing Redfish Lake Creek and Salmon River trapping sites increased in 1994. The authors estimated 1,820 (90% CI 1,229--2,671) and 945 (90% CI 331--13,000) smolts left Redfish and Alturas lakes, respectively. The total PIT tag detection rate at mainstem dams for Redfish Lake outmigrants was 21% in 1994. No Alturas Lake outmigrants were detected at any of the downstream facilities with detection capabilities (zero of 50 fish).

Kline, Paul A.

1995-08-01

174

Habitat quality of historic Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning locations and implications for incubation survival: part 1, substrate quality  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated substrate quality at two historic fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning sites in the Snake River, Idaho, USA. The primary objective of this evaluation was to measure sediment permeability within these areas to determine the potential quality of the habitat in the event that anadromous salmonids are reintroduced to the upper Snake River. Riverbed sediments within the two sites in the upper Snake River were sampled using freeze cores and hydraulic slug tests. Sediment grain size distributions at both sites were typical of gravel-bed rivers with the surface layer coarser than the underlying substrate, suggesting the riverbed surface was armored. Despite the armored nature of the bed, the size of the largest material present on the riverbed surface was well within the size limit of material capable of being excavated by spawning fall Chinook salmon. The percentage of fines was low, suggesting good quality substrate for incubating salmon embryos. Geometric mean particle sizes found in this study compared to a 55% to 80% survival to emergence based on literature values. Hydraulic slug tests showed moderate to high hydraulic conductivity and were comparable to values from current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Predicted estimates of mean egg survival at both sites (48% and 74%) equaled or exceeded estimates from fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach and the Hanford Reach.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.

2005-07-01

175

Plume-Lithosphere Interaction beneath the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Constraints from Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province links 17 million years of volcanic activity that extends from the Owyhee Plateau in western Idaho/eastern Oregon to its current terminus underlying the Yellowstone Plateau. This investigation presents new Strontium, Neodymium, Lead, and Hafnium isotopic compositions of 25 basalts that represent four distinct areas of the YSRP (i.e., eastern province, central province, western province, Owyhee Plateau), which transect the ancient cratonic boundary of North America. The purpose of this study is to test and refine models for plume-lithosphere interaction and determines the mantle origin for YSRP basalts. New results shows: (1) low-K tholeiites from the eastern, central, and western SRP have ?Nd (-2 to -5.5), 87Sr/86Sr (0.7060-0.7071) and similar Pb-isotopes [206Pb/204Pb (17.8-18.6), 207Pb/204Pb (15.5-15.66), 208Pb/204Pb (38.4-39.1)]; (2) central SRP tholeiites are enriched in 208Pb/204Pb (~38.5-38.9), relative to eastern SRP basalts and define a 208Pb/204Pb trend, intermediate between the eastern SRP and Craters of the Moon lavas; (3) western SRP high-K basalts are depleted in ?Nd (> -1) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7050-0.7057), relative to low-K tholeiites, and plot closer to "bulk silicate earth," but are enriched in 206Pb/204Pb (18.66-18.71), and have 207Pb/204Pb (15.62-15.65) and 208Pb/204Pb (39.1-39.2) isotope ratios similar to high-K basalts of Smith Prairie (Boise River Group 2); (4) Silver City basalt (>16.6 Ma) overlaps in Pb-isotope space with Imnaha basalt compositions (Columbia River Basalt Group); (5) new 177Hf/176Hf isotopic data lie above and parallel to the Mantle array in Nd and Hf isotope space and define a linear trend between Leucite Hills lavas and OIB basalts (i.e., Steens and Hawaii); (6) these basalts follow a systematic geographic pattern: eastern and central plain low-K tholeiites have low ?Nd (-3 to -5) and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb (~17.7-18.5), while western plain low-K tholeiites are enriched, i.e., ?Nd (-2 to -4) and 206Pb/204Pb (~18.2-18.6). The geochemical and geospatial observations can be modeled as a mixture between an OIB-like plume source that mixes with subduction-rejuvenated subcontinental lithosphere that varies in age and Sr and Pb isotopic composition from west to east beneath the SRP. The SCLM in the east is indicative of the ancient Wyoming Craton underlying the Yellowstone Plateau (i.e., 87Sr/86Sr (>0.706) and 206Pb/204Pb <18). The SCLM in the west has less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (<0.706) and more radiogenic Pb-isotopes (206Pb/204Pb >19), typical of the Mesozoic-Paleozoic margin of the North American craton. The model shows that eastern, central, and western plain low-K tholeiites can be modeled with ~ 97-98% plume component, as opposed to western SRP high-K lavas, which requires ? 99% plume component, while the Silver City basalt has essentially the isotopic composition of the plume component. Yellowstone Plateau basalts have the lowest plume component (< 90%). Additionally, the architecture beneath the SRP allows plume material to flow westward and potentially decompress, thus accounting for high-K volcanism millions of years after the North American continent overrode the plume.

Jean, M. M.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.

2011-12-01

176

Fluorite equilibria in thermal springs of the Snake River Basin, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some thermal water sources of the Snake River basin, Idaho, are near saturation with respect to fluorite. That mineral was identified by X-ray diffraction in precipitates induced in three water samples by adding sodium fluoride. The derived solubility product (KS0) for zero ionic strength was close to that calculated from Latimer's thermodynamic data (10-9.7 7). The relative ease of precipitation of fluorite from these water samples indicates that equilibrium with respect to fluorite may occur in some ground-water systems.

Roberson, C. E.; Schoen, Robert

1973-01-01

177

Paleomagnetic correlation of ignimbrites along the southern margin of the central Snake River Plain, Yellowstone hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-late Miocene explosive volcanism associated with the Yellowstone hotspot occurred in the central Snake River Plain, for example at the 12.5-11.3 Ma Bruneau-Jarbidge and 10-8.6 Ma Twin Falls eruptive centres. The volcanism was characterized by high-temperature rhyolitic caldera-forming super-eruptions, some exceeding 450 km3. To determine the number and scales and of these giant eruptions we are investigating successions of outflow ignimbrites at the southern and northern margins of the plain. The ignimbrites are exposed discontinuously in widely spaced (50-200 km) mountain ranges and are typically extensive, intensely welded and rheomorphic. Paleomagnetic characterization of individual (paleosol-bounded) eruption-units together with field, petrographic and chemical characterization will aid in stratigraphic correlation between distant sections. By correlating and mapping the eruption-units we can better estimate how the frequencies and volumes of the super-eruptions changed during eastward progression of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism. This information helps distinguish between effects of thermal flux, crustal structure, and tectonics on magmatic history of this continental large igneous province. Additionally, large caldera collapse events dramatically modify landscapes, and location and scale of calderas may have significantly contributed to Snake River Plain topography. Over 300 paleomagnetic cores were collected in September 2010 from the Cassia Hills, Rogerson Graben, and Bruneau-Jarbidge regions in the southern margin of the Snake River Plain. We drilled 10 oriented cores per eruption unit at reference sections from each location and demagnetized them with alternating-field (AF) and thermal demagnetization techniques. In some cases AF treatment up to 200 mT was unable to completely destroy a specimen's natural remnant magnetization and so thermal treatment was used to finish the experiment. Zjiderveld diagrams from AF, thermal and hybrid experiments show nice linear trends to the origin and all agree well in direction. Unblocking temperatures generally ranged from 530-580° C, suggesting magnetite is the primary magnetic mineral. Some specimens, however, have an additional component with an unblocking temperature of <350° C, which could be titanomagnetite or secondary titanomagnemite. Thermomagnetic experiments are underway to identify these components. Magnetic polarities of ignimbrites from the Cassia Hills and Rogerson Graben are exclusively normal, whereas normal and reversed polarities are found in the Bruneau-Jarbidge region. Although most ignimbrites cooled in a normal field, smaller variations in this direction of the field are typically still resolvable to within a few centuries. Characterization of this secular variation and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility are our principal paleomagnetic tools to fingerprint and correlate individual ignimbrite eruption units across the southern Snake River Plain.

Finn, D. R.; Coe, R. S.; Spinardi, F.; Reichow, M. K.; Knott, T.; McDonnell, L.; Cunningham, D.; Branney, M.

2011-12-01

178

Population dynamics of the Concho water snake in rivers and reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Concho Water Snake (Nerodia harteri paucimaculata) is confined to the Concho-Colorado River valley of central Texas, thereby occupying one of the smallest geographic ranges of any North American snake. In 1986, N. h. paucimaculata was designated as a federally threatened species, in large part because of reservoir projects that were perceived to adversely affect the amount of habitat available to the snake. During a ten-year period (1987-1996), we conducted capture-recapture field studies to assess dynamics of five subpopulations of snakes in both natural (river) and man-made (reservoir) habitats. Because of differential sampling of subpopulations, we present separate results for all five subpopulations combined (including large reservoirs) and three of the five subpopulations (excluding large reservoirs). We used multistate capture-recapture models to deal with stochastic transitions between pre-reproductive and reproductive size classes and to allow for the possibility of different survival and capture probabilities for the two classes. We also estimated both the finite rate of increase (l) for a deterministic, stage-based, female-only matrix model using the average litter size, and the average rate of adult population change, l 8 , which describes changes in numbers of adult snakes, using a direct capture-recapture approach to estimation. Average annual adult survival was about 0.23 and similar for males and females. Average annual survival for subadults was about 0.14. The parameter estimates from the stage-based projection matrix analysis all yielded asymptotic values of 8 < 1, suggesting populations that are not viable. However, the direct estimates of average adult l for the three subpopulations excluding major reservoirs were l 8 = 1.26, SE8(l 8 ) = 0.18 and l 8 = 0.99, SE8(l 8 ) = 0.79, based on two different models. Thus, the direct estimation approach did not provide strong evidence of population declines of the riverine subpopulations, but the estimates are characterized by substantial uncertainty.

Whiting, M.J.; Dixon, J.R.; Greene, B.D.; Mueller, J.M.; Thornton, O.W., Jr.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nichols, J. D.; Hines, J.E.

2008-01-01

179

Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We sampled and released 313 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from the Tucannon River in 2004. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 231 of these individuals, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 44 bull trout. Twenty-five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Ten bull trout that were radio-tagged in 2003 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring of 2004. One of these fish outmigrated into the Snake River in the fall, and remained undetected until February, when it's tag was located near the confluence of Alkali Flat Creek and the Snake River. The remaining 9 fish spent the winter between Tucannon River miles 2.1 (Powers Road) and 36.0 (Tucannon Fish Hatchery). Seven of these fish retained their tags through the summer, and migrated to known spawning habitat prior to September 2004. During June and July, radio-tagged bull trout again exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. As in past years, we observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October, suggesting post spawning outmigrations. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from river mile 42 at Camp Wooten downstream to river mile 17, near the Highway 12 bridge. As in previous years, we did not collect data associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the vicinity of the hydropower dams on the main stem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged Lotek model NTC-6-2 nano-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20, 30, and 40 ft. We were able to maintain tag detection and code separation at all depths from both a boat and 200 ft. above water surface in a helicopter. However, we lost detection capability from 40 ft. water depth when we passed 700 ft. above the water surface in a helicopter. Two years of high tag loss, particularly after spawning, has prevented us from documenting fall and winter movements with an adequate sample of radio tagged bull trout. The high transmitter loss after spawning may be a reflection of high natural mortality for large, older age fish that we have been radio tagging to accommodate the longer life transmitters. Therefore, we reduced the size of the radio tags that we implanted, and delayed most of our collection and tagging of bull trout until after spawning. These changes are a new approach to try to maximize the number of radio tagged bull trout available post spawning to adequately document fall and winter movements and any use of the Snake River by bull trout from the Tucannon River.

Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

2005-11-01

180

Seasonal shifts in shelter and microhabitat use of drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) in Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States, has experienced population declines because of extensive habitat loss and degradation across its range. In Georgia and northern Florida, the species is associated with longleaf pine habitats that support Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) populations, the burrows of which D. couperi uses for shelter. The extent that D. couperi uses these burrows, in addition to the use of other underground shelters and the microhabitat features associated with these structures is largely unknown. From 2003 through 2004, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of D. couperi (n = 32) to examine use of shelters and microhabitat in Georgia. We used repeated measures regression on a candidate set of models created from a priori hypotheses using principal component scores, derived from analysis of microhabitat data to examine microhabitat use at underground shelters. Proportion of locations recorded underground did not differ seasonally or between sexes. In winter, we recorded >0.90 of underground locations at tortoise burrows. Use of these burrows was less pronounced in spring for males. Females used abandoned tortoise burrows more frequently than males year-round and used them on approximately 0.60 of their underground locations during spring. Microhabitat use at underground shelters was most influenced by season compared to sex, site, or body size. Females in spring and summer used more open microhabitat compared to males, potentially in response to gestation. Our results suggest that the availability of suitable underground shelters, especially G. polyphemus burrows, may be a limiting factor in the northern range of D. couperi, with important implications for its conservation. ?? 2009 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Hyslop, N. L.; Cooper, R. J.; Meyers, J. M.

2009-01-01

181

Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the lower Snake River Basin. Whole-body composite samples of suckers and carp from seven sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds; liver samples were analyzed for trace elements. Fillets from selected sportfish were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Bed-sediment samples from three sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Twelve different organochlorine compounds were detected in 14 fish-tissue samples. All fish-tissue samples contained DDT or its metabolites. Concentrations of total DDT ranged from 11 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in fillets of yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 3,633 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Total DDT concentrations in whole-body samples of sucker and carp from the Snake River at C.J. Strike Reservoir, Snake River at Swan Falls, Snake River at Nyssa, and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded criteria established for the protection of fish-eating wildlife. Total PCB concentrations in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River also exceeded fish-eating wildlife criteria. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in whole-body samples, in general, were larger than concentrations in sportfish fillets. However, concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in fillets of channel catfish from the Snake River at Nyssa and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River, and concentrations of total DDT in fillets of smallmouth bass and white crappie from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded a cancer risk screening value of 10-6 established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment were smaller than concentrations in fish tissue. Concentrations of p,p'DDE, the only compound detected in all three bed-sediment samples, ranged from 1.1 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in C.J. Strike Reservoir to 11 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Data from this study, compared with data collected in the upper Snake River Basin from 1992 to 1994, indicates that, in general, organochlorine concentrations in fish tissue and bed sediment increased from the headwaters of the Snake River in Wyoming downstream to Brownlee Reservoir. The largest trace-element concentrations in fish tissue were in liver samples from carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and suckers from the Boise River near Twin Springs. Concentrations of most trace elements were larger in livers than in the sport- fish fillets. However, mercury concentrations were generally larger in the sportfish fillets; they ranged from 0.08 microgram per gram wet weight in yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 0.32 microgram per gram wet weight in channel catfish from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. None of the trace-element concentrations in fillets exceeded median international standards or U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels. Large trace-element concentrations in the upper Snake River Basin were reported in liver samples from suckers from headwater streams, probably a result of historical mining and weathering of metal-rich rocks. Concentrations of most trace elements in the bed-sediment samples were largest in Brownlee Reservoir at Mountain Man Lodge. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc in bed sediment from the Mountain Man Lodge site exceeded either the threshold effect level or probable effect level established by the Canadian Government for the protection of benthic life. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and nickel concentrations in bed sediment from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and chromium, copper, and nickel in bed sediment from C.J. Strike Reservoir also exceeded the threshold effect level.

Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

1998-01-01

182

Evaluation of Reconnection Options for White Sturgeon in the Snake River Using a Population Viability Model  

SciTech Connect

Abstract.- This paper describes a simulation study of reconnection options for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus subpopulations in adjacent river segments above and below CJ Strike Dam on the Snake River, Idaho, USA. In contrast to the downstream river segment, the upstream river segment is long and has areas that are suitable for spawning during normal and wet hydrologic conditions. We evaluated demographic and genetic consequences of upstream and downstream passage using different model assumptions about trashrack spacing and density dependent effects on the spawning interval. Our genetic results predict that, although reconnection would introduce new alleles to the upstream subpopulation, it would also preserve alleles from the downstream subpopulation by propagating them in the larger subpopulation above the dam. Our demographic results predict that halving the space between trashracks would have large and unequivocal benefits, whereas the effects of reconnection would be smaller and more sensitive to model assumptions. Simulated upstream passage tended to benefit both subpopulations only in the absence of density dependent limitation. In the presence of density dependence, the combination of halved trashrack spacing and upstream and downstream passage produced the best results. Narrower trashracks kept spawning adults in the upstream segment with spawning habitat, while allowing their progeny to migrate downstream. Screening appears to be the best option for such a species in this configuration of a long river segment acting as a demographic source above a short one acting as a demographic sink.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Chandler, James A. [Idaho Power Company; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting

2007-01-01

183

Radio-Tracking Studies of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead to Determine the Effect of ''Zero'' River Flow During Water Storage at Little Goose Dam on the Lower Snake River. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Allowable instantaneous minimum river flows are established in the Columbia and Snake Rivers to ensure safe passage of anadromous fish during their migration to the spawning grounds. However, water storage during periods of low power demands (at night and...

K. Liscom L. Stuehrenberg F. Ossiander

1985-01-01

184

Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are consistent with crystal fractionation processes and do not necessarily require bulk interaction with crustal rocks. Enrichment in d80 but not in 87Sr/86Sr in one suite of evolved lavas suggests that crustal contamination may not be essential to the petrogenesis of those lavas. Other suites of evolved lavas display large variations in 87Sr/86Sr that reflect at least some selective contamination with 87St. Bulk solid/liquid oxygen-isotope fractionation factors (a's) calculated for the evolved lavas from Craters of the Moon National Monument are comparatively large. These a's are dependent upon the nature and proportions of phases removed by crystal fractionation; basaltic lava a's differ from latitic lava a?s in accordance with different phenocryst assemblages in these rocks. Snake River Plain rhyolites are isotopically distinct from both the analyzed crustal xenoliths and olivine tholeiites. Their origin remains poorly understood, but crustal or sub-crustal sources may be viable. In the first case, they must be derived by anatexis of material distinct from the analyzed crustal xenoliths. In the second case, they must be derived from material unlike the source for tholeiites. No cogenetic relation with the tholeiites seems likely on the basis of available data. that might relate to the variation in the chemical petrology of the pluton.

Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.

1983-01-01

185

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001?2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth?s water...

186

CONVERSION OF THE IDWR\\/UI GROUND WATER FLOW MODEL TO MODFLOW: THE SNAKE RIVER PLAIN AQUIFER  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The ground-water flow model of the Snake River Plain aquifer developed and used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and University of Idaho has been modified and calibrated several times since its creation in the 1970s. This report documents another step in the evolution of this model. The most recent changes to the model include the conversion

Gary S. Johnson; Donna M. Cosgrove; Sherry Laney; John Lindgren

187

WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS IN THE MILNER REACH, SNAKE RIVER, SOUTH-CENTRAL IDAHO, OCTOBER 18-21 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

During late October 1977, water discharge form Minidoka Dam into the Milner reach of the Snake River was less than 22 cubic meters per second, compared to normal flows for that time of year of about 42 cubic meters per second or more. To determine if impared water-wquality condi...

188

Influences of Habitat and Hybridization on the Genetic Structure of Redband Trout in the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii in the upper Snake River basin was investigated at various scales using 13 microsatellite loci. The majority of the genetic variation was partitioned between streams, although differentiation among watersheds was significant. This diversity was probably historically partitioned at the watershed scale when steelhead O. mykiss (anadromous rainbow trout) were present, with

Christine C. Kozfkay; Matthew R. Campbell; Kevin A. Meyer; Daniel J. Schill

2011-01-01

189

Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

1998-06-01

190

Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts, 2000: report of research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the 2000 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Or...

S. Achord

2001-01-01

191

COLONIZATION OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES ON ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATES IN THE SNAKE AND BEAR RIVER DRAINAGES, 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted as part of a continuing monitoring program by the EPA on the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of waterways of the United States. The principal objective was to assess benthic invertebrate communities in the Snake and Bear River systems (1704...

192

THE EFFECTS OF WATER RIGHTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY ON STREAMFLOW AUGMENTATION COST IN THE SNAKE RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of salmon in the Snake River Basin have been listed as endangered. Recovery efforts for these fish include attempts to obtain increased quantities of water during smolt migration periods to improve habitat in the lower basin. Agriculture is the dominant user of surface flows in this region. This study investigates farmer cost of a contingent water contract requiring

David B. Willis; Jose Vaz Caldas; W. Marshall Frasier; Norman K. Whittlesey; Joel R. Hamilton

1998-01-01

193

Discovery of a Balkan fresh-water fauna in the Idaho formation of Snake River Valley, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1866 Gabb described Melania taylori and Lithasia antiqua "from a fresh-water deposit on Snake River, Idaho Territory, on the road from Fort Boise to the Owyhee mining country. Collected by A. Taylor." He states that a small bivalve, perhaps a Sphaerium, was associated with them.

Dall, W. H.

1925-01-01

194

Inventory and Monitoring of Bald Eagles and Other Raptorial Birds of the Snake River, Idaho, April 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The South Fork Raptor Project, a five-year effort, was initiated in 1994 with two primary objectives: (1) to monitor bald eagle productivity in southeast Idaho, and (2) to develop a monitoring program for all raptors in the Snake River study area. In 1994...

M. B. Whitfield P. Munholland M. E. Maj

1995-01-01

195

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, 1980-92.  

EPA Science Inventory

Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions. The upper Snake River Basin (1704) is located in southeastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming and includes small parts of...

196

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2002-03-01

197

Proteomic profiling of liver from Elaphe taeniura, a common snake in eastern and southeastern Asia  

PubMed Central

Snake liver has been implicated in the adaptation of snakes to a variety of habitats. However, to date, there has been no systematic analysis of snake liver proteins. In this study, we undertook a proteomic analysis of liver from the colubrid snake Elaphe taeniura using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flightmass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We also constructed a local protein sequence database based on transcriptome sequencing to facilitate protein identification. Of the 268 protein spots revealed by 2-DE 109 gave positive MS signals, 84 of which were identified by searching the NCBInr, Swiss-Prot and local databases. The other 25 protein spots could not be identified, possibly because their transcripts were not be stable enough to be detected by transcriptome sequencing. GO analysis showed that most proteins may be involved in binding, catalysis, cellular processes and metabolic processes. Forty-two of the liver proteins identified were found in other reptiles and in amphibians. The findings of this study provide a good reference map of snake liver proteins that will be useful in molecular investigations of snake physiology and adaptation.

Chen, Liang; Xia, Hengchuan; Wang, Yiting; Chen, Keping; Qin, Lvgao; Wang, Bin; Yao, Qin; Li, Jun; He, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ermi

2013-01-01

198

Proteomic profiling of liver from Elaphe taeniura, a common snake in eastern and southeastern Asia.  

PubMed

Snake liver has been implicated in the adaptation of snakes to a variety of habitats. However, to date, there has been no systematic analysis of snake liver proteins. In this study, we undertook a proteomic analysis of liver from the colubrid snake Elaphe taeniura using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flightmass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We also constructed a local protein sequence database based on transcriptome sequencing to facilitate protein identification. Of the 268 protein spots revealed by 2-DE 109 gave positive MS signals, 84 of which were identified by searching the NCBInr, Swiss-Prot and local databases. The other 25 protein spots could not be identified, possibly because their transcripts were not be stable enough to be detected by transcriptome sequencing. GO analysis showed that most proteins may be involved in binding, catalysis, cellular processes and metabolic processes. Forty-two of the liver proteins identified were found in other reptiles and in amphibians. The findings of this study provide a good reference map of snake liver proteins that will be useful in molecular investigations of snake physiology and adaptation. PMID:24130453

Chen, Liang; Xia, Hengchuan; Wang, Yiting; Chen, Keping; Qin, Lvgao; Wang, Bin; Yao, Qin; Li, Jun; He, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ermi

2013-08-30

199

Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong River (Eastern Thailand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bangpakong River is the most important watershed in the Eastern part of Thailand. Water quality parameters were sampled from June 1998 through May 1999 at 11 sites along a 227km gradient, covering the wet season (June–November) and the dry season (December–May). Surface water was collected at three different stations per site (close to the banks and in the middle

A. A Bordalo; W Nilsumranchit; K Chalermwat

2001-01-01

200

4. HEADGATE AND FLUME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SNAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. HEADGATE AND FLUME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SNAKE RIVER DITCH PASSING THROUGH BEAVER POND AREA, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

201

Simultaneously Extracted Metals/Acid-Volatile Sulfide and Total Metals in Surface Sediment from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia RIver and the Lower Snake River  

SciTech Connect

Metals have been identified as contaminants of concern for the Hanford Reach because of upriver mining, industrial activities, and past nuclear material production at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This study was undertaken to better understand the occurrence and fate of metals in sediment disposition areas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

Patton, Gregory W.; Crecelius, Eric A.

2001-01-24

202

Agribusiness geothermal energy utilization potential of Klamath and Western Snake River Basins, Oregon. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Resource assessment and methods of direct utilization for existing and prospective food processing plants have been determined in two geothermal resource areas in Oregon. Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. and Amalgamated Sugar Company in the Snake River Basin; Western Polymer Corporation (potato starch extraction) and three prospective industries--vegetable dehydration, alfalfa drying and greenhouses--in the Klamath Basin have been analyzed for direct utilization of geothermal fluids. Existing geologic knowledge has been integrated to indicate locations, depth, quality, and estimated productivity of the geothermal reservoirs. Energy-economic needs and balances, along with cost and energy savings associated with field development, delivery systems, in-plant applications and fluid disposal have been calculated for interested industrial representatives.

Lienau, P.J.

1978-03-01

203

Groundwater ''fast paths'' in the Snake River plain aquifer: Radiogenic isotope ratios as natural groundwater tracers  

SciTech Connect

Preferential flow paths are expected in many groundwater systems and must be located because they can greatly affect contaminant transport. The fundamental characteristics of radiogenic isotope ratios in chemically evolving waters make them highly effective as preferential flow path indicators. These ratios tend to be more easily interpreted than solute-concentration data because their response to water-rock interaction is less complex. We demonstrate this approach with groundwater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in the Snake River Plain aquifer within and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These data reveal slow-flow zones as lower {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr areas created by prolonged interaction with the host basalts and a relatively fast flowing zone as a high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr area.

Johnson, Thomas M.; Roback, Robert C.; McLing, Travis L.; Bullen, Thomas D.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Doughty, Christine; Hunt, Randall J.; Smith, Robert W.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Murrell, Michael T.

2000-09-01

204

Statistical evaluation of travel time estimation based on data from freeze-branded chinook salmon on the Snake River, 1982--1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation is to assess the strengths and limitations of existing freeze brand recapture data in describing the migratory dynamics of juvenile salmonids in the mainstream, impounded sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers. With th...

S. G. Smith J. R. Skalski A. Giorgi

1993-01-01

205

Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin, 1990-1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River Basin.

Waples, Robin S.; Teel, David J.; Aebersold, Paul B.

1991-08-01

206

Update of Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer and Perched-Water Zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 2002-05.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds, evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer and perched-water zones underlying ...

L. C. Davis

2008-01-01

207

Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin, 1990-1991 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River Basin.

Robin S. Waples; David J. Teel; Paul B. Aebersold

1991-01-01

208

Survival Estimates for Migrant Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Lower Snake and Lower Columbia Rivers, 1993–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise, up-to-date survival estimates for salmonids that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric dams, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia rivers are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. To provide this information, survival was estimated for yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags that migrated through Snake River dams

William D. Muir; Steven G. Smith; John G. Williams; Eric E. Hockersmith; John R. Skalski

2001-01-01

209

Preliminary Multi-Isotopic Data and Potential Regional Connections for Late Cenozoic Basalts of the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research regarding the origin and evolution of Snake River Plain (SRP) basalts west of the 116° meridian has utilized field mapping, petrographic and geochemical data, and some Sr-isotopic analyses. These studies showed that in the past 2 m.y. at least three suites of chemically and isotopically distinct basalts were produced. The oldest (1.0 Ma to 1.6 Ma) are iron-rich tholeiitic basalts (N-tholeiities); the intermediate suite (0.90 Ma) is tholeiitic with an usually high phosphorus content (P-tholeiites); and the youngest basalts (< 0.50 Ma) are mildly alkaline (A-lavas). The current study presents Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic data for basalts collected from each of these suites. Temporal trends in isotopic systematics of western SRP basalts, from N-tholeiites (87Sr/86Sr > 0.707, epsilon Nd < -4, 206Pb/204Pb < 18.5) to younger P-tholeiites and A-lavas (87Sr/86Sr < 0.706, epsilon Nd from -2 to 0, 206Pb/204Pb > 18.5), are comparable to Late Cenozoic basalts of nearby provinces. These trends are nearly identical to those exhibited by the Boise River Group (BRG) northeast of the study area. In eastern Oregon, the Jordan Valley Volcanic Field (JVVF) also displays similar trends; however the JVVF data are slightly offset to less radiogenic Sr and more radiogenic Nd. This may be controlled by differences in the character of the underlying lithospheric mantle across the western boundary of the North American craton. Further comparisons show the N-tholeiites are isotopically similar to the Saddle Mountain basalts of the Columbia River Group (CRG), which are attributed a subcontinental lithospheric mantle source. In contrast, the P- tholeiites and A-lavas trend toward the isotopically depleted Imnaha basalts of the CRG. These, and the younger alkaline rocks of the BRG and JVVF, are interpreted to be derived from a deeper asthenospheric source. We interpret our data as recording a similar lithospheric to asthenospheric source transition for basalt magma genesis in the western SRP. The similarities in evolution of basaltic volcanism across this area imply that similar processes generate and modify magmas on a regional scale.

Rivera, T. A.; White, C. M.; Schmitz, M. D.

2007-12-01

210

Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas  

SciTech Connect

In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.

2007-02-01

211

Spatial and temporal patterns in channel change on the Snake River downstream from Jackson Lake dam, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operations of Jackson Lake dam (JLD) have altered the hydrology and sediment transport capacity of the Snake River in Grand Teton National Park. Prior research has provided conflicting assessments of whether the downstream river was perturbed into sediment surplus or sediment deficit. In this paper, we present the results of an aerial photo analysis designed to evaluate whether the history of channel change indicates either significant deficit or surplus of sediment that could be expressed as narrowing or expansion of the channel over time. We analyze changes in braid index, channel width, channel activity, and net channel change of the Snake River based on four series of aerial photographs. Between 1945 and 1969, a period of relatively small main-stem floods, widespread deposition, and up to 31% reduction in channel width occurred throughout the Snake River. Between 1969 and 2002, a period of large main-stem floods, the style of channel change reversed with a decrease in braid index and an increase in channel width of up to 31%. These substantial changes in the channel downstream from the dam primarily occurred in multithread reaches, regardless of proximity to tributaries, and no temporal progression of channel narrowing or widening was observed. We demonstrate that channel change downstream from JLD is more temporally and longitudinally complex than previously described.

Nelson, Nicholas C.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Schmidt, John C.

2013-10-01

212

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the eight year of a study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A total of 20,313 hatchery steelhead were tagged with passive integrated transpoder (PIT) tags and released at Lower Granite Dam for reach survival estimation. They did not PIT tag any yearlying chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) for reach survival estimates in 2000 because sufficient numbers for these estimates were available from other studies. Primary research objectives in 2000 were (1) to estimate reach and project survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, and (2) to evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. In addition, they estimated survival from point of release to Lower Granite Dam and below for chinook salmon, steelhead, and sockeye salmon (O.nerka) PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin smolt traps. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2000 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures. Further details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text.

Zabel, Richard; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2001-02-01

213

Channel Morphology of the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River, Idaho/Oregon Boarder, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River extends 103 river miles below Hells Canyon Dam along the Idaho/Oregon boarder. The channel morphology of this reach was evaluated through a variety of data, including bathymetric and LIDAR surveys, aerial photography and low-elevation videography, sediment sampling, and one-dimensional hydraulic modeling using MIKE 11 [DHI, 2001]. Through the canyon, the Snake River is narrowly confined by valley walls and directly coupled to hillslope processes and sediment inputs. Due to the strong valley-wall confinement, the river lacks the floodplain morphology and alluvial character typical of other lowland rivers of comparable gradient (< 0.003) and drainage area (270,000 km2). Much of the river morphology is forced by large-scale geologic and geomorphic controls that significantly reduce the range of fluvial processes and types of channel adjustment found in other lowland alluvial rivers. Nevertheless, the study reach shares some morphologic similarity with rivers of comparable gradient. In particular, the channel has an alluvial bed with a pool-riffle morphology and an average pool spacing of 6 channel widths, typical of self-formed pool-riffle channels. However, 91% of the 175 pools inventoried are either forced by tributary debris fans or bedrock projections, illustrating the influence of external forcing on the observed channel morphology. Moreover, many of the bars are composed of cobble- and boulder-sized material that may be relict deposits from paleofloods: 73% of the 105 sediment samples obtained from bar surfaces are predicted to be immobile (Shields stress < 0.03) during the 1.5-year discharge (a surrogate for bankfull flow), and many of the bar sediments have worn grooves into underlying particles from years of in situ chattering during high flow events. Despite large-scale external controls on channel morphology, downstream hydraulic geometry relationships in the Hells Canyon reach are similar to those reported for floodplain channels of comparable drainage area. Recent investigations by Montgomery and Gran [2001] indicate that typical hydraulic geometry relationships reported for alluvial channels may also apply to bedrock reaches (confined channels with few degrees of freedom, similar to the study reach). Moreover, a state diagram modified from Parker [1990] reveals that data from the Hells Canyon reach plot alongside data from floodplain pool-riffle channels in North America and Britain, but are distinct from other reach-scale channel types (step-pool, cascade, plane-bed) plotted in the same framework. These results support arguments made by Buffington et al. [2002] that different reach-scale channel morphologies arise from mutual adjustment of channel characteristics (width, grain size, bed slope, etc.) to imposed watershed conditions (discharge, sediment supply, valley slope, etc.). Consequently, one would expect that data from a given channel type (e.g., pool-riffle channels) should plot near one another in a regime diagram that relates imposed watershed conditions to channel characteristics, even when some channel characteristics (such as pool frequency or grain size) are forced by external controls or legacy events.

Buffington, J. M.; Milligan, J. H.; Anderson, K.; Doran, S. E.; Glanzman, R. K.; Miller, S. D.; Parkinson, S.

2002-12-01

214

Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

2003-06-01

215

Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2007 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2007; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches counted upstream of Lower Granite Dam into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2007 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Arnsberg, B.D. [Nez Perce Tribe; Groves, P.A. [Idaho Power Company

2008-11-25

216

Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2005; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2005 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

2006-10-01

217

Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2003; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2003 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 199801003, 199801004, 199403400, 198335003), Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, B.D.

2004-08-01

218

Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2001; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2002 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 1998-01-003 and 1994-03-400) and the Idaho Power Company.

Garcia, Aaron P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

2003-09-01

219

An integrated surface water-groundwater modeling in the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Snake River Basin area has a strong interaction between the river and the aquifer beneath that augments the water supply for irrigation, hydropower and minimal flows among others. It is important to quantify the flows under current and future climate conditions by integrating the surface and groundwater systems in order to partition the water balance components reasonably well. Both precipitation and irrigation return flows recharge the groundwater via infiltration and percolation when the unsaturated soil zone becomes saturated and the groundwater supplements the baseflow. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is a widely used macroscale hydrological model that assesses the hydrological impacts in the continental United States. MODFLOW is a popular groundwater model to calculate the groundwater flow. It also incorporates an algorithm to solve the unsaturated zone (UZF). In this study, a dynamic coupling will be developed between VIC and MODFLOW to predict the surface runoff and groundwater recharge in the basin. The available long-term historical streamflow and groundwater elevation data will be used to calibrate and validate the model.

Jin, X.; Sridhar, V. R.

2010-12-01

220

Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an ''H'' antenna at 200 and 700 feet above water surface from a helicopter. Audible detection and frequency separation were possible at both elevations. Two years of high tag loss, particularly after spawning, has prevented us from documenting fall and winter movements with an adequate sample of radio tagged bull trout. The high transmitter loss after spawning may be a reflection of high natural mortality for large, older age fish that we have been radio tagging to accommodate the longer life transmitters. Therefore, we are planning to reduce the size of the radio tags that we implant, and delay most of our collection and tagging of bull trout until after spawning. These changes are a new approach to try to maximize the number of radio tagged bull trout available post spawning to adequately document fall and winter movements and any use of the Snake River by bull trout from the Tucannon River.

Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

2004-04-01

221

A genetic evaluation of relatedness for broodstock management of captive, endangered Snake River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of captive broodstocks is becoming more frequently employed as the number of species facing endangerment or extinction\\u000a throughout the world increases. Efforts to rebuild the endangered Snake River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, population have been ongoing for over a decade, but the use of microsatellite data to develop inbreeding avoidance matrices\\u000a is a more recent component to the

Christine C. Kozfkay; Matthew R. Campbell; Jeff A. Heindel; Danny J. Baker; Paul Kline; Madison S. Powell; Thomas Flagg

2008-01-01

222

Identification of Juvenile Fall versus Spring Chinook Salmon Migrating through the Lower Snake River Based on Body Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the use of body morphology to distinguish among subyearling fall-run, subyearling spring-run, and yearling spring-run smolts of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at two lower Snake River dams during the summer emigration. Based on principal-components analysis, subyearling fall-run chinook salmon had smaller heads and eyes, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling spring-run chinook

Kenneth F. Tiffan; Dennis W. Rondorf; Rodney D. Garland; Peter A. Verhey

2000-01-01

223

Adult Returns of Subyearling and Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from a Snake River Hatchery or Transported Downstream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the release-to-adult returns of coded-wire-tagged groups of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design: subyearlings and yearlings released directly from a hatchery versus those barged below two main-stem hydroelectric dams on the Snake River, Washington. Releases comprised six brood years over a 6-year period. In every release year, chinook salmon released as

Robert M. Bugert; Glen W. Mendel

1997-01-01

224

Community-based social impact assessment: the case of salmon-recovery on the lower Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a process for gathering and using data for socio-economic indicators in a community-based impact assessment conducted in 1999 across a three-state area. It assessed community-level impacts of alternative Federal actions to recover salmon runs, ranging from maintaining the existing hydro system to breaching four dams on the lower Snake River. Residents from 27 diverse communities participated in

Charles C. Harris; Erik A. Nielsen; William J. McLaughlin; Dennis R. Becker

2003-01-01

225

Element Levels in Snakes in South Carolina: Differences Between a Control Site and Exposed Site on the Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of 18 elements, including lead, mercury, selenium, and uranium, were examined in three species of snakes from an exposed\\u000a and reference site on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We tested the hypotheses that there\\u000a were no differences as a function of species, and there were no difference between the exposed and control site for

J. Burger; S. Murray; K. F. Gaines; J. M. Novak; T. Punshon; C. Dixon; M. Gochfeld

2006-01-01

226

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

Smith, Steven G.

1998-02-01

227

White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2005-08-01

228

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2006-03-01

229

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers. The immediate project goal is to maintain this unique sockeye salmon population through captive broodstock technology and avoid species extinction. The project objectives are: (1) Develop captive broodstocks from Redfish Lake anadromous sockeye salmon. (2) Determine the contribution hatchery-produced sockeye salmon make toward avoiding population extinction and increasing population abundance. (3) Describe O. nerka population characteristics for Sawtooth Valley lakes in relation to carrying capacity and broodstock program supplementation efforts. (4) Refine our ability to discern the origin of wild and broodstock sockeye salmon to provide maximum effectiveness in their utilization within the broodstock program. (5) Transfer technology through participation in the technical oversight committee process, providing written activity reports and participation in essential program management and planning activities.

Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

2004-06-01

230

Neogene Palynology of the Snake River Plain: Climate Change and Volcanic Effects.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary palynological analyses of lake sediment and inter-flow samples reveal environmental and vegetation changes in response to climatic and volcanic events over the late Neogene. On the evolutionary timescale, sagebrush steppe has expanded and coniferous and deciduous forests have declined. In part this trend has followed the cooling and drying of the late Neogene, but volcanic impact may also be recorded in the effects of long-term subsidence and in periodic deposition of volcanic tephra. The most detailed palynological record yet published for the region (Thompson, 1992) records increasing pine and juniper percentages and decreasing sagebrush and Sarcobatus percentages spanning the Pliocene Glenns Ferry Formation and Pleistocene Bruneau Formation. Palynology of a well in Lake Idaho sediments (Canyon County, Davis, this abstract) shows the same decline of sagebrush and Sarcobatus, but records decreasing juniper percentages during the Pliocene. These Lake Idaho records are spanned by the palynology of the Great Salt Lake (Davis, 2002), which records a modern pollen flora from the late Miocene onward. Salt sage and sagebrush steppe developed progressively from the late Miocene through the Holocene, with peaks in sagebrush pollen percentages during the Mio- Pliocene transition and the late Pleistocene. The Great Salt Lake and Glenns Ferry records both include low percentages of the pollen of deciduous forest taxa such as oak and elm throughout the Pliocene and sporadically into the Pleistocene. Recent studies of soils associated with volcanic tephra reveal a Pliocene upland with abundant grass and high percentages of the pollen and spores of aquatic vegetation: a landscape with drainages choked by ash falls. Palynology above the Fossil Gulch Ash (Hagerman Valley) contains abundant charcoal and high percentages of the pollen of mountain conifers, suggesting devastation of the local vegetation and erosion into Lake Idaho from the surrounding mountains. Palynology of late Miocene - early Pliocene samples on the Snake River Plain (Banbury Basalt) is characterized by elevated percentages of Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthus pollen, abundant Sarcobatus pollen and low percentages of the pollen of oak, elm, and other deciduous forest taxa. High percentages of these types, found in the mid-Miocene Succor Creek deposits (Taggart and Cross, 1980) might result from a combination of factors, including late-Miocene subsidence of the western Snake River Plain and late-Miocene uplift of the Cascade Range.

Davis, O. K.; Ellis, B.; Link, P.; Wood, S.; Shervais, J. W.

2006-12-01

231

Chemical weathering in the Three Rivers region of Eastern Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three large rivers - the Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Mekong (Lancang Jiang) and Salween (Nu Jiang) - originate in eastern Tibet and run in close parallel over 300 km near the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Seventy-four river water samples were collected mostly during the summer season from 1999 to 2004. Their major element compositions vary widely, with total dissolved solids (TDS) ranging from 31 to 3037 mg/l, reflecting the complex geologic makeup of the vast drainage basins. The major ion distribution of the main channel samples primarily reflects the weathering of carbonates. Evaporite dissolution prevails in the headwater samples of the Chang Jiang in the Tibetan Plateau interior, as evidenced by the high TDS (928 and 3037 mg/l) and the Na-Cl dominant major element composition. Local tributary samples of the Mekong and Salween, draining the Lincang Batholith and the Tengchong Volcano, show distinctive silicate weathering signatures. We used five reservoirs - rain, halite, sulfate, carbonate, and silicate - in a forward model to calculate the contribution from silicate weathering to the total dissolved load and to estimate the consumption rate of atmospheric CO 2 by silicate weathering. Carbonate weathering accounts for about 50% of the total cationic charge (TZ +) in the samples of the Mekong and the Salween exiting the Tibetan Plateau. In the "exit" sample of the Chang Jiang, 45% of TZ + is from halite dissolution inherited from the extreme headwater tributaries in the interior of the plateau, and carbonates contribute only 26% to the TZ +. The net rate of CO 2 consumption by silicate weathering is (103-121) × 10 3 mol km -2 year -1, lower than the rivers draining the Himalayan front. GIS-based analyses indicate that runoff and relief can explain 52% of the spread in the rate of atmospheric CO 2 drawdown by silicate weathering, but other climatic (temperature, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration) and geomorphic (elevation, slope) factors also show collinearity. Only qualitative conclusions can be drawn for the significance of lithology due to lack of digitized lithologic information. The effect of the peculiar drainage pattern due to tectonic forcing is not readily apparent in the major element composition or in increased chemical weathering rates. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios and the silicate weathering rates are in general lower in the Three Rivers than in the rivers draining the Himalayan front.

Noh, Hyonjeong; Huh, Youngsook; Qin, Jianhua; Ellis, Andre

2009-04-01

232

Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat, and exacerbating adverse water quality conditions. A reduction in carry over can lead to seasonal reductions in instream flows, which may also negatively affect fish, wildlife, and recreation in Idaho. The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project does provide opportunities to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat by improving water quality and instream flows. Control of point sources, such as sewage and industrial discharges, alone will not achieve water quality goals in Idaho reservoirs and streams. Slow, continuous releases of rented water can increase and stabilize instream flows, increase available fish and wildlife habitat, decrease fish displacement, and improve water quality. Island integrity, requisite for waterfowl protection from mainland predators, can be maintained with improved timing of water releases. Rebuilding Snake River salmon and steelhead runs requires a cooperative commitment and increased flexibility in system operations to increase flow velocities for fish passage and migration. Idaho's resident fish and wildlife resources require judicious management and a willingness by all parties to liberate water supplies equitably.

Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

1992-10-01

233

Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

Johnson, Keith A.

1996-09-01

234

Deep MT Sounding Across the Yellowstone-Snake River Hotspot Track  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho marks the path of an active hotspot with a terminus under Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. The trace of the hotspot is marked by a series of volcanic caldera ranging in age from 16 million years in southeastern Oregon and northern Nevada to several thousand years to the northeast. The motion of the North American plate over this feature has resulted in an apparent northeastward progression of the focus of the volcanism. In previous studies, a narrow, deep, low velocity zone below the SRP has been imaged using teleseismic P-wave residuals. This past summer, we collected magnetotelluric (MT) data along a transect across the SRP to map the conductivity structure of this region. The objective is to detect features associated with the Yellowstone hotspot, and ultimately, to place limits on the temperature and melt fraction of these features. To this end, we collected long period electrical and magnetic data at 19 sites using the NIMS equipment from the EMSOC instrument pool, and broadband field data at 2 sites using SIO's MT equipment. The sites were located along a northwest-southeast line stretching from near Challis to the southeast corner of Idaho, at an average spacing of 20 km. The results of our first summer of fieldwork are presented here.

Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Steven, C. C.; Booker, J. R.; Terzi, L.; Weitemeyer, K.

2003-12-01

235

Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves  

SciTech Connect

Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and P. townsendii hibernate throughout much of the area, occasionally in mixed-species groups. Myotis leibii uses the dark and protected regions of the cave, usually wedged into tiny pockets and crevices near or at the highest portion of the ceiling. Individuals of P. townsendii may be found at any height or depth in the cave. Temperature appears to be primary limiting factor in habitat selection. Myotis leibii was found in significantly cooler air temperatures than P. townsendii. Neither species tolerated continuous temperatures below 1.5 C. Relative humidity does not seem to be a significant factor in the distribution or habitat selection of the two species in lava-tube caves. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Genter, D.L.

1986-04-30

236

Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake River Chinook salmon: a biological-economic synthesis.  

PubMed

The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can provide valuable tools for science-based policy and management. PMID:18402583

Halsing, David L; Moore, Michael R

2008-04-01

237

Effects of Marine Mammals on Columbia River Salmon Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 3 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

Most research on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in recent years has been directed to downstream migrant salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) losses at dams. Comparatively little attentions has been given to adult losses. Recently an estimated 378,4000 adult salmon and steelhead (O. mykiss) were unaccounted-for from Bonneville Dam to terminal areas upstream. It is now apparent that some of this loss was due to delayed mortality from wounded by marine mammals. This report reviews the recent literature to define predatory effects of marine mammals on Columbia River salmon.

Park, Donn L.

1993-06-01

238

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas  

SciTech Connect

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only two sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude changes in discharge, these flux reversals had minimal effect on emergence timing estimates. Indeed, the emergence timing estimates at all sites was largely unaffected by the changes in river stage resulting from hydropower operations at Hells Canyon Dam. Our results indicate that the range of emergence timing estimates due to differences among the eggs from different females can be as large as or larger than the emergence timing estimates due to site differences (i.e., bed temperatures within and among sites). We conclude that during the 2002-2003 fall chinook salmon incubation period, hydropower operations of Hells Canyon Dam had an insignificant effect on fry emergence timing at the study sites. It appears that short-term (i.e., hourly to daily) manipulations of discharge from the Hells Canyon Complex during the incubation period would not substantially alter egg pocket incubation temperatures, and thus would not affect fry emergence timing at the study sites. However, the use of hydropower operational manipulations at the Hells Canyon Complex to accelerate egg incubation and fry emergence should not be ruled out on the basis of only one water year's worth of study. Further investigation of the incubation environment of Snake River fall chinook salmon is warranted based on the complexity of hyporheic zone characteristics and the variability of surface/subsurface interactions among dry, normal, and wet water years.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

2004-09-24

239

Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong River (eastern Thailand).  

PubMed

The Bangpakong River is the most important watershed in the Eastern part of Thailand. Water quality parameters were sampled from June 1998 through May 1999 at 11 sites along a 227 km gradient, covering the wet season (June-November) and the dry season (December-May). Surface water was collected at three different stations per site (close to the banks and in the middle of the river), and analyzed for temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, suspended solids, pH. ammonia, fecal coliforms, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand as well as conductivity, phosphate, and heavy metals. The Scottish water quality index (WQI) was adaptated to the tropical environment. The averaged WQI was low (41%) and quality declined significantly during the dry season (ANOVA, p<0.001). Although the quality rose somewhat at middle sites, only 27% of the WQI values during wet season and 2.5% during dry season were higher than 50%, denoting poor environmental quality. Within each season, the main sources of variability were the differences between sites along the gradient (48% during the wet season, 63% during the dry season), whereas monthly variability represented less than 20% of the variability. The seasonal results show that the river is suitable only for tolerant fish and wildlife species and is of doubtful use for potable water supply during the dry season. As quality improves during the wet period, water can be used for the production of potable water, but only with advanced treatment, and for indirect and noncontact recreational activities. In the middle stretches of the river, higher water quality permits multiple uses at moderate cost. PMID:11561624

Bordalo, A A; Nilsumranchit, W; Chalermwat, K

2001-10-01

240

Víz alatti volt-e a mio-pliocén vulkánosság a Snake-síksági vulkánvidéken (Idaho, USA)? — Terepi megfigyelések, mint az ?skörnyezeti rekonstrukció eszközei How subaqueous was the volcanism in the Mio\\/Pliocene Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) volcanic field? — Volcanological field observations as tools to reconstruct palaeoenvironments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western Snake River Plain volcanic field in South-west Idaho is considered to be an extensive Mio-Pliocene volcanic field that formed voluminous lava shields, pahoehoe lava fields, scoria cones, and great variety of phreatomagmatic volcanoes. In many ways the Snake River Plain volcanic field is considered as a special type of volcanic fields, where broad, large volume shield volcanoes form

NÉMETH KÁROLY; CRAIG WHITE

241

Crustal Structure and Tectono-Magmatic Processes of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain System From Gravity-Density Measurements and Strength Models Employing Seismic Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and composition of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) system were analyzed from integrated modeling of gravity data from 33,209 stations in the YSRP and surrounding region. Recently derived tomographic velocity models, heat flow and temperature information, GPS-determined strain rates, and earthquake locations were used to constrain 3D density models. The density data were also constrained by velocity-density analyses based on petrologic information. These results were augmented by 1D strength profiles from representative tectonic and volcanic areas that were compared with earthquake focal depths. Results of this study suggest that the SRP lower crust has been thickened by the addition of an underplated layer 3 km thick composed primarily of clinopyroxene, with a density of 3.20 g/cm3. A mid crustal high-velocity sill occurs throughout the SRP, and is interpreted to be composed of a series of gabbroic lenses inter-fingering with the granitic upper crust. This geometry yields a bulk composition comparable to diorite and a density of 2.90 g/cm3. The sill varies laterally along the SRP from 4 to 11 km in thickness, resulting in the series of SW-NE trending gravity anomalies observed in the SRP. In Yellowstone, the density model is characterized by an upper- crustal partial melt 10 km beneath the caldera, 7 km beneath the northeastern side of the Yellowstone caldera, and extending up to 20 km north of the caldera boundary. The partial melt has a density of 2.52 g/cm3 for the caldera body and a significantly lower value of 2.47 g/cm3 for the northeastern caldera anomaly. Southwest of Yellowstone, the mid crustal SRP sill transitions to the Yellowstone partial melt. The transitional body has a density of 2.82 g/cm3. Strength models reveal that temperature has the greatest effect on crustal rheology of the region. The YSRP crust becomes progressively cooler with increasing distance from Yellowstone, and the shear strength increases from ~30 MPa in the Yellowstone caldera to ~50 MPa in the eastern SRP. The average thermal gradient in the upper crust decreases from 55 C/km in the Yellowstone caldera to 35 C/km in the eastern SRP (temperature data courtesy of David Blackwell, Southern Methodist University). In Yellowstone, the brittle ductile transition (based on mapping the 80th percentile maximum focal depths) is at 4 km depth and transitions into the Snake River Plain where the brittle ductile transition is at 8 km, coincident with the transition from the active volcanic Yellowstone system to the cool and stable SRP crust.

Settles, K. R.; Smith, R. B.; Puskas, C.; Lowry, A.; Blackwell, D.

2007-12-01

242

Climate and other factors in the development of river and interfluve profiles in Bhutan, Eastern Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longitudinal profiles of the main N–S aligned rivers and the crests of the interfluve mountain ranges of Bhutan have been plotted against latitude. The river profiles are highly variable, even between branches of the same system. The main rivers in Eastern Bhutan are antecedent and rise in Tibet. They have irregular concave bed profiles in deep steeply sided valleys.

I. C. Baillie; Chencho Norbu

2004-01-01

243

Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for Statement of Work Report (SOW), which includes sub-categories Work Element (WE), and within the WE the Milestone Titles.

Banks, Duane D. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-11-14

244

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 31 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 138 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. A total of 34 white sturgeon eggs were recovered: 27 in the Snake River, and seven in the Salmon River.

Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fishereis Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2003-03-01

245

Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not reported here, but will be presented in future reports written after workshops and input by federal, state, and tribal researchers. In this report, we compared the postrelease performance of natural subyearlings to the postrelease performance of surrogate and production subyearlings. We made this comparison to help the fisheries community determine which of the two hatchery rearing strategies produced fish that were more similar to natural subyearlings. We compared the following attributes of postrelease performance (1) detection dates at dams, (2) detections during the implementation of summer spill, (3) travel times, (4) migrant sizes, and (5) the joint probability of migration and survival. Overall, we found that postrelease performance was more similar between natural and surrogate subyearlings than between natural and production subyearlings. Further, the similarity between natural and surrogate subyearlings was greater in 2006 than in 2005, partly as the result of changes in incubation and early rearing practices we recommended based on 2005 results.

Connor, William P.

2008-04-01

246

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Research Element : Project Progress Report, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2000, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: eyed-eggs were placed in Pettit Lake; age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish and Alturas lakes for volitional spawning in September. Anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to all three lakes. Total kokanee abundance in Redfish Lake was estimated at 10,268, which was the lowest abundance since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Alturas Lake was estimated at 125,462, which was one of the highest values recorded since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Pettit Lake was estimated at 40,599, which is the third highest value recorded since 1991. Upon the recommendation of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee, the National Marine Fisheries Service reopened the kokanee fishery on Redfish Lake in 1995 in an attempt to reduce kokanee numbers. Anglers fished an estimated 3,063 hours and harvested approximately 67 kokanee during the 2000 season. Angler effort and harvest were also monitored on Alturas Lake during 2000. Effort on Alturas Lake was 5,190 hours, and harvest of kokanee was 407 fish. Anglers harvested an estimated 11% of the catchable rainbow trout planted into Alturas Lake. The out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 12 to June 14, 2000. A total of 126 wild/natural and 2,378 hatchery-produced sockeye salmon smolts were captured, and total out-migration was estimated at 302 wild/natural and 6,926 hatchery-produced smolts. Estimates of smolt out-migration to Lower Granite Dam (LGR) were made by release strategy and were based on PIT-tag interrogations. An estimated 115 wild/natural smolts passed LGR from Redfish Lake. An estimated 6,987 hatchery-produced smolts released as presmolts into Sawtooth basin lakes passed LGR. None of the 148 age-1 smolts released to Redfish Lake Creek were detected at LGR. Two hundred fifty-seven anadromous sockeye returned to the Sawtooth basin in 2000. All were progeny of the captive broodstock program. The majority (200) of the adults that returned were released back to lakes in the basin for natural spawning along with hatchery produced adults. Redfish Lake received 164 adult sockeye salmon, and 20 to 29 areas of excavation were sighted. Alturas Lake received 77 adult sockeye salmon, and 14 to 19 areas of excavation were sighted. Pettit Lake received 28 adult sockeye salmon. No areas of excavation were noted in Pettit Lake, but spawning was suspected to have occurred in water too deep for observation. ndex reaches on principal tributary streams of Redfish and Alturas lakes were surveyed in August and September 2000 to track bull trout population response to no-harvest fishing regulations. Similar numbers of adult bull trout were observed in both systems, but twice as many redds were observed in Fishhook Creek. Redd counts in both streams have increased since monitoring began in 1998.

Hebdon, J. Lance (Jason Lance); Castillo, Jason; Kline, Paul A.

2002-08-01

247

Rheological constraints on the deformation of Snake River-type ignimbrites: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the rheology of two members of the Miocene Rogerson Formation (Andrews et al., 2008), Snake River Plain volcanic province, USA. We have studied by parallel-plate viscometry the rheology of two ashfall units associated with the eruption of the lava-like (sensu Branney & Kokelaar, 1992) and rheomorphic Grey’s Landing (GL) ignimbrite (a Snake River-type ignimbrite; Branney et al., 2008) and compared the results to the overlying Sand Springs (SS) ignimbrite. The GL and SS members are similar in whole rock and glass shard chemistry and mineralogy, but differ in crystal content and size fraction, porosity, and texture. Lava-like lithofacies of the GL ignimbrite are either crystallized, devitrified, or perlitized, and do not necessarily represent the original material that came out of the vent to be subsequently deposited, welded and deformed by flow (rheomorphism). We therefore chose to use the fused basal co-ignimbrite ashfall tuff and the upper co-ignimbrite tuff as potential “starting material” for the GL ignimbrite. The two ashfall tuffs and the ignimbrite form a single cooling unit; the tuffs are partly-fused against the bottom and top of the ignimbrite. The basal ash is laminated, moderately porous (~15%), and contains 10-20% crystals; in contrast the upper ash is massive, nearly aphyric, glassy and contains ~5% porosity. The non-rheomorphic SS ignimbrite is separated from the underlying GL ignimbrite by a non-welded ignimbrite and several paleosols. It is a strongly-welded, glassy tuff with a thin non-welded base and no underlying ashfall deposit. The basal ashfall tuff of the GL member and the SS ignimbrite have the same apparent viscosity at 900°C (log ? = 10.80 & 10.85 Pa.s, respectively), within the resolution of the parallel-plate apparatus for viscosity. This is in agreement with the results of Lavallée et al. (2008) on a sample of the GL ignimbrite, and suggests that the rheology of those two units is melt-dominated, and is not significantly affected by the presence of small amounts of crystals or porosity. In contrast, the upper ash fall of the GL member has a significantly lower apparent viscosity at 900°C (log ? = 10.31 Pa.s). The very low crystal content of the upper GL ashfall may partly explain its significantly different behaviour from the other two units studied. The rheology of welded deposits feeds back to texture (e.g., degree of welding) through their deposition and deformation history. Rheological differences cannot be invoked to explain the textural differences between the SS ignimbrite and the basal ash tuff of GL from our preliminary results. Additional viscosity data are needed in order to verify that the two units really do have the same rheology over a wide range of temperatures. Additional data may also allow us to better constrain conditions permitting rheomorphism in the Grey’s Landing ignimbrite. Andrews et al., 2008 Bull. Volc. 70, 269-291 Branney et al., 2008 Bull. Volc. 70, 293-314 Branney & Kokelaar, 1992 Bull. Volc. 54, 504-520 Lavallée et al., 2008 AGU F08 Abstract #V23G-2208

Robert, G.; Andrews, G. D.; Whittington, A. G.

2009-12-01

248

Hafnium Isotope Composition of Archean Zircons from Xenoliths of the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition, structure, spatial extent, and history of Archean crust buried beneath the Snake River Plain (SRP) are important for assessing the role of the lithosphere in regional igneous and tectonic activity. We report the U-Pb age and Hf isotope composition of Archean zircons from xenoliths entrained in Snake River Plain basalts. The xenoliths come from three localities on the SRP: Square Mountain (SM), Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) and the Spencer-Kilgore (SK) volcanic field. Cathodoluminescence imaging and previous age dating of the zircons show that many are complexly zoned and for this reason a majority of the Hf isotope data was determined via laser ablation MC-ICPMS. We used a New Wave UP-213 Nd-YAG laser interfaced with a Thermo-Finnigan Neptune MC-ICPMS and Element II HR-ICPMS for Hf isotope determinations U-Pb age dating, respectively. Previous U-Pb age dating has shown that the zircons vary from having simple age systematics (e.g., SM xenolith DM103 has a single zircon age population of ~ 2.58 Ga) to highly complex (e.g., COM xenoliths have zircons with ages populations from 2.7 to 3.2 Ga). All these zircons are Archean in age, although some have young low-U overgrowths jacketing their Archean cores which yield 206Pb/238U ages of ~19-25 Ma. There is no evidence in any of the xenoliths for zircon growth between late Archean and these young ages which attests to the stability of the lithosphere during this span of time. The Hf isotopic compositions of the Archean zircon grains are extremely unradiogenic consistent with their old age. For example, a SM xenolith (DM103) has present-day ?Hf values of -61 to -58 (initial ?Hf values at 2.56 Ga of -5 to -2), comparable with data determined by conventional solution-based methods. Another zircon from a COM xenolith (COM22) has an Archean core (2.7 Ga) and a large overgrowth with an age of ~20 Ma. Remarkably the present day ?Hf values of the core and overgrowth are identical within analytical uncertainties, -76 and -73, respectively. This indicates the young overgrowth consists entirely of recycled Archean crust with no detectable involvement of mantle derived Hf. The low ?Hf values imply little material exchange between Archean crust and SRP melts (typical ?Hf between -10 and +10). The ages (~20 Ma) and the lack of a mantle component of the zircon overgrowths seem to preclude that young zircon growth was produced during SRP magmatism. However, the recent transfer of heat into the Archean basement may provide important clues concerning the processes operative in the lithosphere prior to and perhaps during SRP magmatism.

Dufrane, S. A.; Vervoort, J. D.; Leeman, W. P.; Wolf, D. E.

2007-12-01

249

Survival of radio-implanted drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake) in relation to body size and sex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) has experienced population declines across its range primarily as a result of extensive habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation. Conservation efforts for D. couperi have been hindered, in part, because of informational gaps regarding the species, including a lack of data on population ecology and estimates of demographic parameters such as survival. We conducted a 2- year radiotelemetry study of D. couperi on Fort Stewart Military Reservation and adjacent private lands located in southeastern Georgia to assess individual characteristics associated with probability of survival. We used known-fate modeling to estimate survival, and an information-theoretic approach, based on a priori hypotheses, to examine intraspecific differences in survival probabilities relative to individual covariates (sex, size, size standardized by sex, and overwintering location). Annual survival in 2003 and 2004 was 0.89 (95% CI = 0.73-0.97, n = 25) and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.52-0.86; n = 27), respectively. Results indicated that body size, standardized by sex, was the most important covariate determining survival of adult D. couperi, suggesting lower survival for larger individuals within each sex. We are uncertain of the mechanisms underlying this result, but possibilities may include greater resource needs for larger individuals within each sex, necessitating larger or more frequent movements, or a population with older individuals. Our results may also have been influenced by analysis limitations because of sample size, other sources of individual variation, or environmental conditions. ?? 2009 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

Hyslop, N. L.; Meyers, J. M.; Cooper, R. J.; Norton, T. M.

2009-01-01

250

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 45,907 hours of setline effort and 186 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2001. A total of 390 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 12 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 36.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 42 cm to 307 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 66 cm to 235 cm and averaged 160 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. An additional 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 2001. The locations of 17 radio-tagged white sturgeon were monitored in 2001. The movement of these fish ranged from 38.6 km (24 miles) downstream to 54.7 km (34 miles) upstream; however, 62.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 309 aged white sturgeon. The results suggest fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. A total of 14 white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River in 2001.

Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2003-03-01

251

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for PIT-tagged hatchery and wild juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers during 1998. Estimates of post-detection bypass survival for yearling chinook salmon at McNary Dam are also reported. Results are reported primarily in the form of data tables and figures with minimal description of methods and analysis. Detailed information on the methodology and statistical models used for this report is provided in five previous annual reports on this study, which are cited here.

Smith, Steven G.

2000-03-01

252

Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are made up of at least 178 basalt-flow groups, 103 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 4 rhyolite domes. Stratigraphic units identified in 333 wells in this 890-mile{sup 2} area include 121 basalt-flow groups, 102 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 1 rhyolite dome. Stratigraphic units were identified and correlated using the data from numerous outcrops and 26 continuous cores and 328 natural-gamma logs available in December 1993. Basalt flows make up about 85% of the volume of deposits underlying the area.

Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.

1997-08-01

253

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the second year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through the dams and reservoirs of the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected at selected locations above, at, and below Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release, Modified Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models.

Muir, William D.

1995-02-01

254

Oxyanion Concentrations in Eastern Sierra Nevada Rivers – 2. Arsenic and Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples were collected from the Truckee River-Pyramid Lake system, the Walker River-Walker Lake system, and the Carson River, all located in eastern California and western Nevada, U.S.A., at three different times (i.e., summer 1991, spring 1992, and autumn 1992) over a two year period. The concentrations of As, Na, Cl, SPO4, and pH were measured in these river samples

Kevin H. Johannesson; W. Berry Lyons; Suey Huey; Georgia a. Doyle; Eric E. Swanson; Ed Hackett

1997-01-01

255

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

256

Response of River Runoff in the Cryolithic Zone of Eastern Siberia (Lena River Basin) to Future Climate Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the last several decades significant climate warming has been observed in the permafrost regions of Eastern Siberia.\\u000a Observed environmental changes include increasing air temperature and to a lesser degree precipitation. Changes in regional\\u000a climate are accompanied by changes in river runoff. Seasonal and long-term changes of river runoff in different parts of the\\u000a Lena river basin are characterized by

A. G. Georgiadi; I. P. Milyukova; E. A. Kashutina

257

Long-term, One-dimensional Simulation of Lower Snake River Temperatures for Current and Unimpounded Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to compare water temperatures in the Lower Snake River for current (impounded) and unimpounded conditions using a mathematical model of the river system. A long-term analysis was performed using the MASS1 one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and water quality model. The analysis used historical flows and meteorological conditions for a 35-year period spanning between 1960 and 1995. Frequency analysis was performed on the model results to calculate river temperatures at various percent of time exceeded levels. Results were are also analyzed to compute the time when, during the year, water temperatures rose above or fell below various temperature levels. The long-term analysis showed that the primary difference between the current and unimpounded river scenarios is that the reservoirs decrease the water temperature variability. The reservoirs also create a thermal inertia effect which tends to keep water cooler later into the spring and warmer later into the fall compared to the unimpounded river condition. Given the uncertainties in the simulation model, inflow temperatures, and meteorological conditions the results show only relatively small differences between current and unimpounded absolute river temperatures.

Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2001-02-15

258

Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

1993-06-01

259

Determining Columbia and Snake River Project Tailrace and Forebay Zones of Hydraulic Influence using MASS2 Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Although fisheries biology studies are frequently performed at US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects along the Columbia and Snake Rivers, there is currently no consistent definition of the ``forebay'' and ``tailrace'' regions for these studies. At this time, each study may use somewhat arbitrary lines (e.g., the Boat Restriction Zone) to define the upstream and downstream limits of the study, which may be significantly different at each project. Fisheries researchers are interested in establishing a consistent definition of project forebay and tailrace regions for the hydroelectric projects on the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The Hydraulic Extent of a project was defined by USACE (Brad Eppard, USACE-CENWP) as follows: The river reach directly upstream (forebay) and downstream (tailrace) of a project that is influenced by the normal range of dam operations. Outside this reach, for a particular river discharge, changes in dam operations cannot be detected by hydraulic measurement. The purpose of this study was to, in consultation with USACE and regional representatives, develop and apply a consistent set of criteria for determining the hydraulic extent of each of the projects in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. A 2D depth-averaged river model, MASS2, was applied to the Snake and Columbia Rivers. New computational meshes were developed most reaches and the underlying bathymetric data updated to the most current survey data. The computational meshes resolved each spillway bay and turbine unit at each project and extended from project to project. MASS2 was run for a range of total river flows and each flow for a range of project operations at each project. The modeled flow was analyzed to determine the range of velocity magnitude differences and the range of flow direction differences at each location in the computational mesh for each total river flow. Maps of the differences in flow direction and velocity magnitude were created. USACE fishery biologists requested data analysis to determine the project hydraulic extent based on the following criteria: 1) For areas where the mean velocities are less than 4 ft/s, the water velocity differences between operations are not greater than 0.5 ft/sec and /or the differences in water flow direction are not greater than 10 degrees, 2) If mean water velocity is 4.0 ft/second or greater the boundary is determined using the differences in water flow direction (i.e., not greater than 10 degrees). Based on these criteria, and excluding areas with a mean velocity of less than 0.1 ft/s (within the error of the model), a final set of graphics were developed that included data from all flows and all operations. Although each hydroelectric project has a different physical setting, there were some common results. The downstream hydraulic extent tended to be greater than the hydraulic extent in the forebay. The hydraulic extent of the projects tended to be larger at the mid-range flows. At higher flows, the channel geometry tends to reduce the impact of project operations.

Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

2010-12-01

260

Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal.

Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

1997-05-01

261

Review of Monitoring Plans for Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Gas Supersaturation Levels on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.  

SciTech Connect

Montgomery Watson was retained by the Bonneville Power Administration to evaluate the monitoring program for gas bubble disease signs and dissolved gas supersaturation levels on the Columbia and Snake rivers. The results of this evaluation will provide the basis for improving protocols and procedures for future monitoring efforts. Key study team members were Dr. John Colt, Dr. Larry Fidler, and Dr. Ralph Elston. On the week of June 6 through 10, 1994 the study team visited eight monitoring sites (smolt, adult, and resident fish) on the Columbia and Snake rivers. Additional protocol evaluations were conducted at the Willard Field Station (National Biological Survey) and Pacific Northwest Laboratories at Richland (Battelle). On June 13 and 14, 1994, the study team visited the North Pacific Division office of the U.S. Corps of Engineers and the Fish Passage Center to collect additional information and data on the monitoring programs. Considering the speed at which the Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring Program was implemented this year, the Fish Passage Center and cooperating Federal, State, and Tribal Agencies have been doing an incredible job. Thirty-one specific recommendations are presented in this report and are summarized in Section 14.

Fidler, Larry; Elston, Ralph; Colt, John

1994-07-01

262

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2007.  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, we used radio and acoustic telemetry to evaluate the migratory behavior, survival, mortality, and delay of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River and Lower Granite Reservoir. Monthly releases of radio-tagged fish ({approx}95/month) were made from May through October and releases of 122-149/month acoustic-tagged fish per month were made from August through October. We compared the size at release of our tagged fish to that which could have been obtained at the same time from in-river, beach seine collections made by the Nez Perce Tribe. Had we relied on in-river collections to obtain our fish, we would have obtained very few in June from the free-flowing river but by late July and August over 90% of collected fish in the transition zone were large enough for tagging. Detection probabilities of radio-tagged subyearlings were generally high ranging from 0.60 (SE=0.22) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the different study reaches and months. Lower detection probabilities were observed in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches where fewer fish were detected. Detection probabilities of acoustic-tagged subyearlings were also high and ranged from 0.86 (SE=0.09) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches during August through October. Estimates of the joint probability of migration and survival generally declined in a downstream direction for fish released from June through August. Estimates were lowest in the transition zone (the lower 7 km of the Clearwater River) for the June release and lowest in the confluence area for July and August releases. The joint probability of migration and survival in these reaches was higher for the September and October releases, and were similar to those of fish released in May. Both fish weight and length at tagging were significantly correlated with the joint probability of migrating and surviving for both radio-tagged and acoustic-tagged fish. For both tag types, fish that were heavier at tagging had a higher probability of successfully passing through the confluence (P=0.0050 for radio-tagged fish; P=0.0038 for acoustic-tagged fish). Radio-tagged fish with greater weight at tagging also had a higher probability of migrating and surviving through both the lower free-flowing reach (P=0.0497) and the transition zone (P=0.0007). Downstream movement rates of radio-tagged subyearlings were highest in free-flowing reaches in every month and decreased considerably with impoundment. Movement rates were slowest in the transition zone for the June and August release groups, and in the confluence reach for the July release group. For acoustic-tagged subyearlings, the slowest movement rates through the confluence and upper reservoir reaches were observed for the September release group. Radio-tagged fish released in August showed the greatest delay in the transition zone, while acoustic-tagged fish released in September showed the greatest delay in the transition zone and confluence reaches. Across the monthly release groups from July through September, the probability of delaying in the transition zone and surviving there declined throughout the study. All monthly release groups of radio-tagged subyearlings showed evidence of mortality within the transition zone, with final estimates (across the full 45-d detection period) ranging from 0.12 (SE not available) for the May release group to 0.58 (SE = 0.06) for the June release group. The May and September release groups tended to have lower mortality in the transition zone than the June, July, and August release groups. Live fish were primarily detected away from shore in the channel, whereas all dead fish were located along shorelines with most being located in the vicinity of the Memorial Bridge and immediately upstream. During the May detection period, before the implementation of summer flow augmentation, temperatures in the Clearwater River and Snake River arms of Lower Granite Reservoir and the downstream boundary of the confluence ranged from 8 to 17 C. During the June-August detection periods, however, temperatures in

Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; McMichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-08-21

263

Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. The results suggest fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate egg mats documented white sturgeon spawning in four consecutive years. A total of 49 white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River from 1999-2002, and seven from the Salmon River during 2000.

Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Management, Lapwai, ID)

2004-02-01

264

Absolute healing of pyroclasts during rheomorphic welding of ignimbrites in the Snake River Plain, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The architectural description of ignimbrites often shows evidence for post-deposition development of a rheomorphic, ductile shear zone - a feature which may strongly affect the progression of pyroclastic flows; especially in large volcanic fields. Rheological experiments were performed on a welded rheomorphic unit from the Grey's Landing ignimbrite in the Snake River Plain to characterize its behaviour and assess the degree of welding. The investigated sample contains 5 vol.% open pores and is made of approximately 5 vol.% crystals bathing in a relatively degassed, peraluminous glass containing 79 wt.% SiO2. Pre-eruptive temperature determination from geothermometry on pyroxenes yielded values at around 900-1050 C. Dilatometric measurements suggest a calorimetric glass transition temperature during deposition of approximately 845 C and a H2O content of approximately 0.04 wt.%. Repeated series of heating and cooling using an advanced dilatometric technique shows an increase of the glass transition temperature to 880 C, which is in accordance with degassing of approximately 0.02 wt.% H2O. Complementary investigation using a uniaxial press revealed an absence of strain rate dependence of the viscosity (1010.78 Pa·s) at a temperature of 900°;C and at strain rates up to 2.5 x 10-4 s-1. Under similar conditions, a fully degassed lava with an equivalent composition would yield a comparable viscosity of 1010.89 Pa·s. Our findings may help constrain the flare up of the Grey's Landing ignimbrite. The presence of small amounts of water in the glass and the narrow temperature window between the residence in the reservoir and the transition to a glass (which would have mechanically locked this unit in place) in the flow indicates a high discharge rate and rapid post-fragmentation deposition, mass agglutination and welding. Moreover, the Newtonian character of this welded unit suggests that healing of the pyroclastic flow was absolute (that is, no thixotropic effects from the pores remain), and thus that the term 'lava-like' is adequate to rheologically describe rheomorphic pyroclastic flows.

Lavallee, Y.; Dingwell, D. B.; Hess, K.; Andrews, G.; Russell, K. J.

2009-05-01

265

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2006-05-01

266

Water quality of the odzi river in the eastern highlands of zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Odzi, the main river originating in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, the nature, sources and extent of pollution are characterised. Over a span of 9 months, the river water samples collected at six selected sites were analysed for various physical and chemical parameters namely, temperature, conductance, pH, total suspended and dissolved solids, BOD, total phosphate and nitrate levels. The

S. B Jonnalagadda; G Mhere

2001-01-01

267

Evaluation of the Prototype Surface Bypass for Salmonid Smolts in Spring 1996 and 1997 at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 1996 and 1997, we studied the prototype surface bypass and collector (SBC) at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in Washington. Our objectives were to determine the most efficient SBC configuration and to describe smolt movements and swimming behavior in the forebay. To do this, we used hydroacoustic and radiotelemetry techniques. The SBC was retrofitted onto the

Gary E. Johnson; Noah S. Adams; Robert L. Johnson; Dennis W. Rondorf; Dennis D. Dauble; Theresa Y. Barila

2000-01-01

268

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg\\/ha\\/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of

Scott R. Everett; Michael A. Tuell

2003-01-01

269

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg\\/ha\\/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of

Scott R. Everett; Michael A. Tuell

2003-01-01

270

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg\\/ha\\/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of

Michael A. Tuell; Scott R. Everett

2003-01-01

271

Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996 through 1998  

SciTech Connect

Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement to radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1996-98. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL decreased or remained constant during 1996-98. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption process, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL were variable during 1996-98.

R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. C. Davis; M. R. Greene

2000-09-01

272

Track of the Yellowstone hotspot: Young and ongoing geologic processes from the Snake River Plain to the Yellowstone Plateau and Tetons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fi eld trip highlights various stages in the evolution of the Snake River Plain- Yellowstone Plateau bimodal volcanic province, and associated faulting and uplift, also known as the track of the Yellowstone hotspot. The 16 Ma Yellowstone hotspot track is one of the few places on Earth where time-transgressive processes on conti- nental crust can be observed in the

L. A. Morgan; K. L. Pierce; W. C. Pat Shanks

273

Assessment of the flow-survival relationship obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smol...

C. R. Steward

1994-01-01

274

BIOLOGICAL METRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NONPOINT POLLUTION IN THE SNAKE RIVER ECOREGION OF SOUTHERN IDAHO, 1990-91 FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to develop and test a biological assessment program for representative streams in the Snake River Basin ecoregion of southern Idaho. A habitat analysis component was included to provide an independent measure of environmental conditions. The over...

275

Joint Fire Modeling Project for Clark County, Idaho Bureau of Land Management, Upper Snake River District GIS And Idaho State University GIS Training and Research Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildland\\/Urban Interface (WUI) fires and Communities at Risk (CAR) projects are high priorities to federal land management agencies. It is important that the federal government help educate homeowners, firefighters, local officials and land managers regarding the value and risk of wildland fire. The Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Upper Snake River District (USRD) Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team and the

Chad Gentry; Dan Narsavage

276

Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

1997-05-01

277

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 29 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 49 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests the fish are currently growing faster than fish historicly inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. Five white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River.

Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2003-03-01

278

Seismic Evidence for the Influence of Subduction and Slab Fragmentation on Flood Volcanism in the Cascadian Backarc and on the Snake River Plain\\/Yellowstone Hotspot Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snake River Plain\\/Yellowstone (SRP\\/Y) volcanic complex is widely considered a classic example of a plume generated continental hotspot. By that model, the plume head appeared ca 17 Ma near the Oregon-Idaho-Nevada border, with the outpouring of the Steens and Columbia River flood basalts. The SRP\\/Y hotspot is assumed to be the product of plume tail upwelling over the past

D. E. James; M. J. Fouch; R. W. Carlson; J. B. Roth

2010-01-01

279

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information on PIT-tagging of wild Chinook salmon parr in Idaho in 2003 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish and similarly tagged fish from Oregon. We report estimated parr-to-smolt survival and arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam, as well as interrogation data collected at several other sites throughout the Snake and Columbia River system. This research continues studies that began under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding in 1991. Results from previous study years were reported by Achord et al. (1994; 1995a,b; 1996a; 1997; 1998; 2000; 2001a,b; 2002, 2003, 2004). Goals of this ongoing study are: (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence migration patterns. (4) Characterize the migration behavior and estimate survival of different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. In 2003-2004, we also continued to measure water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program. These data, along with parr/smolt migration, survival, and timing data, will help to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between fish movement/survival and environmental factors.

Achord, Stephen; Hodge, Jacob M.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

2005-06-01

280

American Falls Dam Replacement, Idaho, Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho-Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project would replace the existing American Falls Dam, maintain the 1.7-million-acre-foot reservoir at its present size, and construct a new 100 MW capacity powerplant just downstream. The dam, reservoir, and powerplant will be located on the Snake Ri...

1973-01-01

281

Ecology of the Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake ('Sistrurus Catenatus Catenatus') Along the Upper Wapsipnicon River in Bremer County, Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) is a small, thick bodied snake with black to grayish-black dorsal blotches alternating with two or three rows of blank blotches on a gray ground color. Massasaugas are found in a variety o...

T. J. VanDeWalle

2004-01-01

282

Project Hotspot: Mineral chemistry of high-MgO basalts from the Kimama core, Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral compositions can be used to deduce magma crystallization temperatures and to infer key characteristics of magma source regions including delving into the plume or no-plume sources of intraplate basalts. To this end, mineral compositions in basalt acquired by the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project have been analyzed by electron microprobe. The samples are from the Kimama drill hole on the axis of the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho which was drilled through 1912 m of basalt and interbedded sediments. Five of the least evolved basalt flows (i.e., low Fe, Ti, and high Ni and Cr) were chosen based on semiquantitative analyses using a Bruker Tracer IV handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Phenocryst phases include olivine and plagioclase; many olivine phenocrysts also contain inclusions of Cr-Al-rich spinel. Groundmass phases are olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite, and ilmenite. Olivine phenocrysts are normally zoned with cores of Fo 81-70; the rims of Fo 70-50 overlap with the compositions of olivine in the groundmass. Spinels included in olivines in the most MgO-rich lavas are Al-rich (up to 34 wt% Al2O3), similar to those in ocean island basalts (Barnes and Roeder, 2001) and some zone to higher Fe and Ti. Plagioclase phenocryst cores (An 76-65) overlap significantly with the compositions of groundmass plagioclase (An 72-40). Clinopyroxene is confined to the groundmass and creates an ophitic texture. Pyroxene compositions are typically: Wo 45-37, En 42-30, Fs 30-15 and more evolved pyroxenes trend towards Craters of the Moon pyroxenes which have lower Ca. Temperature and oxygen fugacity were calculated from magnetite-ilmenite pairs using QUILF (Anderson et al., 1993), which yielded temperatures of 750-1000°C and fO2 near or just below the QFM buffer. The magnetite-ilmenite pairs are all groundmass phases; thus, these are post-eruption temperatures and fO2 estimates. Olivine compositions were used to test if the source of the Snake River Plain basalts contains a subducted oceanic crustal component as suggested by Sobolev et al. (2005) and Herzberg (2011). The olivines in the Kimama core have Mn, Fe/Mn, and Ca concentrations that are similar to Hawaiian shield-building basalts, and are consistent with derivation of their parent magmas from pyroxenite sources, such as those hypothesized for some mantle plumes. However, Ni concentrations (500-1500 ppm) in olivines from Kimama are relatively low, and the olivines are too evolved (Fo <81) to be definitive with regard to the presence or absence of pyroxenite in the source.

Bradshaw, R. W.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M. J.; Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.

2011-12-01

283

Hydrogeology and water quality in the Snake River alluvial aquifer at Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson, Wyoming, September 2008-June 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology and water quality of the Snake River alluvial aquifer, at the Jackson Hole Airport in northwest Wyoming, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Jackson Hole Airport Board and the Teton Conservation District during September 2008-June 2009. Hydrogeologic conditions were characterized using data collected from 14 Jackson Hole Airport wells. Groundwater levels are summarized in this report and the direction of groundwater flow, hydraulic gradients, and estimated groundwater velocity rates in the Snake River alluvial aquifer underlying the study area are presented. Analytical results of chemical, dissolved gas, and stable isotopes are presented and summarized. Seasonally, the water table at Jackson Hole Airport was lowest in early spring and reached its peak in July, with an increase of 12 to 14 feet between April and July 2009. Groundwater flow was predominantly horizontal but had the hydraulic potential for downward flow. The direction of groundwater flow was from the northeast to the west-southwest. Horizontal groundwater velocities within the Snake River alluvial aquifer at the airport were estimated to be about 26 to 66 feet per day. This indicates that the traveltime from the farthest upgradient well to the farthest downgradient well was approximately 53 to 138 days. This estimate only describes the movement of groundwater because some solutes may move at a rate much slower than groundwater flow through the aquifer. The quality of the water in the alluvial aquifer generally was considered good. The alluvial aquifer was a fresh, hard to very hard, calcium carbonate type water. No constituents were detected at concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, and no anthropogenic compounds were detected at concentrations greater than laboratory reporting levels. The quality of groundwater in the alluvial aquifer generally was suitable for domestic and other uses; however, dissolved iron and manganese were detected at concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water in two monitoring wells. These secondary standards are esthetic guidelines only and are nonenforceable. Iron and manganese are likely both natural components of the geologic materials in the area and may have become mobilized in the aquifer due to reduction/oxidation (redox) processes. Additionally, measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentrations and analyses of major ions and nutrients indicate reducing conditions exist at two of the seven wells sampled. Reducing conditions in an otherwise oxic aquifer system are indicative of an upgradient or in-situ source of organic carbon. The nature of the source of organic carbon at the airport could not be determined. View report for unabridged abstract.

Wright, Peter R.

2010-01-01

284

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of two parts describing research activities completed during 1997 under Bonneville Power Administration Project Number 93-29. Part 1 provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 1997 for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. The results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More detailed information on methodology and the statistical models used in the analysis are provided in previous annual reports cited in the text. Analysis of the relationships among travel time, survival, and environmental factors for 1997 and previous years of the study will be reported elsewhere. Part 2 of this report describes research to determine areas of loss and delay for juvenile hatchery salmonids above Lower Granite Reservoir.

Hockersmith, Eric E.

1999-03-01

285

Simulated growth and production of endangered Snake River Sockeye Salmon: Assessing management strategies for the nursery lakes  

SciTech Connect

This document examines the potential of employing a series of lake management strategies to enhance production of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in its historical nursery lakes in central Idaho. A combination of limnological sampling, experimentation, and simulation modeling was used to assess effects of lake fertilization and kokanee reduction on growth and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon. Juvenile sockeye salmon from a broodstock of this endangered species are being introduced into the lakes from 1995 to 1998. Results of our analyses indicated that several lakes were suitable for receiving broodstock progeny. Field experimentation and simulation modeling indicated that lake fertilization, coupled with a program of kokanee reduction, provided the management option most likely to enhance the survival of stocked juvenile sockeye salmon. Simulation models that encompass physiological requirements, ecological interactions, and life-history consequences could be used as templates to help develop recovery plans for other endangered fishes. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Luecke, C.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.; Budy, P.; Gross, H.P. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)] [and others

1996-06-01

286

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over-fishing practices is limiting the recruitment of white sturgeon into larger size classes (>183 cm). Habitat, food resources, and migration have been severely altered by the impoundment of the Snake River and it appears that the recruitment of young may not be severely affected as recruitment of fish into size classes > 183 cm.

Hoefs, Nancy (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2004-02-01

287

Straddle-packer aquifer test analyses of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, with the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, and the Idaho Geologic Survey, used a straddle-packer system to investigate vertical variations in characteristics of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Sixteen single-well aquifer tests were conducted on.isolated intervals in three observation wells. Each of these wells has approximately 200 feet of open borehole below the water table, penetrating the E through G and I basalt flow groups and interbedded sediments of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The success of the aquifer tests was limited by the inability to induce measurable drawdown in several zones. Time-drawdown data from aquifer tests were matched to type curves for 8 of the 16 zones tested. A single aquifer test at the water table exhibited greater curvature than those at depth. The increased degree of curvature suggests an unconfined response and resulted in an estimate of specific yield of 0.03. Aquifer tests below the water table generally yielded time-drawdown graphs with a rapid initial response followed by constant drawdown throughout the duration of the tests; up to several hours in length. The rapid initial response implies that the aquifer responds as a confined system during brief pumping periods. The nearly constant drawdown suggests a secondary source of water, probably vertical flow from overlying and underlying aquifer layers. Three analytical models were applied for comparison to the conceptual model and to provide estimates of aquifer properties. This, Hantush-Jacob leaky aquifer, and the Moench double-porosity fractured rock models were fit to time-drawdown data. The leaky aquifer type curves of Hantush and Jacob generally provided the best match to observed drawdown. A specific capacity regression equation was also used to estimate hydraulic conductivity.

Johnson, G.S.; Frederick, D.B.

1997-01-01

288

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

2002-02-01

289

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

Ward, David L.

2000-12-01

290

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

2001-04-01

291

Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat suitability criteria to measured and modeled habitat data from the Snake River study areas. Channel morphology data from the Wanapum reference reach and the Snake River study areas were evaluated to identify geomorphically suitable fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The results of this study indicate that a majority of the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study areas contain suitable fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat under existing hydrosystem operations. However, a large majority of the currently available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study areas is of low quality. The potential for increasing, through modifications to hydrosystem operations (i.e., minimum pool elevation of the next downstream dam), the quantity or quality of fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat appears to be limited. Estimates of the amount of potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor study area decreased as the McNary Dam forebay elevation was lowered from normal to minimum pool elevation. Estimates of the amount of potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Lower Granite study area increased as the Little Goose Dam forebay elevation was lowered from normal to minimum pool elevation; however, 97% of the available habitat was categorized within the range of lowest quality. In both the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study areas, water velocity appears to be more of a limiting factor than water depth for fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, with both study areas dominated by low-magnitude water velocity. The geomorphic suitability of both study areas appears to be compromised for fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, with the Ice Harbor study area lacking significant bedforms along the longitudinal thalweg profile and the Lower Granite study area lacking cross-sectional topographic diversity. To increase the quantity of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study area, modifications to hydroelectric dam operations beyond those evaluated in this study likely would be necessary. M

Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2007-11-13

292

Multibeam Bathymetry to Measure Volumetric Change and Particle Size Distributions in the Snake River through Hells Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-beam bathymetry (MBB) surveys can be used to measure the change in storage and particle size distributions on riverbeds even in the inaccessible and rugged Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River. Our work to date has shown that differencing repeated MBB surveys can be an effective method of measuring volumetric changes in riverbed storage of sediment and that the data can also be used to categorize particle size distributions across the entire riverbed. The volumetric and particle size information allows us to investigate the patterns of sand and salmon spawning gravels and the underlying transport and supply processes. These methods will continue to be refined as part of Idaho Power's long-term compliance monitoring program and will provide a unique, long-term record of sediment transport in a steep, canyon-bound river. The Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River flows north 95 kilometers from Hells Canyon Dam to the confluence with the Salmon River and forms the border between Idaho and Oregon. The reach contains 15 named rapids (Class II to IV) and has an average slope of approximately 0.002%, an average bankfull width of 75-100 m, and an extreme confinement ratio (bankfull width: floodplain width) of 1. The bankfull flow (recurrence interval of about 2 years) of 1,400 cms has not been changed by the construction of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) immediately upstream, because the HCC reservoirs can only store 11% of the mean annual flow and 87% of the upstream drainage area had already been impounded by dams. Most methods of bathymetric surveying and particle size characterization were developed in small, wadeable streams and cannot be used in large, unwadeable channels like Hells Canyon. Many of the previous methods also require too much time or effort to feasibly cover the 950 hectares of riverbed in Hells Canyon. Instead, we have adapted multibeam sonar technology typically used in coastal areas or large, low-gradient rivers to the steep, canyon-bound section of the Snake River. Since 2008, Idaho Power has been collecting high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to generate a continuous bathymetric surface through Hells Canyon to use as a baseline. Data were collected using RTK-GPS positioning and a MBB sonar unit mounted to a 9 m long jetboat during spring high water conditions. Areas of survey overlap within and between years have shown limited areas of dramatic changes in storage (meters of change over a few days to years). Data collected during the MBB surveys (elevation, backscatter, snippets, and derivative data products) have been used to create preliminary maps of particle size distribution after calibration with point measurements of the bed surface D50 from historic underwater imagery. This baseline survey will be compared to future surveys in selected reaches to measure volumetric changes of sediment stored on the riverbed. Future work will focus on statistical differencing of bathymetric surfaces to categorize areas of accumulation, deposition, and no measurable change and improved particle size mapping with calibration with current underwater video images to be collected in the fall of 2011.

Anderson, K.; Morehead, M. D.; Anderson, K.; Wilson, T.; Butler, M.; Conner, J. T.; Hocker, B.

2011-12-01

293

Geomorphic constraints on Middle Yangtze River reversal in eastern Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yangtze, the longest river in Asia, was hypothesized to be assembled through a series of Cenozoic capture events, such as the reversal of Middle Yangtze River and the capture of Upper Yangtze River, but the history remains largely unknown. Here, we present new geomorphic observations in the structural context of the eastern Sichuan Basin, namely the Eastern Sichuan fold belt, and identify an important drainage divide along the "midline" of this arc-shape fold belt. Based on longitudinal profile analysis, we find that the river capture events more likely occurred in the syncline valleys of low-relief landscape. Our results yield a new perspective on Middle Yangtze River reversal, and we propose that the "midline" drainage divide, rather than the Three Gorges, was the starting site of Middle Yangtze River reversal. In this manner, the reversal could have been accomplished by a sequence of river reversal over range-parallel segments in syncline valleys with less impact on the pre-existing drainage system in eastern Sichuan Basin.

Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hongbo; Liu, Shaofeng

2013-06-01

294

Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and uppermost part of the Snake River Plain aquifer at test area north, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

A complex sequence of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds underlies Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho. Wells drilled to depths of at least 500 feet penetrate 10 basalt-flow groups and 5 to 10 sedimentary interbeds that range in age from about 940,000 to 1.4 million years. Each basalt-flow group consists of one or more basalt flows from a brief, single or compound eruption. All basalt flows of each group erupted from the same vent, and have similar ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium contents, and natural-gamma emissions. Sedimentary interbeds consist of fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that accumulated for hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years during periods of volcanic quiescence. Basalt and sediment are elevated by hundreds of feet with respect to rocks of equivalent age south and cast of the area, a relation that is attributed to past uplift at TAN. Basalt and sediment are unsaturated to a depth of about 200 feet below land surface. Rocks below this depth are saturated and make up the Snake River Plain aquifer. The effective base of the aquifer is at a depth of 885 feet below land surface. Detailed stratigraphic relations for the lowermost part of the aquifer in the depth interval from 500 to 885 feet were not determined because of insufficient data. The stratigraphy of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds in the upper 500 feet of the unsaturated zone and aquifer was determined from natural-gamma logs, lithologic logs, and well cores. Basalt cores were evaluated for potassium-argon ages, paleomagnetic properties, petrographic characteristics, and chemical composition. Stratigraphic control was provided by differences in ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium content, and natural-gamma emissions of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds.

Anderson, S.R.; Bowers, B.

1995-06-01

295

Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan-Modification. A Modification of Mid-Snake TMDL and Upper Snake Rock TDML to Account for the Aquaculture Wasteload Allocation. Part One: Fish Production Facilities and Conservation Hatcheries; Part Two: Fish Processors; and Part Three: Billingsley Creek Facilties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the modification of three total maximum daily loads (TMDLs): the Middle Snake River Watershed Management Plan (or Mid-Snake TMDL), the Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan (or Upper Snake Rock TMDL), and the Billingsley Creek...

2005-01-01

296

9. VIEW OF VILLAGE FROM LEFT BANK (SOUTH) OF SNAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF VILLAGE FROM LEFT BANK (SOUTH) OF SNAKE RIVER, FACING NORTHEAST. FOREGROUND SHOWS TYPICAL ROCK FORMATIONS. COTTAGE 281, NOT VISIBLE IN PHOTO #8, IS VISIBLE. - Swan Falls Village, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

297

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007-2008 showed these antennas (and anchoring method) are not adequate to withstand high spring flows in this drainage. Future plans involve removing these antennas before high spring flows. (5) At Little Goose Dam in 2008, length and/or weight were taken on 505 recaptured fish from 12 Idaho stream populations. Fish had grown an average of 40.1 mm in length and 10.6 g in weight over an average of 288 d. Their mean condition factor declined from 1.25 at release (parr) to 1.05 at recapture (smolt). (6) Mean release lengths for detected fish were significantly larger than for fish not detected the following spring and summer (P < 0.0001). (7) Fish that migrated through Lower Granite Dam in April and May were significantly larger at release than fish that migrated after May (P < 0.0001) (only 12 fish migrated after May). (8) In 2008, peak detections at Lower Granite Dam of parr tagged during summer 2007 (from the 12 stream populations in Idaho and 4 streams in Oregon) occurred during moderate flows of 87.5 kcfs on 7 May and high flows of 197.3 kcfs on 20 May. The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile passage occurred on 30 April, 11 May, and 23 May, respectively. (9) In 2007-2008, estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam for Idaho and Oregon streams (combined) averaged 19.4% (range 6.2-38.4% depending on stream of origin). In Idaho streams the estimated parr-to-smolt survival averaged 21.0%. This survival was the second highest since 1993 for Idaho streams. Relative parr densities were lower in 2007 (2.4 parr/100 m2) than in all previous years since 2000. In 2008, we observed low-to-moderate flows prior to mid-May and relatively cold weather conditions throughout the spring migration season. These conditions moved half of the fish through Lower Granite Dam prior to mid-May; then high flows moved 50 to 90% of the fish through the dam in only 12 days. Clearly, complex interrelationships of several factors drive the annual migrational timing of the stocks.

Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E. [Fish Ecology Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

2009-07-09

298

Strain Rates and Contemporary Deformation in the Snake River Plain and Surrounding Basin and Range From GPS and Seismicity  

SciTech Connect

New horizontal GPS velocities along with earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features are used to assess how strain is accommodated in the Northern Basin and Range Province. We used GPS phase data collected from 1994 to 2007 to estimate horizontal velocities for 132 stations within the Snake River Plain (SRP) and surrounding basin and range. These velocities show regional scale clockwise rotation indicating basal driving forces beyond those associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot. Within the western Centennial Tectonic Belt (CTB), the GPS measurements indicate the basin and range is extending at a rate between 5x10-9/yr and 10x10-9/yr, which is an order of magnitude greater than the strain rate we observe with GPS in the SRP, explaining its low seismicity. Between these two regions is the “Centennial Shear Zone”, a NE-trending zone of right-lateral shear with estimated slip rates that increase northeastward from 0.9±0.3 mm/yr in the SW to 1.7±0.2 mm/yr in NE. We interpret the new GPS velocities to indicate: 1) right-lateral shear may be accommodated by strike-slip earthquakes on NE-trending faults in the Centennial Shear Zone; 2) three basin and range faults (Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead) do not extend into the SRP, but instead terminate at the SRP margin; and 3) extension in the SRP occurs at a much lower rate than the rate of normal faulting in the western CTB.

S. J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R. W. King

2008-08-01

299

Mortality of Yearling Chinook Salmon Prior to Arrival at Lower Granite Dam, on the Snake River : Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

Efforts have been initiated to develop a research plan that will provide insight into causes of, and ultimately solutions to, the apparent excessive mortality of juvenile chinook upstream from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River. In the context of the proposed salmon stock listings under the Endangered Species Act, issues that potentially affect wild stocks of spring chinook salmon probably warrant immediate consideration and resolution. Mark-recapture data at Lower Granite Dam indicate that few yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts survive to that site after release from various hatcheries. Upriver stocks of yearling spring and summer chinook exhibit pronounced losses en route to the dam. In 1989 and 1990, only about 8 to 18% of PIT-tagged representatives from McCall or Sawtooth hatchery were detected at the dam. General survival indices for these stocks indicate that perhaps only 15 to 35% of the yearlings survived to that site. This suggests these stocks may sustain as much mortality traversing this unobstructed reach of river as the general population would passing through the entire hydroelectric complex.

Giorgi, Albert E.

1991-10-01

300

Thrust segment from the Antler orogeny identified north of the Snake River Plain, south-central Idaho  

SciTech Connect

A small segment of folded thrust fault places silicified, cleaved, folded, graptolite-bearing black mudstone, sandstone, and minor granule conglomerate of the Ordovician Phi Kappa Formation over unnamed cleaved, yellow, calcareous siltstone and silty limestone of Devonian to Silurian age in the Long Canyon area near Fish Creek Reservoir, within a kilometer of the north-central margin of the Snake River Plain. The thrust fault and rocks of both hanging wall and footwall are overlain by sandy limestone and pebble conglomerate of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hailey Member of the Wood River Formation along a locally faulted unconformable contact. Thus, the age of the thrust is bracketed as post-Devonian and pre-Middle Pennsylvanian, a period that encompasses the Antler orogeny. The Long Canyon thrust fault is the first direct evidence of contraction within rocks of the postulated Mississippian Antler highland in western Idaho. Indirect evidence such as penetrative axial plane cleavage in Devonian argillites of the Milligen Formation, not present in younger argillites, has been recognized for several years. The entire sequence of Ordovician through Pennsylvanian rocks constitutes the southernmost exposure of the hanging wall of the Mesozoic Pioneer thrust fault system. In this area, the footwall of the Pioneer thrust comprises Silurian through Devonian platform carbonate rocks overlain unconformably by Mississippian orogenic detritus derived from the western Antler highland.

Skipp, B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

301

System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report of Research 1991.  

SciTech Connect

We indexed consumption rates of northern squawfish (Ptychoch oregonensis) preying upon juvenile salmonids in four lower Snake River reservoirs. Stomach contents were also collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), channel catfish (Ictaluris gunctatus), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Northern squawfish digestive tracts were analyzed and the overall diet (% weight) was dominated by fish and crustaceans. Examination of stomach contents smallmouth bass showed that crustaceans (primarily crayfish) dominated their diets. Overall, the consumption rate of juvenile salmonids by smallmouth bass was low. The northern squawfish consumption index (CI) at Snake River locations ranged from zero at all mid-reservoir locations to 1.2 at Lower Granite forebay. In John Day Reservoir, CI values ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 in May and from 0.9 to 3.0 in July. Consumption index values were highest in forebay and tailrace areas, and were slightly higher in BRZs than in non-restricted zones.

Shively, R.S.

1991-01-01

302

Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg\\/ha\\/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase

Scott R. Everett; Michael A. Tuell; Jay A. Hesse

2004-01-01

303

Movement, Swimming Speed, and Oxygen Consumption of Juvenile White Sturgeon in Response to Changing Flow, Water Temperature, and Light Level in the Snake River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow of the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, frequently fluctuates as dam operators alter the amount of electrical load generated in response to moment-to-moment power needs (termed load-following). Flow fluctuations due to load-following have the potential to increase the energy used by juvenile white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus that move to avoid unfavorable habitat or that alter

David R. Geist; Richard S. Brown; Valerie Cullinan; Steve R. Brink; Ken Lepla; Phil Bates; James A. Chandler

2005-01-01

304

Lopsided Fish in the Snake River Basin — Fluctuating Asymmetry as a way of Assessing Impact of Hatchery Supplementation in Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of developmental instability (an individual's failure to produce a consistent phenotype in a given environment) was\\u000a evaluated to detect the effects of outplanting hatchery fish on wild salmon. Juvenile chinook salmon were collected in 1989,\\u000a 1990, and 1991 from five drainages in the Snake River Basin. In each drainage we attempted to collect fish from streams with\\u000a no

Orlay Johnson; Kathleen Neely; Robin Waples

2004-01-01

305

The precipitation of aluminum, iron and manganese at the junction of Deer Creek with the Snake River in Summit County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The oxidation of disseminated pyrite in relatively acid schists and gneisses of the Snake River drainage basin provides abundant iron sulfate and sulfuric acid to ground and surface water. This acid water dissolves large quantities of many elements, particularly aluminum and surprisingly large quantities of elements, such as magnesium and zinc, not expected to be abundant in the drainage basin. The adjoining drainage to the west, Deer Creek, is underlain by basic rocks, from which the water inherits a high pH. Despite the presence of base- and precious- metal veins in the drainage basin of Deer Creek, it carries less metal than the Snake River. The principal precipitate on the bed of the Snake River is hydrated iron oxide with small quantities of the other metals. In Deer Creek manganese oxide is precipitated with iron oxide and large quantities of other metals are carried down with this precipitate. Below the junction of these streams the pH stabilizes at a near-neutral value. Iron is removed from the Snake River water at the junction, and aluminum is precipitated for some distance downstream. The aluminum precipitate carries down other metals in concentrations slightly less than that in the manganese precipitate on Deer Creek. The natural processes observed in this junction if carried to a larger scale could provide the mechanism described by Ansheles (1927) for the formation of bauxite. In the environment described, geochemical exploration by either water or stream sediment techniques is difficult because of (1) the extreme pH differential between the streams above their junction and (2) the difference in the precipitates formed on the streambeds. ?? 1963.

Theobald, Jr. , P. K.; Lakin, H. W.; Hawkins, D. B.

1963-01-01

306

Reconstructing recent landslide activity in relation to rainfall in the Llobregat River basin, Eastern Pyrenees, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chronology of recent landslides in the upper basin of the Llobregat River, Eastern Pyrenees, has been reconstructed from technical reports, field reconnaissance and dendrogeomorphological analysis. The precipitation conditions responsible for triggering and reactivating landslides have been deduced by analysis of rainfall records from two rain gauges located in the area. Two different rainfall patterns relate to landslide occurrence: (i)

Jordi Corominas; José Moya

1999-01-01

307

Prevalence and recurrence of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in eastern North American rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the prevalence of escaped farmed fishes in the wild is an essential first step to assessing the risk resulting from interactions between farmed and wild fishes. This is especially important in eastern North America, where Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture occurs near wild Atlantic salmon rivers and where many wild salmon popula- tions are severely depressed. Here, we

Matthew R. J. Morris; Dylan J. Fraser; Anthony J. Heggelin; Frederick G. Whoriskey; Jonathan W. Carr; Shane F. O'Neil; Jeffrey A. Hutchings

2008-01-01

308

Reconstructing Historical Riparian Conditions of Two River Basins in Eastern Oregon, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As land use continues to alter riparian areas, historical information is increasingly needed to help establish reference conditions for monitoring and assessment. I developed and applied a procedure in the John Day and Deschutes river basins of eastern Oregon for synthesizing historical documentary records available across broad spatial areas to reconstruct 19th-century riparian conditions. The study area was stratified by

Lynne S. McAllister

2008-01-01

309

Population Viability of the Snake River Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 11 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

A stochastic simulation model of spring chinook population dynamics was parameterized using 36 years of redd count data from five index streams on the middle fork of the Salmon River in Idaho. Two versions of the model, one in which spawning age structure was presumed to follow an evolutionarily stable strategy and another in which spawning age structure was constrained to observed values were examined. The models were then used to generate 1000 statistically representative population projections over the next 100 years to assess risk of extinction and prospects for stock rebuilding. Current levels of production and mortality appear to suffice for maintaining the status quo, virtually assuring persistence over the next 100 years, barring catastophes, but providing no hope for rebuilding. A doubling of the current population level over the next 100 years can be expected to follow an increase in {alpha} (density independent mortality or fry production) of 5 to 25%, but rebuilding to the population levels prevailing in the 1950`s will require an increase in {alpha} of at least 37%.

Emlen, John Merritt

1993-06-01

310

Assessment of nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1991-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-quality investigation of the upper Snake River Basin began in 1991 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Sampling and analysis focused on nutri-ents, suspended sediments, and pesticides. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in the upper Snake River Basin, in general, increased towards the outlet of the basin. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate at 19sites ranged from less than 0.05 to 1.60 milligrams per liter; total phosphorus as phosphorus, less than 0.01 to 0.11 milligrams per liter; and suspended sediment, 4 to 72 milligrams per liter. Significantdifferences (p<0.05) in nutrient and suspended sediment concentrations were noted among groups of sites categorized by the quantity of agri-cultural land in their upstream drainage basins. Concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate were largest during the nonirrigation season, October through March. Concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment, in general, were largest during high streamflow, April through June. The pesticides EPTC (eptam), atrazine, desethylatrazine, metolachlor (dual), and alachlor (lasso) were the most commonly detected in theupper Snake River Basin and accounted for about 75 percent of all pesticide detections. All pesticides detected were at concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter and below maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The largestnumber and concentrations of pesticides were detected in May and June following early growing season applications.

Clark, G. M.

1997-01-01

311

Statistical Evaluation of Travel Time Estimation Based on Data from Freeze-Branded Chinook Salmon on the Snake River, 1982-1990.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to assess the strengths and limitations of existing freeze brand recapture data in describing the migratory dynamics of juvenile salmonids in the mainstream, impounded sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers. With the increased concern over the threatened status of spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River drainage, we used representative stocks for these races as our study populations. However, statistical considerations resultant from these analyses apply to other species and drainages as well. This report describes analyses we conducted using information derived from freeze-branded groups. We examined both index production groups released from hatcheries upstream from Lower Granite Dam (1982--1990) and freeze-branded groups used as controls in smolt transportation evaluations conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (1986, 1989). The scope of our analysis was limited to describing travel time estimates and derived relationships, as well as reach survival estimates through the mainstem Snake River from Lower Granite to McNary Dam.

Smith, Steven G.; Skalski, J.R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

1993-10-01

312

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399) downstream to the upper end of Lower Granite Reservoir near rkm 240. We randomly selected 14 fall Chinook salmon spawning locations as study sites, which represents 25% of the most used spawning areas throughout the HCR. Interactions between river water and pore water within the riverbed (i.e., hyporheic zone) at each site were quantified through the use of self-contained temperature and water level data loggers suspended inside of piezometers. Surrounding the piezometer cluster at each site were 3 artificial egg pockets. In mid-November 2002, early-eyed stage fall Chinook salmon eggs were placed inside of perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes, along with a temperature data logger, and buried within the egg pockets. Fall Chinook salmon eggs were also incubated in the laboratory for the purpose of developing growth curves that could be used as indicators of emergence timing. The effects of discharge on vertical hydrologic exchange between the river and riverbed were inferred from measured temperature gradients between the river and riverbed, and the application of a numerical model. The hydrologic regime during the 2002-2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only 2 of 14 sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude

Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2004-09-01

313

WATER BANKING AND RESTORATION OF ENDANGERED SPECIES HABITAT: AN APPLICATION TO THE SNAKE RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most river basins have experienced development of water projects to promote flood control, recreation, and hydropower and agricultural production. Though the projects helped establish stable economies, there have been adverse impacts to the natural environment and wildlife that reside in these river basins. One of the key policy tools for habitat restoration is management of instream flows. Alternative water banking

GP Green; JP OConnor

2001-01-01

314

Magma Flow and the Redistribution of Crystals in Shallow Intrusions at Sinker Butte Volcano, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sinker Butte is the erosional remnant of one of the largest tholeiitic volcanoes in the western Snake River Plain. Because the edifice was dissected by the Snake River, a nearly complete record of its eruptions is exposed in the walls and alcoves of the canyon. The stratigraphy indicates that initial eruptions produced a shield cone composed of many thin pahoehoe flows. The effusive phase was followed by a series of phreatomagmatic explosions that built a very large tuff cone with a summit crater complex up to 1 km across. A final series of magmatic eruptions filled the tuff cone crater with lava and produced at least 20 radial dikes and other small intrusions, some of which appear to have fed late stage flank eruptions. About 80 oriented drill cores collected from 7 of the radial dikes were analyzed for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Average magnetic lineations, which are assumed to reflect flow directions, are nearly horizontal for two of the dikes; the others plunge downward and away from the crater area at angles of 45o to 70o. The AMS data are consistent with the propagation of radial dikes outward from a column of magma in the upper part of the edifice, possibly beneath a lava lake. Steeply dipping flow directions in some of the dikes may indicate late downward flow in response to draining of magma during breakouts on the lower flanks of the tuff cone. Crystal clots composed of plagioclase and olivine are abundant in many of the lavas and intrusive sheets, and chemical variations throughout the suite can be attributed to the redistribution of these minerals. Microprobe analyses of olivines in samples in known stratigraphic order indicate at least one recharge event took place during the life of the volcano. It is suggested here that pulses of ascending magma disrupted mushy cumulates along the walls and floors of the shallow plumbing system. Crystal clots in the lavas and dikes are interpreted to be fragments of these cumulates. High abundances of clots in the interiors of some of the radial dikes suggest they were concentrated by flowage differentiation. This process, operating in small conduits throughout the edifice, may have contributed to the overall chemical diversity observed in the suite of lavas and tephras at Sinker Butte.

White, C. M.; Kurz, K. R.

2007-12-01

315

Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

1993-06-01

316

Snake bite: coral snakes.  

PubMed

North American coral snakes are distinctively colored beginning with a black snout and an alternating pattern of black, yellow, and red. They have fixed front fangs and a poorly developed system for venom delivery, requiring a chewing action to inject the venom. The severity of a coral snake bite is related to the volume of venom injected and the size of the victim. The length of the snake correlates positively with the snakes venom yield. Coral snake venom is primarily neurotoxic with little local tissue reaction or pain at the bite site. The net effect of the neurotoxins is a curare like syndrome. In canine victims there have been reports of marked hemolysis with severe anemia and hemoglobinuria. The onset of clinical signs may be delayed for as much as 10 to 18 hours. The victim begins to have alterations in mental status and develops generalized weakness and muscle fasciculations. Progression to paralysis of the limbs and respiratory muscles then follows. The best flied response to coral snake envenomation is rapid transport to a veterinary medical facility capable of 24 hour critical care and assisted ventilation. First aid treatment advocated in Australia for Elapid bites is the immediate use of a compression bandage. The victim should be hospitalized for a minimum of 48 hours for continuous monitoring. The only definitive treatment for coral snake envenomation is the administration of antivenin (M. fulvius). Once clinical signs of coral snake envenomation become manifest they progress with alarming rapidity and are difficult to reverse. If antivenin is not available or if its administration is delayed, supportive care includes respiratory support. Assisted mechanical ventilation can be used but may have to be employed for up to 48 to 72 hours. PMID:17265902

Peterson, Michael E

2006-11-01

317

Seismic facies, sedimentology, and significance of a lacustrine delta in Neogene Lake Idaho' deposits: Western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The top of a buried fine-grained delta system of paleo- Lake Idaho' is detected by high-resolution seismic profiles, 300 m beneath the western Snake River Plain near Caldwell, Idaho. Characteristic 3--5[degree] dip of seismic reflectors in the prodelta-mud facies plus electrical-resistivity logs and cuttings from a 670-m well show a 150-m coarsening-upward prodelta sequence overlain by well-sorted fine sand and thin mud layers. Slope and vertical relief (compaction corrected) of prodelta clinoforms indicate the delta was prograding north into a lake basin 250-m deep. Elevation of the top of the delta front is a measure of a paleolake stand. The detected buried delta front is presently at 405 m elevation, about 500 m below what is regarded as the last high lake stand (elev. 850--975 m). The present low elevation of the delta front is partly explained by about 300 m of downward tectonic movement on faults and about 200 m of subsidence by basin-sediment compaction with respect to the basin margins. Distribution of lake deposits around the northwest end of the lake indicates the lake level reached 850--975 m elevation about 2 million years ago. Location of the former outlet of Lake Idaho' and the ancestral Snake River is still a puzzle. Present geomorphology suggests that about 2 million years ago a southward-migrating, ancestral Hells Canyon tributary of the Columbia-Salmon Rivers system captured the lake drainage by overflow of a sill at Dead Indian Ridge near Weiser, Idaho. Hells Canyon and the enlarged Snake River subsequently cut down about 215 m to the present river elevation of 635 m at Dead Indian Ridge.

Wood, S.H. (Boise State Univ., ID (United States))

1993-04-01

318

A summary of regional water quality for Eastern UK rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in water quality and chemical loads are described for UK rivers draining to the North Sea. These variations are related to regional differences in geology, climate, land use and population distribution. The study uses water quality data collected under the Harmonised Monitoring Scheme. Regional maps of average concentrations and tables of loads, concentrations and loads per unit area are

A. J. Robson; C. Neal

1997-01-01

319

Chemical Weathering in the Eastern Himalaya: Geochemistry of Bhutanese Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical weathering of Ca-Mg silicate minerals and subsequent marine carbonate precipitation is the fundamental sink for atmospheric CO2 in the long-term carbon cycle. Considerable effort has been made to examine Himalayan rivers and their relationship with weathering processes, in particular using mass balance estimates to quantify the weathering consumption of CO2 and the potential impact on global climate conditions. Weathering reactions produce alkalinity in rivers and thus dissolved load chemistry can be an effective means for assessing the total weathering budget of a watershed as well as for apportioning weathering fluxes between silicate and carbonate mineral sources. While weathering studies are abundant for the drainage basins of the Nepal and Indian Himalaya, they are lacking for Bhutan. Here we present new major element data for 35 rivers and streams across the Himalayan region of Bhutan. The rivers of Bhutan generally flow north to south through deeply incised gorges and are major tributaries to the Brahmaphutra. Within Bhutan, watersheds are largely underlain by the gneisses and metasediments of the High Himalayan Crystalline Series (HHC), with only the high reaches of the major streams flowing over the Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS) carbonates. Water samples were taken from all the major and most minor rivers at the end of the 2010 monsoon season (late August-September). Because of the strong seasonality of precipitation in Bhutan, these late-monsoon samples are taken to be reasonable first-order proxies for calculating annual dissolved load fluxes. The rivers are characterized by high calcium, with bicarbonate as the dominant anion, typical of carbonate weathering regimes. We note that in some cases, there is the strong influence of hot spring fluids in our stream samples, with 100-fold increases in downstream TDS. Initial analyses of our samples show that despite significant HHC dominated drainages, silicate alkalinity makes up on average 35% of the total alkalinity budget for the rivers of Bhutan, with a minimum of 5% and a maximum of 85%. This is comparable to other Himalayan streams with larger TSS influence to the west in Nepal, where carbonate weathering typically dominates stream dissolved loads.

Evans, M.; Petersen, C.

2011-12-01

320

United Snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their debut in 1987, snakes (active contour models) have become a standard image analysis technique with several variants now in common use. We present a framework called “United Snakes”, which has two key features. First, it unifies the most popular snake variants, including finite difference, B-spline, and Hermite polynomial snakes in a consistent finite element formulation, thus expanding the

Jianming Liang; Tim McInerney; Demetri Terzopoulos

2006-01-01

321

Assessing the accuracy of thermoluminescence for dating baked sediments beneath late Quaternary lava flows, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Baked sediments beneath lava flows on the Snake River Plain, Idaho, with independent age control by either {sup 14}C or K/Ar dating were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The age of flows ranges from {approximately}2 to 100 ka and multiple TL analyses by the total bleach method yielded ages that overlap at one sigma with independent chronologic control. The TL signal of one sample of baked sediment beneath a lava flow with an inferred age of at least 641 {plus_minus} 54 ka was near saturation, perhaps reflecting a relatively high environmental dose rate, and is not datable by TL. This study underscores several major limitations of luminescence geochronology, the natural spatial and temporal variability in environmental radioactivity and the susceptibility of silicate minerals to the growth and retention of a luminescence signal. Despite these limitations, the results demonstrate the utility of luminescence geochronology to date volcanic eruptive events during the Quaternary. 39 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Forman, S.L.; Pierson, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Valentine, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1994-08-10

322

Implications of spatial reservoir uncertainty for CO2 sequestration in the east Snake River Plain, Idaho (USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basalt-hosted hydrogeologic systems have been proposed for geologic CO2 sequestration based on laboratory research suggesting rapid mineralization rates. However, despite this theoretical appeal, little is known about the impacts of basalt fracture heterogeneity on CO2 migration at commercial scales. Evaluating the suitability of basalt reservoirs is complicated by incomplete knowledge of in-situ fracture distributions at depths required for CO2 sequestration. In this work, a numerical experiment is used to investigate the effects of spatial reservoir uncertainty for geologic CO2 sequestration in the east Snake River Plain, Idaho (USA). Two criteria are investigated: (1) formation injectivity and (2) confinement potential. Several theoretical tools are invoked to develop a field-based approach for geostatistical reservoir characterization and their implementation is illustrated. Geologic CO2 sequestration is simulated for 10 years of constant-rate injection at ~680,000 tons per year and modeled by Monte Carlo simulation such that model variability is a function of spatial reservoir heterogeneity. Results suggest that the spatial distribution of heterogeneous permeability structures is a controlling influence on formation injectivity. Analysis of confinement potential is less conclusive; however, in the absence of confining sedimentary interbeds within the basalt pile, rapid mineralization may be necessary to reduce the risk of escape.

Pollyea, Ryan M.; Fairley, Jerry P.

2012-06-01

323

Biological Evaluation of the Behavioral Guidance Structure at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington in 1998  

SciTech Connect

In 1998 a behavioral guidance structure (BGS; a steel wall 330m long and 17-24 m deep) was installed in the forebay of Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington. The purpose of the BGS was to change the horizontal distribution of downstream migrants approaching the south half of the powerhouse by guiding them toward the surface bypass and collector attached to the dam upstream of the north half of the powerhouses. The effectiveness of the BGS was evaluated with biotelemetry and hydroacoustics. The BGS was designed to be movable, thereby allowing a comparison between the horizontal distribution of the fish when the BGS was deployed as a diversion device and when the BGS was moved 800 m upstream of the dam and no longer influenced fish movements immediately upstream of the powerhouse. Radio telemetry and hydroacoustic techniques showed that about 80% of the fish migrating toward Turbines 1-3 were successfully diverted north. Radio telemetry data revealed that the mean residence times of chinook salmon, hatchery steelhead, and wild steelhead were 1.6, 1.7, and 2.4 times longer, respectively, when the BGS was out compared to when it was in. And overall fish passage efficiency was significantly higher when the BGS was in (93.7%) than out (91.2%).

Adams, Noah (U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resource Division); Johnson, Gary E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Rondorf, Dennis W. (VISITORS); Anglea, Steven M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wik, Timothy O. (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Walla Walla District)

2001-01-01

324

Downstream movement of fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the lower Snake River reservoirs during winter and early spring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted a 3-year radiotelemetry study in the lower Snake River to (1) determine whether juvenile fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha pass dams during winter, when bypass systems and structures designed to prevent mortality are not operated; (2) determine whether downstream movement rate varies annually, seasonally, and from reservoir to reservoir; and (3) identify some of the factors that contribute to annual, seasonal, and spatial variation in downstream movement rate. Fall Chinook salmon juveniles moved downstream up to 169 km and at a sufficiently fast rate (7.5 km/d) such that large percentages (up to 93%) of the fish passed one or more dams during the winter. Mean downstream movement rate varied annually (9.2–11.3 km/d), increased from winter (7.5 km/d) to spring (16.4 km/d), and increased (from 6.9 to 16.8 km/d) as fish moved downstream from reservoir to reservoir. Fish condition factor at tagging explained some of the annual variation in downstream movement rate, whereas water particle velocity and temperature explained portions of the seasonal variation. An increase in migrational disposition as fish moved downstream helped to explain the spatial variation. The potential cost of winter movement might be reduced survival due to turbine passage at a time when the bypass systems and spillway passage structures are not operated. Efforts to understand and increase passage survival of winter migrants in large impoundments might help to rehabilitate some imperiled anadromous salmonid populations.

Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk

2012-01-01

325

A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL  

SciTech Connect

Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps.

Prahl, C.J.

1992-01-01

326

Distinguishing between natural and hatchery Snake River fall Chinook salmon subyearlings in the field using body morphology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used body morphology to distinguish between natural- and hatchery-origin subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in rearing areas of the Snake River and at a downstream dam during seaward migration. Using subjective eye and body shape characteristics, field personnel correctly classified 88.9–100% of natural subyearlings (N = 626) and 90.0–100% of hatchery subyearlings (N = 867) in rearing areas from 2001 to 2008. The morphological characteristics used by these personnel proved to have a quantitative basis, as was shown by digital photography and principal components analysis. Natural subyearlings had smaller eyes and pupils, smaller heads, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than their hatchery counterparts during rearing and at the dam. A discriminant function fitted from this set of morphological characteristics classified the origin of fish during rearing and at the dam with over 97% accuracy. We hypothesize that these morphological differences were primarily due to environmental influences during incubation and rearing because it is highly probable that a large portion of the natural juveniles we studied were the offspring of hatchery × hatchery mating in the wild. The findings in this paper might provide guidance for others seeking to differentiate between natural and hatchery fish.

Tiffan, K. F.; Connor, W. P.

2011-01-01

327

Multiscale Genetic Structure of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in the Upper Snake River Basin.  

SciTech Connect

Populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvierii have declined throughout their native range as a result of habitat fragmentation, overharvest, and introductions of nonnative trout that have hybridized with or displaced native populations. The degree to which these factors have impacted the current genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations is of primary interest for their conservation. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity and genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho and Nevada with data from six polymorphic microsatellite loci. A total of 1,392 samples were analyzed from 45 sample locations throughout 11 major river drainages. We found that levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation varied extensively. The Salt River drainage, which is representative of the least impacted migration corridors in Idaho, had the highest levels of genetic diversity and low levels of genetic differentiation. High levels of genetic differentiation were observed at similar or smaller geographic scales in the Portneuf River, Raft River, and Teton River drainages, which are more altered by anthropogenic disturbances. Results suggested that Yellowstone cutthroat trout are naturally structured at the major river drainage level but that habitat fragmentation has altered this structuring. Connectivity should be restored via habitat restoration whenever possible to minimize losses in genetic diversity and to preserve historical processes of gene flow, life history variation, and metapopulation dynamics. However, alternative strategies for management and conservation should also be considered in areas where there is a strong likelihood of nonnative invasions or extensive habitat fragmentation that cannot be easily ameliorated.

Cegelski, Christine C.; Campbell, Matthew R.

2006-05-30

328

Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout

Michael P. Faler; Glen W. Mendel; Carl Fulton

2004-01-01

329

Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2004 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled and released 313 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from the Tucannon River in 2004. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 231 of these individuals, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 44 bull trout. Twenty-five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Ten

Michael P. Faler; Glen W. Mendel; Carl Fulton

2005-01-01

330

NON POINT SOURCE BASIN STATUS EVALUATION, LOWER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO, JULY 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

Region 10 has developed a nonpoint source assessment approach to assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probable nonpoint sources and determining their effect upon the fishable-swimmable aspect of Regional streams and rivers. Generally th...

331

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

2003-07-01

332

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2002-06-01

333

Estimates of gains and losses for reservoirs on the Snake River from Blackfoot to Milner, Idaho, for selected periods, 1912 to 1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Croplands in the semiarid central part of the Snake River Plain are dependent on the availability of irrigation water, most of which comes from the Snake River. Allocation of irrigation water from the river requires that gains and losses be determined for American Falls Reservoir, Lake Walcott, and Milner Lake. From 1912 to 1983, average ungaged inflow to American Falls Reservoir , determined from monthly water budgets, was 2,690 cu ft/sec. About 94% of this inflow was spring discharge and groundwater seepage; the remainder was from small tributaries and irrigation-return flow. Ungaged inflow estimated from water budgets for various periods correlated favorably with measured discharge of two springs and water levels in two wells. Discharge of Spring Creek was a better indicator of ungaged inflow than groundwater levels. Therefore, correlation with Spring Creek discharge was used in estimating ungaged inflow to American Falls Reservoir in 1983. Daily water budget calculations of ungaged inflow to American Falls Reservoir are less variable when storage changes are determined by using three stage-recording stations rather than one. Water budgets do not indicate large amounts of leakage from American Falls Reservoir, but small amounts of leakage are indicated because flow in downstream springs increased about 25% after reservoir storage began in 1926. Water budgets for Lake Walcott and Milner Lake show average annual net gains (1951-83) to Lake Walcott and Milner Lake of 245 and 290 cu ft/sec. These amounts are verified by monthly water budgets when discharge in the Snake River is low, and measured and estimated sources of inflow. Gains and losses estimated from daily water budgets are variable, owing to inadequate determination of (1) changes in reservoir storage, (2) streamflow, (3) lake surface precipitation, and (4) lake surface evaporation. Backwater effects are accounted for in the process used to determine storage in Milner Lake. (Author 's abstract)

Kjelstrom, L. C.

1988-01-01

334

cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects.  

PubMed

A 5' truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, Crotalus atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC(50) of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC(50)s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E; Sánchez, Elda E; Pérez, John C

2013-01-10

335

Reconstructing Historical Riparian Conditions of Two River Basins in Eastern Oregon, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As land use continues to alter riparian areas, historical information is increasingly needed to help establish reference conditions\\u000a for monitoring and assessment. I developed and applied a procedure in the John Day and Deschutes river basins of eastern Oregon\\u000a for synthesizing historical documentary records available across broad spatial areas to reconstruct 19th-century riparian\\u000a conditions. The study area was stratified by

Lynne S. McAllister

2008-01-01

336

Migration of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Past Dams and through Reservoirs in the Lower Snake River and into Tributaries - 1992; Evaluation of Passage of Adult Salmon and Steelhead at Lower Granite Dam and of Electronic and Underwater Video Technologies as Passage Evaluation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the upstream migration of adult spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steel head 0. mykiss past the four lower Snake River dams, through the reservoirs, and into the tributaries of the Snake River drainage was initiated ...

J. P. Hunt K. R. Tolotti P. J. Keniry R. R. Ringe T. C. Bjornn

1994-01-01

337

Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered

Michael P. Faler; Glen W. Mendel; Carl Fulton

2003-01-01

338

Plasma concentrations of chloramphenicol in snakes.  

PubMed

Plasma chloramphenicol concentrations after a subcutaneous injection were studied in 87 snakes of 16 different species. The biological half-life of chloramphenicol varied from 3.3 hours in the indigo snake (Drymarchon corais couperi) to 22.1 hours in the midland water snake (Nerodia sipedon). A single dosage of 50 mg of chloramphenicol/kg of body weight produced plasma concentrations greater than 5 micrograms/ml for nearly 72 hours in 2 species of water snakes (Nerodia erythrogaster, Nerodia sipedon), for 24 hours in the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), and for less than 12 hours in the gray rat snake, Indigo snake, and eastern king snake (Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Drymarchon coraise couperi, and Lampropeltis getulus getulus). A dosage of 50 mg/kg administered to water snakes every 72 hours for 18 days maintained a minimum plasma concentration of chloramphenicol between 2 and 5 micrograms/ml. PMID:4083608

Clark, C H; Rogers, E D; Milton, J L

1985-12-01

339

Isotopes and Sustainability of the Shallow Groundwater System in Spring and Snake Valleys, Eastern White Pine County, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical component to managing water resources is understanding the source of ground water that is extracted from a well. Detail information on the source of recharge and the age of groundwater is thus vital for the proper assessment, development, management, and monitoring of the groundwater resources in an area. Great differences in the isotopic composition of groundwater in a basin and the basin precipitation imply that the groundwater in the basin originates from a source outside the basin or is recharged under different climatic conditions. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation were compared with the isotopic composition of water from wells, springs, and creeks to evaluate the source of the shallow groundwater recharge in Spring and Snake Valleys, Nevada, as part of an evaluation of the water resources in the area. Delta deuterium and delta oxygen-18 composition of springs, wells, creeks, and precipitation in Spring and Snake Valleys show that groundwater recharge occurs primarily from winter precipitation in the surrounding mountains. The carbon-14 content of the groundwater ranged from 30 to 95 percent modern carbon (pmc). Twenty two of the thirty samples had carbon-14 values of greater than 50 pmc. The relatively high carbon-14 values suggest that groundwater in the area is recharged by modern precipitation and the waters have rapid travel times. Total dissolved solids content of the samples outside the playa areas are generally low, and suggests that the water has a relatively short travel time between the recharge areas and sample sites. The presence of tritium in some of the springs and wells also indicate that groundwater mixes with post 1952 precipitation. Hydrogen bomb tests which began in 1952 in the northern hemisphere added large amounts of tritium to the atmosphere and reached a peak in 1963. The stable isotopic composition, the high carbon-14 activities, and the presence of tritium, show that the shallow groundwater in Snake and Spring Valleys originates as modern recharge. The shallow groundwater in these valleys is thus a renewable resource and can be developed in a sustainable manner using the appropriate planning and management tools.

Acheampong, S. Y.

2007-12-01

340

33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space...defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to the area offshore of Cape...

2010-07-01

341

Mapping of a major paleodrainage system in eastern Libya using orbital imaging radar: The Kufrah River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades, remote sensing has revealed buried river channels in a number of regions worldwide, in many cases providing evidence of dramatic paleoenvironmental changes over Cenozoic time scales. Using orbital radar satellite imagery, we mapped a major paleodrainage system in eastern Libya, that could have linked the Kufrah Basin to the Mediterranean coast through the Sirt Basin, possibly as far back as the middle Miocene. Synthetic Aperture Radar images from the PALSAR sensor clearly reveal a 900 km-long river system, which starts with three main tributaries (north-eastern Tibesti, northern Uweinat and western Gilf Kebir/Abu Ras) that connect in the Kufrah oasis region. The river system then flows north through the Jebel Dalmah, and forms a large alluvial fan in the Sarir Dalmah. The sand dunes of the Calanscio Sand Sea prevent deep orbital radar penetration and preclude detailed reconstruction of any possible connection to the Mediterranean Sea, but a 300 km-long link to the Gulf of Sirt through the Wadi Sahabi paleochannel is likely. If this connection is confirmed, and its Miocene antiquity is established, then the Kufrah River, comparable in length to the Egyptian Nile, will have important implications for the understanding of the past environments and climates of northern Africa from the middle Miocene to the Holocene.

Paillou, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Tooth, Stephen; Farr, Tom; Rosenqvist, Ake; Lopez, Sylvia; Malezieux, Jean-Marie

2009-01-01

342

Characterization of the Mobilities of Selected Actinides and Fission\\/Activation Products in Laboratory Columns Containing Subsurface Material from the Snake River Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory column tests were performed to characterize the mobilities of ⁶°Co, ⁹°Sr, ¹³⁷Cs, ²³³U, ²³⁹Pu, and ²⁴¹Am in a basalt sample and a composite of sedimentary interbed from the Snake River Plain at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The radionuclides were spiked into a synthetic groundwater (pH 8, ionic strength = 0.004 M) and introduced into the columns

Robert A. Fjeld; Timothy A. De Vol; Russell W. Goff; Matthew D. Blevins; David D. Brown; Steven M. Ince; Alan W. Elzerman; Meredith E. Newman

2001-01-01

343

Amplitude and phase normalization of seismograms from multiple seismograph recording systems for the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic refraction experiment  

SciTech Connect

A z transform filter theory method for the normalization of the instrument responses of several seismographs is presented. In this method, an inverse filter is derived by consideration of the seismometer/recorder characteristics which may be applied to a given seismogram to convert the system frequency response to that of a reference system. Inverse filters are derived for the seismographs used on the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profiling experiment. It is shown by application to these data that the inverse filters are effective in amplitude normalization and that their use allows improvement in the amplitude and waveform character of seismic record sections.

Baker, M.R.; Braile, L.W.; Smith, R.B.

1982-04-10

344

Drainage areas in the James River basin in eastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The James River of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface-water supply for the agricultural economy within the basin. Proposed water-resource development has prompted numerous hydrologic studies of the James River. To aid in planning for future development, the map delineates all named stream basins, and all unnamed basins larger than 10 square miles within the James River basin South Dakota and lists by stream name and area of each basin. Stream drainage basins were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information of U.S. Geological Survey seven and one-half minute topographic maps. Two tables list areas of drainage basins, reaches, and noncontributing areas and drainage areas above gaging stations. (USGS)

Benson, Rick D.; Freese, M. E.; Amundson, F. D.; Wipf, V. J.

1987-01-01

345

Features and sealing mechanism of shallow biogenic gas in incised valley fills (the Qiantang River, eastern China): A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Quaternary shallow biogenic gas reservoirs have been discovered and exploited in the Qiantang River (QR) estuary area, eastern China. The fall of global sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum resulted in the formation of the QR incised valley. From bottom to top, the incised valley successions can be grouped into four sedimentary facies: river channel facies, floodplain–estuarine facies,

Chun-Ming Lin; Yan-Li Li; Hong-Chun Zhuo; George W. Shurr; Jennie L. Ridgley; Zhi-Ping Zhang; Tao Xue

2010-01-01

346

Provenance and weathering control on river bed sediments of the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Russian Far East  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the petrography and major, trace and rare earth element compositions of the bed sediments from the large rivers draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) — the Huang He (Yellow), Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Hong He (Red), Mekong and Salween. The combined drainage spans tropical, temperate and arid climate zones. In addition, samples from the Lena River, draining the Verkhoyansk

Joniell B. Borges; Youngsook Huh; Seulgi Moon; Hyeonjeong Noh

2008-01-01

347

Probability of detecting atrazine/desethyl-atrazine and elevated concentrations of nitrate plus nitrate as nitrogen in ground water in the Idaho part of the western Snake River Plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As ground water continues to provide an ever-growing proportion of Idaho?s drinking water, concerns about the quality of that resource are increasing. Pesticides (most commonly, atrazine/desethyl-atrazine, hereafter referred to as atrazine) and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (hereafter referred to as nitrate) have been detected in many aquifers in the State. To provide a sound hydrogeologic basis for atrazine and nitrate management in southern Idaho—the largest region of land and water use in the State—the U.S. Geological Survey produced maps showing the probability of detecting these contaminants in ground water in the upper Snake River Basin (published in a 1998 report) and the western Snake River Plain (published in this report). The atrazine probability map for the western Snake River Plain was constructed by overlaying ground-water quality data with hydrogeologic and anthropogenic data in a geographic information system (GIS). A data set was produced in which each well had corresponding information on land use, geology, precipitation, soil characteristics, regional depth to ground water, well depth, water level, and atrazine use. These data were analyzed by logistic regression using a statistical software package. Several preliminary multivariate models were developed and those that best predicted the detection of atrazine were selected. The multivariate models then were entered into a GIS and the probability maps were produced. Land use, precipitation, soil hydrologic group, and well depth were significantly correlated with atrazine detections in the western Snake River Plain. These variables also were important in the 1998 probability study of the upper Snake River Basin. The effectiveness of the probability models for atrazine might be improved if more detailed data were available for atrazine application. A preliminary atrazine probability map for the entire Snake River Plain in Idaho, based on a data set representing that region, also was produced. In areas where this map overlaps the 1998 map of the upper Snake River Basin, the two maps show broadly similar probabilities of detecting atrazine. Logistic regression also was used to develop a preliminary statistical model that predicts the probability of detecting elevated nitrate in the western Snake River Plain. A nitrate probability map was produced from this model. Results showed that elevated nitrate concentrations were correlated with land use, soil organic content, well depth, and water level. Detailed information on nitrate input, specifically fertilizer application, might have improved the effectiveness of this model.

Donato, Mary M.

2000-01-01

348

Large snakes in a mosaic rural landscape: The ecology of carpet pythons Morelia spilota (serpentes: Pythonidae) in coastal eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can large pythons coexist with human beings in highly modified habitats throughout the eastern coastal region of Australia, when the same species has undergone rapid declines in other parts of the country? To investigate this question, we surgically implanted miniature temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters into 19 adult carpet pythons Morelia spilota (body lengths 1·3–2·8 m; 1·4–7·0 kg) from two study sites

R. Shine; M. Fitzgerald

1996-01-01

349

Geothermal energy resource investigations in the Eastern Copper River Basin, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of a review of the geological, geochemical and geophysical data available for the Eastern Copper River basin with emphasis on the mud volcanoes, and the results of geophysical and geochemical studies carried out in the summers of 1982 and 1984. The purpose was to determine if there are geothermal energy resources in the Copper River Basin. The Eastern Copper River basin is situated on the flanks of a major volcano, Mt. Drum, which was active as late as 200,000 years ago and which is thought to have retained significant amounts of residual heat at high levels. Mt. Wrangell, farther to the east, has been volcanically active up to the present time. The 1982 geophysical and geochemical surveys located three principal areas of possible geothermal interest, one near Tazlina and two near the Klawasi mud volcanoes. The intensive survey work of 1984 was concentrated on those areas. We have integrated the results of soil helium, soil mercury, gravity, aeromagnetic, electrical, self-potential, and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surveys to evaluate the geothermal potential of the areas studied. 36 figs.

Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.

1985-06-01

350

Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2004 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2004. Publication is a high priority of our staff. Publication provides our results to a wide audience, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 1991-02900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2005.

Tiffan, Kenneth F. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA); Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

2006-03-01

351

Analysis of data on nutrients and organic compounds in ground water in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1980-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground- water quality in the upper Snake River Basin. Water from domestic wells contained the highest median nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen) concen- trations; water from industrial and public-supply wells contained the lowest. Nitrate concentrations decreased with increasing well depth, increasing depth to water (unsaturated thickness), and increasing depth below water table (saturated thickness). Nitrate concentrations were statistically higher in areas of irrigated agriculture than in areas of dryland agriculture and rangeland. Concentrations increased in areas north of Burley and northwest of Pocatello between 1980 and 1990. The following organic compounds were detected in ground water in the upper Snake River Basin: cyanazine, 2,4-D, DDT, dacthal, diazinon, dichloropropane, dieldrin, malathion, and metribuzin. Of 211 wells sampled for organic compounds, water from 17 contained detectable concentrations.

Rupert, M. G.

1994-01-01

352

Estimation of hydraulic properties and development of a layered conceptual model for the Snake River plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho INEL Oversight Program, in association with the University of Idaho, Idaho Geological Survey, Boise State University, and Idaho State University, developed a research program to determine the hydraulic properties of the Snake River Plain aquifer and characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants. A straddle-packer was deployed in four observation wells near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Pressure transducers mounted in the straddle-packer assembly were used to monitor the response of the Snake River Plain aquifer to pumping at the ICPP production wells, located 2600 to 4200 feet from the observation wells. The time-drawdown data from these tests were used to evaluate various conceptual models of the aquifer. Aquifer properties were estimated by matching time-drawdown data to type curves for partially penetrating wells in an unconfined aquifer. This approach assumes a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer obtained from the type curve analyses were: (1) Storativity = 3 x 10{sup -5}, (2) Specific Yield = 0.01, (3) Transmissivity = 740 ft{sup 2}/min, (4) Anisotropy (Kv:Kh)= 1:360.

Frederick, D.B.; Johnson, G.S.

1996-02-01

353

Transportation as a Means of Increasing Wild Juvenile Salmon Survival : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 4 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

Smolt transportation on the Snake and Columbia Rivers has been under nearly continuous study for 25 years. Most controversy surrounds transport of spring/summer chinook, so most analyses and discussion are devoted to that species. Sockeye migrate at the same time as spring/summer chinook as do the earliest of the fall chinook. Therefore, action taken o spring/summer chinook will also affect sockeye and fall chinook. Many factors influenced transportation study results including population structure change -- the shift from nearly all wild fish to nearly all hatchery fish; new dams; the number of turbines at Snake River dams alone increased from 3 in 1968 to 24 by 1979; installation of juvenile fish pass facilities; and calamitous natural events such as the 1977 drought. All the above had negative effects on the survival of wild fish in general and on transport test results specifically, except that when smolts were transported from the upper dam their survival was not influenced by new or existing structures downstream from the transport site.

Park, Donn L.

1993-06-01

354

Laboratory-Measured and Property-Transfer Modeled Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Snake River Plain Aquifer Sediments at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediments are believed to comprise as much as 50 percent of the Snake River Plain aquifer thickness in some locations within the Idaho National Laboratory. However, the hydraulic properties of these deep sediments have not been well characterized and they are not represented explicitly in the current conceptual model of subregional scale ground-water flow. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nature of the sedimentary material within the aquifer and to test the applicability of a site-specific property-transfer model developed for the sedimentary interbeds of the unsaturated zone. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was measured for 10 core samples from sedimentary interbeds within the Snake River Plain aquifer and also estimated using the property-transfer model. The property-transfer model for predicting Ksat was previously developed using a multiple linear-regression technique with bulk physical-property measurements (bulk density [pbulk], the median particle diameter, and the uniformity coefficient) as the explanatory variables. The model systematically underestimates Ksat,typically by about a factor of 10, which likely is due to higher bulk-density values for the aquifer samples compared to the samples from the unsaturated zone upon which the model was developed. Linear relations between the logarithm of Ksat and pbulk also were explored for comparison.

Perkins, Kim S.

2008-01-01

355

Activities of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1991-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the water quality of a large part of the Nation's rivers and aquifers and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions. In meeting these goals, the program will produce water-quality, ecological, and geographic information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, upon which national-level assessment activities are based. The program's 60 study-unit investigations are associated with principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. Study units encompass areas from 1,200 to more than 65,000 mi2 (square miles) and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the upper Snake River Basin was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for implementation. From 1991 to 1995, a high-intensity data-collection phase of the upper Snake River Basin study unit (fig. 1) was implemented and completed. Components of this phase are described in a report by Gilliom and others (1995). In 1997, a low-intensity phase of data collection began, and work continued on data analysis, report writing, and data documentation and archiving activities that began in 1996. Principal data-collection activities during the low-intensity phase will include monitoring of surface-water and ground-water quality, assessment of aquatic biological conditions, and continued compilation of environmental setting information.

Low, Walton H.

1997-01-01

356

Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to contaminate the Neponset River, which flows through parts of Boston, Massachusetts, and empties into the Neponset River Estuary, an important fish-spawning area. The river is dammed and impassable to fish. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, Division of Ecological Restoration, Riverways Program, collected, analyzed, and interpreted PCB data from bottom-sediment, water, and (or) fish-tissue samples in 2002, 2004-2006. Samples from the Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary were analyzed for 209 PCB congeners, PCB homologs, and Aroclors. In order to better assess the overall health quality of river-bottom sediments, sediment samples were also tested for concentrations of 31 elements. PCB concentrations measured in the top layers of bottom sediment ranged from 28 nanograms per gram (ng/g) just upstream of the Mother Brook confluence to 24,900 ng/g measured in Mother Brook. Concentrations of elements in bottom sediment were generally higher than background concentrations and higher than levels considered toxic to benthic organisms according to freshwater sediment-quality guidelines defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of dissolved PCBs in water samples collected from the Neponset River (May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006) averaged about 9.2 nanograms per liter (ng/L) (annual average of monthly values); however, during the months of August (about 16.5 ng/L) and September (about 15.6 ng/L), dissolved PCB concentrations were greater than 14 ng/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency\\'s freshwater continuous chronic criterion for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of PCBs in white sucker (fillets and whole fish) were all greater than 2,000 ng/g wet wt, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency\\'s guideline for safe consumption of fish: PCB concentrations measured in fish-tissue samples collected from the Tileston and Hollingsworth and Walter Baker Impoundments were 3,490 and 2,450 ng/g wet wt (filleted) and 6,890 and 4,080 ng/g wet wt (whole fish). Total PCB-congener concentrations measured in the whole bodies of estuarine bait fish (common mummichog) averaged 708 ng/g wet wt. PCBs that pass from the Neponset River to the Neponset River Estuary are either dissolved or associated with particulate matter (including living and nonliving material) suspended in the water column. A small proportion of PCBs may also be transported as part of the body burden of fish and wildlife. During the period May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006, about 5,100 g (3.8 L or 1 gal) of PCBs were transported from the Neponset River to the Neponset River Estuary. Generally, about one-half of these PCBs were dissolved in the water column and the other half were associated with particulate matter; however, the proportion that was either dissolved or particulate varied seasonally. Most PCBs transported from the river to the estuary are composed of four or fewer chlorine atoms per biphenyl molecule. The data suggest that widespread PCB contamination of the lower Neponset River originated from Mother Brook, a Neponset River tributary, starting sometime around the early 1950s or earlier. In 1955, catastrophic dam failure caused by flooding likely released PCB-contaminated sediment downstream and into the Neponset River Estuary. PCBs from this source area likely continued to be released after the flood and during subsequent rebuilding of downstream dams. Today (2007), PCBs are mostly trapped behind these dams; however, some PCBs either diffuse or are entrained back into the water column and are transported downstream by river water into the estuary or volatilize into the atmosphere. In addition to the continuing release of PCBs from historically contaminated bottom sediment, PCBs are still (2007) originating from source areas along Mother and Meadow Brook as well as other sources along the river and Boston Harbor. PCBs from the river (trans

Breault, Robert F.

2011-01-01

357

Tribal Wind Assessment by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation  

SciTech Connect

The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe

Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.

2009-08-28

358

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume VIII; New Model for Estimating Survival Probabilities and Residualization from a Release-Recapture Study of Fall Chinook Salmon Smolts in the Snake River, 1995 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging.

Lowther, Alan B.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Fisheries Research Institute, Seattle, WA)

1997-09-01

359

Depth and temporal variations in water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in well USGS59 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-situ measurements of the specific conductance and temperature of ground water in the Snake River Plain aquifer were collected in observation well USGS-59 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These parameters were monitored at various depths in the aquifer from October 1994 to August 1995. The specific conductance of ground water in

D. B. Frederick; G. S. Johnson

1997-01-01

360

Wildland\\/Urban Interface and Communities at Risk Joint Fire Modeling Project for Bannock County, Idaho Bureau of Land Management, Upper Snake River District GIS And Idaho State University GIS Training and Research Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildland\\/Urban Interface (WUI) fires and Communities at Risk (CAR) projects are high priorities to federal land management agencies. It is important that the federal government help educate homeowners, firefighters, local officials, and land managers regarding the risk of wildland fire. The Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Upper Snake River District (USRD) Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team and the GIS Training

Chad Gentry

361

Dynamical Downstream Modulation of the eastern North Pacific Atmospheric River Activity by East Asian Cold Surge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Asian cold surge (EACS) is an efficient mechanism transporting cold and dry air from Siberia to the east coast of the Eurasian continent. Extratropical cyclone genesis, thus the amplitude of the upper level, high-frequency baroclinic disturbances over the east coast are immediately enhanced as the cold air approaches. Utilizing a newly developed algorithm for atmospheric river detection, our study reveals that the occurrence probability of atmospheric rivers over the eastern North Pacific near the west coast of North America is significantly modulated by EACS. In particular, this dynamical downstream modulation goes through two stages where high-frequency, baroclinic disturbances propagating northeastward contributes to the formation of atmospheric rivers in the Gulf of Alaska, and low-frequency, barotropic disturbances developed following the passage of high-frequency disturbances play a more important role in organizing extreme moisture transport and atmospheric rivers along the west coast of U.S. The modulation mechanism discussed above is successfully reproduced in a high-resolution GCM initialized at the time of the peak of EACS, suggesting EACS and its dynamical triggers as potential source of predictability for the winter extreme precipitation events in the western U.S.

Jiang, T.; Deng, Y.; Chen, X.

2011-12-01

362

Phylogeography of the Mekong mud snake (Enhydris subtaeniata): the biogeographic importance of dynamic river drainages and fluctuating sea levels for semiaquatic taxa in Indochina  

PubMed Central

During the Cenozoic, Southeast Asia was profoundly affected by plate tectonic events, dynamic river systems, fluctuating sea levels, shifting coastlines, and climatic variation, which have influenced the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of the Southeast Asian flora and fauna. We examined the role of these paleogeographic factors on shaping phylogeographic patterns focusing on a species of semiaquatic snake, Enhydris subtaeniata (Serpentes: Homalopsidae) using sequence data from three mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b, ND4, and ATPase—2785 bp). We sampled E. subtaeniata from seven locations in three river drainage basins that encompassed most of this species’ range. Genetic diversities were typically low within locations but high across locations. Moreover, each location had a unique suite of haplotypes not shared among locations, and pairwise ?ST values (0.713–0.998) were highly significant between all location pairs. Relationships among phylogroups were well resolved and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed strong geographical partitioning of genetic variance among the three river drainage basins surveyed. The genetic differences observed among the populations of E. subtaeniata were likely shaped by the Quaternary landscapes of Indochina and the Sunda Shelf. Historically, the middle and lower Mekong consisted of strongly dissected river valleys separated by low mountain ranges and much of the Sunda Shelf consisted of lowland river valleys that served to connect faunas associated with major regional rivers. It is thus likely that the contemporary genetic patterns observed among populations of E. subtaeniata are the result of their histories in a complex terrain that created abundant opportunities for genetic isolation and divergence yet also provided lowland connections across now drowned river valleys.

Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Osterhage, Jennifer L; Karns, Daryl R; Murphy, John C; Voris, Harold K

2011-01-01

363

Cryotherapy in the Treatment of Snake Envenomation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of cryotherapy in the treatment of poisonous snake envenomation was evaluated. Fourteen dogs were injected in their hind paws with 40 mg of Crotalus adamanteus venom (Eastern diamondback rattlesnake). None of the seven control dogs which...

K. A. Gill

1968-01-01

364

Feeding Habits of the Diamond Python, Morelia s. spilota: Ambush Predation by a Boid Snake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond pythons (Morelia s. spilota) are large (to 3 m) snakes of temperate-zone coastal eastern Australia. Foraging behavior was studied by observation of telemetered snakes, and diets deter- mined by dissection of museum specimens and collection of fecal samples from wild-caught snakes. Five adult snakes monitored in the field by radiotelemetry were found to be ambush foragers. In summer, telemetered

VID J. SLIP; RICHARD SHINE

365

T-snakes: Topology adaptive snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new class of deformable contours (snakes) and apply them to the segmentation of medical images. Our snakes are defined in terms of an affine cell image decomposition (ACID). The 'snakes in ACID' framework significantly extends conventional snakes, enabling topological flexibility among other features. The resulting topology adaptive snakes, or 'T-snakes', can be used to segment some of

Tim McInerney; Demetri Terzopoulos

1999-01-01

366

Sandstone-carbonate cycles in Tensleep Formation, eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Outcrop and core study of the Tensleep Formation in the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin has revealed cyclic deposits of eolian sandstone and marine carbonate. These cycles, several meters to tens of meters thick, represent the rise and fall of sea level on the Wyoming shelf during Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time. Falling sea level was marked by development of a sharp scour surface at the base of each cycle and progradation of eolian dunes over an exposed, shallow carbonate shelf. Subsequent sea level rise resulted in the reworking of eolian sand through wave activity and burrowing organisms. Subtidal carbonates overlies the reworked eolian sands and are sandy at the base, grading upward into fossiliferous dolomite mudstones to wackestones. The sharp scour surface, normally present directly on the subtidal carbonates, indicates that erosion eliminated any regressive marine deposits by deflation to the ground-water table during shoreline progradation or by deflation related to abrupt drop in sea level. Relative sea level changes on the low-relief Wyoming shelf affected large areas during Tensleep deposition. This resulted in widespread sandstone-carbonate cycles that provide the basis for regional correlations of the Tensleep Formation throughout the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin.

Rittersbacher, D.J.; Wheeler, D.M.; Horne, J.C.

1986-08-01

367

COLONIZATION OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES ON ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATES IN THE SNAKE, SPOKANE, CLARK FORK, AND BEAR RIVER DRAINAGES, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted as part of a continuing monitoring program by the EPA on the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of waterways of the United States. The principal objective was to assess benthic invertebrate communities in the Snake, Spokane, Clark Fork, and Be...

368

A Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin : 1992 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the second report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the Snake River Basin. The study plan involves yearly monitoring of genetic and meristic characteristics in hatchery, natural (supplemented), and wild (unsupplemented) populations in four different drainages for each species. This report summarizes the first two years of electrophoretic data for chinook salmon and steelhead and the first two years of meristic data for chinook salmon. Results obtained to date include the following: (1) Genetic variation was detected at 35 gene loci in chinook salmon and 50 gene loci in steelhead, both considerable increases over the number of polymorphic loci reported previously for Snake River populations. No substantial differences in levels of genetic variability were observed between years or between hatchery and natural/wild populations in either species. (2) In both species, statistically significant differences in allele frequency were typically found between years within populations. However, the temporal changes within populations were generally smaller than differences between populations. (3) Differences between chinook salmon populations classified as spring-and summer-run accounted for little of the overall genetic diversity; in contrast, substantial genetic differences were observed between ''B'' run steelhead from Dworshak Hatchery and ''A'' run populations from other study sites. (4) Estimates of the effective number of breeders per year (N,) derived from genetic data suggest that N{sub b} in natural and wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon populations is generally about one-quarter to three-quarters of the estimated number of adult spawners. (5) Analysis of the effects on data quality of sampling juveniles indicates that the small size of some wild fish may lead to a slight increase in the number of missing datapoints; however, there is no evidence for bias in the data that are collected. (6) Seven bilateral meristic characters in chinook salmon were identified that show promise as indicators of fluctuating asymmetry. Indices of asymmetry varied in a largely random fashion among populations. No correlation was found between the level of asymmetry and the level of genetic variability within individual fish.

Waples, Robin S.

1993-07-01

369

Numerically Simulating the Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Environment for Migrating Salmon in the Lower Snake River, 2002-2003 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater and Lower Snake Rivers and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional hydrodynamic and thermal conditions at the Clearwater and Snake River confluence and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Hydrodynamic, water quality, and meteorological conditions around the reservoir were monitored at frequent intervals, and this effort is continuing in 2003. Monitoring of the reservoir is a multi-year endeavor, and this report spans only the first year of data collection. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been applied. This model uses field data as boundary conditions and has been applied to the entire 2002 field season. Numerous data collection sites were within the model domain and serve as both calibration and validation locations for the numerical model. Errors between observed and simulated data varied in magnitude from location to location and from one time to another. Generally, errors were small and within expected ranges, although, as additional 2003 field data becomes available, model parameters may be improved to minimize differences between observed and simulated values. A two-dimensional, laterally-averaged hydrodynamic and water quality model was applied to the three reservoirs downstream of LGR (the pools behind Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor Dams). A two-dimensional model is appropriate for these reservoirs because observed lateral thermal variations during summer and fall 2002 were almost negligible; however, vertical thermal variations were quite large (see USACE 2003). The numerical model was applied to each reservoir independently to simulate the time period between May 1 and October 1, 2002. Differences between observed and simulated data were small, although improvements to model coefficients may be performed as additional thermal data, collected in the reservoirs during 2003, becomes available.

Cook, C.; Richmond, M.; Coleman, A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2003-06-01

370

Problem Soils of the Paddy Fields in the Eastern Coastal Plain of the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Red River Delta is one of the grain cradles in the rice-producing areas of Vietnam, this area contains salt-affected area. In this study, we aim to clarify the distribu- tion and characteristics of problem soils which have led to the land use condition as follows. The salt-affected land in the eastern region of the Red River Delta can

Shigeko HARUYAMA; Hung Thai DINH; Van Tiem LE

371

Extraction and distribution of organochlorine compounds in eastern Lake Erie and Niagara River water  

SciTech Connect

A chromic acid digestion extraction technique was compared to conventional solvent extraction for recovery of a series of organochlorine compounds (chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, DDE, mirex and photomirex) from centrifuged water collected at two sites along the Niagara River, between 1/22/86 and 1/7/87. The sampling sites were located near the river's inlet at Fort Erie, Ontario and close to the river's outlet to Lake Ontario at Niagara-on-the-Lake Ontario. The digestion technique was more efficient than conventional solvent extraction. Relative recovery (undigested/digested) decreased exponentially with increasing log K[sub ow]. This implies that digestion-extraction recovers both the fraction dissolved and the fraction bound to dissolved organic matter (DOM), while conventional solvent extraction only recovers the dissolved fraction. As the time compounds equilibrated with the DOM increased, the extraction efficiencies by conventional extraction decreased while the efficiencies by digestion extraction remained 100%. Results obtained with the digestion technique were also more reproducible than those with conventional solvent extraction. the relative recoveries also varied between the two sites. Using conventional solvent extraction PCB concentrations appeared to decrease by about 13% along the length of the river while with digestion extraction the PCBs increased by approximately 33%. To study the homogeneity of water in the eastern basin of Lake Erie, uncentrifuged water samples collected from the inlet of the Niagara River at Fort Erie, Ontario, were compared to samples collected from Lake Erie at Sturgeon Point, New York for the period from 7/24/86 to 1/24/87. The average concentrations of four PCB congeners, total organic carbon, turbidity and conductance were similar at the two sampling sites. The average p,p[prime]-DDE concentration was 0.53 ng/L at Fort Erie but only 0.28 ng/L at Sturgeon Point.

Driscoll, M.S.

1992-01-01

372

Contemporary pattern adjustments of Putna River's channel (South - Eastern Carpathians) reflected by cartographic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Putna is an approximately 160 km long Romanian river draining the south-eastern part of Carpathian Mountains. The extensive deforestations recorded before the 1950 in the upper part of its catchment have undoubtedly affected river channel planform typology due to the high rates of slope erosion and associated sediment input. After this period, an ample process of reforestation was initiated that limited soil erosion to a great extent. This determined further river channel adjustments as an effect of the boost in the energy of the stream discharge. However in scientific literature there are just a few established evidence and observations on these transformations. In order to determine the trend of channel adjustments we analysed three sets of topographical maps edited by the Romanian Army's Geographical Service in 1891-1901, 1961-1962 and 1981 (in scale 1:20 000 or 1:25 000), as well as some satellite and aerial images (Landsat, Corona, orthophotos). These cartographic materials were basis for creating a digital database, with the typology and position of the river channel during each historical stage for almost the entire valley length. Automatic measurements on channel sinuosity and braiding indices (based on the method used by Friend and Sinha, 1993) were performed for 121 one-kilometer sections. Along river channel, the coefficient of sinuosity showed a gradual decrease of the maximum values (3.7 at the end of 19th century, 3.4 in 1960, 3.2 in 1980 and 2.9 in 2003), but in terms of frequency, the trend is reversed, with more and more sections showing an increased index. A simple analysis of the sinuosity index variation, defined in classical manner, however, proved ineffective for relation to influencing factors (there may be similar values for different width values of the river floodplain). Hence we reevaluated the formulation of an index to show the percentage deviation of a riverbed from a straight course, the differences between valley sinuosity and river sinuosity and the importance of local topography. Applying these indices in the study of river sinuosity changes in the Putna Valley between 1890 and 2003, a continuous increase in the difference between the sinuosity of the river and that of the valley was found. This can be related to the influence of hydrological processes (lateral migration) on the plan form of the river channel. Similar to the evolution of the sinuosity index, the variation of the highest braiding index values (3.5 at the end of 19th century, 4.3 in 1960, 4.6 in 1980 and 3.9 in 2003) was found less significant compared to the frequency of certain classes. Based on the latter indicator, we concluded that there has been an overall decrease of braiding values during 1960 - 2000, accompanied by a similar decrease of surfaces occupied by depositional bars (in case of channel bars and islands - from approx. 700 ha at the end of 19th century to less than 500 ha in 2003). In conclusion, analysis of channel planform adjustments of the Putna River for the last century indicates an overall increase in the river's lateral dynamics and channel sinuosity comparative with braiding index. This may come from the evident decrease in the river's sediment discharge due to the massive reforestations.

Cristea, I.; R?doane, M.; Møndrescu, M.

2012-04-01

373

[Changes of wetland landscape pattern in Eastern Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve from 1995 to 1999].  

PubMed

Based on the 1995-1999 Landsat TM images and geographic information systems, this paper analyzed the change characteristics of wetland landscape pattern in the Eastern Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (an inlet of current flow path emptying into the sea), and related driving factors during the past few years pre and post the Yellow River diverting into Qing 8 anabranches in 1996. In 1995-1999, natural wetland was still the matrix of the wetlands in the Reserve, while constructed wetland only had a very small proportion. A substantial increase was observed in the area of non-wetlands, and a decline was found in the area of natural and constructed wetlands, among which, bare muddy tidal flats and marshes shrank significantly. Though the landscape types in the reserve had no homogeneity in the changes of shape and structure, and their aggregation degree in spatial distribution varied, the overall landscape structure became more complicated and fragmented, and the distribution of inner landscape types converted from continuously large blocks to discretely small patches. River diversion, flow break, and human activities were the main three driving factors leading to the changes of the wetland landscape pattern in the reserve. PMID:21361017

Liu, Yan-fen; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yi; Shan, Kai; Jin, Xiao-hua; Wang, Jin-he

2010-11-01

374

Distribution of the cyanophyte Trichodesmium (Oscillatoriaceae) in the eastern Caribbean Sea: influence of the Orinoco River.  

PubMed

Orinoco River influence in the Caribbean Sea, characterized by high nutrient input, causes a decrease of Trichodesmium populations. The Caribbean Time Series (CaTS) station, south of Puerto Rico (17 degrees 36'N 67 degrees 00'W), was monitored for 25 months in order to observe the Trichodesmium abundance pattern and the presence of the river plume. In general, mean Trichodesmium abundance was higher at the surface and decreased with depth. The mean upper water column (surface to 20 m) abundance was 54.1 +/- 32.6 col/m3. Within the sampling period, abundance was highly variable (1-700 col/m3). Correlation between Trichodesmium abundance and wind speed (p=0.002), chlorophyll a concentration (p=0.001), nitrate (p=0.02) and silicate (p=0.003) concentrations were statistically significant. However, Trichodesmium abundance was not correlated with salinity (p=0.70), temperature (p=0.16) and seawater density (p=0.71) variations at CaTS. Eastern Caribbean regions highly influenced by the Orinoco River discharge were devoid of Trichodesmium colonies. PMID:15266799

Navarro, A; Corredor, J E; Morell, J; Armstrong, R A

2000-12-01

375

Evaluation of the 1996 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Spring/Summer Yearling Chinook in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a post-season analysis of the accuracy of the 1996 predictions from the program RealTime. Observed 1996 migration data collected at Lower Granite Dam were compared to the predictions made by RealTime for the spring outmigration of wild spring/summer chinook. Appendix A displays the graphical reports of the RealTime program that were interactively accessible via the World Wide Web during the 1996 migration season. Final reports are available at address http://www.cqs.washington.edu/crisprt/. The CRISP model incorporated the predictions of the run status to move the timing forecasts further down the Snake River to Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary Dams. An analysis of the dams below Lower Granite Dam is available separately.

Townsend, Richard L.; Yasuda, Dean; Skalski, J.R.

1997-03-01

376

Evaluation of the 2008 Predictions of Run-Timing and Survival of Wild Migrant Yearling Chinook and Steelhead on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.  

SciTech Connect

Columbia Basin Research uses the COMPASS model on a daily basis during the outmigration of Snake River Chinook and steelhead smolts to predict downstream passage and survival. Fish arrival predictions and observations from program RealTime along with predicted and observed environmental conditions are used to make in-season predictions of arrival and survival to various dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. For 2008, calibrations of travel and survival parameters for two stocks of fish-Snake River yearling PIT-tagged wild chinook salmon (chin1pit) and Snake River PIT-tagged steelhead (lgrStlhd)-were used to model travel and survival of steelhead and chinook stocks from Lower Granite Dam (LWG) or McNary Dam (MCN) to Bonneville Dam (BON). This report summarizes the success of the COMPASS/RealTime process to model these migrations as they occur. We compared model results on timing and survival to data from two sources: stock specific counts at dams and end-of-season control survival estimates (Jim Faulkner, NOAA, pers. comm. Dec. 16, 2008). The difference between the predicted and observed day of median passage and the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between predicted and observed arrival cumulative distributions are measures of timing accuracy. MAD is essentially the average percentage error over the season. The difference between the predicted and observed survivals is a measure of survival accuracy. Model results and timing data were in good agreement from LWG to John Day Dam (JDA). Predictions of median passage days for the chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks were 0 and 2 days (respectively) later than observed. MAD for chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks at JDA were 2.3% and 5.9% (respectively). Between JDA and BON modeling and timing data were not as well matched. At BON, median passage predictions were 6 and 10 days later than observed and MAD values were 7.8% and 16.0% respectively. Model results and survival data were in good agreement from LWG to MCN. COMPASS predicted survivals of 0.77 and 0.69 for chin1pit and lgrStlhd, while the data control's survivals were 0.79 and 0.68. The differences are 0.02 and 0.01 (respectively), nearly identical. However, from MCN to BON, COMPASS predicted survivals of 0.74 and 0.69 while the data controls survivals were 0.47 and 0.53 respectively. Differences of 0.27 and 0.16. In summary: Travel and survival of chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks were well modeled in the upper reaches. Fish in the lower reaches down through BON suffered unmodeled mortality, and/or passed BON undetected. A drop in bypass fraction and unmodeled mortality during the run could produce such patterns by shifting the observed median passage day to appear artificially early.

Beer, W. Nicholas; Iltis, Susannah; Anderson, James J.

2009-01-01

377

Survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon Embryos, Alevins, and Fry Exposed to Variable Thermal and Dissolved Oxygen Regimes  

SciTech Connect

Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) initiate spawning in the Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River, Idaho (rkm 240-397), at water temperatures above 16 C. This temperature exceeds the states of Idaho and Oregon water quality standards for salmonid spawning. These standards are consistent with results from studies of embryos exposed to a constant thermal regime, while salmon eggs in the natural environment are rarely exposed to a constant temperature regime. The objective of this study was to assess whether variable temperatures (i.e., declining after spawning) affected embryo survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon alevins and fry. In 2003, fall Chinook salmon eggs were exposed to initial incubation temperatures ranging from 11-19 C in 2 C increments, and in 2004 eggs were exposed to initial temperatures of 13 C, 15 C, 16 C, 16.5 C, and 17 C. In both years, temperatures were adjusted downward approximately 0.2 C/day to mimic the thermal regime of the Snake River where these fish spawn. At 37-40 days post-fertilization, embryos were moved to a common exposure regime that followed the thermal profile of the Snake River through emergence. Mortality of fall Chinook salmon embryos increased markedly at initial incubation temperatures >17 C in both years. A logistic regression model estimated that a 50% reduction in survival from fertilization to emergence would occur at an initial incubation temperature of {approx}16 C. The laboratory results clearly showed a significant reduction in survival between 15 C and 17 C, which supported the model estimate. Results from 2004 showed a rapid decline in survival occurred between 16.5 C and 17 C, with no significant differences in survival at initial incubation temperatures <16.5 C. There were no significant differences across the range of initial temperature exposures for alevin and fry size at hatch and emergence. Differences in egg mass among females (notably 2003) most likely masked any size differences. Egg mass explained 86-98% of the variation of the size of alevins and fry at hatch and emergence. In 2003, maximum alevin wet weight increased as the initial temperatures increased, whereas the number of days it took to reach maximum wet weight decreased with increasing temperature. The number of days from fertilization to eyed egg, hatch, and emergence was highly related to temperature. Eggs exposed to initial temperatures of 13 C took 30-45 days longer to reach emergence than eggs initially exposed to 16.5 C. Overall, this study indicates that exposure to water temperatures up to 16.5 C will not have deleterious impacts on survival or growth from egg to emergence if temperatures decline at a rate of >0.2 C/day following spawning.

Geist, David R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Hand, Kristine D.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Chandler, James A.; Groves, Philip

2006-11-01

378

Shady Snakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make pretend snakes and use them to explore estimation and measurement. Learners roll out clay snakes and estimate and measure their lengths and diameters. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

379

United snakes.  

PubMed

Since their debut in 1987, snakes (active contour models) have become a standard image analysis technique with several variants now in common use. We present a framework called "United Snakes", which has two key features. First, it unifies the most popular snake variants, including finite difference, B-spline, and Hermite polynomial snakes in a consistent finite element formulation, thus expanding the range of object modeling capabilities within a uniform snake construction process. Second, it embodies the idea that the heretofore presumed competing technique known as "live wire" or "intelligent scissors" is in fact complementary to snakes and that the two techniques can advantageously be combined by introducing an effective hard constraint mechanism. The United Snakes framework amplifies the efficiency and reproducibility of the component techniques, and it offers more flexible interactive control while further minimizing user interactions. We apply United Snakes to several different medical image analysis tasks, including the segmentation of neuronal dendrites in EM images, dynamic chest image analysis, the quantification of growth plates in MR images and the isolation of the breast region in mammograms, demonstrating the generality, accuracy and robustness of the tool. PMID:16311065

Liang, Jianming; McInerney, Tim; Terzopoulos, Demetri

2005-11-28

380

Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1992 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

A field study was conducted at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in 1992 to evaluate the feasibility of using time-lapse video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon 0. nerka, and steelhead 0. mykiss using time-lapse video technology. High quality video images were produced with a time-lapse video system operating in 72 h mode from 1 May through 31 December, 1992 and fish were counted from 1 June through 15 December. From the video record we counted 15 sockeye salmon, 3,283 summer chinook salmon, 1,022 fall chinook salmon, and 125,599 steelhead. The composite count of target species generated from the video record was similar (p = 0.617) to the estimate made by on-site counters during identical time periods indicating that the two methods were precise. Comparisons of 24 h video counts and on-site (10 and 16 h) counts showed that a significant (p < 0.001) proportion of target salmonids migrated during the nighttime when on-site counts are not typically made at Lower Granite Dam. The mean sockeye salmon fork length measured from video images was 453 mm. Mean fork-lengths reported for Snake River sockeye salmon between 1953 and 1965 were much greater ({female} = 546 mm {male} = 577 mm). Cost comparisons showed that video costs were less than half those of on-site counting methods. The video method also included the collection of additional data. A computer software demonstration program was developed that graphically illustrated the possibilities of a completely automated, computerized fish counting and identification system.

Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Schartzberg, Mathew

1993-03-01

381

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Flow Augmentation in the Snake River, 1991-1995 : Phase I: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this evaluation was to estimate the volume and shape of flow augmentation water delivered in the Snake Basin during the years 1991 through 1995, and to assess the biological consequences to ESA-listed salmon stocks in that drainage. HDR Engineering, Inc. calculated flow augmentation estimates and compared their values to those reported by agencies in the Northwest. BioAnalysts, Inc. conducted the biological evaluation.

Giorgi, Albert E.; Schlecte, J.Warren [Bio Analysts, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)]|[HDR Engineering, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1997-07-01