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1

Geomorphology of the Eastern Snake River Plain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-week long laboratory exercise examines the linkages between the endogenic (tectonic and isostatic) and exogenic processes that created the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) landscape. The landform analysis portion of the exercise focuses upon recent basaltic volcanism and the Menan Buttes, the St. Anthony dunes and the fluvial drainage patterns that developed in the region.

Franzi, David

2

Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling in the upper Snake River Basin. Routine sampling of the Snake River was conducted during water years 1998-2002 to monitor the water quality of the Snake River through time. A synoptic study during 2002 was conducted to supplement the routine Snake River sampling and establish baseline water-quality conditions of five of its eastern tributaries?Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek. Samples from the Snake River and the five tributaries were collected at 12 sites and analyzed for field measurements, major ions and dissolved solids, nutrients, selected trace metals, pesticides, and suspended sediment. In addition, the eastern tributaries were sampled for fecal-indicator bacteria by the National Park Service during the synoptic study. Major-ion chemistry of the Snake River varies between an upstream site above Jackson Lake near the northern boundary of Grand Teton National Park and a downstream site near the southern boundary of the Park, in part owing to the inputs from the eastern tributaries. Water type of the Snake River changes from sodium bicarbonate at the upstream site to calcium bicarbonate at the downstream site. The water type of the five eastern tributaries is calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved solids in samples collected from the Snake River were significantly higher at the upstream site (p-value<0.001), where concentrations in 43 samples ranged from 62 to 240 milligrams per liter, compared to the downstream site where concentrations in 33 samples ranged from 77 to 141 milligrams per liter. Major-ion chemistry of Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek generally did not change substantially between the upstream sites near the National Park Service boundary with the National Forest and the downstream sites near the Snake River; however, variations in the major ions and dissolved solids existed between basins. Variations probably result from differences in geology between the tributary basins. Concentrations of dissolved ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in all samples collected from the Snake River and the five eastern tributaries were less than water-quality criteria for surface waters in Wyoming. Concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in samples from the Snake River and the tributaries generally were less than median concentrations determined for undeveloped streams in the United States; however, concentrations in some samples did exceed ambient total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus criteria for forested mountain streams in the Middle Rockies ecoregion recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to address cultural eutrophication. Sources for the excess nitrogen and phosphorus probably are natural because these basins have little development and cultivation. Concentrations of trace metals and pesticides were low and less than water-quality criteria for surface waters in Wyoming in samples collected from the Snake River and the five eastern tributaries. Atrazine, dieldrin, EPTC, or tebuthiuron were detected in estimated concentrations of 0.003 microgram per liter or less in 5 of 27 samples collected from the Snake River. An estimated concentration of 0.008 microgram per liter of metolachlor was detected in one sample from the Buffalo Fork. The estimated concentrations were less than the reporting levels for the pesticide analytical method. Suspended-sediment concentrations in 43 samples from the upstream site on the Snake River ranged from 1 to 604 milligrams per liter and were similar to suspended-sediment concentrations in 33 samples from the downstream site, which ranged from 1 to 648 milligrams per liter. Suspended-sediment concentrations in 38 samples collected from the tributary streams ranged from 1 t

Clark, Melanie L.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.; O'Ney, Susan E.

2004-01-01

3

Characterization and evolution of fractures in low-volume pahoehoe lava flows, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize fracture evolution in pa- hoehoe lava flows of the eastern Snake Riv- er Plain, Idaho, and highlight significant differences to flood-basalt sheet flows and implications for hydrologic models. There are four distinct fracture types in east- ern Snake River Plain flows: (1) column- bounding; (2) column-normal; (3) entabla- ture; and (4) inflation fractures. Types 1-3 are driven by

Conrad J. Schaefer; Simon A. Kattenhorn

2004-01-01

4

Processes of mantle enrichment and magmatic differentiation in the eastern Snake River Plain: Th isotope evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ˜ 85 km long Great Rift of southern Idaho bisects the volcanic depression that forms the eastern Snake River Plain. Thorium isotope systematics of compositionally diverse lavas of the Great Rift, including those of Craters of the Moon, record a spectrum of crust and mantle processes. ( 230Th) /( 232Th) ratios range from 0.87 to 1.11 and are enriched in ( 230Th) with respect to ( 238U) by up to 13%. Covariations in Th isotope systematics in lavas from Craters of the Moon reflect crustal assimilation accompanied by fractional crstallization involving accessory phases. Temperatures based on apatite and zircon saturation confirm other estimates of magmatic temperatures and, considered together with volcanic histories, suggest cooling in upper crustal magma chambers at rates of > 10° C/ka. Thermal and chemical evolution of the Great Rift basalts support their differentiation at lower crustal conditions. Although basalts of the eastern Snake River Plain are generally interpreted as having originated in ancient enriched mantle lithosphere beneath southern Idaho, they share remarkable chemical similarities with oceanic basalts derived from enriched sources attributed to mantle plumes. Thorium isotope signatures of the Great Rift basalts are those of depleted mantle, resulting in the most extreme case of disparity between 232Th/238U ratios delimited by Th and Pb isotope systematics. It is difficult to account for this decoupling by invoking subduction-related U enrichment. A more likely explanation is metasomatism of hybrid lithospheric mantle in the wake of the Yellowstone plume.

Reid, Mary R.

1995-04-01

5

Bimodal magmatism, basaltic volcanic styles, tectonics, and geomorphic processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geology presented in this field guide covers a wide spectrum of internal and surficial processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, one of the largest components of the combined late Cenozoic igneous provinces of the western United States. Focus is on widespread Quaternary basaltic plains volcanism that produced coalescent shields and complex eruptive centers that yielded compositionally evolved magmas. The guide is constructed in several parts beginning with discussion sections that provide an overview of the geology followed by road directions, with explanations, for specific locations. The geology overview briefly summarizes the collective knowledge gained, and petrologic implications made, over the past few decades. The field guide covers plains volcanism, lava flow emplacement, basaltic shield growth, phreatomagmatic eruptions, and complex and evolved eruptive centers. Locations and explanations are also provided for the hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, and environmental issues such as range fires and cataclysmic floods associated with the region.

Hughes, S. S.; Smith, R. P.; Hackett, W. R.; McCurry, M.; Anderson, S. R.; Ferdock, G. C.

1997-01-01

6

Plan of study for the regional aquifer-system analysis of the Snake River plain, Idaho and eastern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain is largely in southern Idaho and includes one of the Nation 's major regional aquifers. A comprehensive investigation of the area 's ground-water resources will be made as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program. Basaltic and sedimentary rocks in the Snake River Plain yield large quantities of water that are vital to the area 's agricultural economy. Basaltic rocks predominate in the eastern Snake River Plain and have especially high water-yielding capabilities. Surface water, largely from the Snake River, is extensively used for irrigation and is a major source of recharge to the ground-water system. Springs issuing from basaltic rocks that form the Snake River Canyon wall near Twin Falls are the major points of ground-water discharge. Increased use of ground water for irrigation is causing concern as to the effect of large-scale withdrawals on spring flow. Ground-water flow models will be used to improve understanding of the hydrologic system, and, if feasible, to aid in evaluating management alternatives. Ground-water quality will be defined and geochemical techniques used to determine the effects of water-rock reactions on water quality. Several reports are planned on different phases of the project, concluding with a summary report. (USGS)

Lindholm, Gerald F.

1981-01-01

7

Volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: A comparative planetary geology-guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planetary Geology Field Conference on the central Snake River Plain was conceived and developed to accomplish several objectives. Primarily, field conferences are sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to draw attention to aspects of terrestrial geology that appear to be important in interpreting the origin and evolution of extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. Another aspect is to present results of recent research in a region. A final objective of this conference is to bring together investigators of diverse backgrounds who share a common interest in the Snake River Plain. The Snake River Plain appears to be similar in surface morphology to many volcanic regions on the Moon, Mars, and possibly Mercury. Therefore, the Snake River Plain, in combination with the relatively good state of preservation, the lack of forests or other heavy vegetation, and the good network of jeep trails, is an area nearly ideal for analog studies.

Greeley, R.; King, J. S.

1977-01-01

8

Diversity of Oxygenase Genes from Methane and Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR amplification, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phylogenetic analysis of oxygenase genes were used for the characterization of in situ methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from free-living and attached communities in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The following three methane monooxygenase (MMO) PCR primer sets were used: A189-A682, which amplifies an internal region of both the pmoA gene of the

Daniel P. Erwin; Issac K. Erickson; Mark E. Delwiche; Frederick S. Colwell; Janice L. Strap; Ronald L. Crawford

2005-01-01

9

Enhanced Geothermal System Potential for Sites on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Snake River volcanic province overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle and represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America (Blackwell and Richards, 2004). This makes the Snake River Plain (SRP) one of the most under-developed and potentially highest producing geothermal districts in the United States. Elevated heat flow is typically highest along the margins of the topographic SRP and lowest along the axis of the plain, where thermal gradients are suppressed by the Snake River aquifer. Beneath this aquifer, however, thermal gradients rise again and may tap even higher heat flows associated with the intrusion of mafic magmas into the mid-crustal sill complex (e.g., Blackwell, 1989).

Robert K Podgorney; Thomas R. Wood; Travis L McLing; Gregory Mines; Mitchell A Plummer; Michael McCurry; Ahmad Ghassemi; John Welhan; Joseph Moore; Jerry Fairley; Rachel Wood

2013-09-01

10

Contemporary Tectonic Motion of the Eastern Snake River Plain: A Campaign Global Positioning System Study  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of precision campaign GPS data from 1995 and 2004 from ten benchmarks on the eastern Snake River Plain (eSRP) has revealed that the province moved 2.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr to the SW (232.4 ± 6.3°) relative to a fixed North American reference frame. The benchmarks had no measurable displacement relative to one another at the resolution of the GPS during the nine-year study, evidence that the province moves as a rigid, non-extending block. This scenario is supported by the aseismic nature of the province and the lack of measurable horizontal stress in boreholes. However, an additional small component of intra-plain extension must also be invoked to account for the observed NW-trending volcanic rift zones that transect the eSRP. We suggest that intra-plain extension is too slow (<1 mm/yr) to measure using our campaign GPS methods, but may be sufficient over millennial time scales to accommodate rift zone formation. Slower velocities measured on three benchmarks within the neighboring Basin and Range ‘seismic parabola’ are consistent with this region serving as a zone of detachment between the North American craton and the faster-moving eSRP.

Suzette Payne; John Chadwick; Dave Rodgers; Teresa Vanhove

2007-11-01

11

Solute geochemistry of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The authors report that proposed geochemical reactions controlling solutes in the Snake River plain aquifer system are precipitation of calcite and silica; dissolution of olivine, pyroxene, pyrite, and and-hydrite; and weathering of plagioclase. About 20 percent of solutes are from aquifer framework weathering. The remainig solutes are from tributary drainage basins. Proposed geochemical reactions in the geothermal system are dissolution of fluorite, anhydrite, calcite, and feldspars; oxidation of pyrite; and ion exchange. Geothermal water residence time is about 17,700 years.

Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

1988-01-01

12

Sr Isotopic Variation in Plagioclase Phenocrysts of the Heise Volcanic Field, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feldspars within single eruptive units of rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain are tightly grouped into unimodal Sr isotope populations. Wolff et al. (2011) suggested that this Sr isotopic homogeneity is characteristic of Snake River-type rhyolitic volcanism, and reflects unusually high magma temperatures and low water contents. We test this hypothesis with new Sr data from plagioclase phenocrysts from the Heise Volcanic Field, a large nested caldera complex in the eastern Snake River Plain. We sampled the oldest unit (Tuff of Blacktail Creek, 6.6 Ma) and youngest unit (Kilgore Tuff, 4.5 Ma) at their type sections. To assess within unit variability, we also sampled widely separated exposures of the units across the caldera complex. Plagioclase crystals were separated magnetically and by hand-picking. Sr isotopes were analyzed in 9 to 66 grains per sample by LA-MC-ICPMS at the Washington State University GeoAnalytical Lab. Blacktail Creek samples have tight unimodal distributions with 87Sr/86Sr modes between 0.7126 and 0.7128 that support the Wolff et al. hypothesis. The Kilgore samples show considerably more variability. While all Kilgore samples have a similar principal mode between 0.7116 and 0.7118, additional minor modes are generally present. The Kilgore results are surprising given oxygen isotope evidence for magma homogeneity prior to eruption, crystal residence times of ~110 kyr, and magma temperatures of ~800-900°C (Watts et al., 2011). Under such temperatures, Sr isotopic homogeneity in plagioclase is likely achieved in 5 mm grains within <10 kyr. The observed Sr isotope heterogeneity in Kilgore may result from isolation of magma batches until shortly before eruption. References: Wolff et al., 2011, Geology 39(10), 931-934; Watts et al. 2011, J. Petrology 52(5), 857-890.

Phillips, W. M.; Schwartz, D. M.; Ellis, B. S.

2012-12-01

13

Constraining Yellowstone Magmatic Processes Beneath the Eastern Snake River Plain From Rayleigh Wave Ambient Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prominent feature of the Yellowstone hotspot track is the time-transgressive sequence of rhyolitic calderas that fill the 80 km wide structural downwarp associated with the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The caldera eruptive products are estimated to be 2-3 km thick with a <1 km lid of late stage basalts. Three processes are used to explain the ESRP downwarp: 1) densification of the mid-crust due to emplacement of mantle derived basalts 2) differential extension between the ESRP and its margins 3) outward directed flow of the ESRP lower crust forced by the load associated with mid-crustal densification. Several lines of evidence support the existence of a dense ESRP mid-crust. Petrologic analysis suggests that the caldera eruption magmas are fractionated from mid-crustal basalt intrusions with modest amounts of crustal melting and assimilation. Given the estimated extrusive volcanic volumes, petrologic constraints suggest that a 17-37 km thick layer of mantle derived basalt has been added to the ESRP crust. Flexural modeling to match the observed downwarp of the fold axes about the ESRP suggests that a 10-20 km thick layer with a 3-4% density increase is required. Remarkable is that a new synoptic scale crustal thickness map shows no significant crustal thickness gradient between the ESRP and its margins, evidence for outward directed lower crustal flow. Seismic constraints with respect to the volume and excess weight of the mid-crustal sill remain relatively poor. Two seismic refraction lines from 1978 indicate that a 10-15 km thick high velocity body resides in the ESRP mid-crust. Imaging using converted P to S waves from PASSCAL experiments (SRP93 and CD- Yellowstone 2000) are consistent with this model, but otherwise do not map out the volume of the mid-crustal `sill'. A ballistic Rayleigh wave shear velocity image was unable to resolve a mid-crustal high velocity zone due to poor vertical resolution associated with the lack of significant phase velocity constraints below 30 s period. To provide new constraints on the the ESRP mid-crust, shorter period data between 5-30 s are required. Ambient noise analysis provides this range of data from processing up to 320 days of data from the 75 station Yellowstone-Billings-NSN arrays. Our analysis measures group velocity arrival times from vertical component noise correlation functions. Preliminary results show that fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves are isolated by stacking >50 days of data to provide >10 signal-to-noise ratio for 5-25 s periods. Our ultimate goal is a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ballistic-wave phase times and seismic noise group velocity times to constrain the volume and mass of the mid-crustal sill.

Stachnik, J. C.; Dueker, K. G.

2006-12-01

14

Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for NO3 contamination in agricultural areas.

Plummer, L. N.; Rupert, M. G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

2000-01-01

15

Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The southern termination of the Howe segment of the Lemhi fault was placed between Howe lines H1 and H2, 2.2 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. In the adjacent basin, south-dipping normal faults at the northern end of Howe line 81-3 and two southwest-dipping normal faults at the northeastern end of Howe line 82-2 that can be correlated with Howe segment. South of the surface expression, two southwest-dipping normal faults on Howe line H1 can be correlated with the Howe segment. Further into the ESRP, Howe lines H2, H3, and S4 show continuous flat lying reflectors and indicate no fault offset. The southern termination of the Arco segment of the Lost River fault was placed between Arco lines S2 and A3, a distance of 4.6 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. Within the basin, west-dipping normal faults interpreted on Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2 can be correlated with the Arco segment. Further south within the Arco volcanic rift zone (VRZ), three seismic lines (Arco lines A2, S2, and A3) permit two interpretations. The west- and south-dipping normal faults on Arco lines A2 and S2 could be associated with slip along the Arco segment. These normal faults have an opposite dip to an east-dipping fault on Arco line A3. The observed small-offsets (< 85 m) along the oppositely dipping normal faults can be interpreted as a graben structure that resulted from dike intrusion within the Arco VRZ. Arco line A4 further south within the Arco VRZ shows flat lyin

S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

2006-10-01

16

Analysis of steady-state flow and advective transport in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer System, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The regional aquifer system of the eastern Snake River Plain is an important component of the hydrologic system in eastern Idaho. The aquifer was thought to be the largest unified ground-water reservoir on the North American continent but is probably second to the Floridian aquifer in the southeastern United States. Flow in the aquifer is from major recharge areas in the northeastern part of the plain to discharge areas in the southwestern part. A comprehensive analysis of the occurrence and movement of water in the aquifer was presented by Garabedian. The analysis included a description of the recharge and discharge, the hydraulic properties, and a numerical model of the aquifer. The purposes of this report are to: (1) describe compartments in the aquifer that function as intermediate and regional flow systems, (2) describe pathlines for flow originating at or near the water table, and (3) quantify traveltimes for adjective transport originating at or near the water table. The model constructed for this study and described in this report will aid those concerned with the management and protection of the aquifer. The model will serve as a tool to further our understanding of the aquifer and will aid in assessing the needs for future flow and transport studies of the aquifer.

Ackerman, D.J.

1995-10-01

17

Seismic hazards astride the boundary between the eastern Snake River Plain and northern Basin and Range Province Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of the damaging 1983 M[sub w] 6.8 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake, which ruptured a central segment of the Lost River fault, has increased the awareness of seismic hazards in this portion of the Northern Basin and Range Province (NBR). As a result, comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were performed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which is located within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) but adjacent to the NBR. In this region, the most significant seismic sources are three late-Quaternary NBR normal faults, the Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead faults, and ESRP volcanic zones. For each source, the maximum earthquake, source geometry, recurrence and their uncertainties were estimated and incorporated into the probabilistic analysis through the use of logic trees. Recent paleoseismic trenching of the Lost River and Lemhi faults and volcanic mapping in the ESRP provided much of the data necessary to characterize the most significant seismic sources. Issues such as fault segmentation, temporal clustering, the nature of fault termination, and the maximum magnitude and recurrence of volcanic zone earthquakes were evaluated in the hazard analyses. Deterministic and probabilistic ground motions were computed using both empirical and stochastic approaches. In the deterministic analysis, the southern segments of the Lemhi fault controlled the hazard at the INEL due to their proximity and potential to generate M[sub w] [approximately]7 earthquakes. In the estimation of deterministic ground motions, potential rupture scenarios were evaluated for a Lemhi earthquake. In the probabilistic analysis, the hazard is dominated by the ESRP random earthquake, and the Lemhi and Lost River faults. The difference in the results of the two analyses points out the uncertainties in assessing seismic hazards due to random earthquakes and in regions of large but infrequent earthquakes.

Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L. (Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States)); Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. (Geomatrix Consultants, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Smith, R.P.; Jackson, S.M.; Hackett, W.R. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.M. (Pacific Engineering and Analysis, El Cerrito, CA (United States)); Knuepfer, P.L.K. (State Univ. of New York, Binghamton, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Bruhn, R.L.; Wu, D. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1993-04-01

18

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

2013-10-01

19

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

2012-10-01

20

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

2011-10-01

21

Applications of the USArray and PBO facilities to tectonic problems in the northern Basin-and-Range province and the eastern Snake River Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental tectonic questions of the northern Rocky Mountains can be addressed using the Earthscope facilities. Why is extension in the Basin-and-Range province migrating eastward and westward? Is the eastern Snake River Plain extending in a NE-SW direction as much as the adjacent Basin- and-Range province? If not, how is the strain gradient between the plain and the adjacent Basin-and-Range province

Susanne U. Janecke

22

Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Medicine Lodge Creek Drainage Basin with Implications for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Eastern Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) is an unconfined, continuous aquifer located in a northeast-trending structural basin filled with basaltic lava flows and sedimentary interbeds in eastern Idaho. The ESPRA is not an inert transport system, as it acts as both a sink and source for solutes found in the water. More than 90% of the water recharged naturally to the ESRPA is from the surrounding mountain drainage basins. Consequently, in order to understand the natural geochemistry of water within the ESRPA, the chemistry of the groundwater from the mountain drainage basins must be characterized and the processes that control the chemistry need to be understood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho State University, has been studying these mountain drainage basins to help understand the movement of waste solutes in the ESRPA at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This study focuses on the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin, which originates in the Beaverhead Mountains, extends onto the eastern Snake River Plain, and contributes recharge to the ESRPA beneath the INL as underflow along the northeastern INL boundary. Water and rock samples taken from the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin were analyzed to better understand water/rock interactions occurring in this system and to define the groundwater geochemistry of this drainage basin. Water samples were collected at 10 locations in the drainage basin during June 2012: 6 groundwater wells used for agricultural irrigation or domestic use and 4 springs. These water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, isotopes, and dissolved gasses. Samples of rock representative of the basalt, rhyolite, and sediments that occur within the drainage basin also were collected. These samples were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and petrographic study to determine the mineralogical constituents of the rock and the presence and composition of alteration products. The lithologic variability in this area leads to differing water-rock interactions occurring in different parts of the drainage basin. Anthropogenic influences also affect the water; at the far downgradient end of the drainage basin, increased levels of chloride and sulfate in the groundwater suggest an increased influence of irrigation recharge. Results from both water and rock analyses are combined in geochemical modeling software to determine plausible reactions that occur in groundwater collected at the sampling sites.

Ginsbach, M. L.; Rattray, G. W.; McCurry, M. O.; Welhan, J. A.

2012-12-01

23

Brittle deformation and slope failure at the North Menan Butte tuff cone, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The manifestation of brittle deformation within inactive slumps along the North Menan Butte, a basaltic tuff cone in the Eastern Snake River Plain, is investigated through field and laboratory studies. Microstructural observations indicate that brittle strain is localized along deformation bands, a class of structural discontinuity that is predominant within moderate to high-porosity, clastic sedimentary rocks. Various subtypes of deformation bands are recognized in the study area based on the sense of strain they accommodate. These include dilation bands (no shear displacement), dilational shear bands, compactional shear bands and simple shear bands (no volume change). Measurements of the host rock permeability between the deformation bands indicate that the amount of brittle strain distributed throughout this part of the rock is negligible, and thus deformation bands are the primary means by which brittle strain is manifest within this tuff. Structural discontinuities that are similar in appearance to deformation bands are observed in other basaltic tuffs. Therefore deformation bands may represent a common structural feature of basaltic tuffs that have been widely misclassified as fractures. Slumping and collapse along the flanks of active volcanoes strongly influence their eruptive behavior and structural evolution. Therefore characterizing the process of deformation band and fault growth within basaltic tuff is key to achieving a more complete understanding of the evolution of basaltic volcanoes and their associated hazards.

Okubo, Chris H.

2014-01-01

24

Brittle deformation and slope failure at the North Menan Butte tuff cone, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestation of brittle deformation within inactive slumps along the North Menan Butte, a basaltic tuff cone in the Eastern Snake River Plain, is investigated through field and laboratory studies. Microstructural observations indicate that brittle strain is localized along deformation bands, a class of structural discontinuity that is predominant within moderate to high-porosity, clastic sedimentary rocks. Various subtypes of deformation bands are recognized in the study area based on the sense of strain they accommodate. These include dilation bands (no shear displacement), dilational shear bands, compactional shear bands and simple shear bands (no volume change). Measurements of the host rock permeability between the deformation bands indicate that the amount of brittle strain distributed throughout this part of the rock is negligible, and thus deformation bands are the primary means by which brittle strain is manifest within this tuff. Structural discontinuities that are similar in appearance to deformation bands are observed in other basaltic tuffs. Therefore deformation bands may represent a common structural feature of basaltic tuffs that have been widely misclassified as fractures. Slumping and collapse along the flanks of active volcanoes strongly influence their eruptive behavior and structural evolution. Therefore characterizing the process of deformation band and fault growth within basaltic tuff is key to achieving a more complete understanding of the evolution of basaltic volcanoes and their associated hazards.

Okubo, Chris H.

2014-05-01

25

The 1988 INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) microearthquake survey near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain  

SciTech Connect

A network of seventeen analog recording seismograph, spaced approximately 2 km apart, were operated from May to November, 1988 near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) to record small magnitude microearthquakes. Two three-component digital seismographs were also installed to record the microearthquake activity for analysis of earthquake source parameters and any regional earthquakes for possible analysis of the localized site and crustal effects of the ESRP on earthquake ground motions. We determined near-surface crustal velocities for this area that were slightly lower than the near-surface crustal velocities presently used in routine locations of events recorded by the INEL Seismic Network from five 100 lb surface blasts. During the survey period, only two earthquakes were located near the network area. One of the events occurred in May and was recorded by four of the portable seismic stations and two of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. It had a coda magnitude (M{sub c}) of approximately 0.3. The other event was recorded by seventeen portable analog stations and three of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. We located this microearthquake, M{sub c}=0.5, about 2 km west of Howe, Idaho, off of the ESRP. We determined an unconstrained focal mechanism for this event, which could be interpreted as normal faulting striking N 44{degree} W or strike-slip faulting on a plane striking either N 44{degree} W or N 47{degree} E. 26 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Jackson, S.M.; Anderson, D.M.; Carpenter, G.S.; Gilbert, H.K.; Martin, S.M.; Permann, P.J.

1989-08-01

26

Distinctive upper mantle anisotropy beneath the High Lava Plains and Eastern Snake River Plain, Pacific Northwest, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific Northwest (PNW) has experienced voluminous intraplate volcanism over the past ˜17 Ma, beginning with the Steens/Columbia River flood basalts and continuing with the still-ongoing volcanism in the High Lava Plains (HLP) and eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). Here we present two complementary datasets (SKS splitting and Rayleigh wave phase velocity anisotropy) that place constraints on the anisotropic structure of the upper mantle beneath the HLP and SRP regions. Beneath the HLP, SKS phases reveal dominantly E-W fast splitting directions and large (up to ˜2.7 s) delay times, with pronounced lateral variations in ?t. Lateral and depth variability in the strength of anisotropy beneath the HLP is also evident from Rayleigh wave dispersion. Beneath the SRP, SKS splitting delay times are much smaller (˜0.5 s), and surface wave observations suggest a region of upper mantle anisotropy (˜50-150 km depth) with a geometry that deviates significantly from the generally plate motion parallel fast directions observed just outside of the SRP. Beneath the HLP, the geometry of the anomalously strong anisotropy is similar to the anisotropy in the deeper parts of the upper mantle, resulting in constructive interference and large SKS splitting delay times. Beneath the SRP, the geometry of the anomalous anisotropic region in the shallow mantle is different, resulting in destructive interference and reduced SKS splitting delay times. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations, including variations in olivine lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) strength, transitions in olivine fabric type, and a contribution from aligned partial melt.

Wagner, Lara S.; Long, Maureen D.

2013-10-01

27

Cross-flows in observation boreholes induced by distant pumping of basalt aquifers: Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Vertical flow velocities up to 20 ft/minute occur in borehole between stratified permeable zones of basalt aquifers of the eastern Snake River Plain. Water is transferred vertically in wells across relatively impermeable zones 35 to 65 ft thick between permeable zones 515 feet deep and a zone 550 to 575 ft deep. Large rates of cross flows are caused by a well 2,000 feet distant which pumps 3,100 gallons/minute with a 2.0 hour on and a 3.5 hour off cycle. Impeller flow-meter logging shows the pump cycle produces reversals in flow direction within 120 seconds of pump switching. Preliminary results from packer isolation of the 500--515 ft zone indicates flow is induced by a hydraulic-head difference between permeable zones set up within 14 seconds of the pump turning on in the distant well. Distant pumping induces downward flow in the observation well, indicating the lower zone has a better connection to the pumped zone. When the pump is off, flow is upward at a lesser rate, suggesting the ambient hydraulic head in this system of aquifers decreases upward. Transmissivity of 1.5 [times] 10[sup 6] gallons/day/ft and storativity of 0.08 from well tests reported by others in this area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory do not predict such rapid response times for head changes over a distance of 2,000 feet. The authors suggest that the basalt aquifer system here behaves on a short time scale as a system of confined aquifers with storativity on the order of 10[sup [minus]5] rather than 0.08. The above observations on USGS wells no. 44 and 46 and pumping well CPP-2 show that cross-flow in boreholes provides a vertical path for ground water and contaminant movement between stratified basalt aquifers in the vicinity of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant.

Bennecke, W.M.; Wood, S.H. (Boise State Univ., ID (United States)); Olsen, J.; Barrash, W. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Boise, ID (United States))

1993-04-01

28

Application of a parameter-estimation technique to modeling the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River plain, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nonlinear, least-squares regression technique for the estimation of ground-water flow model parameters was applied to the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The technique uses a computer program to simulate two-dimensional, steady-state ground-water flow. Hydrologic data for the 1980 water year were used to calculate recharge rates, boundary fluxes, and spring discharges. Ground-water use was estimated from irrigated land maps and crop consumptive-use figures. These estimates of ground-water withdrawal, recharge rates, and boundary flux, along with leakance, were used as known values in the model calibration of transmissivity. Leakance values were adjusted between regression solutions by comparing model-calculated to measured spring discharges. In other simulations, recharge and leakance also were calibrated as prior-information regression parameters, which limits the variation of these parameters using a normalized standard error of estimate. Results from a best-fit model indicate a wide areal range in transmissivity from about 0.05 to 44 feet squared per second and in leakance from about 2.2x10 -9 to 6.0 x 10 -8 feet per second per foot. Along with parameter values, model statistics also were calculated, including the coefficient of correlation between calculated and observed head (0.996), the standard error of the estimates for head (40 feet), and the parameter coefficients of variation (about 10-40 percent). Additional boundary flux was added in some areas during calibration to achieve proper fit to ground-water flow directions. Model fit improved significantly when areas that violated model assumptions were removed. It also improved slightly when y-direction (northwest-southeast) transmissivity values were larger than x-direction (northeast-southwest) transmissivity values. The model was most sensitive to changes in recharge, and in some areas, to changes in transmissivity, particularly near the spring discharge area from Milner Dam to King Hill.

Garabedian, Stephen P.

1986-01-01

29

Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

Maupin, Molly A.

1992-01-01

30

Shear-wave splitting beneath the Snake River Plain suggests a mantle upwelling beneath eastern Nevada, USA*1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snake River Plain (SRP), a 90-km-wide topographic depression in southern Idaho, is a topographically anomalous feature in the western U.S. Previous seismic studies focused on the northeastern SRP to study its relationship with the Yellowstone hotspot. We present new teleseismic shear-wave splitting data from six broadband seismic stations deployed along the axis of the SRP from June 2000 to

Kristoffer T. Walker; Götz H. R. Bokelmann; Simon L. Klemperer

2004-01-01

31

Analysis of steady-state flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative estimates of ground-water flow directions and traveltimes for advective flow were developed for the regional aquifer system of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The work included: (1) descriptions of compartments in the aquifer that function as intermediate and regional flow systems, (2) descriptions of pathlines for flow originating at or near the water table, and (3) quantitative estimates of traveltimes for advective transport originating at or near the water table. A particle-tracking postprocessing program was used to compute pathlines on the basis of output from an existing three-dimensional steady-state flow model. The flow model uses 1980 conditions to approximate average annual conditions for 1950-80. The advective transport model required additional information about the nature of flow across model boundaries, aquifer thickness, and porosity. Porosity of two types of basalt strata has been reported for more than 1,500 individual cores from test holes, wells, and outcrops near the south side of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The central 80 percent of samples had porosities of 0.08 to 0.25, the central 50 percent of samples, O. 11 to 0.21. Calibration of the model involved choosing a value for porosity that yielded the best solution. Two radiologic contaminants, iodine-129 and tritium, both introduced to the flow system about 40 years ago, are relatively conservative tracers. Iodine- 129 was considered to be more useful because of a lower analytical detection limit, longer half-life, and longer flow path. The calibration value for porosity was 0.21. Most flow in the aquifer is contained within a regional-scale compartment and follows paths that discharge to the Snake River downstream from Milner Dam. Two intermediate-scale compartments exist along the southeast side of the aquifer and near Mud Lake.One intermediate-scale compartment along the southeast side of the aquifer discharges to the Snake River near American Fails Reservoir and covers an area of nearly 1,000 square miles. This compartment, which receives recharge from an area of intensive surface-water irrigation, is apparently fairly stable. The other intermediate-scale compartment near Mud Lake covers an area of 300 square miles. The stability and size of this compartment are uncertain, but are assumed to be in a state of change. Traveltimes for advective flow from the water table to discharge points in the regional compartment ranged from 12 to 350 years for 80 percent of the particles; in the intermediate-scale flow compartment near American Falls Reservoir, from 7 to 60 years for 80 percent of the particles; and in the intermediate-scale compartment near Mud Lake, from 25 to 100 years for 80 percent of the particles. Traveltimes are sensitive to porosity and assumptions regarding the importance of the strength of internal sinks, which represent ground-water pumpage. A decrease in porosity results in shorter traveltimes but not a uniform decrease in traveltime, because the porosity and thickness is different in each model layer. Most flow was horizontal and occurred in the top 500 feet of the aquifer. An important limitation of the model is the assumption of steady-state flow. The most recent trend in the flow system has been a decrease in recharge since 1987 because of an extended drought and changes in land use. A decrease in flow through the system will result in longer traveltimes than those predicted for a greater flow. Because the interpretation of the model was limited to flow on a larger scale, and did not consider individual wells or well fields, the interpretations were not seriously limited by the discretization of well discharge. The interpretations made from this model also were limited by the discretization of the major discharge areas. Near discharge areas, pathlines might not be representative at the resolution of the grid. Most improvement in the estimates of ground-waterflow directions and travelt

Ackerman, D. J.

1995-01-01

32

In Situ Production of Chlorine-36 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho: Implications for Describing Ground-Water Contamination Near a Nuclear Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the calculated contribution to ground water of natural, in situ produced 36Cl in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and to compare these concentrations in ground water with measured concentrations near a nuclear facility in southeastern Idaho. The scope focused on isotopic and chemical analyses and associated 36Cl in situ production calculations on 25 whole-rock samples from 6 major water-bearing rock types present in the eastern Snake River Plain. The rock types investigated were basalt, rhyolite, limestone, dolomite, shale, and quartzite. Determining the contribution of in situ production to 36Cl inventories in ground water facilitated the identification of the source for this radionuclide in environmental samples. On the basis of calculations reported here, in situ production of 36Cl was determined to be insignificant compared to concentrations measured in ground water near buried and injected nuclear waste at the INEEL. Maximum estimated 36Cl concentrations in ground water from in situ production are on the same order of magnitude as natural concentrations in meteoric water.

L. D. Cecil; L. L. Knobel; J. R. Green (USGS); S. K. Frape (University of Waterloo)

2000-06-01

33

Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was developed to support Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-04 groundwater flow and transport studies. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational tools designed to numerically model the regional groundwater flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The objective of developing the current model was to create a tool for defining the regional groundwater flow at the INEL. The model was developed to (a) support future transport modeling for WAG 10-04 by providing the regional groundwater flow information needed for the WAG 10-04 risk assessment, (b) define the regional groundwater flow setting for modeling groundwater contaminant transport at the scale of the individual WAGs, (c) provide a tool for improving the understanding of the groundwater flow system below the INEL, and (d) consolidate the existing regional groundwater modeling information into one usable model. The current model is appropriate for defining the regional flow setting for flow submodels as well as hypothesis testing to better understand the regional groundwater flow in the area of the INEL. The scale of the submodels must be chosen based on accuracy required for the study.

McCarthy, J.M.; Arnett, R.C.; Neupauer, R.M. [and others

1995-03-01

34

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to Part 226 Wildlife and...Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and...

2013-10-01

35

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

2009-10-01

36

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon ...Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

2010-10-01

37

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to Part 226 Wildlife and...Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and...

2012-10-01

38

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to Part 226 Wildlife and...Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and...

2011-10-01

39

Iodine-129 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2010-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1953 to 1988, approximately 0.941 curies of iodine-129 (129I) were contained in wastewater generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with almost all of this wastewater discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Most of the wastewater containing 129I was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; lesser quantities also were discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. During 2010–12, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy collected groundwater samples for 129I from 62 wells in the ESRP aquifer to track concentration trends and changes for the carcinogenic radionuclide that has a 15.7 million-year half-life. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000013±0.0000005 to 1.02±0.04 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and generally decreased in wells near the INTEC, relative to previous sampling events. The average concentration of 129I in groundwater from 15 wells sampled during four different sample periods decreased from 1.15 pCi/L in 1990–91 to 0.173 pCi/L in 2011–12. All but two wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases in concentration, and all but one sample had concentrations less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 1 pCi/L. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. The decreases in 129I concentrations, in areas around INTEC where concentrations increased between 2003 and 2007, were attributed to less recharge near INTEC either from less flow in the Big Lost River or from less local snowmelt and anthropogenic sources. Although wells near INTEC sampled in 2011–12 showed decreases in 129I concentrations compared with previously collected data, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed small increases. These slight increases are attributed to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a pulse of water from a particular disposal period. Wells sampled for the first time around the Naval Reactors Facility had 129I concentrations slightly greater than background concentrations in the ESRP aquifer. These concentrations are attributed to possible leakage from landfills at the Naval Reactors Facility or seepage from air emission deposits from INTEC, or both. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected discrete groundwater samples from 25 zones in 11 wells equipped with multilevel monitoring systems to help define the vertical distribution of 129I in the aquifer. Concentrations ranged from 0.000006±0.000004 to 0.082±0.003 pCi/L. Two new wells completed in 2012 showed variability of up to one order of magnitude of concentrations of 129I among various zones. Two other wells showed similar concentrations of 129I in all three zones sampled. Concentrations were well less than the maximum contaminant level in all zones.

Bartholomay, Roy C.

2013-01-01

40

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Fisheries 7 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2009-10-01

41

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2010-10-01

42

Predation of Radio-Marked Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) Ducklings by Eastern Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) and Western Fox Snakes (Pantherophis vulpinus) on the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the predation rate of Eastern Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) and Western Fox Snakes (Pantherophis vulpinus) on waterfowl, particularly ducklings, is minimal. Most information that exists focuses on the percent of waterfowl found in the diet of sampled turtles or snakes. Although this information is useful, it does not elucidate the potential effect of reptile predation on waterfowl

Kevin P. Kenow; Joshua M. Kapfer; Carl E. Korschgen

2009-01-01

43

33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117.1058...Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington...Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco...

2009-07-01

44

Subsidence of a volcanic basin by flexure and lower crustal flow: The eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is a linear volcanic basin interpreted by many workers to reflect late Cenozoic migration of North America over the Yellowstone hotspot. Thermal subsidence of this volcanic province with respect to Yellowstone has been documented by several workers, but no one has characterized subsidence with respect to the adjacent Basin and Range Province. This paper documents crustal flexure along the northwest edge of the ESRP, uses flexure to model the dimensions of a dense load beneath the basin, and presents evidence in support of density-driven subsidence and lower crustal flow away from the basin. Crustal flexure adjacent to the ESRP is reflected by the attitudes of Mesozoic fold hinges and Neogene volcanic rocks. Fold hinges formed with a subhorizontal plunge and a trend perpendicular to the ESRP but now show a southward plunge near the ESRP of as much as 20°-25°. We present a contour map of equal fold plunges proximal to the ESRP that shows flexure is roughly parallel to and extends 10-20 km north of the average edge of the ESRP. Flexural profiles indicate the minimum amount of ESRP subsidence, with respect to the Basin and Range; subsidence ranges from 4.5 to 8.5 km. The structural contour map and published seismic and gravity data were used to develop and constrain flexural subsidence models. These models indicate the flexed crust is very weak (flexural parameter of 4-10 km), interpreted to be a result of the high heat flow of the ESRP. Assuming subsidence was induced by emplacement of a dense crustal layer beneath the ESRP, a midcrustal "sill" identified in previous seismic surveys is too wide and probably too thin to produce the measured flexure. New dimensions include a thickness of 17-25 km and a half width of 40-50 km, which place the edge of the sill beneath the edge of the ESRP. The dimensions of the ESRP sill are based on isostatic compensation in the lower crust because compensation in the asthenosphere requires an unreasonable sill thickness of 30+ km and because ESRP seismic, gravity, and heat flow data support lower crustal compensation. Density-driven lower crustal flow away from the ESRP is proposed to accommodate subsidence and maintain isostatic equilibrium. Timing of subsidence is constrained by ESRP exploratory wells, where 6.6 Ma rhyolites at a depth of 1.5 km indicate most subsidence occurred prior to their emplacement, and by strong spatial correlations between plunge contours and Quaternary volcanic rift zones. Two processes interpreted to contribute to the load include an extensive midcrustal mafic load emplaced at ˜10 Ma, which provided the heat source for the initial rhyolitic volcanism on the ESRP, and continuing, localized loads from dikes and sills associated with Quaternary basalts. Widespread ˜10 Ma magmatism and subsidence conflicts with simple time-transgressive migration of the Yellowstone hotspot, indicating a need for revision of the hotspot paradigm.

McQuarrie, Nadine; Rodgers, David W.

1998-04-01

45

Field and Geochemical Study of Table Legs Butte and Quaking Aspen Butte, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: An Analog to the Morphology of Small Shield Volcanoes on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data allows insight to Martian features in great detail, revealing numerous small shields in the Tempe region, consisting of low profiles and a prominent summit caps . Terrestrial examples of this shield morphology are found on the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. This plains-style volcanism [2] allows an analog to Martian volcanism based on topographic manifestations of volcanic processes . Recent studies link the slope and morphology of Martian volcanoes to eruptive process and style . The ESRP, a 400km long, 100km wide depression, is host to hundreds of tholeiitic basalt shields, which have low-profiles built up over short eruptive periods of a few months or years . Many of these smaller scale shields (basal diameters rarely exceed 5km) display morphology similar to the volcanoes in the Tempe region of Mars . Morphological variations within these tholeiitic shields are beautifully illustrated in their profiles.

Brady, S. M.; Hughes, S. S.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.

2004-01-01

46

Chemical Constituents in Groundwater from Multiple Zones in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2005-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected water-quality samples from multiple water-bearing zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were collected from six monitoring wells completed in about 350-700 feet of the upper part of the aquifer, and the samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, selected radiochemical constituents, and selected stable isotopes. Each well was equipped with a multilevel monitoring system containing four to seven sampling ports that were each isolated by permanent packer systems. The sampling ports were installed in aquifer zones that were highly transmissive and that represented the water chemistry of the top four to five model layers of a steady-state and transient groundwater-flow model. The model's water chemistry and particle-tracking simulations are being used to better define movement of wastewater constituents in the aquifer. The results of the water chemistry analyses indicated that, in each of four separate wells, one zone of water differed markedly from the other zones in the well. In four wells, one zone to as many as five zones contained radiochemical constituents that originated from wastewater disposal at selected laboratory facilities. The multilevel sampling systems are defining the vertical distribution of wastewater constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and the concentrations of wastewater constituents in deeper zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern part of the INL.

Bartholomay, Roy C.; Twining, Brian V.

2010-01-01

47

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

48

Mechanics of brittle deformation and slope failure at the North Menan Butte tuff cone, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Menan Volcanic Complex consists of phreatomagmatic tuff cones that were emplaced as part of the regional volcanic activity in the Snake River Plain during the late Pleistocene. These tuff cones, the ';Menan Buttes', resulted from the eruption of basaltic magma through water-saturated alluvium and older basalts along the Snake River. The tuffs are composed primarily of basaltic glass with occasional plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts. The tuff is hydrothermally altered to a massive palagonitic tuff at depth but is otherwise poorly welded. Mass movements along the flanks of the cones were contemporaneous with tuff deposition. These slope failures are manifest as cm- to meter-scale pure folds, faults and fault-related folds, as well as larger slumps that are tens to a few hundred meters wide. Previous investigations classified the structural discontinuities at North Menan Butte based on orientation and sense of displacement, and all were recognized as opening-mode or shear fractures (Russell and Brisbin, 1990). This earlier work also used a generalized model of static (i.e., aseismic) gravity-driven shear failure within cohesionless soils to infer a possible origin for these fractures through slope failure. Recent work at North Menan Butte has provided novel insight into the styles of brittle deformation present, the effect of this deformation on the circulation of subsurface fluids within the tuff cone, as well as the mechanisms of the observed slope failures. Field observations reveal that the brittle deformation, previously classified as fractures, is manifest as deformation bands within the non-altered, poorly welded portions of the tuff. Both dilational and compactional bands, with shear, are observed. Slumps are bounded by normal faults, which are found to have developed within clusters of deformation bands. Deformation bands along the down-slope ends of these failure surfaces are predominantly compactional in nature. These bands have a ~3800 millidarcy permeability, a decrease from the ~9400 millidarcy permeability typical of the non-deformed, poorly-welded tuff. As such, these bands would have acted to slow to the circulation of local fluids through the tuff cone, possibly reducing the slopes' stability further. Future work will employ slope stability models to investigate the tendency for slumping of these tuffs shortly after their emplacement, accounting for water-saturated conditions and the effects of eruption-related seismicity. These results will improve current understanding of the mechanics of fault growth within basaltic tuff and enable more rigorous assessments of the hazards posed by slope instability on active phreatomagmatic tuff cones.

Okubo, C. H.

2013-12-01

49

5. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK OF SNAKE RIVER LYONS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK OF SNAKE RIVER LYONS FERRY BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, JOSO HIGH (UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD) BRIDGE TO THE LEFT - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

50

3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTH SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER SHOWING HEADGATE ON THE NORTH BANK. VIEW IS TO THE NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

51

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. NOTE BANK REINFORCEMENT ON LEFT AND SPILLWAY ON RIGHT. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

52

Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in six boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer of Idaho. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Hydraulic heads (head) and water temperatures in boreholes were monitored at 86 hydraulically-isolated depth intervals located 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. The calculation of head is most sensitive to fluid pressure and the altitude of the pressure transducer at each port coupling; it is least sensitive to barometric pressure and water temperature. An analysis of errors associated with the head calculation determined the accuracy of an individual head measurement at +/- 2.3 feet. Many of the sources of measurement error are diminished when considering the differences between two closely-spaced readings of head; therefore, a +/- 0.1 foot measurement accuracy was assumed for vertical head differences (and gradients) calculated between adjacent monitoring zones. Vertical head and temperature profiles were unique to each borehole, and were characteristic of the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The vertical hydraulic gradients in each borehole remained relatively constant over time with minimum Pearson correlation coefficients between head profiles ranging from 0.72 at borehole USGS 103 to 1.00 at boreholes USGS 133 and MIDDLE 2051. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low permeability sediment layers. The presence of a sediment layer, however, was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change in a borehole. The vertical hydraulic gradients were defined for the major inflections in the head profiles and were as much as 2.2 feet per foot. Head gradients generally were downward in boreholes USGS 133, 134, and MIDDLE 2050A, zero in boreholes USGS 103 and 132, and exhibited a reversal in direction in borehole MIDDLE 2051. Water temperatures in all boreholes ranged from 10.2 to 16.3 degrees Celsius. Boreholes USGS 103 and 132 are in an area of concentrated volcanic vents and fissures, and measurements show water temperature decreasing with depth. All other measurements in boreholes show water temperature increasing with depth. A comparison among boreholes of the normalized mean head over time indicates a moderately positive correlation.

Fisher, Jason C.; Twining, Brian V.

2011-01-01

53

3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

54

4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

55

Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

Maupin, Molly A.

1991-01-01

56

33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

57

Snakes! Snakes! Snakes!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students in grades 4-6, the teaching unit presents illustrations and facts about snakes. Topics include common snakes found in the United States, how snakes eat, how snakes shed their skin, poisonous snakes, the Eastern Indigo snake, and the anatomy of a snake. A student page includes a crossword puzzle and surprising snake facts. A…

Nature Naturally, 1983

1983-01-01

58

Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRP) in Idaho have long been considered a terrestrial analog for the plains volcanism like that evident in Syria Planum and Tempe Terra, Mars. Both the ESRP and Tempe Terra are sediment-blanketed volcanic fields in areas with significant extensional faulting. Similar volcanic features can be observed throughout both study areas using field analysis and DEMs of the ESRP and the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data from Mars. These features include flow fields, low shields, shields with steep summits, and fissure eruptions. A few other volcanic features, such as cinder cones, which suggest variable compositions, volatile interactions, and multiple volcanic events can be seen in both areas. The eruptions in both the ESRP and Tempe Terra generally originate from the fissures creating elongate, multi-vent shields as well as isolated or aligned single vent shields. Many of these show evidence of radial flow patterns from summit craters as well as lava tube fed flows. The volcanoes of Tempe Terra display some of the global latitudinal parameter trends of small volcanoes on Mars. Some of these trends may be explained by the variation of volatile content and compositional variation across Mars. However, within Tempe Terra no significant local latitudinal trends can be seen in edifice attributes and not all variations are explained by global trends. This study builds upon previous studies of the Tempe Terra region and the ESRP in order to develop a more detailed representation of features and topographic data. Using these data we attempt to help constrain the composition and eruptive style of the Tempe Terra volcanoes by correlating them with the similar and quantified ESRP variations.

Weren, S. L.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Hughes, S. S.; Gregg, T. K. P.

2004-01-01

59

Martian Plains Volcanism in Syria Planum and Tempe Mareotis as Analogs to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho: Similarities and Possible Petrologic Contributions to Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions, The Syria Planum region of Mars was noted for several clusters of small (5-100 km) shield volcanoes and collapse craters, long tube and fissure-fed lava flows, and possible volcanic vents that were thought to be nearly contemporaneous with the volcanism in the Tempe- Mareotis province, which has long been known for volcanic shields and vents analogous to those of the Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRP) in Idaho. Recent MGS-based work on regional and global populations of martian small shields has revealed significant global trends in edifice attributes that are well-explained by eruption models with latitudinal variations in subsurface water/ice abundance, consistent with recent MO evidence for significant amounts of subsurface water that varies in latitude abundance s, and topographic and morphologic evidence for more geologically recent lava-ice relationships. However, while the global trends in small volcano data can be at least partially explained by volatile interactions with volcanism, some global and regional characteristics appear to be perhaps better explained by possible compositional, crystallinity or eruption style variations. This study expands the sampling of shields done in martian initial global studies for the Syria Planum and Tempe-Mareotis regions, which display a newly visible breadth and number of features in image and topography data. We compare these features to a similar range of features visible in the ESRP where both compositional and eruption style variations can quantitatively be shown to contribute to morphologic and topographic differences.

Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Hughes, S. S.; Chadwick, J.

2003-01-01

60

2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

61

Optimization of Water-Level Monitoring Networks in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer Using a Kriging-Based Genetic Algorithm Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term groundwater monitoring networks can provide essential information for the planning and management of water resources. Budget constraints in water resource management agencies often mean a reduction in the number of observation wells included in a monitoring network. A network design tool, distributed as an R package, was developed to determine which wells to exclude from a monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information. A kriging-based genetic algorithm method was used to optimize the monitoring network. The algorithm was used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the smallest increase in the weighted sum of the (1) mean standard error at all nodes in the kriging grid where the water table is estimated, (2) root-mean-squared-error between the measured and estimated water-level elevation at the removed sites, (3) mean standard deviation of measurements across time at the removed sites, and (4) mean measurement error of wells in the reduced network. The solution to the optimization problem (the best wells to retain in the monitoring network) depends on the total number of wells removed; this number is a management decision. The network design tool was applied to optimize two observation well networks monitoring the water table of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho; these networks include the 2008 Federal-State Cooperative water-level monitoring network (Co-op network) with 166 observation wells, and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey-Idaho National Laboratory water-level monitoring network (USGS-INL network) with 171 wells. Each water-level monitoring network was optimized five times: by removing (1) 10, (2) 20, (3) 40, (4) 60, and (5) 80 observation wells from the original network. An examination of the trade-offs associated with changes in the number of wells to remove indicates that 20 wells can be removed from the Co-op network with a relatively small degradation of the estimated water table map, and 40 wells can be removed from the USGS-INL network before the water table map degradation accelerates. The optimal network designs indicate the robustness of the network design tool. Observation wells were removed from high well-density areas of the network while retaining the spatial pattern of the existing water-table map.

Fisher, J. C.

2013-12-01

62

Steady-State and Transient Groundwater Flow and Advective Transport, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and Vicinity, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport through the fractured basalts and interbedded sediments of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The model domain covers an area of 1,940 square miles that includes most of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A 50-year history of waste disposal at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the aquifer. Numerical models simulated 1980 steady-state conditions and transient flow for 1980-95. In the transient model, streamflow infiltration was the major stress. The models were calibrated using the parameter-estimation program incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. The steady-state model reasonably simulated the observed water-table altitude and gradients. Simulation of transient conditions reproduced changes in the flow system resulting from episodic infiltration from the Big Lost River. Analysis of simulations shows that flow is (1) dominantly horizontal through interflow zones in basalt, vertical anisotropy resulting from contrasts in hydraulic conductivity of different types of basalt and the interbedded sediments, (2) temporally variable due to streamflow infiltration from the Big Lost River, and (3) moving downward downgradient of the INL. Particle-tracking simulations were used to evaluate how simulated groundwater flow paths and travel times differ between the steady-state and transient flow models, and how well model-derived groundwater flow directions and velocities compare to independently-derived estimates. Particle tracking also was used to simulate the growth of tritium plumes originating at two INL facilities over a 16 year period under steady-state and transient flow conditions (1953-68). The shape, dimensions, and areal extent of these plumes were compared to a map of the plumes for 1968 from tritium releases beginning in 1952. Collectively, the particle-tracking simulations indicate that groundwater flow paths and velocities, based on uncalibrated estimates of porosity, are influenced by the dynamic character of the water table and the large contrasts in the hydraulic properties of the media, primarily hydraulic conductivity. Simulation results also indicate that temporal changes in the local hydraulic gradient can account for some of the observed dispersion of contaminants in the aquifer near the major sources of contamination and perhaps the majority of the observed dispersion several miles downgradient of these facilities. The distance downgradient of the facilities where simulated particle plumes were able to reasonably reproduce the 1968 tritium plume extended only to the boundary separating sediment-rich from sediment-poor aquifer layers about 4 mi downgradient of the contaminant source. Particle plumes simulated beyond this boundary were narrow and long, and did not reasonably reproduce the shape, dimensions, or position of the leading edge of the tritium plume; however, few data were available to characterize its true areal extent and shape.

Fisher, J. C.; Ackerman, D. J.; Rousseau, J. P.; Rattray, G. W.

2009-12-01

63

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. At present, limited data exist on the migrational characteristics of Snake River subyearling fall chinook salmon, particularly concerning...

J. G. Williams T. C. Bjomn

1997-01-01

64

Age and Amount of Crustal Flexure in the Lake Hills, South Central Idaho: Implications for the Timing of Eastern Snake River Plain Subsidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal and compositional evolution of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is partially recorded by its crustal subsidence history. This history cannot be measured directly without deep drill hole data, but can be measured indirectly by documenting flexure of adjacent crust which projects beneath the plain. We present new results on the magnitude and timing of crustal flexure adjacent to the northwestern ESRP, near Carey, Idaho, to interpret the relative timing of ESRP subsidence and magmatism. Volcanic rocks of the Miocene Idavada Group in the Lake Hills dip southward and project beneath the adjacent ESRP. In a transect that extends 12 km away from the plain, three structural domains were defined by field mapping and measurement of compaction foliation in rhyolite ignimbrite units. In the southern domain, located 0-4 km immediately north of the ESRP, a stratigraphic package of six ignimbrite units overlies Eocene Challis volcanic rocks. The lowest three ignimbrites have southerly dips of 20-27 degrees, 15-19 degrees and 4-11 degrees, from bottom to top, while the upper three units are too sparse to provide reliable orientation data. The central domain, located 4-6 km north of the ESRP, contains only the lowest two Idavada ignimbrite units, and they are considerably thinned. They have southerly and northerly dips of 10-21 degrees, defining an irregular pattern of gentle kink folds. In the northern domain, located 6-12 km north of the ESRP, only the basal Idavada ignimbrite is present above Challis volcanics. Its foliation dips 14-20 degrees north. Overall, Idavada orientations within the three domains define a map-scale, east-trending antiform whose southern limb preserves growth fold relations. We interpret the regional antiform to reflect crustal flexure associated with ESRP subsidence. Abrupt northward thinning of Idavada unit 1 suggests the presence of elevated topography near the modern flexural hinge, evidence that some crustal flexure and therefore initial ESRP subsidence may have already occurred by this time. The angular unconformity between Idavada units 1 and 2 is strong evidence that flexure initiated prior to emplacement of unit 2. Furthermore, angular unconformities and the folding of unit 1 indicate that flexure (and subsidence) continued during and after emplacement of units 2 and 3. Previous work indicates the Idavada Group in the Lake Hills ranges in age from approximately 11 to 8 Ma, and new 40Ar/39Ar analysis is in progress to obtain precise ages on the lower three units. Adding these new data from the Lake Hills to previous measurements, we have now identified and measured crustal flexure for 130 km along the north margin of the ESRP. The age of flexure has been studied in three localities: Lake Hills, Howe Point (100 km NE of Lake Hills), and Lidy Hot Springs (130 km NE of Lake Hills). Flexure was ongoing at approximately 8-11 Ma in the Lake Hills, occurred between 16-10 Ma (major flexure) and after 6.0 Ma (minor flexure) at Howe Point, and occurred prior to approximately 7-10 Ma (major flexure) and after 6.0 Ma (minor flexure) at Lidy Hot Springs. In each locality, flexure appears to have initiated before emplacement of the oldest ESRP-derived ignimbrite, and at the two eastern localities, major flexure was complete prior to initial ignimbrite emplacement. If, as previously proposed, major flexure and ESRP subsidence reflects isostatic adjustment to plutonic loads within the ESRP, these loads were emplaced distinctly before ignimbrite eruption.

Michalek, M.; Rodgers, D. W.

2006-12-01

65

27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9.208 ...Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name . The name of the...area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of...

2011-04-01

66

27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9.208 ...Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name . The name of the...area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of...

2012-04-01

67

27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name . The name...viticultural area described in this section is âSnake River Valleyâ. For purposes of part 4...

2009-04-01

68

27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name . The name...viticultural area described in this section is âSnake River Valleyâ. For purposes of part 4...

2010-04-01

69

High-precision provenance determination using detrital-zircon ages and petrography of Quaternary sands on the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Big Lost trough is an upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary basin containing volcanic sills in the northeastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The basin receives sediment primarily from Basin and Range fluvial systems of the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Creek. The Big Lost trough contains a >200-m-thick succession of lacustrine, fluvial, eolian, and playa sediments, recording high-frequency Quaternary climatic fluctuations interbedded with basalt flows. Alternating deposition of clay-rich lacustrine sediments and sandy fluvial and eolian sediments in the central part of the basin was in response to the interaction of fluvial and eolian systems with Pleistocene Lake Terreton. The source areas for modern sands from the fluvial systems can be differentiated by using both petrography and U/Pb age spectra from detrital-zircon populations. Provenance data from subsurface sands indicate that the Big Lost trough was supplied with sand largely deposited by the Big Lost River, with local redeposition by eolian processes, similar to the modern depositional system. Provenance and stratigraphic data suggest that during Pleistocene wet climate cycles, the center of the basin was dominated by lacustrine sedimentation; during dry climate cycles, the base level dropped, the Big Lost River prograded across the basin, and the eolian system became active. At least seven climate oscillations are recorded in strata deposited between {approximately}140 and {approximately}1250 ka.

Geslin, J.K.; Link, P.K. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Dept. of Geology] [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Dept. of Geology; Fanning, C.M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences] [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

1999-04-01

70

Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009–10  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2009 and 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Idaho National Laboratory Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly, depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in nine boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Multilevel monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory has been ongoing since 2006. This report summarizes data collected from three multilevel monitoring wells installed during 2009 and 2010 and presents updates to six multilevel monitoring wells. Hydraulic heads (heads) and groundwater temperatures were monitored from 9 multilevel monitoring wells, including 120 hydraulically isolated depth intervals from 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. Quarterly head and temperature profiles reveal unique patterns for vertical examination of the aquifer’s complex basalt and sediment stratigraphy, proximity to aquifer recharge and discharge, and groundwater flow. These features contribute to some of the localized variability even though the general profile shape remained consistent over the period of record. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low-permeability sediment layers and occasionally thick sequences of dense basalt. However, the presence of a sediment layer or dense basalt layer was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change within a borehole without knowing the true areal extent and relative transmissivity of the lithologic unit. Temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the Big Lost Trough indicate linear conductive trends; whereas, temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the axial volcanic high indicate mostly convective heat transfer resulting from the vertical movement of groundwater. Additionally, temperature profiles provide evidence for stratification and mixing of water types along the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory. Vertical head and temperature change were quantified for each of the nine multilevel monitoring systems. The vertical head gradients were defined for the major inflections in the head profiles and were as high as 2.1 feet per foot. Low vertical head gradients indicated potential vertical connectivity and flow, and large gradient inflections indicated zones of relatively low vertical connectivity. Generally, zones that primarily are composed of fractured basalt displayed relatively small vertical head differences. Large head differences were attributed to poor vertical connectivity between fracture units because of sediment layering and/or dense basalt. Groundwater temperatures in all boreholes ranged from 10.2 to 16.3?C. Normalized mean hydraulic head values were analyzed for all nine multilevel monitoring wells for the period of record (2007-10). The mean head values suggest a moderately positive correlation among all boreholes, which reflects regional fluctuations in water levels in response to seasonality. However, the temporal trend is slightly different when the location is considered; wells located along the southern boundary, within the axial volcanic high, show a strongly positive correlation.

Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

2012-01-01

71

A conceptual model of ground-water flow in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity with implications for contaminant transport  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water flow in the west-central part of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer is described in a conceptual model that will be used in numerical simulations to evaluate contaminant transport at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and vicinity. The model encompasses an area of 1,940 square miles (mi2) and includes most of the 890 mi2 of the INL. A 50-year history of waste disposal associated with research activities at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the aquifer. A thorough understanding of the fate and movement of these contaminants in the subsurface is needed by the U.S. Department of Energy to minimize the effect that contaminated ground water may have on the region and to plan effectively for remediation. Three hydrogeologic units were used to represent the complex stratigraphy of the aquifer in the model area. Collectively, these hydrogeologic units include at least 65 basalt-flow groups, 5 andesite-flow groups, and 61 sedimentary interbeds. Three rhyolite domes in the model area extend deep enough to penetrate the aquifer. The rhyolite domes are represented in the conceptual model as low permeability, vertical pluglike masses, and are not included as part of the three primary hydrogeologic units. Broad differences in lithology and large variations in hydraulic properties allowed the heterogeneous, anisotropic basalt-flow groups, andesite-flow groups, and sedimentary interbeds to be grouped into three hydrogeologic units that are conceptually homogeneous and anisotropic. Younger rocks, primarily thin, densely fractured basalt, compose hydrogeologic unit 1; younger rocks, primarily of massive, less densely fractured basalt, compose hydrogeologic unit 2; and intermediate-age rocks, primarily of slightly-to-moderately altered, fractured basalt, compose hydrogeologic unit 3. Differences in hydraulic properties among adjacent hydrogeologic units result in much of the large-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy of the aquifer in the model area, and differences in horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity in individual hydrogeologic units result in much of the small-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy of the aquifer in the model area. The inferred three-dimensional geometry of the aquifer in the model area is very irregular. Its thickness generally increases from north to south and from west to east and is greatest south of the INL. The interpreted distribution of older rocks that underlie the aquifer indicates large changes in saturated thickness across the model area. The boundaries of the model include physical and artificial boundaries, and ground-water flows across the boundaries may be temporally constant or variable and spatially uniform or nonuniform. Physical boundaries include the water-table boundary, base of the aquifer, and northwest mountain-front boundary. Artificial boundaries include the northeast boundary, southeast-flowline boundary, and southwest boundary. Water flows into the model area as (1) underflow (1,225 cubic feet per second (ft3/s)) from the regional aquifer (northeast boundary-constant and nonuniform), (2) underflow (695 ft3/s) from the tributary valleys and mountain fronts (northwest boundary-constant and nonuniform), (3) precipitation recharge (70 ft3/s) (constant and uniform), streamflow-infiltration recharge (95 ft3/s) (variable and nonuniform), wastewater return flows (6 ft3/s) (variable and nonuniform), and irrigation-infiltration recharge (24 ft3/s) (variable and nonuniform) across the water table (water-table boundary-variable and nonuniform), and (4) upward flow across the base of the aquifer (44 ft3/s) (uniform and constant). The southeast-flowline boundary is represented as a no-flow boundary. Water flows out of the model area as underflow (2,037 ft3/s) to the regional aquifer (southwest boundary-variable and nonuniform) and as ground-water withdrawals (45 ft3/s) (water table boundary-variable and nonuniform). Ground-water flow i

Ackerman, Daniel J.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Davis, Linda C.; Orr, Brennon R.

2006-01-01

72

Snake River is this year's Most Endangered River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, a collection of US grassroots organizations spearheaded by American Rivers, the nation's leading river conservation organization, works closely to identify US rivers that are endangered (usually by human activities). A list of endangered rivers is compiled and published in an annual report entitled "America's Most Endangered Rivers" (see the April 15, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The report draws national attention to the rivers on the list, sending a powerful wake up call "to mobilize the public and policymakers to take significant action before it is too late." This year's full report will be released on April 10, but the organization has already declared the most endangered river to be the Snake River, in Washington State. Last year, the Snake River also ranked at the top of the list.

73

MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER PRODUCTIVITY AND NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1992 to 1994, the University of Idaho conducted a research project on the water quality- limited section of the MIddle Snake River from Twin Falls downstream to Upper Salmon Falls Dam in an effort to determine the relationship between the nutrients and sediments entering thi...

74

WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

75

Snake River Aquatic Species Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On December 14, 1992, the Service added 5 aquatic snails from the Snake River in south central Idaho to the Federal list of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife (57 FR 59244). The Service determined the Idaho springsnail or Homedale Creek springsnail (Pyrgu...

1995-01-01

76

SNAKE RIVER TRANSECT STUDY, JULY 1969  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents conditions at Station 153018 located on the Snake River (17040104, 170402, 170501) 7 miles downstream from the Lewiston-Clarkston bridge. Diurnal and spatial variances occurring at the station were observed during a 24-hour period. On February 25 through 29...

77

Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q; Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Clark, D.R. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

78

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO  

EPA Science Inventory

An ecological risk assessment was completed for the Middle Snake River, Idaho. In this assessment, mathematical simulations and field observations were used to analyze exposure and ecological effects and to estimate risk. The Middle Snake River which refers to a 100 km stret...

79

Status Review for Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are native to the Snake River, the largest tributary of the Columbia River. Historically, these fish were abundant throughout most of this large, complex drainage. From the latter 1800s un...

G. M. Matthews R. S. Waples

1991-01-01

80

UPPER/MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER BASIN STATUS REPORT, 1975  

EPA Science Inventory

The Snake River (17040104, 170402, 170501) begins with relatively high water quality, with nutrient levels below those considered potentially causative to algal activity. Below Heise, nutrient concentrations rise and the quality of the river is degraded. Phosphorus enters the S...

81

Geology of the Arco-Big Southern Butte area, eastern Snake River Plain, and volcanic hazards to the radioactive waste management complex, and other waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Arco-Big Southern Butte area of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, includes a volcanic rift zone and more than 70 Holocene and late Quaternary basalt volcanoes. The Arco volcanic rift zone extends southeast for 50 km from Arco to about 10 km southeast of Big Southern Butte. The rift zone is the locus of extensional faults, graben, fissure basaltic volcanic vents, several rhyolite domes at Big Southern Butte, and a ferrolatite volcano at Cedar Butte. Limited radiometric age data and geological field criteria suggest that all volcanism in the area is younger than 700,000 years; at least 67 separate basaltic eruptions are estimated to have occurred within the last 200,000 years. The average volcanic recurrence interval for the Arco-Big Southern Butte area is approximately one eruption per 3,000 years. Radioactive waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory may be subject to potential volcanic hazards. The geologic history and inferred past volcanic events in the Arco-Big Southern Butte area provide a basis for assessing the volcanic hazard. It is recommended that a radiometric age-dating study be performed on rocks in cored drill holes to provide a more precise estimate of the eruption recurrence interval for the region surrounding and including the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. It is also recommended that several geophysical monitoring systems (dry tilt and seismic) be installed to provide adequate warning of future volcanic eruptions.

Kuntz, Mel A.; Kork, John O.

1978-01-01

82

27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.  

...Twin Falls, proceeding westerly south of the Snake River to the Salmon River, following east of the Salmon River and crossing at T10S/R13E, proceeding northerly west of the Salmon River and the Hagerman Wildlife Management Area, proceeding...

2014-04-01

83

INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report; Volume 1 - Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences Governing Subsurface Contaminant Transport in the INEEL Subregion of the Eastern Snake River Plain  

SciTech Connect

The National Research Council has defined a conceptual model as ''an evolving hypothesis identifying the important features, processes, and events controlling fluid flow and contaminant transport of consequence at a specific field site in the context of a recognized problem''. Presently, several subregional conceptual models are under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Additionally, facility-specific conceptual models have been described as part of INEEL environmental restoration activities. Compilation of these models is required to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can be used to strategically plan for future groundwater research activities at the INEEL. Conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL include the description of the geologic framework, matrix hydraulic properties, and inflows and outflows. They also include definitions of the contaminant source term and contaminant transport mechanisms. The geologic framework of the INEEL subregion is described by the geometry of the system, stratigraphic units within the system, and structural features that affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These elements define geohydrologic units that make up the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conceptual model encompasses approximately 1,920 mi2 of the eastern Snake River Plain. The Waste Area Group (WAG)-10 model includes the USGS area and additional areas to the northeast and southeast. Both conceptual models are bounded to the northwest by the Pioneer Mountains, Lost River Range, and Lemhi Mountains. They are bounded to the southeast by groundwater flow paths determined from aquifer water-level contours. The upgradient extent of the USGS model is a water-level contour that includes the northeastern boundary of the INEEL. The WAG-10 model includes more of the Mud Lake area to utilize previous estimates of underflow into the subregion. Both conceptual models extend approximately 25 miles to the southwest of the INEEL, a distance sufficient to include known concentrations of contaminant tracers. Several hypotheses have been developed concerning the effective thickness of the SRPA at the INEEL. The USGS model has defined the effective thickness from electrical resistivity and borehole data to be as much as 2,500 ft in the eastern part of the subregion and as much as 4,000 ft in the southwestern part. The WAG-10 model has developed two alternatives using aquifer-temperature and electrical resistivity data. The ''thick'' aquifer interpretation utilizes colder temperature data and includes a northtrending zone in which the thickness exceeds 1,300 ft and with a maximum thickness of 1,700 ft. The ''thin'' aquifer interpretation minimizes aquifer thickness, with thickness ranging from 328 to 1,300 ft. Facility-specific models generally have focused efforts on the upper 250 ft of saturation. Conceptual models have utilized a stratigraphic data set to define geohydrologic units within the INEEL subregion. This data set, compiled from geophysical logs and cores from boreholes, correlates the thick, complex stack of basalt flows across the subregion. Conceptual models generally concur that the upper geohydrologic unit consists of a section of highly fractured, multiple, thin basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. Beneath this unit is an areally extensive, thick, unfractured basalt flow that rises above the water table southwest of the INEEL. The bottom unit consists of a thick section of slightly- to moderately-altered basalt. A key objective of the DOE water-integration project at the INEEL is to coordinate development of a subregional conceptual model of groundwater flow and contaminant transport that is based on the best available understanding of geologic and hydrologic features. The first step in this process is to compile and summarize the current conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL that have been developed from extensive geohydrologic studies con

Wichlacz, Paul Louis; Orr, Brennan

2002-08-01

84

Raptor Survey of the Lower Salmon and Snake Rivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve raptor species were recorded during surveys conducted along the Lower Salmon and Snake River canyons, April 2 - April 14, 1993. Golden eagles were the most commonly observed species, followed by red-tailed hawks and American kestrels. Prairie falco...

C. Bradford F. Cassirer

1994-01-01

85

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT, 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This package contains information for the Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (170402, 17040104). The report contains a water quality assessment approach which will assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probably nonpoint sources and determini...

86

COLUMBIA/SNAKE RIVER TEMPERATURE TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA and the States of Idaho, Oregon and Washington are working in coordination with the Columbia River Tribes to establish a temperature TMDL for the mainstems of the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Both rivers are on state 303(d) lists of impaired waters for exceedances of water qua...

87

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

Muir, William D.; Connor, William P.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

1999-03-01

88

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and

Doug Taki; Andre E. Kohler; Robert G. Griswold

2004-01-01

89

Trends in organic pollutants and lipids in juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon with different outmigrating histories through the Lower Snake and Middle Columbia Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year field study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 to monitor the spatial and temporal trends of organic pollutants in migrating juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sampled from the Lower Snake and Middle Columbia River Basins. Specifically, hatchery-reared juvenile salmon were monitored as they navigated the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by either transport barge

Mary R. Arkoosh; Stacy Strickland; Ahna Van Gaest; Gina M. Ylitalo; Lyndal Johnson; Gladys K. Yanagida; Tracy K. Collier; Joseph P. Dietrich

2011-01-01

90

AN EASTERN INDIGO SNAKE (DRYMARCHON COUPERI) MARK RECAPTURE STUDY IN SOUTHEASTERN GEORGIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of the Eastern Indigo Snake (Drymarchon couperi) that is federally listed as threatened will require population monitoring throughout the species' range. From 1998 through 2006, we used mark-recapture methods to monitor D. couperi at Fort Stewart, Georgia, USA. We captured 93 individual D. couperi while surveying for snakes at Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) burrows, and we recaptured 40 (43%)

DIRK J. STEVENSON; KEVIN M. ENGE; LAWRENCE D. CARLILE; KAREN J. DYER; TERRY M. NORTON; NATALIE L. HYSLOP; RICHARD A. KILTIE

2009-01-01

91

MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the project was to collect, analyze, assemble, and assess water quality data and resulting chemical/nutrient loads entering and transported in the Middle Snake River Reach of Idaho, between Milner Dam and King Hill. Studies were conducted during the period of 1990 ...

92

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY STATUS, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Historically, the Upper Snake River, Idaho from Milner Dam to the Idaho-Wyoming border (170402, 17040104) has experienced high bacteria concentrations and massive algal blooms. Algal blooms not only affect aesthetics, but also contribute to depressions of dissolved oxygen. The ...

93

WATER QUALITY STUDY: MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO, 1970  

EPA Science Inventory

A water quality study of the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101, 17050201) was initiated in July 1968 to gather data in support of Department of the interior testimony presented before the Federal Power Commission license application hearings on High Mountain Sheep Dam. Unus...

94

WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY, MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

On February 5, 1964, the Federal Power Commission issued a license to Pacific Northwest Power Company for construction and operation of its proposed High Mountain Sheep Project on the Snake River (170602, 170501). This investigation by the Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis...

95

Status Review for Snake River Sockeye Salmon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To be considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), a group of organisms must qualify as a 'species' as defined by the ESA. The NMFS Species Definition Paper (Waples 1991) provides a framework for evaluating the petition for Snake...

R. S. Waples O. W. Johnson R. P. Jones

1991-01-01

96

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, PRELIMINARY BASIN EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this paper was to provide a process and a plan by which the Environmental Protection Agency can insure that water quality goals established in the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 are met in the waters of the Upper Snake Basin (17040201, 17040206, 170...

97

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2).

Williams, John G.; Bjomn (Bjornn), Theodore C.

1997-03-01

98

Detection of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus RNA in North American Snakes  

PubMed Central

The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

Bingham, Andrea M.; Graham, Sean P.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; White, Gregory S.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

99

Reevalution of background iodine-129 concentrations in water from the Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho, 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background concentrations of iodine-129 (129I, half-life = 15.7 million years) resulting from natural production in the earth?s atmosphere, in situ production in the earth by spontaneous fission of uranium-238(238U), and fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s were reevaluated on the basis of 52 analyses of ground- and surface-water samples collected from the eastern Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho. The background concentration estimated using the results of a subset of 30 ground-water samples analyzed in this reevaluation is 5.4 attocuries per liter (aCi/L; 1 aCi = 10-18 curies) and the 95-percent nonparametric confidence interval is 5.2 to 10.0 aCi/L. In a previous study, a background 129I concentration was estimated on the basis of analyses of water samples from 16 sites on or tributary to the eastern Snake River Plain. At the 99-percent confidence level, background concentrations of 129I in that study were less than or equal to 8.2 aCi/L. During 1993?94, 34 water samples from 32 additional sites were analyzed for 129I to better establish the background concentrations in surface and ground water from the eastern Snake River Plain that is presumed to be unaffected by wastedisposal practices at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Surface water contained larger 129I concentrations than water from springs and wells contained. Because surface water is more likely to be affected by anthropogenic fallout and evapotranspiration, background 129I concentrations were estimated in the current research using the laboratory results of ground-water samples that were assumed to be unaffected by INEEL disposal practices.

Cecil, L. DeWayne; Hall, L. Flint; Green, Jaromy R.

2003-01-01

100

Geothermal alteration of basaltic core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquifer resources on the axial volcanic zone of the Snake River Plain. Thirty samples from 1,912 m of core were sampled and analyzed for clay content and composition using X-ray diffraction. Observations from core samples and geophysical logs are also used to establish alteration zones. Mineralogical data, geophysical log data and physical characteristics of the core suggest that the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the axial zone is located 960 m below the surface, much deeper than previously suspected. Swelling smectite clay clogs pore spaces and reduces porosity and permeability to create a natural base to the aquifer. Increased temperatures favor the formation of smectite clay and other secondary minerals to the bottom of the hole. Below 960 m the core shows signs of alteration including color change, formation of clay, and filling of other secondary minerals in vesicles and fractured zones of the core. The smectite clay observed is Fe-rich clay that is authigenic in some places. Geothermal power generation may be feasible using a low temperature hot water geothermal system if thermal fluids can be attained near the bottom of the Kimama well.

Sant, Christopher J.

101

An examination of scale-dependent resource use by Eastern Hognose snakes in southcentral New Hampshire.  

SciTech Connect

The decline of many snake populations is attributable to habitat loss, and knowledge of habitat use is critical to their conservation. Resource characteristics (e.g., relative availability of different habitat types, soils, and slopes) within a landscape are scale-dependent and may not be equal across multiple spatial scales. Thus, it is important to identify the relevant spatial scales at which resource selection occurs. We conducted a radiotelemetry study of eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platirhinos) home range size and resource use at different hierarchical spatial scales. We present the results for 8 snakes radiotracked during a 2-year study at New Boston Air Force Station (NBAFS) in southern New Hampshire, USA, where the species is listed by the state as endangered. Mean home range size (minimum convex polygon) at NBAFS (51.7 {+-} 14.7 ha) was similar to that reported in other parts of the species range. Radiotracked snakes exhibited different patterns of resource use at different spatial scales. At the landscape scale (selection of locations within the landscape), snakes overutilized old-field and forest edge habitats and underutilized forested habitats and wetlands relative to availability. At this scale, snakes also overutilized areas containing sandy loam soils and areas with lower slope (mean slope = 5.2% at snake locations vs. 6.7% at random locations). We failed to detect some of these patterns of resource use at the home range scale (i.e., within the home range). Our ability to detect resource selection by the snakes only at the landscape scale is likely the result of greater heterogeneity in macrohabitat features at the broader landscape scale. From a management perspective, future studies of habitat selection for rare species should include measurement of available habitat at spatial scales larger than the home range. We suggest that the maintenance of open early successional habitats as a component of forested landscapes will be critical for the persistence of eastern hognose snake populations in the northeastern United States.

LaGory, K. E.; Walston, L. J.; Goulet, C; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Najjar, S.; Andrews, C.; Environmental Science Division; Univ. of New Hampshire; U.S. Air Force

2009-11-01

102

Two Alternative Juvenile Life History Types for Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River basin were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1992. At the time of listing, it was assumed that fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin adhered strictly to an ocean-type life history characterized by saltwater entry at age 0 and first-year wintering in the ocean. Research showed, however,

William P. Connor; John G. Sneva; Kenneth F. Tiffan; R. Kirk Steinhorst; Doug Ross

2005-01-01

103

Numerically Simulating the Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Environment for Migrating Salmon in the Lower Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater and Lower Snake Rivers, and improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional hydrodynamic and thermal conditions at the

Chris B. Cook; Marshall C. Richmond; Andre M. Coleman; Cynthia L. Rakowski; P. Scott Titzler; Matthew D. Bleich

2003-01-01

104

BIOSTIMULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES AND RECEIVING WATERS OF THE SNAKE RIVER BASIN, 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Field Investigations Center, Denver and Region 10, EPA conducted a 4 phase study concentrating on nutrient caused algal growth problems in the Snake River Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501). The study area included the Snake River and principal tributaries between Hei...

105

LIMNOLOGY OF THE LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS IN IDAHO AND WASHINGTON  

EPA Science Inventory

This interim report highlights research completed in 1975 and 1976 on the joint Washington State University-University of Idaho limnological study on the lower Snake River (17050201, 170601). The objective of this study was to describe the aquatic ecology of the Snake River just...

106

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on

Catherine Willard; Kurtis Plaster; Jason Castillo

2005-01-01

107

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit,

Catherine Willard; J. Lance Hebdon; Jason Castillo

2004-01-01

108

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on

Mike Peterson; Kurtis Plaster; Laura Redfield; Jeff Heindel; Paul Kline

2008-01-01

109

Transient Response Functions for Conjunctive Water Management in the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demands on western water are causing a mounting need for the conjunctive management of surface water and ground water resources. Under western water law, the senior water rights holder has priority over the junior water rights holder in times of water shortage. Water managers have been reluctant to conjunctively manage surface water and ground water resources because of the difficulty of quantification of the impacts to surface water resources from ground water stresses. Impacts from ground water use can take years to propagate through an aquifer system. Prediction of the degree of impact to surface water resources over time and the spatial distribution of impacts is very difficult. Response functions mathematically describe the relationship between a unit ground water stress applied at a specific location and stream depletion or aquifer water level change elsewhere in the system. Response functions can be used to help quantify the spatial and temporal impacts to surface water resources caused by ground water pumping. This paper describes the theory of response functions and presents an application of transient response functions in the Snake River Plain, Idaho. Transient response functions can be used to facilitate the conjunctive management of surface and ground water not only in the eastern Snake River Plain basin, but also in similar basins throughout the western United States.

Cosgrove, Donna M.; Johnson, Gary S.

2004-12-01

110

Implications of a Drawdown of the Snake-Columbia River on Barge Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The listing of the Snake-Columbia River salmon under the Endangered species Cut will lead to a set of river management changes aimed at species recovery. One measure almost certain to be implemented is a periodic river drawdown. A drawdown will speed fish migration downriver but will also temporarily close the river to barge transportation. Grain shippers in the region rely

Michael Martin; Joel R. Hamilton; Ken Casavant

1992-01-01

111

Rhyolitic volcanism of the central Snake River Plain: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Snake River Plain (CSRP) of southern Idaho and northern Nevada, USA, forms part of the Columbia River-Yellowstone large igneous province. Volcanic rocks of the province are compositionally bimodal (basalt-rhyolite), and the rhyolites produce a broadly time-transgressive record of a hotspot which is currently located under Yellowstone. Snake River Plain rhyolites represent hot (>850 °C), dry magmas and have field characteristics consistent with high emplacement temperatures. Individual ignimbrite sheets reach 1,000 km3 and exhibit little to no compositional zonation on a large scale but reveal considerable complexity on a crystal scale, particularly with regard to pyroxene compositions. Multiple pyroxene compositions may exist in a single ignimbrite which, along with multiple glass compositions in widely dispersed fallout tephra, suggests complex storage of rhyolite prior to eruption. Unlike most igneous rocks, the mineral cargo of the CSRP rhyolites exhibits little isotopic variability, with unimodal 87Sr/86Sr values returned from plagioclase grains inferred to represent the combination of strong crystal-melt coupling and rapid diffusional re-equilibriation. All the rhyolites within the CSRP have a characteristic low- ? 18O signature; with >20,000 km3 of rhyolite exhibiting this depletion, the CSRP represents the largest low- ? 18O province on Earth. The low-18O nature of the rhyolites requires assimilation of hydrothermally altered materials which may be from altered Eocene batholithic rocks or from down-dropped intra-caldera tuffs. The wide range of crustal assimilants, with highly variable radiogenic isotope characteristics, available in the CSRP is permissive of a variety of petrogenetic models based on radiogenic isotopic data.

Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J. A.; Boroughs, S.; Mark, D. F.; Starkel, W. A.; Bonnichsen, B.

2013-08-01

112

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake...

C. S. Abernethy D. R. Geist E. V. Arntzen T. P. Hanrahan

2004-01-01

113

UPPER/MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS, MAY 1973 TO MAY 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was an attempt to determine the behavior of incoming nutrients in the upper Snake reservoir system and to track their flow through the upper and central Snake River (17040104, 170402, 170501). The study found that American Falls Reservoir is an overall sink for total ...

114

Snakes of the Savannah River Plant with Information About Snakebite Prevention and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to provide information on the snakes of South Carolina, to point out the necessary steps to avoid a snakebite, and to indicate the current medical treatment for poisonous snakebite. It includes a checklist of South Carolina reptiles and a taxonomic key for the identification of snakes in the Savannah River Plant. Three…

Gibbons, Whit

115

Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1991  

SciTech Connect

Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains a continuous monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1989-91. Water in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, and ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins. Water levels in wells throughout the INEL generally declined during 1989-91 due to drought. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL decreased or remained constant during 1989-91. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption processes, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL were variable during 1989-91. Sodium and chloride concentrations in the southern part of the INEL increased slightly during 1989-91 because of increased waste-disposal rates and a lack of recharge from the Big Lost River. Plumes of 1,1,1-trichloroethane have developed near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex as a result of waste disposal practices.

Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Jensen, R.G.

1995-08-01

116

33 CFR 117.1007 - Elizabeth River-Eastern Branch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elizabeth River-Eastern Branch. 117.1007 Section...Requirements Virginia § 117.1007 Elizabeth River—Eastern Branch. (a) The draw...over the Eastern Branch of the Elizabeth River in Norfolk, VA. The controller...

2010-07-01

117

Snake River Sockeye salmon habitat and limnological research. Annual report 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1993 we completed research directed at characterizing the 0. nerka populations and their interactions with other fish species in five Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Historically, Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellow Belly Lakes provided Snake River so...

C. Luecke D. Taki D. Teuscher P. Budy W. A. Wurtsbaugh

1994-01-01

118

Snake River sockeye salmon captive broodstock program: Research element; project progress report, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon 'Oncorhynchus nerka' as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated...

J. L. Hebdon

2000-01-01

119

Ecology and Management of the South Fork Snake River Cottonwood Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes an investigation of the cottonwood ecosystem along with the South Fork Snake River from Palisades Dam to Heise, Idaho. Vegetation dynamics in time and space, with an emphasis on the cottonwood component, was the primary focus. Becau...

M. F. Merigliano

1996-01-01

120

Habitat Relationships and Breeding Passerine Birds on the Snake River Birds of Prey Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study team surveyed breeding passerine abundance throughout the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area at 145 sites previously sampled in 1991-1993. Analysis for habitat associations of species was similar to results for previous years. ...

S. T. Knick, J. T. Rotenberry

1995-01-01

121

Bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism in the central and western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this trip is to examine Miocene to Pleistocene basalt and rhyolite flows, ignimbrites and hypabyssal intrusions in a transect from the western Snake River Plain graben across the older part of the Snake River Plain "hot-spot-track." The earlier, dominantly explosive rhyolitic phase of volcanism will be examined primarily in the Cassia Mountains, near Twin Falls, Idaho. The second day of the field trip will focus on the Graveyard Point intrusion, a strongly differentiated diabase sill in easternmost Oregon. This late Tertiary sill is well exposed from floor to roof in sections up to 150 m thick, and is an example of the type of solidified shallow magma chamber that may be present beneath some Snake River Plain basalt volcanoes. The field trip will conclude with an examination of the diverse styles of effusive and explosive basaltic volcanism in the central and western Snake River Plain.

McCurry, M.; Bonnichsen, B.; White, C.; Godchaux, M. M.; Hughes, S. S.

1997-01-01

122

HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

123

SNAKE AND CLEARWATER RIVERS, PRESENT AND POST-IMPOUNDMENT WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS, 1964  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on present water quality conditions in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers (17060107, 17060103, 17060306) in the vicinity of Lewiston, Idaho and Clarkston, Washington. It discusses how changes in the streams characteristics resulting from the constru...

124

Monitoring and mapping selected riparian habitat along the lower Snake River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies in this document were initiated to establish baseline information on riparian and wetland habitat conditions at the areas studied under the current reservoir operations on the lower Snake River. Two approaches were used to assess habitat at 28 stu...

J. L. Downs B. L. Tiller M. Witter R. Mazaika

1996-01-01

125

Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

Bassick, M. D.

1986-01-01

126

UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

127

WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATIONS OF SNAKE RIVER AND PRINCIPAL TRIBUTARIES FROM WALTERS FERRY TO WEISER, IDAHO. 1971  

EPA Science Inventory

Stream surveys conducted from 18 October to 10 November 1971 revealed that water upstream of the Boise River was relatively unpolluted, however, bacterial standards were violated. In the reach of the Snake River between the mouth of the Boise River and Weiser (170501), gross vio...

128

Downstream Passage of Steelhead Kelts through Hydroelectric Dams on the Lower Snake and Columbia Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

After spawning, iteroparous steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Columbia River basin must navigate several hydroelectric dams on their way to the Pacific Ocean. We used radiotelemetry to investigate migration rates, downstream passage routes, and success of adult steelhead kelts migrating past lower Snake River and Columbia River dams during the springs of 2001 and 2002. Seaward-migrating kelts were collected, radio-tagged,

Robert H. Wertheimer; Allen F. Evans

2005-01-01

129

Bold colors in a cryptic lineage: do Eastern Indigo Snakes exhibit color dimorphism?  

PubMed

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

130

Bold Colors in a Cryptic Lineage: Do Eastern Indigo Snakes Exhibit Color Dimorphism?  

PubMed Central

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences.

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M.; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

131

33 CFR 207.718 - Navigation locks and approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. 207.718 Section...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. (a) General...Depth of water in the lock depends upon river levels which may vary from day...

2012-07-01

132

33 CFR 207.718 - Navigation locks and approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. 207.718 Section...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. (a) General...Depth of water in the lock depends upon river levels which may vary from day...

2011-07-01

133

33 CFR 207.718 - Navigation locks and approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. 207.718 Section...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. (a) General...Depth of water in the lock depends upon river levels which may vary from day...

2013-07-01

134

Effects of dams and impoundments on migrations of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead from the Snake River, 1966 to 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrations of juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, from tributaries of the Snake River were monitored as far downstream as the Dalles Dam on the Columbia River in most years during the period 1966 to 1975. New dams constructed on the Snake River adversely affected survival and delayed migrations of juveniles. Significant loses of juveniles in 1972

HOWARD L. RAYMOND

1979-01-01

135

A review of crust and upper mantle structure studies of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system: A major lithospheric anomaly in the western U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system is one of the largest, basaltic, volcanic field in the world. Here, there is clear evidence for northeasterly progression of rhyolitic volcanism with its present position in Yellowstone. Many theories have been advanced for the origin of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone system. Yellowstone and Eastern Snake River Plain have been studied intensively using various geophysical techniques. Some sparse geophysical data are available for the Western Snake River Plain as well. Teleseismic data show the presence of a large anomalous body with low P- and S-wave velocities in the crust and upper mantle under the Yellowstone caldera. A similar body in which compressional wave velocity is lower than in the surrounding rock is present under the Eastern Snake River Plain. No data on upper mantle anomalies are available for the Western Snake River Plain. Detailed seismic refraction data for the Eastern Snake River Plain show strong lateral heterogeneities and suggest thinning of the granitic crust from below by mafic intrusion. Available data for the Western Snake River Plain also show similar thinning of the upper crust and its replacement by mafic material. The seismic refraction results in Yellowstone show no evidence of the low-velocity anomalies in the lower crust suggested by teleseismic P-delay data and interpreted as due to extensive partial melting. However, the seismic refraction models indicate lower-than-normal velocities and strong lateral inhomogeneities in the upper crust. Particularly obvious in the refraction data are two regions of very low seismic velocities near the Mallard Eake and Sour Creek resurgent domes in the Yellowstone caldera. The low-velocity body near the Sour Creek resurgent dome is intepreted as partially molten rock. Together with other geophysical and thermal data, the seismic results indicate that a sub-lithospheric thermal anomaly is responsible for the time-progressive volcanism along the Eastern Snake River Plain. However, the exact mechanism responsible for the volcanism and details of magma storage and migration are not yet fully understood. ?? 1984.

Iyer, H. M.

1984-01-01

136

Deformation Rates in the Snake River Plain and Adjacent Basin and Range Regions Based on GPS Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate horizontal velocities for 405 sites using Global Positioning System (GPS) phase data collected from 1994 to 2010 within the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. The velocities reveal a slowly-deforming region within the Snake River Plain in Idaho and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau in Oregon separated from the actively extending adjacent Basin and Range regions by shear. Our results show a NE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.6 ± 0.7 nanostrain/yr in the Centennial Tectonic Belt and an ~E-oriented extensional strain rate of 3.5 ± 0.2 nanostrain/yr in the Great Basin. These extensional rates contrast with the very low strain rate within the 125 km x 650 km region of the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau which is not distinguishable from zero (-0.1 ± 0.4 x nanostrain/yr). Inversions of Snake River Plain velocities with dike-opening models indicate that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones, as previously hypothesized, is not currently occurring. GPS data also disclose that rapid extension in the surrounding regions adjacent to the slowly-deforming region of the Snake River Plain drives shear between them. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.3-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic Belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic Belt. The fastest lateral shearing evident in the GPS occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where earthquakes with right-lateral strike-slip focal mechanisms are within a NE-trending zone of seismicity. The regional velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic Belt, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and eastern Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is not locally driven by Yellowstone hotspot volcanism, but instead by extension to the south across the Wasatch fault possibly due to gravitational collapse and by shear in the Walker Lane belt resulting from Pacific - Northern America relative plate motion.

Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

2012-12-01

137

Habitats of Weak Salmon Stocks of the Snake River Basin and Feasible Recovery Measures : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 1 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes spawning aggregations of Snake River salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and numerical status of aggregations. It summarizes habitat quality and problems between the natal area and the open ocean. It reviews critical habitat designation, identifies mitigative measures and suggests monitoring and research.

Chapman, D.W.; Witty, Kenneth L.

1993-06-01

138

An examination of cardiovascular collapse induced by eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom.  

PubMed

The Pseudonaja genus (Brown snakes) is widely distributed across Australia and bites account for significant mortality. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) and, less often, early cardiovascular collapse occur following envenoming by these snakes. We have previously examined possible mechanism(s) behind the early cardiovascular collapse following Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenoming. In the present study, we investigate early cardiovascular collapse in anaesthetized rats following administration of eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom, and prevention of this effect with prior administration of 'priming' doses (i.e. doses of venom which caused a transient hypotensive response) of venom. P. textilis venom (5-10 ?g/kg, i.v.) induced cardiovascular collapse in anaesthetized rats, characterized by a rapid decrease in systolic blood pressure until non recordable. Prior administration of 'priming' doses of P. textilis venom (2 and 3 ?g/kg) or, at least, 4-5 doses of O. scutellatus (2 ?g/kg, i.v.) or Daboia russelii limitis (20 ?g/kg, i.v.) venoms prevented cardiovascular collapse induced by P. textilis venom. Moreover, early collapse was also inhibited by prior administration of 2 discrete doses of Acanthophis rugosus venom. Prior administration of commercial polyvalent snake antivenom (500-3000 units/kg, i.v.) or heparin (300 units/kg, i.v.) also inhibited P. textilis venom-induced cardiovascular collapse. Our results indicate that P. textilis venom-induced cardiovascular collapse can be prevented by prior administration of sub-lethal doses of venom from P. textilis, O. scutellatus, A. rugosus and D. russelii limitis. This suggests that sudden cardiovascular collapse following envenoming is likely to involve a common mechanism/pathway activated by different snake venoms. PMID:23830990

Chaisakul, Janeyuth; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; Hodgson, Wayne C

2013-08-29

139

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them in two reaches of the Snake River. Also, subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at Lyons Ferry Hatchery were PIT tagged at the hatchery, transported, and released weekly at Pittsburg Landing on the Snake River and Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River to collect data on survival detection probabilities, and travel time.

Williams, John G.; Bjornn (Bjomn), Theodore C.

1998-05-01

140

TRIBUTARY AND MAINSTEM WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality conducted water quality sampling in the mainstem and major tributaries of the Snake River between Twin Falls Reservoir and Upper Salmon Falls Dam. Sampling was conducted at nine river mainstem stations ...

141

Unusual Occurrence of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Snake River of Southeastern Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first positively identified adult pink salrnon (Oncothlncb*: gotbuscba) is reported lor the Snake River of Southestertr \\\\fashington State. The sightings were in the Tucanrion River and at little Goose ard Lower Gra.nite Dams, approximately 625 to 694 km from dre Parific Ocean. Slrnt female pinl salmon carcasses indicated that these fi-sh can migtate loog distances and afftve ln flme

Lyle Gilbrealh

142

State Route 193, Snake River Bridge, Asotin and Whitman Counties, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project consists of constructing a highway bridge across the Snake River, for State Route 193, in the vicinity of Clarkston, Washington. The proposed 15th Street structure will be 1,450 feet long and will span a section of the river scheduled for inun...

1973-01-01

143

Organochlorine residue levels in Mississippi River water snakes in southern Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to determine the usefulness of water snakes in pollution monitoring. This was accomplished by assessing the organochlorine load in tissues of snakes inhabiting three sites along the Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Two species of water snakes, Nerodia rhombifera and Nerodia cyclopion, were chosen for analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Fishes account for 95.2 and 98.4%, respectively, of the total volume of food consumed by N. rhombifera and N. cyclopion. Thus, the organochlorine load of both species should reflect considerable biomagnification relative to water column levels.

Sabourin, T.D.; Stickle, W.B.; Michot, T.C.; Villars, C.E.; Garton, D.W.; Mushinsky, H.R.

1984-04-01

144

The River Damned The Proposed Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this dilemma case, Congresswoman Madeline Gibson must cast her vote on the fate of the lower Snake River dams. The stakeholders in this decision represent government agencies, small businesses, large industries, farmers, local tribes, environmentalists, and sports fishermen, and include among them many of her own family members. The case illustrates the conflicts that can arise when environmental concerns force people to reconsider long-standing policies with significant benefits and often entrenched supporters. Developed for an introductory-level environmental geology course, the case could also be used in environmental as well as biology courses.

Price, Alan P.

2002-01-01

145

Geothermal Systems In The Snake River Plain Idaho Characterized By The Hotspot Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain (SRP) is potentially the largest geothermal province in the world. It is postulated that the SRP results from passage of the North American Plate over the Yellowstone mantle plume. This has resulted in felsic, caldera-related volcanism followed by voluminous eruptions of basalt. Compilations of subsurface temperature data demonstrate the masking effect of the Snake River Aquifer. As a consequence, here has been little serious geothermal exploration within the center of the plain; although there are numerous examples of low-temperature fluids, as well as the Raft River geothermal system, on the southern flanks of the SRP. Project Hotspot was designed to investigate the geothermal potential of the SRP through the coring and subsequent scientific evaluation of three holes, each representing a different geothermal environment. These are located at Kimama, north of Burley, in the center of the plain; at Kimberly near Twin Falls on the southern margin of the plain; and at Mountain Home Air Force base in the central part of the western SRP. Both the Kimberly and Mountain Home sites are located in areas that have warm wells and hot springs, whereas, the Kimama site has neither surface nor subsurface thermal manifestations. All of the sites studied here were sampled using slim hole coring techniques in conjunction with a bottom hole temperature probe developed by DOSECC. Our first hole at Kimama in the center of the eastern SRP was cored to a depth of 1,912 m. Temperature measurements showed the SRP fresh water aquifer extends to a depth of 965 m and masks the underlying high temperature gradient of 74.5oC/Km. The core hole at Kimberly reached a depth of 1,959 m and demonstrated a large low-temperature resource of >50oC below 800 m. A core hole at Mountain Home AFB in the eastern SRP reached a depth of 1,821 m and demonstrated the presence of an intermediate- to high-temperature artesian resource that has a clear magmatic association, with measured temperatures of up to 140oC and extrapolated equilibrium temperatures of 150oC. Calculated equilibrium temperatures of the artesian water samples vary from ~134oC to 154oC (Lachmar et al 2012; GRC Transactions). The Kimama hole greatly expanded the depth extent of the Snake River aquifer. However, beneath the masking effect of the aquifer, high temperature gradients were encountered suggesting that high-temperature resources could be present, but their identification could be difficult. The Kimberly hole demonstrated that low-temperature resources along the southern flank of the SRP can have considerable depth extent and are higher volume than previously anticipated. The overall architecture of this large low-temperature system deserves further investigation. Hole MH-2 Mountain Home AFB in the central part of the western SRP has encountered the upper part of a high temperature geothermal resource that also remains to be fully evaluated.

Nielson, D. L.; Delahunty, C.; Shervais, J. W.

2012-12-01

146

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve

Timothy P. Hanrahan; David R. Geist; Evan V. Arntzen; Cary S. Abernethy

2004-01-01

147

Intra-vent peperites related to the phreatomagmatic 71 Gulch Volcano, western Snake River Plain volcanic field, Idaho (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western Snake River Plain volcanic field in SW Idaho contains up to 400 basaltic vents and centers that produced lava shields, pahoehoe lava fields, scoria cones, and a great variety of phreatomagmatic volcanoes between late Miocene and middle Pleistocene time. Tephra deposits produced by phreatomagmatic eruptions are particularly well exposed in the walls of the Snake River canyon, where

Károly Németh; Craig M. White

2009-01-01

148

Inter- and intraspecific variation in mercury bioaccumulation by snakes inhabiting a contaminated river floodplain.  

PubMed

Although mercury (Hg) is a well-studied contaminant, knowledge about Hg accumulation in snakes is limited. The authors evaluated Hg bioaccumulation within and among four snake species (northern watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon; queen snakes, Regina septemvittata; common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis; and rat snakes, Elaphe obsoleta [Pantherophis alleghaniensis]) from a contaminated site on the South River (Waynesboro, VA, USA) and two nearby reference sites. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in northern watersnake tail tissue at the contaminated site ranged from 2.25 to 13.84 mg/kg dry weight (mean: 4.85 ± 0.29), or 11 to 19 times higher than reference sites. Blood THg concentrations (0.03-7.04 mg/kg wet wt; mean: 2.24 ± 0.42) were strongly correlated with tail concentrations and were the highest yet reported in a snake species. Within watersnakes, nitrogen stable isotope values indicated ontogenetic trophic shifts that correlated with THg bioaccumulation, suggesting that diet plays a substantial role in Hg exposure. Female watersnakes had higher mean THg concentrations (5.67 ± 0.46 mg/kg) than males (4.93 ± 0.49 mg/kg), but no significant differences between sexes were observed after correcting for body size. Interspecific comparisons identified differences in THg concentrations among snake species, with more aquatic species (watersnakes and queen snakes) accumulating higher mean concentrations (5.60 ± 0.40 and 4.59 ± 0.38 mg/kg in tail tissue, respectively) than the more terrestrial species, garter snakes and rat snakes (1.28 ± 0.32 and 0.26 ± 0.09 mg/kg, respectively). The results of the present study warrant further investigation of potential adverse effects and will aid in prioritizing conservation efforts. PMID:23401211

Drewett, David V V; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Chin, Stephanie Y; Hopkins, William A

2013-04-01

149

A molecular phylogeny of aquatic gastropods provides a new perspective on biogeographic history of the Snake River Region.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA sequences of aquatic gastropods of the subgenus Pyrgulopsis (Natricola) were analyzed to test a commonly accepted hypothesis concerning the early history of the Snake River in the northwestern US. Distributions of Natricola and other regional biota were previously used to infer that the Snake River flowed to the Pacific through southeastern Oregon and northern California during the Neogene prior to its capture by the Columbia River in the late Pliocene (2 Ma). A molecular phylogeny based on partial sequences of COI and NDI (1149 bp) indicates that the Natricola clade is restricted to the modern Snake-Columbia River Basin and the Oregon Lakes region whereas northern California populations previously assigned to this subgenus belong to other lineages. The Natricola clade is not deeply subdivided into Oregon Lakes and Snake River Basin units consistent with late Pliocene fragmentation of the hypothesized paleodrainage, but instead is shallowly structured and contains multiple transitions among these two geographic areas. The strongly supported sister relationship between Natricola and a species from northwest Nevada (P. imperialis) is consistent with a recent proposal that the ancestral Snake River did not flow through southeast Oregon but instead flowed south to the Humboldt River. Within the context of this hypothesis, the multiple transitions between the Snake River Basin and the Oregon Lakes region that occurred within Natricola may be attributed to a late Pleistocene connection between these areas that was unrelated to the early course of the Snake River. PMID:15288067

Hershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping

2004-09-01

150

Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA)

2002-09-01

151

ANATOMY OF A RIVER, AN EVALUATION OF WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HELL'S CANYON REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation began in March 1973, involving more than 30 state and federal agencies and private entities. 79 specialists monitored the effects of 5 controlled flows on the biological community and mans use of the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101). The total program inv...

152

Prespawning Movement of Wild and Hatchery Fall Chinook Salmon Adults in the Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used radiotelemetry to describe the prespawning movement of adult fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (5 wild males, 4 wild females, and 27 hatchery females) in the Snake River. We characterized the migratory phase as consecutive detections made in an upstream direction after radio-tagging and release. A transition from the migratory phase to the search phase was usually observed after

William P. Connor; Aaron P. Garcia

2006-01-01

153

Snake River sockeye salmon habitat and limnological research. Annual report 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Snake River sockeye salmon were listed as endangered in 1991. Since then, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have been involved in a multi-agency recovery effort. The purpose of this document is to report activities completed in the rearing environments of...

D. Teuscher D. Taki W. Wurtsbaugh C. Luecke P. Budy

1995-01-01

154

Analysis of Water Flow Problems in the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problems associated with water flow and operation of dams in the Hells Canyon area of the Snake River in Idaho were surveyed and possible solutions were examined. Conflicts between Idaho Power Company projects and plans for the Hells Canyon Recreation...

J. H. Coffin

1977-01-01

155

ESTIMATING THE VALUE OF RECREATION ON THE SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS USING A DISEQUILIBRIUM TRAVEL COST MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for outdoor recreation was analyzed at four Lower Snake River reservoirs for the purposes of measuring willingness-to-pay for outdoor recreation trips. Data were collected with a single mailing survey using a list of names and addresses collected from recreationists at the reservoirs during May through October, 1997. The survey resulted in 408 usable responses. Outdoor recreation demand was estimated

Donn M. Johnson; John R. McKean; R. Garth Taylor

2000-01-01

156

MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY AND BENTHIC BIOMONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examined spatial and temporal trends in water quality, sestonic and benthic algal concentrations, and benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness, population density, and biomass at nine stations along the Middle Snake River from Pillar Falls to Upper Salmon Falls Dam. Pri...

157

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)populations in the Northwest are decreasing. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) was funded in 1998 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

1999-03-01

158

AN ANALYSIS OF MINIMUM FLOW REQUIREMENTS IN THE SNAKE, BLACKFOOT, AND PORTNEUF RIVERS. 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was done in support of an analysis of the State of Idahos Water Plan. The report analyzes the impact of low flows upon dissolved oxygen in the Snake, Blackfoot, and Portneuf Rivers, Idaho (17040201, 17040206). A steady-state water quality model (Yearsley, 1975) was u...

159

MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STUDY, PHASE I. 1990-1991  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality samples from 55 stations in the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101) for the period June 1990 through July 1991 were successfully obtained and field and laboratory data entered into the database. Weekly sampling on aquaculture facilities, and biweekly sampling o...

160

Research and recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon. Annual report 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiate...

P. Kline J. Younk

1995-01-01

161

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the 2000 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

Achord, Stephen (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2001-08-01

162

BACTERIOLOGY AND ALGAL ASSAYS, LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS, IDAHO AND WASHINGTON, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this portion of the study is to determine 1) the overall water quality of the impoundment area, and 2) to determine the effect of impoundment on bacterial water quality. Data from the pre-impoundment study indicated that the Snake and Clearwater Rivers (17060103) ...

163

77 FR 3115 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers AGENCY: Coast...inbound and outbound grain-shipment vessels involved in commerce with Export Grain...extends to waters 500 yards ahead of these vessels and 200 yards abeam and astern of...

2012-01-23

164

Postrelease Performance of Hatchery Yearling and Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released into the Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two rearing treatments are used at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to produce yearling (age-1) and subyearling (age-0) fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for supplementing production of wild fish in the Snake River. We compared four indicators of yearling and subyearling postrelease performance, namely, seaward movement, condition factor, growth rate, and survival. A standard rearing treatment was used to grow yearlings slowly

William P. Connor; Steven G. Smith; Todd Andersen; Steven M. Bradbury; Douglas C. Burum; Eric E. Hockersmith; Mark L. Schuck; Glen W. Mendel; Robert M. Bugert

2004-01-01

165

The River Dammed: The Proposed Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a dilemma case in which a congresswoman must cast her vote on the removal of the lower Snake River dams. Students assume the roles of stakeholders in this decision who represent government agencies, small businesses, large industries, farmers, local tribes, environmentalists, and sports fishermen. Some of the stakeholders are members of the congresswoman's family. This activity will help students understand the effect of dams on physical stream processes, demonstrate how physical alterations of streams lead to long-term effects on habitat both upstream and downstream from the alteration, illustrate how human systems become dependent on large environment-altering structures and, help students become aware of how enmeshed various government agencies are in this and other water issues. Students will also become aware that the point-of-view of each stakeholder often determines how facts are interpreted and presented to defend or oppose a proposed action.

Price, Alan

166

Reanalysis and Interpretation of 25 Years of Snake–Columbia River Juvenile Salmonid Survival Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tagging studies to estimate salmonid smolt survival during out-migration have been an integral component of hydroproject mitigation programs for decades in the Snake–Columbia River basin. Fifty-three smolt survival investigations from 1971 to 1996 were reexamined to identify general patterns for survival of smolts through turbines, spillbays, and river reaches. Average survival that measured both direct and indirect effects from turbine

Shane A. Bickford; John R. Skalski

2000-01-01

167

Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan\\/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and

Duane D

2009-01-01

168

Kinematics of the Snake River Plain and Centennial Shear Zone, Idaho, from GPS and earthquatte data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities at 405 sites using GPS phase data collected from 1994 to 2010 along with earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features reveal how contemporary strain is accommodated in the Northern Basin and Range Province. The 1994-2010 velocity field has observable gradients arising from both rotation and strain. Kinematic interpretations are guided by using a block-model approach and inverting velocities, earthquake slip vector azimuths, and dike-opening rates to simultaneously solve for angular velocities of the blocks and uniform horizontal strain rate tensors within selected blocks. The Northern Basin and Range block model has thirteen blocks representing tectonic provinces based on knowledge of geology, seismicity, volcanism, active tectonic faults, and regions with differences in observed velocities. Ten variations of the thirteen blocks are tested to assess the statistical significance of boundaries for tectonic provinces, motions along those boundaries, and estimates of long-term deformation within the provinces. From these tests, a preferred model with seven tectonic provinces is determined by applying a maximum confidence level of ?99% probability to F-distribution tests between two models to indicate one model with added boundaries has a better fit to the data over a second model. The preferred model is varied to test hypotheses of post-seismic viscoelastic relaxation, significance of dikes in accommodating extension, and bookshelf faulting in accommodating shear. Six variations of the preferred model indicate time-varying components due to viscoelastic relaxation from the 1959 Hebgen Lake, Montana and 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquakes have either ceased as of 2002 or are too small to be evident in the observed velocities. Inversions with dike-opening models indicate that the previously hypothesized rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones to keep pace with normal faulting is not currently occurring in the Snake River Plain. Alternatively, the preferred model reveals a low deforming region (-0.1 +/- 0.4 x 10-9 yr -1, which is not discernable from zero) covering 125 km x 650 km within the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau that is separated from the actively extending adjacent Basin and Range regions by narrow belts of localized shear. Velocities reveal rapid extension occurs to the north of the Snake River Plain in the Centennial Tectonic Belt (5.6 +/- 0.7 x 10 -9 yr-1) and to the south in the Intermountain Seismic Belt and Great Basin (3.5 +/- 0.2 x 10-9 yr-1). The "Centennial Shear Zone" is a NE-trending zone of up to 1.5 mm yr -1 of right-lateral shear and is the result of rapid extension in the Centennial Tectonic Belt adjacent to the low deforming region of the Snake River Plain. Variations of the preferred model that test the hypothesis of bookshelf faulting demonstrate shear does not drive Basin and Range extension in the Centennial Tectonic Belt. Instead, the velocity gradient across the Centennial Shear Zone indicates that shear is distributed and deformation is due to strike-slip faulting, distributed simple shear, regional-scale rotation, or any combination of these. Near the fastest rates of right-lateral slip, focal mechanisms are observed with strike-slip components of motion consistent with right-lateral shear. Here also, the segment boundary between two E-trending Basin and Range faults, which are oriented subparallel to the NE-trending shear zone, provides supporting Holocene to mid-Pleistocene geologic evidence for accommodation of right-lateral shear in the Centennial Shear Zone. The southernmost ends of NW-trending Basin and Range faults in the Centennial Tectonic Belt at their juncture with the eastern Snake River Plain could accommodate right-lateral shear through components of left-lateral oblique slip. Right-lateral shear may be accommodated by components of strike-slip motion on multiple NE-trending faults since geologic evidence does not support slip along one continuous NE-trending fault along the boundary

Payne, Suzette J.

169

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.  

SciTech Connect

This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.

Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-09-15

170

SNAKE RIVER BASIN, WATER QUALITY CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT, SEPTEMBER 1968  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings of studies which have provided the impetus to Federal-State water pollution control planning in the Snake Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) since 1962. It tells where pollution exists and why it exists. It tells what corrective action has alre...

171

Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1992-04-01

172

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (8) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

2006-07-14

173

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (8) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

Kohler, Andre E. [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; Griswold, Robert G. [Biolines Environmental Consulting; Taki, Doug [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

2009-07-31

174

Basaltic Volcanism of the Snake River Volcanic Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province is the world's best modern example of a time-transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. Tomographic images document a thermal anomaly which pierces the Farallon plate at depth and appears to extend to depths of over 1000 km. Many investigators attribute this anomaly to a deep mantle plume, while others recognize the sheet-like aspect of the velocity anomaly and attribute it to lower mantle flow around a fragmented remnant of the Farallon plate. Tholeiitic basalts of the SRP have major element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), with higher FeO, TiO2, P2O5 and K2O than mid-ocean ridge basalts over a similar range in MgO. Their trace element concentrations also mimic OIB tholeiites, with moderately enriched LREE/HREE ratios, OIB-like HFSE ratios and Nb-Y-Zr systematics. Most SRP basalts show little evidence of crustal assimilation: oxygen isotope compositions are mantle-like, K2O is low and does not increase relative to other incompatible elements during fractionation (e.g., P2O5), and silica contents are consistently low. In contrast, evidence suggests that these basalts evolve primarily through fractional crystallization in relatively shallow magma chambers with episodic magma recharge. Trace element concentration patterns are nearly identical to OIB tholeiites, with somewhat lower slopes on multi-element variations diagrams, consistent with 7-12% partial melting of spinel-facies peridotite (9-18 kb, 40-65 km) with a composition similar to the source of OIB or EMORB. Models show that depleted MORB asthenosphere or primitive mantle peridotite composition sources cannot yield SRP tholeiites, even with residual garnet in the source region to raise LREE/HREE ratios in the melt. There is no indication of residual garnet in the source - which requires that either the lithosphere was relatively thin during formation of the SRP, or that the melts originated within the lithosphere itself. The limited range of major and trace element composition, mantle ?18O signatures, and lack of any correlation between isotope ratios and major and trace element abundances indicate minimal crustal interaction. Major element, trace element, and He isotope systematics of the basaltic rocks are consistent with a deep, sublithospheric mantle source, similar to the source of ocean island basalts. This conclusions are supported by results from deep (~2 km) core holes recently drilled by Project Hotspot. In contrast, the radiogenic Pb isotopes in these basalts are indistinguishable from melts derived from the ancient Wyoming cratonic lithosphere that underlies the SRP, while Sr and Nd isotope ratios are intermediate between depleted mantle and continental crust or lithospheric mantle values. This conundrum has been a major problem for plume models presented in the past. Isotopic studies of surface and subsurface basalt flows show systematic variations in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes with distance from Yellowstone that are interpreted to reflect changes in the proportion of plume source and the underlying heterogeneous cratonic lithosphere, which varies in age, composition, and thickness from west to east. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest <5% lithospheric input into a system dominated by plume-derived basalts similar in composition to Hawaiian basalts.

Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Vetter, S.

2012-12-01

175

Summary of Radiological Monitoring of Columbia and Snake River Sediment, 1988 Through 2004  

SciTech Connect

From 1988 through 2004, samples of upper-layer sediments from the Columbia River and Snake River were collected under the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project to document concentrations and trends of radionuclides. Low concentrations of potassium-40, cesium-137, uranium isotopes, and plutonium isotopes were detected consistently in sediment samples over the entire sampling period. The concentrations of most radionuclides were similar to values measured upstream of the Hanford Site behind Priest Rapids Dam. For all locations, the concentrations of radionuclides in sediment samples from the Columbia and Snake rivers were below concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical exposed individual using a shoreline exposure scenario (i.e., 500 hr/yr of external dose). The DOE limit for public exposure is 100 mrem/yr.

Patton, Gregory W.; Dirkes, Roger L.

2007-10-01

176

Evaluation of seepage and discharge uncertainty in the middle Snake River, southwestern Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Idaho, Idaho Power Company, and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, evaluated seasonal seepage gains and losses in selected reaches of the middle Snake River, Idaho, during November 2012 and July 2013, and uncertainty in measured and computed discharge at four Idaho Power Company streamgages. Results from this investigation will be used by resource managers in developing a protocol to calculate and report Adjusted Average Daily Flow at the Idaho Power Company streamgage on the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam, near Murphy, Idaho, which is the measurement point for distributing water to owners of hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River. The evaluated reaches of the Snake River were from King Hill to Murphy, Idaho, for the seepage studies and downstream of Lower Salmon Falls Dam to Murphy, Idaho, for evaluations of discharge uncertainty. Computed seepage was greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty for subreaches along the middle Snake River during November 2012, the non-irrigation season, but not during July 2013, the irrigation season. During the November 2012 seepage study, the subreach between King Hill and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful (greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty) seepage gain of 415 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the subreach between Loveridge Bridge and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful seepage gain of 217 ft3/s. The meaningful seepage gain measured in the November 2012 seepage study was expected on the basis of several small seeps and springs present along the subreach, regional groundwater table contour maps, and results of regional groundwater flow model simulations. Computed seepage along the subreach from C J Strike Dam to Murphy was less than cumulative measurement uncertainty during November 2012 and July 2013; therefore, seepage cannot be quantified with certainty along this subreach. For the uncertainty evaluation, average uncertainty in discharge measurements at the four Idaho Power Company streamgages in the study reach ranged from 4.3 percent (Snake River below Lower Salmon Falls Dam) to 7.8 percent (Snake River below C J Strike Dam) for discharges less than 7,000 ft3/s in water years 2007–11. This range in uncertainty constituted most of the total quantifiable uncertainty in computed discharge, represented by prediction intervals calculated from the discharge rating of each streamgage. Uncertainty in computed discharge in the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam near Murphy was 10.1 and 6.0 percent at the Adjusted Average Daily Flow thresholds of 3,900 and 5,600 ft3/s, respectively. All discharge measurements and records computed at streamgages have some level of uncertainty that cannot be entirely eliminated. Knowledge of uncertainty at the Adjusted Average Daily Flow thresholds is useful for developing a measurement and reporting protocol for purposes of distributing water to hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River.

Wood, Molly S.; Williams, Marshall L.; Evetts, David M.; Vidmar, Peter J.

2014-01-01

177

EFFECTS OF WASTE DISCHARGES ON WATER QUALITY OF THE SNAKE RIVER AND ROCK CREEK, TWIN FALLS AREA, IDAHO. 1971  

EPA Science Inventory

Comprehensive water quality investigations in the Snake River Basin, Twin Falls Area (17040212) were conducted from November 2 to 17, 1971. Studies included an evaluation of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities. Subsequently, stream surveys were conducted on...

178

Geochronology, paleomagnetism and petrology of the Upper Cenozoic Bruneau Formation in the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined application of potassium-argon and paleomagnetic techniques revealed an understanding of the sequence of geologic events during the last 2.2 m.y. in the western part of the Snake River Plain. Two factors introduce large errors in the whole-rock K-Ar dating of fine-grained, glass-rich, geologically young Snake River basalts: a low potassium content which is not uniformly distributed; and the

M. H. Amini

1983-01-01

179

Rhyolitic ignimbrites in the Rogerson Graben, southern Snake River Plain volcanic province: volcanic stratigraphy, eruption history and basin evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 80 km long NNE-trending Rogerson Graben on the southern margin of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA, hosts a rhyolitic\\u000a pyroclastic succession, 200 m thick, that records a period of successive, late-Miocene, large-volume explosive eruptions from\\u000a the Yellowstone–Snake River Plain volcanic province, and contemporaneous extension. The succession, here termed the Rogerson\\u000a Formation, comprises seven members (defined herein) and records at

Graham D. M. Andrews; Michael J. Branney; Bill Bonnichsen; Michael McCurry

2008-01-01

180

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2001, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU). Two large freezer tanks are located at each university. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, an emphasis on cryopreserving wild unmarked fish, continued fertility trials, and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

2002-06-01

181

Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Services listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. The first planning of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from a captive broodstock occurred in 1994 with the release of 14,119 fish to Redfish Lake. Two release strategies were used with four broodstock lineages represented. In 1995, 95,411 hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon were planted to Stanley Basin waters, including the release of additional broodstock lineage groups and release strategies in Redfish Lake, a yearling smolt release to Redfish Lake Creek, and a direct release to Pettit Lake.

Kline, Paul A.

1997-04-01

182

The Snake River Plain, Idaho - Representative of a new category of volcanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the volcanic geology of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, and comparison with other basaltic regions suggest a new category of volcanic activity, termed basaltic plains volcanism. Typified by the Snake River Plain, this style of volcanism is intermediate between basaltic flood (or plateau) eruptions and Hawaiian volcanism. Characteristics that are common to both Hawaiian and plains volcanism are: multiple lava flow units which erupt primarily from point sources, formation of low shields, and frequent emplacement through lava tubes or channels. Characteristics that are common to both flood basalts and plains volcanism are: high volume flows, vents aligned along rift zones, and planar surfaces. The recognition of plains volcanism in other areas provides a means to interpret the style of eruption and volcanic history.

Greeley, R.

1982-01-01

183

Snake River Plain, Idaho: Representative of a new category of volcanism  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the volcanic geology of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, and comparison with other basaltic regions suggest a new category of volcanic activity, termed basaltic plains volcanism. Typified by the Snake River Plain, this style of volcanism is intermediate between basaltic flood (or plateau) eruptions and Hawaiian volcanism. Characteristics that are common to both Hawaiian and plains volcanism are: multiple lava flow units which erupt primarily from point sources, formation of low shields, and frequent emplacement through lava tubes channels. Characteristics that are common to both flood basalts and plains volcanism are: high volume flows, vents aligned along rift zones, and planar surfaces. The recognition of plains in other areas provides a means to interpret the style of eruption and volcanic history.

Greeley, R.

1982-04-10

184

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1980's, Snake River sockeye, Oncorhynchus nerka, adults have only returned to Redfish Lake, one of five lakes in the Sawtooth Basin which historically reared sockeye. In 1995 we removed a fish passage barrier at the outlet of Pettit Lake to provide access to more rearing habitat for sockeye. During the same year 8,750 progeny from the captive broodstock program were stocked in Pettit Lake, the only other lake besides Redfish that currently rears Snake River sockeye. In this report, we have summarized activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) Fisheries Department personnel during the calendar year of 1996. Our objective included fertilization of Redfish Lake, characterizing the limnology of Sawtooth Valley lakes, conducting O. nerka lake population and escapement surveys, reducing the number of spawning kokanee in Fishhook Creek, evaluating hatchery rainbow trout overwinter survival and potential competition and predation interactions with O. nerka in Pettit Lake, and monitoring smolt outmigration from Pettit Lake.

Taki, Doug; Mikkelsen, Anders (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID

1997-04-01

185

Movement and Spawner Distribution of Hatchery Fall Chinook Salmon Adults Acclimated and Released as Yearlings at Three Locations in the Snake River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the supplementation program for fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River basin, yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery were released at acclimation facilities stationed along the lower Clearwater River and the lower and upper reaches of the Snake River. The distance required for migration out of the release reach was greatest for juveniles released in the

Aaron P. Garcia; William P. Connor; Deborah J. Milks; Stephen J. Rocklage; R. Kirk Steinhorst

2004-01-01

186

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (8) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

2004-06-01

187

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2002 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake (3) conduct kokanee salmon (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

2004-08-01

188

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

1999-12-01

189

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (7) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E. (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

2004-01-01

190

Accommodation of Right-lateral Shear Along the Northwest Boundary of the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northwest boundary of the Snake River Plain (SRP) is a transition from range-bounding normal faults in the Centennial tectonic belt (CTB) to the topographically low and volcanic-dominated province of the SRP. Within the CTB, the northern and central segments of three prominent NW-trending normal faults are seismically active, but their activity decreases southward toward the SRP. Deformation in the

S. J. Payne; R. W. King; S. A. Kattenhorn; R. McCaffrey

2008-01-01

191

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March of 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an inter-agency effort to save the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka from extinction. This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the calendar year of 1998. Project objectives included; (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka released from the captive rearing program into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (2) fertilize Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) control the number of spawning kokanee in Fishhook Creek; (6) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity. Results by objective are summarized.

Lewis, Bert; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Fall, ID)

2000-05-01

192

Population dynamics of the Concho Water Snake in rivers and reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Concho Water Snake (Nerodia harteri paucimaculata) is confined to the Concho-Colorado River valley of central Texas, thereby occupying one of the smallest geographic ranges of any North American snake. In 1986, N. h. paucimaculata was designated as a federally threatened species, in large part because of reservoir projects that were perceived to adversely affect the amount of habitat available to the snake. During a ten-year period (1987-1996), we conducted capture-recapture field studies to assess dynamics of five subpopulations of snakes in both natural (river) and man-made (reservoir) habitats. Because of differential sampling of subpopulations, we present separate results for all five subpopulations combined (including large reservoirs) and three of the five subpopuiations (excluding large reservoirs). We used multistate capture-recapture models to deal with stochastic transitions between pre-reproductive and reproductive size classes and to allow for the possibility of different survival and capture probabilities for the two classes. We also estimated both the finite rate of increase (??) for a deterministic, stage-based, female-only matrix model using the average litter size, and the average rate of adult population change, ??, which describes changes in numbers of adult snakes, using a direct capture-recapture approach to estimation. Average annual adult survival was about 0.23 and similar for males and females. Average annual survival for subadults was about 0.14. The parameter estimates from the stage-based projection matrix analysis all yielded asymptotic values of ?? < 1, suggesting populations that are not viable. However, the direct estimates of average adult ?? for the three subpopulations excluding major reservoirs were ?? = 1.26, SE??(??) = 0.18 and ?? = 0.99, SE??(??) = 0.79, based on two different models. Thus, the direct estimation approach did not provide strong evidence of population declines of the riverine subpopulations, but the estimates are characterized by substantial uncertainty. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Whiting, M. J.; Dixon, J. R.; Greene, B. D.; Mueller, J. M.; Thornton, Jr. , O. W.; Hatfield, J. S.; Nichols, J. D.; Hines, J. E.

2008-01-01

193

Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Escapement estimates for fall of 2000 indicate more than 9000 adult fall Chinook salmon returned to this area, accounting for more than 2100 redds within a 5 km section of river.

Hanrahan, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-01-08

194

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the repository by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, respectively. To date, a total of 3,928 Columbia River salmon and steelhead gamete samples and three Kootenai River white sturgeon are preserved in the repository. Samples are stored in independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU).

Young, William; Kucera, Paul

2003-07-01

195

UPPER SNAKE RIVER, MAIN STEM (LAKE WALCOTT TO IDAHO-WYOMING BORDER), IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

This study sampled 17 water quality stations in the Upper Snake River, Idaho (1704) on a bi-weekly basis. The area extended from Heise and Rexburg to the Raft River. Two point sources (Idaho Falls and Blackfoot Sewage Treatment Plants) and 2 tributaries (Blackfoot and Raft Rive...

196

Modeling the Effects of Supersaturated Dissolved Gas on Resident Aquatic Biota in the Main-Stem Snake and Columbia Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved-gas levels in the Columbia and Snake rivers during the spring freshet often exceed 110% of saturation, the maximum level permitted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The highest levels of supersaturation result from high springtime river flows and turbine outages, conditions over which there is little control and that cause high volumes of water passing over the dams and

Brad A. Ryan; Earl M. Dawley; Richard A. Nelson

2000-01-01

197

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

2004-02-01

198

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

2003-12-01

199

Survey of Pathogens in Hatchery Chinook Salmon with Different Out-Migration Histories through the Snake and Columbia Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is known about the occurrence and transmission of infectious agents in

A. L. Van Gaest; J. P. Dietrich; D. E. Thompson; D. A. Boylen; S. A. Strickland; T. K. Collier; F. J. Loge; M. R. Arkoosh

2011-01-01

200

Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and geospatial data to understand the basement and sub-basement structures in the study area. Major tectonic features including the Ouachita thrust-fold belt, Lampasas arch, Llano uplift, and Bend arch surround the southeast Fort Worth Basin. The effects of these tectonic units in the basement were imaged in form of faulted and folded basement and sub-basement layers. Euler deconvolution and integrated forward gravity modeling were employed to extend the interpretations beyond the 3D seismic survey into a regional context. The Harney Basin is a relatively flat lying depression in the northeast portion of the enigmatic High Lava Plains volcanic province in eastern Oregon. In addition to the High Lava Plains active source seismic data, I also employed gravity, magnetic, digital elevation, geologic maps, and other geospatial data in this integrated study. I generated an upper crustal 3D seismic tomographic model of the Harney Basin and surrounding area using the active source seismic data. I then integrated it with gravity, magnetic, and geologic data to produce a geophysical model of the upper crustal structure, which reveals that the basin reaches as deep as 6 km in the central areas. I observed two major caldera shaped features within the basin. These calderas reveal seismic low velocity areas along with low gravity and magnetic anomalies. I interpreted the extent of these calderas with the help of integrated geophysical results. I propose a nested caldera complex in the northern Harney Basin and another caldera in the southern part. The Snake River Plain is an arcuate-shaped topographic low that lies in southern Idaho. This rifted valley is filled by large volume of mafic magma with numerous exposures of silicic volcanic centers. The scientific discussion on the structural complexities and evolution of the Snake River Plain and the role of extension in its formation has been going on for decades. Similarly, high gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with the Snake River Plains, and their possible causes are still the subject of many studies. Numerous recent

Khatiwada, Murari

201

Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 2,420 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, from 1992 through 2000, are stored in two independent locations at the University of Idaho and Washington State University. Two large freezer tanks are located at each university, each of which holds approximately 25% of the cryopreserved sperm. One tank at each university is considered long-term archival storage, while the other is short-term. Fertility trials were conducted at each university to test the viability of the cryopreserved chinook salmon sperm. The experiments on the 2000 frozen and thawed sperm at both universities found a fertility rate of 60-70%. This document also summarizes 1999-2000 steelhead genetic analysis report. The results of mitochondrial, nuclear DNA and microsatellite analysis found differences and shared haplotypes between the stocks of fish sampled for cryopreservation. Recommendations for future gene banking efforts include the need for establishment of a regional genome resource bank, a greater emphasis on cryopreserving wild fish, continued fertility trials, exploring field cryopreservation and genetic analysis on all fish represented in the germplasm repository.

Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)

2001-06-01

202

Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs are intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates intended to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2003, NMFS cultured 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2003.

Maynard, Desmond J.; McAuley, W. Carlin (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Resource Enhancement and Utilization, Seattle, WA)

2004-08-01

203

Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2002, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002.

McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J. (National Marine Fishereis Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

2003-03-01

204

Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) established captive broodstock programs to aid in the recovery of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). These programs were intended to provide safety nets for Salmon and Grande Ronde River Basins spring/summer chinook salmon stocks. They also provide a basis of examining the efficacy of captive rearing and captive breeding programs as tools for recovering listed salmonid populations. In years when no or few naturally produced fish return from the sea, captive fish and their progeny can be used to maintain populations in these two Snake River Basin tributaries. The NMFS facility at Manchester, WA, provides the crucial seawater environment needed to culture anadromous salmonids during the marine phase of their life cycle. At the Manchester Research Station, the fish are cultured in 6.1m diameter circular tanks housed in a fully enclosed and secure building. The tanks are supplied with seawater that has been processed to eliminate most marine pathogens. The fish are fed a commercially prepared diet and held at densities and loading rates designed to maximize fish quality. When fish begin to mature, they are transferred to ODFW or IDFG freshwater facilities in Oregon and Idaho for final maturation. The states then release the mature fish (Idaho) or their progeny (Oregon) back into their native Snake River tributary waters in restoration efforts. In FY 2001, NMFS cultured 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 broodyear fish at its Manchester Facility. This report addresses program activities from September 1, 2000 to August 31, 2001.

McAuley, W. Carlin; Flagg, Thomas N. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

2003-03-01

205

Petrology, Geochemistry, and Geodynamics of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain Hotspot: Implications for Supercontinent Dispersal (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) hotspot system is one of the few places on Earth where plume-lithosphere interaction can be observed in process. This interaction commenced circa 17 Ma when the YSRP plume first encountered continental lithosphere beneath eastern Oregon. Geophysical and geologic observations show that plume material impinged on the lithosphere near 44 degrees N latitude, close to the interface between accreted oceanic terranes (to the north) and thinned continental lithosphere (to the south). The plume tilted to the southeast as it was squeezed against the steep Idaho-Oregon Shear Zone to the north, guided by topography in the base of the lithospheric mantle. Once ensconced in this position, it continued to rise into the channel that formed as it thermally and mechanically eroded the base of the lithosphere. This channel allows the plume to rise and melt adiabatically despite the thickness of the surrounding lithosphere [Shervais and Hanan, Tectonics, 2008]. The most voluminous eruptions are hot, dry, A-type (anorogenic) rhyolites that precede most basalt eruptions and migrate progressively to the NE along the topographic central and eastern Snake River Plain. Isotope data document >60% mantle Nd, consistent with their formation by fractionation of mantle-derived mafic melts, with only minor crustal melting [Nash et al EPSL 2006; McCurry and Rodgers JVGR 2009]. Geochemical and isotopic data for basalts show that the lithosphere thickens from west to east, and that lithosphere to the west is younger and more heterogeneous than that which underlies the Yellowstone plateau. Basalts erupted along the track of the hotspot have major and trace element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (e.g., Hawaii) but have isotopic compositions that reflect assimilation of an ancient enriched component derived from the subcontinental mantle lithosphere. This dichotomy reflects a balance between the mass fractions of sublithospheric OIB and enriched SCLM components [Hanan et al., Geology, 2008]. The SRP geochemical signature corresponds to Stage II magmatism, associated with the dispersal of super-continents [Hanan et al., this session]. The parity between the SRP geochemical signature and Stage II rift lavas indicates that lithosphere thinning is required before the plume or sub-lithospheric mantle can contribute melt to the rift magmas.

Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.

2010-12-01

206

Sediment transport in the lower Snake and Clearwater River Basins, Idaho and Washington, 2008–11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentation is an ongoing maintenance problem for reservoirs, limiting reservoir storage capacity and navigation. Because Lower Granite Reservoir in Washington is the most upstream of the four U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs on the lower Snake River, it receives and retains the largest amount of sediment. In 2008, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to quantify sediment transport to Lower Granite Reservoir. Samples of suspended sediment and bedload were collected from streamgaging stations on the Snake River near Anatone, Washington, and the Clearwater River at Spalding, Idaho. Both streamgages were equipped with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter to evaluate the efficacy of acoustic backscatter for estimating suspended-sediment concentrations and transport. In 2009, sediment sampling was extended to 10 additional locations in tributary watersheds to help identify the dominant source areas for sediment delivery to Lower Granite Reservoir. Suspended-sediment samples were collected 9–15 times per year at each location to encompass a range of streamflow conditions and to capture significant hydrologic events such as peak snowmelt runoff and rain-on-snow. Bedload samples were collected at a subset of stations where the stream conditions were conducive for sampling, and when streamflow was sufficiently high for bedload transport. At most sampling locations, the concentration of suspended sediment varied by 3–5 orders of magnitude with concentrations directly correlated to streamflow. The largest median concentrations of suspended sediment (100 and 94 mg/L) were in samples collected from stations on the Palouse River at Hooper, Washington, and the Salmon River at White Bird, Idaho, respectively. The smallest median concentrations were in samples collected from the Selway River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Lochsa River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Clearwater River at Orofino, Idaho (13 mg/L), and the Middle Fork Clearwater River at Kooskia, Idaho (15 mg/L). The largest measured concentrations of suspended sediment (3,300 and 1,400 mg/L) during a rain-on-snow event in January 2011 were from samples collected at the Potlatch River near Spalding, Idaho, and the Palouse River at Hooper, Washington, respectively. Generally, samples collected from agricultural watersheds had a high percentage of silt and clay-sized suspended sediment, whereas samples collected from forested watersheds had a high percentage of sand. During water years 2009–11, Lower Granite Reservoir received about 10 million tons of suspended sediment from the combined loads of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers. The Snake River accounted for about 2.97 million tons per year (about 89 percent) of the total suspended sediment, 1.48 million tons per year (about 90 percent) of the suspended sand, and about 1.52 million tons per year (87 percent) of the suspended silt and clay. Of the suspended sediment transported to Lower Granite Reservoir, the Salmon River accounted for about 51 percent of the total suspended sediment, about 56 percent of the suspended sand, and about 44 percent of the suspended silt and clay. About 6.2 million tons (62 percent) of the sediment contributed to Lower Granite Reservoir during 2009–11 entered during water year 2011, which was characterized by an above average winter snowpack and sustained spring runoff. A comparison of historical data collected from the Snake River near Anatone with data collected during this study indicates that concentrations of total suspended sediment and suspended sand in the Snake River were significantly smaller during water years 1972–79 than during 2008–11. Most of the increased sediment content in the Snake River is attributable to an increase of sand-size material. During 1972–79, sand accounted for an average of 28 percent of the suspended-sediment load; during 2008–11, sand accounted for an average of 48 percent. Historical data from the Clearwater River at Spalding indicates that the concentrations of total suspended

Clark, Gregory M.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Wood, Molly S.

2013-01-01

207

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem

T. Hanrahan; D. Geist; C. Arntzen

2004-01-01

208

Numerically Simulating the Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Environment for Migrating Salmon in the Lower Snake River, 2002-2003 Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater and Lower Snake Rivers and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional hydrodynamic and thermal conditions at

C. Cook; M. Richmond; A. Coleman

2003-01-01

209

Characteristics of fish assemblages and related environmental variables for streams of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1993-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

limited designation for the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill and provide a framework for developing indices of biotic integrity by using fish assemblages to evaluate water quality of streams in the upper Snake River Basin.

Maret, Terry R.

1997-01-01

210

Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to

Timothy P. Hanrahan; Marshall C. Richmond; Evan V. Arntzen

2007-01-01

211

Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts.  

PubMed

Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ?50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. "Delayed" mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750?km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry. PMID:22690317

Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M; McKern, John L

2012-01-01

212

Seasonal shifts in shelter and microhabitat use of drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) in Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States, has experienced population declines because of extensive habitat loss and degradation across its range. In Georgia and northern Florida, the species is associated with longleaf pine habitats that support Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) populations, the burrows of which D. couperi uses for shelter. The extent that D. couperi uses these burrows, in addition to the use of other underground shelters and the microhabitat features associated with these structures is largely unknown. From 2003 through 2004, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of D. couperi (n = 32) to examine use of shelters and microhabitat in Georgia. We used repeated measures regression on a candidate set of models created from a priori hypotheses using principal component scores, derived from analysis of microhabitat data to examine microhabitat use at underground shelters. Proportion of locations recorded underground did not differ seasonally or between sexes. In winter, we recorded >0.90 of underground locations at tortoise burrows. Use of these burrows was less pronounced in spring for males. Females used abandoned tortoise burrows more frequently than males year-round and used them on approximately 0.60 of their underground locations during spring. Microhabitat use at underground shelters was most influenced by season compared to sex, site, or body size. Females in spring and summer used more open microhabitat compared to males, potentially in response to gestation. Our results suggest that the availability of suitable underground shelters, especially G. polyphemus burrows, may be a limiting factor in the northern range of D. couperi, with important implications for its conservation. ?? 2009 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Hyslop, N. L.; Cooper, R. J.; Meyers, J. M.

2009-01-01

213

A Comparison of Migration Rates of Radio and PIT-Tagged Adult Snake River Chinook Salmon through the Columbia River Hydropower System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documentation of adult salmonid migration behavior in the Columbia River drainage is critically needed to assess the effects of dams on travel time and passage. In 2000, we compared the upstream travel times of passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged and radio-tagged adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Bonneville Dam on the lower Columbia River to Lower Granite Dam on the Snake

Alicia L. Matter; Benjamin P. Sandford

2003-01-01

214

78 FR 17090 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, VA'' in the Federal Register...Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA'' in the Federal Register...Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA'' in the Federal Register...Norfolk, Virginia to remain closed one hour prior to the published...

2013-03-20

215

Effect of activities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the Magic Valley study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater generated at facilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (figure 1) have been discharged to waste-disposal ponds and wells since the early 1950 s. Public concern has been expressed that some of these constituents could migrate through the Snake River Plain aquifer to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area Because of these concerns the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conduct three studies to gain a greater understanding of the chemical quality of water in the aquifer. One study described a one-time sampling effort for radionuclides, trace elements, and organic compounds in the eastern part of the A&B Irrigation District in Minidoka County (Mann and Knobel, 1990). Another ongoing study involves sampling for tritium from 19 springs on the north side of the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area (Mann, 1989; Mann and Low, 1994). A third study an ongoing annual sampling effort in the area between the southern boundary of the INEEL and Hagerman (figure 1) (hereafter referred to as the Magic Valley study area), is being conducted with the Idaho Department of Water Resources in cooperation with the DOE. Data for a variety of radiochemical and chemical constituents from this study have been published by Wegner and Campbell (1991); Bartholomay, Edwards, and Campbell (1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b); and Bartholomay, Williams, and Campbell (1995, 1996, 1997b). Data discussed in this fact sheet were taken from these reports. An evaluation of data collected during the first four years of this study (Bartholomay Williams, and Campbell, 1997a) showed no pattern of water-quality change for radionuclide data as concentrations randomly increased or decreased. The inorganic constituent data showed no statistical change between sample rounds.

Bartholomay, Roy C.

1998-01-01

216

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this inter-agency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2000 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Pettit, and Alturas lakes, fertilization of Redfish Lake was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (nonanadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) examine diet of emigrating O. nerka smolts; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID)

2002-12-01

217

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this inter-agency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 1999 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Pettit, and Alturas lakes, fertilization of Redfish Lake was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (nonanadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) examine diet of emigrating O. nerka smolts; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug; Lewis, Bert (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID)

2001-01-15

218

Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at and Near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2003 and 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1953 to 1988, wastewater containing approximately 0.94 curies of iodine-129 (129I) was generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho. Almost all of this wastewater was discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) on the INL site. Most of the wastewater was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; however, some wastewater also was discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 129I from 36 wells used to monitor the Snake River Plain aquifer, and from one well used to monitor a perched zone at the INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000066 +- 0.0000002 to 0.72 +- 0.051 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Many wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases of as much as one order of magnitude in concentration from samples collected during 1990-91, and all of the samples had concentrations less than the Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 pCi/L. The average concentration of 129I in 19 wells sampled during both collection periods decreased from 0.975 pCi/L in 1990-91 to 0.249 pCi/L in 2003. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater after 1988 and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. Although water from wells sampled in 2003 near the INTEC showed decreases in concentrations of 129I compared with data collected in 1990-91, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed slight increases. These slight increases may be related to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a mass of water from a particular disposal period. In 2007, the USGS collected samples for 129I from 36 wells that are used to monitor the aquifer south of INTEC and from 2 wells that are used to monitor perched zones at INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from 0.000026 +- 0.000002 to 1.16 +- 0.04 pCi/L, and the concentration at one well exceeded the maximum contaminant level (1 pCi/L) for public drinking water supplies. The average concentration of 19 wells sampled in 2003 and 2007 did not differ; however, slight increases and decreases of concentrations in several areas around the INTEC were evident in the aquifer. The decreases are attributed to the discontinued disposal and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. The increases may be due to the movement into the aquifer of remnant perched water below the INTEC. In 2007, the USGS also collected samples from 31 zones in 6 wells equipped with multi-level WestbayTM packer sampling systems to help define the vertical distribution of 129I in the aquifer. Concentrations ranged from 0.000011 +- 0.0000005 to 0.0167 +- 0.0007 pCi/L. For three wells, concentrations of 129I between zones varied one to two orders of magnitude. For two wells, concentrations varied for one zone by more than an order of magnitude from the wells' other zones. Similar concentrations were measured from all five zones sampled in one well. All of the 31 zones had concentrations two or more magnitudes below the maximum contaminant level.

Bartholomay, Roy C.

2009-01-01

219

Quality of 1995 spring total dissolved gas data: Columbia and Snake rivers  

SciTech Connect

The quality of the U.S. Army corps of Engineers` (Corps) total dissolved gas (TDG) data base for the 1995 spring spill season was reviewed to determine the value of this information if real-time management decisions regarding river operations. We concluded that problems in transmitting, archiving, correcting and interpreting the records constitute significant sources of data anomalies that affect the accuracy and reliability of information necessary to manage spill and TDG in the Columbia and Snake rivers. The data base that was reviewed covers 25 selected Columbia and Snake river stations, and includes real-time TDG data needed to regulate spill operations to maintain gas levels within state water quality standards and to monitor effects on fish and aquatic life during the salmon migration season. A wide range of anomalies (daily averages missing or in error or based on incomplete records) was detected in more than one-third (37 percent) of the Corps` gas data base. Extreme anomalies (daily averages including errors and discontinuities for more than eight hours in a day) were found in 16 percent of the data base. The Fish Passage Center, also reviewed the Corps` data and reported an overall 33 percent incidence of anomalous days. Despite arriving at similar findings about the Corps` data base, we detected a 28 percent discrepancy in the type of data anomalies between our analyses. 14 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Bisbal, G.A.; Ruff, J.D. [Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR (United States)

1996-12-01

220

Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. In 1994, the authors estimated the total September Redfish Lake O. nerka population at 51,529 fish (95% CI, {+-} 33,179). The Alturas Lake O. nerka population was estimated at 5,785 fish ({+-} 6,919). The total density and biomass of Alturas Lake was estimated at 27 fish/hectare ({+-} 33) and 0.7 kg/hectare, respectively. The total O. nerka population estimate for Pettit Lake was 14,743 fish ({+-} 3,683). Stanley Lake O. nerka total population size, density, and biomass was estimated at 2,695 fish ({+-} 963), 37 fish/hectare ({+-} 13), and 0.5 kg/hectare, respectively. Estimated numbers of O. nerka outmigrant smolts passing Redfish Lake Creek and Salmon River trapping sites increased in 1994. The authors estimated 1,820 (90% CI 1,229--2,671) and 945 (90% CI 331--13,000) smolts left Redfish and Alturas lakes, respectively. The total PIT tag detection rate at mainstem dams for Redfish Lake outmigrants was 21% in 1994. No Alturas Lake outmigrants were detected at any of the downstream facilities with detection capabilities (zero of 50 fish).

Kline, Paul A.

1995-08-01

221

Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989; the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989 owing to a longer counting time in the liquid scintillation system. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contained less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. (USGS)

Mann, L. J.

1989-01-01

222

Habitat quality of historic Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning locations and implications for incubation survival: part 1, substrate quality  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated substrate quality at two historic fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning sites in the Snake River, Idaho, USA. The primary objective of this evaluation was to measure sediment permeability within these areas to determine the potential quality of the habitat in the event that anadromous salmonids are reintroduced to the upper Snake River. Riverbed sediments within the two sites in the upper Snake River were sampled using freeze cores and hydraulic slug tests. Sediment grain size distributions at both sites were typical of gravel-bed rivers with the surface layer coarser than the underlying substrate, suggesting the riverbed surface was armored. Despite the armored nature of the bed, the size of the largest material present on the riverbed surface was well within the size limit of material capable of being excavated by spawning fall Chinook salmon. The percentage of fines was low, suggesting good quality substrate for incubating salmon embryos. Geometric mean particle sizes found in this study compared to a 55% to 80% survival to emergence based on literature values. Hydraulic slug tests showed moderate to high hydraulic conductivity and were comparable to values from current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Predicted estimates of mean egg survival at both sites (48% and 74%) equaled or exceeded estimates from fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach and the Hanford Reach.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.

2005-07-01

223

Monitoring and Simulating the 3-D Density Currents at the Confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers  

SciTech Connect

Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater River, a major tributary to the Lower Snake River, and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional density currents at the Clearwater and Snake River confluence and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was also applied. By utilizing both field data and a numerical model, a more holistic view of the 3-D density currents was discovered than by either method alone. During this process, it was discovered that several predictable stratification patterns would develop depending upon the discharge ratio and the thermal gradient between the two rivers. These results illustrate the complex hydrodynamic structure at the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which has previously been shown by fish biologists to be a difficult passage zone for migrating salmonids of various life stages.

Cook, Chris B.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2004-12-01

224

Characterization and mapping of the Browns Creek rhyolite: Western Snake River Plain, ID, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to map and characterize the geologic units that comprise the Brown's Creek region of the western Snake River Plain, with a focus on the eruptive behavior and physical characteristics of the exposed rhyolite. Located near Oreana ID, southeast of the Owyhee Front, the rhyolite in Browns Creek and adjacent rocks has never been mapped in detail. The volcanics in the Browns Creek area are predominantly comprised of low to high silica rhyolite (73%-78% SiO2), and a previously published 40Ar/39Ar date returned an age of 11.20 ± .02 Ma. The rhyolites have phenocryst assemblages of Na-plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar, pyroxene, oxides, and zircon. Both phenocryst content and crystal size vary widely from approximately 15-50% and 1-10 mm respectively. The rhyolite in the Browns Creek region has a ?18O value of 8.5‰ and marks a very sharp boundary (<10 km) between normal ?18O rhyolites of the Western Snake River plain to the northwest, and the roughly contemporaneous and much more voluminous low-?18O rhyolites of the Central Snake River Plain to the southeast. The earliest, large scale mapping suggested that the rhyolite in the Browns Creek region was a rheomorphic ignimbrite, sourced from the North, while later workers proposed that the unit was composed of an early, small, non-welded ignimbrite, followed by two separate lava flows. Detailed field work and sample collection from this study indicates that the outcrops of rhyolite lava display a continuum of phenocryst contents and structural features, consistent with a single evolving magma which effused from multiple vent areas. Steeply dipping flow features are pervasive, basal and marginal breccias are common, and the unit rarely displays the lower aspect ratio outcrops typical of other large lava flows in the region. Currently, our preferred explanation for these observations is that of a single magma showing an evolutionary trend of crystallization and fractionation, with periodic effusion from multiple vent locations, until crystal content exceeds the possibility of eruption. This interpretation is broadly consistent with geochemical data, which displays continuous evolutionary trends in trace elements, and little or no evidence for discrete magma batches. These characteristics are unusual when compared to other roughly contemporaneous rhyolites throughout southern Idaho, and may represent a fundamental change in the source region and/or tectonics between the low-?18O rhyolites of the Central Snake River Plain and the normal ?18O rhyolites of the Owyhee Front.

Clippinger, D. T.; Boroughs, S.; Bonnichsen, B.

2012-12-01

225

Major sources of nitrogen input and loss in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1990  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mass balance of total nitrogen input and loss in Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Twin Falls Counties suggests that more than 6,000,000 kg (6,600 tons) of total nitrogen is input in this four-county area than is discharged by the Snake River. This excess nitrogen probably is utilized by aquatic vegetation in the Snake River (causing eutrophication), stored as nitrogen in soil, stored as nitrate in the ground water and eventually discharged through the springs, utilized by noncrop vegetation, and lost through denitrification.

Rupert, Michael

1996-01-01

226

Population dynamics of the Concho water snake in rivers and reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Concho Water Snake (Nerodia harteri paucimaculata) is confined to the Concho-Colorado River valley of central Texas, thereby occupying one of the smallest geographic ranges of any North American snake. In 1986, N. h. paucimaculata was designated as a federally threatened species, in large part because of reservoir projects that were perceived to adversely affect the amount of habitat available to the snake. During a ten-year period (1987-1996), we conducted capture-recapture field studies to assess dynamics of five subpopulations of snakes in both natural (river) and man-made (reservoir) habitats. Because of differential sampling of subpopulations, we present separate results for all five subpopulations combined (including large reservoirs) and three of the five subpopulations (excluding large reservoirs). We used multistate capture-recapture models to deal with stochastic transitions between pre-reproductive and reproductive size classes and to allow for the possibility of different survival and capture probabilities for the two classes. We also estimated both the finite rate of increase (l) for a deterministic, stage-based, female-only matrix model using the average litter size, and the average rate of adult population change, l 8 , which describes changes in numbers of adult snakes, using a direct capture-recapture approach to estimation. Average annual adult survival was about 0.23 and similar for males and females. Average annual survival for subadults was about 0.14. The parameter estimates from the stage-based projection matrix analysis all yielded asymptotic values of 8 < 1, suggesting populations that are not viable. However, the direct estimates of average adult l for the three subpopulations excluding major reservoirs were l 8 = 1.26, SE8(l 8 ) = 0.18 and l 8 = 0.99, SE8(l 8 ) = 0.79, based on two different models. Thus, the direct estimation approach did not provide strong evidence of population declines of the riverine subpopulations, but the estimates are characterized by substantial uncertainty.

Whiting, M.J.; Dixon, J.R.; Greene, B.D.; Mueller, J.M.; Thornton, O.W., Jr.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nichols, J. D.; Hines, J.E.

2008-01-01

227

A simulation study of factors controlling white sturgeon recruitment in the Snake River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five of the nine populations of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, located between dams on the Middle Snake River, have declined from historical levels and are now at risk of extinction. One step towards more effectively protecting and managing these nine populations is ranking factors that influence recruitment in each of these river segments. We developed a model to suggest which of seven mechanistic factors contribute most to lost recruitment in each river segment: (1) temperature-related mortality during incubation, (2) flow-related mortality during incubation, (3) downstream export of larvae, (4) limitation of juvenile and adult habitat, (5) mortality of all ages during summer episodes of poor water quality in reservoirs, (6) entrainment mortality of juveniles and adults, and (7) angling mortality. We simulated recruitment with, and without, each of the seven factors, over a typical series of hydrologic years. We found a hierarchical pattern of limitation. In the first tier, river segments with severe water quality problems grouped together. Poor water quality during summer had a strong negative effect on recruitment in the river segments between Swan Falls Dam and Hell's Canyon Dam. In the second tier, river segments with better water quality divided into short river segments and longer river segments. Populations in short river segments were limited by larval export. Populations in longer river segments tended to be less strongly limited by any one factor. We also found that downstream effects could be important, suggesting that linked populations cannot be viewed in isolation. In two cases, the effects of a factor on an upstream population had a significant influence on its downstream neighbors. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

Jager, H. I.; Van Winkle, W.; Chandler, J. A.; Lepla, K. B.; Bates, P.; Counihan, T. D.

2002-01-01

228

Antecedence of the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River, eastern Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the eastern terminus of the Himalayan orogen, distortion and capture of southeast Asian drainage basins reflects regional patterns of crustal strain due to the indentation of the Indian Plate into Eurasia. After flowing eastward >1000 km along the southern margin of Tibet, the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River turns abruptly southward through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis rapidly exhuming a crustal scale antiform in an impressive >2 km knickpoint. This conspicuous drainage pattern and coincidence of focused fluvial incision and rapid rock exhumation has been explained by the capture of an ancestral, high-elevation Yarlung River by headward erosion of a Himalayan tributary. However, recent observation of Tibetan detritus in Neogene foreland basin units complicates this explanation, requiring a connection from Tibet to the foreland prior to the estimated onset of rapid rock exhumation. We constrain the sedimentary provenance of foreland basin units deposited near the Brahmaputra River confluence in the eastern Himalayan foreland basin using detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology. We interpret the significant presence of Gangdese-age detritus in each foreland basin unit to indicate that connection of the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River was established during, or prior to foreland deposition in the Early Miocene. Our results indicate that connection of the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River precedes exhumation of the syntaxis, demonstrating the potential for the progressive coevolution of rock uplift and rapid erosion of the Namche Barwa massif.

Lang, Karl A.; Huntington, Katharine W.

2014-07-01

229

Proteomic profiling of liver from Elaphe taeniura, a common snake in eastern and southeastern Asia.  

PubMed

Snake liver has been implicated in the adaptation of snakes to a variety of habitats. However, to date, there has been no systematic analysis of snake liver proteins. In this study, we undertook a proteomic analysis of liver from the colubrid snake Elaphe taeniura using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flightmass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We also constructed a local protein sequence database based on transcriptome sequencing to facilitate protein identification. Of the 268 protein spots revealed by 2-DE 109 gave positive MS signals, 84 of which were identified by searching the NCBInr, Swiss-Prot and local databases. The other 25 protein spots could not be identified, possibly because their transcripts were not be stable enough to be detected by transcriptome sequencing. GO analysis showed that most proteins may be involved in binding, catalysis, cellular processes and metabolic processes. Forty-two of the liver proteins identified were found in other reptiles and in amphibians. The findings of this study provide a good reference map of snake liver proteins that will be useful in molecular investigations of snake physiology and adaptation. PMID:24130453

Chen, Liang; Xia, Hengchuan; Wang, Yiting; Chen, Keping; Qin, Lvgao; Wang, Bin; Yao, Qin; Li, Jun; He, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ermi

2013-09-01

230

Slab-controlled Tectonomagmatism of the Pacific Northwest: A Holistic view of Columbia River, High Lava Plains, and Snake River Plain/Yellowstone Volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We interpret post-20 Ma tectonomagmatism across the U.S. Pacific Northwest in the context of subduction related processes. While mantle plume models have long enjoyed favor as an explanation for the post 20-Ma magmatism in the region, conceptually their support has hinged almost entirely on two major features: (1) Steens/Columbia River flood basalt volcanism (plume head); and (2) The Snake River Plain/Yellowstone hotspot track (plume tail). Recent work, synthesized in this presentation, suggests that these features are more plausibly the result of mantle dynamical processes driven by southerly truncation of the Farallon/Juan de Fuca subduction zone and slab detachment along the evolving margin of western North America (Long et al., 2012; James et al., 2011). Plate reconstructions indicate that shortening of the subduction zone by the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction resulted in a significant increase in the rate of trench retreat and slab rollback ca 20 Ma. Both numerical modeling and physical tank experiments in turn predict large-scale mantle upwelling and flow around the southern edge of the rapidly retreating slab, consistent both with the observed Steens/Columbia River flood volcanism and with the strong E-W mantle fabric observed beneath the region of the High Lava Plains of central and eastern Oregon. The High Lava Plains and Snake River Plain time-progressive volcanism began concurrently about 12 Ma, but along highly divergent tracks and characterized by strikingly different upper mantle structure. Crustal and upper mantle structure beneath the High Lava Plains exhibits evidence typical of regional extension; i.e. thin crust, flat and sharp Moho, and an uppermost mantle with low velocities but otherwise largely devoid of significant vertical structure. In contrast, the Snake River Plain exhibits ultra-low mantle velocities to depths of about 180 km along the length of the hotspot track. Seismic images of the upper mantle in the depth range 300-600 km show that a northern segment of the orphaned Farallon plate lies sub-horizontally in the mantle transition zone parallel to and along the length of the SRP. The images also provide evidence for present-day upwelling from the deep upper mantle around the northern edge of the remnant slab beneath SRP as well as around its leading tip beneath Yellowstone. These results, coupled with petrologic and geochemical constraints, provide compelling support for a subduction model that accounts for virtually all post-20 Ma Cenozoic volcanism and structural deformation in the Cascadian back arc. James, D.E., Fouch, M.J., Carlson, R.W., Roth, J.B., 2011. Slab fragmentation, edge flow, and the origin of the Yellowstone hotspot track. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 311, 124-135. Long, M.D., Till, C.B., Druken, K.A., Carlson, R.W., Wagner, L.S., Fouch, M.J., James, D.E., Grove, T.L., Schmerr, N., Kincaid, C., 2012. Mantle dynamics beneath the Pacific Northwest and generation of voluminous back-arc volcanism. G-cubed in press.

James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.; Long, M. D.; Druken, K. A.; Wagner, L. S.; Chen, C.; Carlson, R. W.

2012-12-01

231

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-03-01

232

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1990 the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River Sockeye salmon as endangered. As a result, Snake River Sockeye were listed and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding efforts to enhance sockeye stocks. Recovery efforts include development of a brood stock program, genetics work, describing fish community dynamics in rearing lakes, and completing limnology studies. The SBT, in cooperation with Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), are directing fish community and limnology studies. IDFG is managing the brood stock program. The University of Idaho and NMFS are completing genetics work. Part I of this document is the SBT 1993' annual report that describes findings related to fish community research. Part II is a document completed by Utah State University (USU). The SBT subcontracted USU to complete a limnology investigation on the Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Management suggestions in Part II are those of USU and are not endorsed by the SBT and may not reflect the opinions of SBT biologists.

Teuscher, David (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A. (Utah State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Ecology Center and Watershed Science Unit); Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID)

1994-06-01

233

Declining Trends of Streamflow and Springs in the Snake River Basin and Its Tributaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of declining pattern in streamflow, reach gains and spring discharge are important in water resource forecasting, management, and planning purpose of hydropower, irrigation and navigation in the Snake River Basin. Potential reasons for declining streamflow, reach gains and spring discharge in the basin include increased groundwater pumping, change in land use practices, and other climatic influences. This research focuses on trend analysis and step test on streamflow, reach gains and springs data particularly located in the Snake River basin. The combination of trend and step tests aided in identifying and quantifying accelerated decreasing trends on hydrologic variables. Trend tests on streamflow, reach gains and springs were done using three different statistical tests: Man-Kendall, Spearman's Rho and Linear Regression. Similarly, the step tests were conducted using four different methods: Cumulative Deviation, Worsley Likehood, Rank-sum and Student's t test. The multiple parametric and non-parametric statistical tests verified consistent decreases and steps in streamflow, reach gains and spring discharge in the region.

Timilsena, J.; Seal, N.; Blew, D.; Davis-Butts, K.; Pace, P.; Parkinson, S.

2012-12-01

234

Use of surrogate technologies to estimate suspended sediment in the Clearwater River, Idaho, and Snake River, Washington, 2008-10  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated levels of fluvial sediment can reduce the biological productivity of aquatic systems, impair freshwater quality, decrease reservoir storage capacity, and decrease the capacity of hydraulic structures. The need to measure fluvial sediment has led to the development of sediment surrogate technologies, particularly in locations where streamflow alone is not a good estimator of sediment load because of regulated flow, load hysteresis, episodic sediment sources, and non-equilibrium sediment transport. An effective surrogate technology is low maintenance and sturdy over a range of hydrologic conditions, and measured variables can be modeled to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), load, and duration of elevated levels on a real-time basis. Among the most promising techniques is the measurement of acoustic backscatter strength using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) deployed in rivers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, evaluated the use of acoustic backscatter, turbidity, laser diffraction, and streamflow as surrogates for estimating real-time SSC and loads in the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which adjoin in Lewiston, Idaho, and flow into Lower Granite Reservoir. The study was conducted from May 2008 to September 2010 and is part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lower Snake River Programmatic Sediment Management Plan to identify and manage sediment sources in basins draining into lower Snake River reservoirs. Commercially available acoustic instruments have shown great promise in sediment surrogate studies because they require little maintenance and measure profiles of the surrogate parameter across a sampling volume rather than at a single point. The strength of acoustic backscatter theoretically increases as more particles are suspended in the water to reflect the acoustic pulse emitted by the ADVM. ADVMs of different frequencies (0.5, 1.5, and 3 Megahertz) were tested to target various sediment grain sizes. Laser diffraction and turbidity also were tested as surrogate technologies. Models between SSC and surrogate variables were developed using ordinary least-squares regression. Acoustic backscatter using the high frequency ADVM at each site was the best predictor of sediment, explaining 93 and 92 percent of the variability in SSC and matching sediment sample data within +8.6 and +10 percent, on average, at the Clearwater River and Snake River study sites, respectively. Additional surrogate models were developed to estimate sand and fines fractions of suspended sediment based on acoustic backscatter. Acoustic backscatter generally appears to be a better estimator of suspended sediment concentration and load over short (storm event and monthly) and long (annual) time scales than transport curves derived solely from the regression of conventional sediment measurements and streamflow. Changing grain sizes, the presence of organic matter, and aggregation of sediments in the river likely introduce some variability in the model between acoustic backscatter and SSC.

Wood, Molly S.; Teasdale, Gregg N.

2013-01-01

235

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001?2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth?s water...

236

Recent Vertical Crustal Movements From Precise Leveling Data in Southwestern Montana, Western Yellowstone National Park, and the Snake River Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated levelings in southwestern Montana, the western portion of Yellowstone National Park, and the Snake River Plain provide information on the pattern of relative vertical crustal movement throughout this region. Except for the coseismic deformation associated with the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake the most outstanding and best defined feature of the data is contemporary doming at a rate of 3-5

R. E. Reilinger; G. P. Citron; L. D. Brown

1977-01-01

237

Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

1998-06-01

238

COLONIZATION OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES ON ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATES IN THE SNAKE AND BEAR RIVER DRAINAGES, 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted as part of a continuing monitoring program by the EPA on the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of waterways of the United States. The principal objective was to assess benthic invertebrate communities in the Snake and Bear River systems (1704...

239

Discovery of a Balkan fresh-water fauna in the Idaho formation of Snake River Valley, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1866 Gabb described Melania taylori and Lithasia antiqua "from a fresh-water deposit on Snake River, Idaho Territory, on the road from Fort Boise to the Owyhee mining country. Collected by A. Taylor." He states that a small bivalve, perhaps a Sphaerium, was associated with them.

Dall, W. H.

1925-01-01

240

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, 1980-92.  

EPA Science Inventory

Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions. The upper Snake River Basin (1704) is located in southeastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming and includes small parts of...

241

MAJOR SOURCES OF NITROGEN INPUT AND LOSS IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1990.  

EPA Science Inventory

Total nitrogen input and loss from cattle manure, fertilizer, legume crops, precipitation, and domestic septic systems in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming (1704), were estimated by county for water year 1990. The purpose of these estimations was to rank inp...

242

WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS IN THE MILNER REACH, SNAKE RIVER, SOUTH-CENTRAL IDAHO, OCTOBER 18-21 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

During late October 1977, water discharge form Minidoka Dam into the Milner reach of the Snake River was less than 22 cubic meters per second, compared to normal flows for that time of year of about 42 cubic meters per second or more. To determine if impared water-wquality condi...

243

Hydrogeology and Water Quality in the Snake River Alluvial Aquifer at Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson, Wyoming, September 2008-June 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrogeology and water quality of the Snake River alluvial aquifer, at the Jackson Hole Airport in northwest Wyoming, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Jackson Hole Airport Board and the Teton Conservation District duri...

P. R. Wright

2010-01-01

244

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2002-03-01

245

Post-Hydropower System Delayed Mortality of Transported Snake River Stream-Type Chinook Salmon: Unraveling the Mystery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research indicates that on an annual basis, smolts of stream-type Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha collected at Snake River dams and transported by barge to below Bonneville Dam have greater post-hydropower system mortality than smolts that migrate in-river. To date, this difference has most commonly been attributed to stress from collection and transportation, leading to decreased disease resistance or predator

William D. Muir; Douglas M. Marsh; Benjamin P. Sandford; Steven G. Smith; John G. Williams

2006-01-01

246

Evaluating Surrogacy of Hatchery Releases for the Performance of Wild Yearling Chinook Salmon from the Snake River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined juvenile and adult detections of Snake River yearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha implanted with passive integrated transponder tags migrating through the hydroelectric facilities in the Federal Columbia River Power System were analyzed using the ROSTER statistical release–recapture model. This model was used to estimate the downriver survival of smolts, ocean survival, adult passage success, and smolt-to-adult ratios (SARs)

Rebecca A. Buchanan; John R. Skalski; Albert E. Giorgi

2010-01-01

247

Inferences on the Latent Mortality of Snake River Spring–Summer-Run Chinook Salmon Using Spawner–Recruit Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid decline of the Snake River spring–summer-run Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) in the 1990s led a group of scientists to develop the Plan for Analyzing and Testing Hypotheses (PATH). Under this plan, researchers used spawner–recruit (SR) data to estimate the survival of out-migrating smolts through eight dams of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS).

Richard A. Hinrichsen; Timothy R. Fisher

2009-01-01

248

4. HEADGATE AND FLUME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SNAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. HEADGATE AND FLUME AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SNAKE RIVER DITCH PASSING THROUGH BEAVER POND AREA, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

249

The Effects of River Impoundment and Hatchery Rearing on the Migration Behavior of Juvenile Steelhead in the Lower Snake River, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used radiotelemetry to monitor the migration behavior of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss as they migrated through Lower Granite Reservoir and Dam on the lower Snake River, Washington. From 1996 to 2001, we surgically implanted radio transmitters in 1,540 hatchery steelhead and 1,346 wild steelhead. For analysis, we used the inverse Gaussian distribution to describe travel time

John M. Plumb; Russell W. Perry; Noah S. Adams; Dennis W. Rondorf

2006-01-01

250

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1980's, Snake River sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka adults have only returned to Redfish Lake, one of five lakes in the Sawtooth Basin which historically reared sockeye. 1997 project objectives included (1) characterization of the limnology of Sawtooth Valley lakes; (2) fertilization of Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) O.nerka lake population surveys; (4) estimation of kokanee escapement and fry production in Alturas Lake Creek, Stanley Lake Creek, and Fishhook Creek; (5) reduce the number of spawning kokanee in Fishook Creek; (6) evaluate hatchery rainbow trout overwinter survival and potential competition and predation interactions with O.nerka in Pettit Lake; (7) assess predation from bull trout Salvelinus malma, brook trout S.fontinalis, and northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonsis on lentic O.nerka; (8) establish screw tap and weir sites to monitor smolt emigration.

Taki, Doug; Lewis, Bert (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Bob (Biolines, Stanley, ID

1999-08-01

251

Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game at the Eagle Fish Hatchery during the period April 1, 1995 to April 1, 1996 are covered by this report. The performance of all captive broodstock groups held at Eagle Fish Hatchery is included in this report. No anadromous adults returned to Redfish Lake in 1995. Three adult residual males were captured in a merwin trap and used in the spawning of captive residual females held at Eagle Fish Hatchery.

Pravecek, Jay J.

1997-07-01

252

Groundwater ''fast paths'' in the Snake River plain aquifer: Radiogenic isotope ratios as natural groundwater tracers  

SciTech Connect

Preferential flow paths are expected in many groundwater systems and must be located because they can greatly affect contaminant transport. The fundamental characteristics of radiogenic isotope ratios in chemically evolving waters make them highly effective as preferential flow path indicators. These ratios tend to be more easily interpreted than solute-concentration data because their response to water-rock interaction is less complex. We demonstrate this approach with groundwater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in the Snake River Plain aquifer within and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These data reveal slow-flow zones as lower {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr areas created by prolonged interaction with the host basalts and a relatively fast flowing zone as a high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr area.

Johnson, Thomas M.; Roback, Robert C.; McLing, Travis L.; Bullen, Thomas D.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Doughty, Christine; Hunt, Randall J.; Smith, Robert W.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Murrell, Michael T.

2000-09-01

253

The effect of halogens on rhyolitic lava rheology in the Snake River Plains and Yellowstone, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of halogens on rhyolitic lava rheology in the Snake River Plains and Yellowstone, USA Rosanne M. Heistek, Yan Lavallée, Cristina De Campos, Daniele Morgavi, Kai-Uwe Hess, Donald B. Dingwell Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München (LMU), Theresienstrasse 41/III, 80333 München, Germany Volcanic activity in the Snake River Plain (SRP) and Yellowstone is characterized by voluminous basaltic lava flows and rhyolitic, rheomorphic ignimbrite. The driver for explosive eruptions in the SRP is enigmatic as the magmas are considered to be hot (> 900 °C) and dry to be explosive, although recent chemical analysis on the interstitial glass and melt inclusions reported the presence of the halogens, fluorine and chlorine. Halogens may substitute for O2- and alter the degree of polymerization of silicate melts, consequently affecting the rheology of magmas. We performed chemical analysis of fluorine and chlorine present in the glass of several volcanic rocks from the SRP and Yellowstone, using an electron microprobe. The glasses are peraluminous rhyolites and some (e.g., Obsidian Cliff at Yellowstone) contain an unusually high content in Cl (up to ca. 1% wt) and an absence of F. The high content of Cl in the volcanic products provides an opportunity to investigate the effects of this halogen on the rheology of natural magmas. To date, the role of Cl has been studied on synthetic glass and is tied to the chemical composition. Cl slightly increases the viscosity of peralkaline melts, whereas it decreases the viscosity of peraluminous melts; exceptions however exist at high temperatures where the presence of Cl increases the viscosity of peraluminous melts (Zimova and Webb, Am. Min. 2006). Here we present rheological measurements on the relationships between Cl and the viscosity of rhyolites from the Obsidian Cliff and test whether Cl has similar effects on natural magmas as on synthetic melts.

Heistek, Rosanne; Lavallée, Yan; de Campos, Cristina; Morgavi, Daniele; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

2010-05-01

254

Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin, 1990-1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River Basin.

Waples, Robin S.; Teel, David J.; Aebersold, Paul B.

1991-08-01

255

Survival Estimates for Migrant Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Lower Snake and Lower Columbia Rivers, 1993–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise, up-to-date survival estimates for salmonids that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric dams, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia rivers are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. To provide this information, survival was estimated for yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags that migrated through Snake River dams

William D. Muir; Steven G. Smith; John G. Williams; Eric E. Hockersmith; John R. Skalski

2001-01-01

256

Analysis of data on nutrients and organic compounds in ground water in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1980-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin. Nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen; hereafter referred to as nitrate) concentrations exceeded the Federal drinking-water regulation of 10 milligrams per liter in three areas in Idaho" the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the area north of Pocatello (Fort Hall area), and the area surrounding Burley. Water from many wells in the Twin Falls area also contained elevated (greater than two milligrams per liter) nitrate concentrations. Water from domestic wells contained the highest median nitrate concentrations; water from industrial and public supply wells contained the lowest. Nitrate concentrations decreased with increasing well depth, increasing depth to water (unsaturated thickness), and increasing depth below water table (saturated thickness). Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations decreased with increasing well depth and depth below water table. The relation between kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations and depth to water was poor. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations in water from wells were correlated among three hydrogeomorphic regions in the upper Snake River Basin, Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in the eastern Snake River Plain and local aquifers than in the tributary valleys. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among the three hydrogeomorphic regions. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations were correlated with land-use classifications developed using the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System. Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in area of agricultural land than in areas of rangeland. There was no statistical difference in concentrations between rangeland and urban land and between urban land and agricultural land. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among any of the land-use classifications. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations also were correlated with land-use classifications developed by the Idaho Department of Water Resources for the Idaho part of the upper Snake River Basin. Nitrate concentrations were statistically higher in areas of irrigated agriculture than in areas of dryland agriculture and rangeland. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among any of the Idaho Department of Water Resources land-use classifications. Data were sufficient to assess long-term trends of nitrate concentrations in water from only eight wells: four wells north of Burley and four wells northwest of Pocatello. The trend in nitrate concentrations in water from all wells in upward. The following organic compounds were detected in ground water in the upper Snake River Basin: cyanazine, 2,4-D DDT, dacthal, diazinon, dichloropropane, dieldrin, malathion, and metribuzin. Of 211 wells sampled for organic compounds, water from 17 contained detectable concentrations.

Rupert, Michael G.

1994-01-01

257

Spatial and temporal patterns in channel change on the Snake River downstream from Jackson Lake dam, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operations of Jackson Lake dam (JLD) have altered the hydrology and sediment transport capacity of the Snake River in Grand Teton National Park. Prior research has provided conflicting assessments of whether the downstream river was perturbed into sediment surplus or sediment deficit. In this paper, we present the results of an aerial photo analysis designed to evaluate whether the history of channel change indicates either significant deficit or surplus of sediment that could be expressed as narrowing or expansion of the channel over time. We analyze changes in braid index, channel width, channel activity, and net channel change of the Snake River based on four series of aerial photographs. Between 1945 and 1969, a period of relatively small main-stem floods, widespread deposition, and up to 31% reduction in channel width occurred throughout the Snake River. Between 1969 and 2002, a period of large main-stem floods, the style of channel change reversed with a decrease in braid index and an increase in channel width of up to 31%. These substantial changes in the channel downstream from the dam primarily occurred in multithread reaches, regardless of proximity to tributaries, and no temporal progression of channel narrowing or widening was observed. We demonstrate that channel change downstream from JLD is more temporally and longitudinally complex than previously described.

Nelson, Nicholas C.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Schmidt, John C.

2013-10-01

258

Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas  

SciTech Connect

In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.

2007-02-01

259

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the eight year of a study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A total of 20,313 hatchery steelhead were tagged with passive integrated transpoder (PIT) tags and released at Lower Granite Dam for reach survival estimation. They did not PIT tag any yearlying chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) for reach survival estimates in 2000 because sufficient numbers for these estimates were available from other studies. Primary research objectives in 2000 were (1) to estimate reach and project survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, and (2) to evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. In addition, they estimated survival from point of release to Lower Granite Dam and below for chinook salmon, steelhead, and sockeye salmon (O.nerka) PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin smolt traps. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2000 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures. Further details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text.

Zabel, Richard; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2001-02-01

260

Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

2003-06-01

261

Constraining the origin of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic province using seismic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the inception of the whole-mantle plume hypothesis, the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic track has been a candidate location for such a plume. Various alternative hypotheses have also been proposed including a propagating rift (e.g. Christiansen et al., 2002) and, more recently, polodial flow in response to slab rollback (e.g. James et al, 2011). We use seismic imaging techniques, in conjunction with other geological and geochemical constraints, in an attempt to distinguish between these various hypotheses. Our 3D seismic velocity model, DNA12, uses data from the Earthscope and ANSS regional networks, and integrates teleseismic body- and surface-waves with ambient noise constraints. The resulting P- and S-velocity models constrain the structure of the crust, lithosphere and mantle to a depth of ~1000 km. The models have their best resolution beneath the western two thirds of the US. Beneath the YSRP we find the strongest low velocity anomaly found anywhere in the lithosphere. In the 50-250 km depth range the low velocities are elongated in a northeast-southwest direction along the Snake River Plain. Deeper, in the transition zone, the low velocity is more circular in shape and localized to the northwest of the Yellowstone Caldera with higher velocity anomalies surrounding it. In the deepest part of the model, down to 1000km, the low velocity anomaly becomes much broader again. While the propagating rift hypothesis is inconsistent with the tomographic images, the plume and polodial flow hypothesizes are consistent and complementary. A hybrid model consistent with the images has a deep to mid-mantle heat source (~1000 km or greater depth) feeding a plume conduit that flows in response to surrounding mantle forces. The early phases, before the 17Ma eruption of the Columbia River Basalts (CRB), would include a plume head buoyantly supporting the flattened Farallon slab. Existing weaknesses in the slab would eventually lead to slab fragmentation allowing the plume head to erupt and form the CRB (Obreski et al., 2010). The flow of the plume tail would then be perturbed and forced to dip towards the northwest in the upper mantle (Smith et al., 2009) while the rollback of the shortened Juan de Fuca slab draws the residual material westward creating the Newberry Volcanic track of the High Lava Plains (Long et al., 2012).

Allen, R. M.; Porritt, R. W.; Pollitz, F. F.; Hung, S.

2012-12-01

262

Impacts of the Snake River drawdown experiment on fisheries resources in Little Goose and Lower Granite Reservoirs, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In March 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated a test to help evaluate physical and environmental impacts resulting from the proposed future drawdown of Snake River reservoirs. Drawdown would reduce water levels in Snake River reservoirs and is being proposed as a solution to decrease the time it takes for salmon and steelhead smolts to migrate to the ocean. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated impacts to specific fisheries resources during the drawdown experiment by surveying Lower Granite Reservoir to determine if fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas and steelhead (0. mykiss) access to tributary creeks were affected. In addition, shoreline areas of Little Goose Reservoir were monitored to evaluate the suitability of these areas for spawning by fall chinook salmon. Relative abundance of fish species in nearshore areas was also determined during the drawdown, and stranded resident fish and other aquatic organisms were observed.

Dauble, D D; Geist, D R

1992-09-01

263

Geohydrology of the regional aquifer system, western Snake River plain, southwestern Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A three dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to simulate steady state and nonsteady-state hydrologic conditions of the regional aquifer system in the western Snake River Plain of Idaho. Water budget analysis showed that groundwater recharge was about 1,400,000 acre-ft in 1980; groundwater pumpage was estimated to be 300,000 acre-ft. Two mass water level measurements were made in March and August 1980 to define the water table in the regional system. The model was discretized into 25 rows, 72 columns, and 3 layers. Each cell represented 4 sq mi. The model was calibrated to 1980 hydrologic conditions. Calibrated transmissivity of layer 1 (500 ft thick) ranged from 1,500 to 21,500 sq ft/day. Calibrated specific yield of unconfined aquifers was 0.10 and calibrated storage coefficient of confined aquifers ranged from 0.0004 to 0.007. The calibrated model was verified by simulating monthly water-level fluctuations for 1980. Simulated water levels matched measured levels in the Boise River Valley, but the match in other areas was poor. (USGS)

Newton, G. D.

1989-01-01

264

Seasonal Survival, Movement, and Habitat Use of Age0 Rainbow Trout in the Henrys Fork of the Snake River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified seasonal abundances, apparent survival rates, movements, and habitat use of age-0 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a 25-km reach of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River, Idaho, to determine what factors limit recruitment to the population. Natural production of rainbow trout occurred in each year of the study (1995-1997) and ranged from 158,000 to 306,000 age-0 fish

Matthew G. Mitro; Alexander V. Zale

2002-01-01

265

Adult Returns of Subyearling and Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from a Snake River Hatchery or Transported Downstream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the release-to-adult returns of coded-wire-tagged groups of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design: subyearlings and yearlings released directly from a hatchery versus those barged below two main-stem hydroelectric dams on the Snake River, Washington. Releases comprised six brood years over a 6-year period. In every release year, chinook salmon released as

Robert M. Bugert; Glen W. Mendel

1997-01-01

266

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

Smith, Steven G.

1998-02-01

267

Angler survey contributes to socially acceptable modification of harvest regulations to preserve cutthroat trout fishery in Snake River, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a case study that describes a survey of anglers that was used to assist in modifying fishing regulations for indigenous trout in the Snake River, Wyoming. A mail survey of anglers who purchased 1991 Wyoming fishing licenses in the two counties adjacent to the Snake River was conducted during fall 1992. Differences in angler preferences were noted between anglers who purchased licenses in two adjacent counties with different socioeconomic structures, as well as between residents and nonresidents in each county. Anglers who purchased licenses in Teton County, where there is extensive tourism and immigration by relatively wealthy residents, tended to be more specialized and less harvest oriented. Anglers in Lincoln County, which is largely agricultural and has substantially less tourism and immigration of residents, tended to fish in many different ways and indicated more desire to harvest fish. Anglers from the two counties segregated themselves; those from Teton County primarily used the upstream portion of the study reach, and those from Lincoln County primarily used a short downstream portion of the reach. Modification of fishing regulations to reduce harvest of spawning-size cutthroat trout in the Snake River probably was acceptable to most anglers due to spatial segregation and their attitudes toward harvest.

Hubert, Wayne A.; Gipson, Robert D.

1996-09-01

268

Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one?third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with increased temperatures in the future climate scenarios. Snow cover decreased in the future climate scenarios coincident with the temperature increases. Although annual precipitation was greater in future climate scenarios, thereby increasing the amount of water available for recharge over current (baseline) simulations, actual evapotranspiration also increased and reduced the amount of water available for recharge over baseline simulations. The upper Crab Creek model shows no significant trend in the rates of recharge in future scenarios. In these scenarios, annual precipitation is greater than the baseline averages, offsetting the effects of greater evapotranspiration in future scenarios. In the Reynolds Creek Basin simulations, precipitation was held constant in future scenarios and recharge was reduced by 1.0 percent for simulations representing average conditions in 2040 and reduced by 4.3 percent for simulations representing average conditions in 2080. The focus of the results of future scenarios for the Reynolds Creek Basin was the spatial components of selected hydrologic variables for this 92 square mile mountainous basin with 3,600 feet of relief. Simulation results from the watershed model using the Continuous Frozen Ground Index provided a relative measure of change in frozen ground, but could not identify the within-soil processes that allow or reject available water to recharge aquifers. The model provided a means to estimate what might occur in the future under prescribed climate scenarios, but more detailed energy-balance models of frozen-ground hydrology are needed to accurately simulate recharge under seasonally frozen ground and provide a better understanding of how changes in climate may alter infiltration.

Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

2014-01-01

269

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers. The immediate project goal is to maintain this unique sockeye salmon population through captive broodstock technology and avoid species extinction. The project objectives are: (1) Develop captive broodstocks from Redfish Lake anadromous sockeye salmon. (2) Determine the contribution hatchery-produced sockeye salmon make toward avoiding population extinction and increasing population abundance. (3) Describe O. nerka population characteristics for Sawtooth Valley lakes in relation to carrying capacity and broodstock program supplementation efforts. (4) Refine our ability to discern the origin of wild and broodstock sockeye salmon to provide maximum effectiveness in their utilization within the broodstock program. (5) Transfer technology through participation in the technical oversight committee process, providing written activity reports and participation in essential program management and planning activities.

Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

2004-06-01

270

Neogene Palynology of the Snake River Plain: Climate Change and Volcanic Effects.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary palynological analyses of lake sediment and inter-flow samples reveal environmental and vegetation changes in response to climatic and volcanic events over the late Neogene. On the evolutionary timescale, sagebrush steppe has expanded and coniferous and deciduous forests have declined. In part this trend has followed the cooling and drying of the late Neogene, but volcanic impact may also be recorded in the effects of long-term subsidence and in periodic deposition of volcanic tephra. The most detailed palynological record yet published for the region (Thompson, 1992) records increasing pine and juniper percentages and decreasing sagebrush and Sarcobatus percentages spanning the Pliocene Glenns Ferry Formation and Pleistocene Bruneau Formation. Palynology of a well in Lake Idaho sediments (Canyon County, Davis, this abstract) shows the same decline of sagebrush and Sarcobatus, but records decreasing juniper percentages during the Pliocene. These Lake Idaho records are spanned by the palynology of the Great Salt Lake (Davis, 2002), which records a modern pollen flora from the late Miocene onward. Salt sage and sagebrush steppe developed progressively from the late Miocene through the Holocene, with peaks in sagebrush pollen percentages during the Mio- Pliocene transition and the late Pleistocene. The Great Salt Lake and Glenns Ferry records both include low percentages of the pollen of deciduous forest taxa such as oak and elm throughout the Pliocene and sporadically into the Pleistocene. Recent studies of soils associated with volcanic tephra reveal a Pliocene upland with abundant grass and high percentages of the pollen and spores of aquatic vegetation: a landscape with drainages choked by ash falls. Palynology above the Fossil Gulch Ash (Hagerman Valley) contains abundant charcoal and high percentages of the pollen of mountain conifers, suggesting devastation of the local vegetation and erosion into Lake Idaho from the surrounding mountains. Palynology of late Miocene - early Pliocene samples on the Snake River Plain (Banbury Basalt) is characterized by elevated percentages of Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthus pollen, abundant Sarcobatus pollen and low percentages of the pollen of oak, elm, and other deciduous forest taxa. High percentages of these types, found in the mid-Miocene Succor Creek deposits (Taggart and Cross, 1980) might result from a combination of factors, including late-Miocene subsidence of the western Snake River Plain and late-Miocene uplift of the Cascade Range.

Davis, O. K.; Ellis, B.; Link, P.; Wood, S.; Shervais, J. W.

2006-12-01

271

Stable Isotopic Composition of Columbia and Snake River Waters Over A 16-Year Period Yield Unexpected Contrasts With Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-water samples were collected from three U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) sites in the Columbia River Basin: (1) on the Columbia River at Northport near the international boundary (12400520); (2) on the Columbia River at Vernita Bridge near Priest Rapids Dam (12472900), which is downstream from Northport, but above the confluence of the Snake River; and (3) on the Snake River at Burbank (13353200), which is just above the confluence with the Columbia River. Samples were collected bimonthly from 1984 through 1987 and monthly from 1997 through 2000. As expected, the average stable hydrogen and oxygen composition among the sites increased with decreasing latitude (with ?2HVSMOW-SLAP = -133, -130, and -123 ‰ and ?18OVSMOW-SLAP = -17.6, -17.2, and -16.2 ‰, respectively). During the two three-year sampling periods separated by a decade, the average ?2H and ?18O values for each site are identical within analytical uncertainty (± 1 ‰ and ± 0.1‰, respectively). However, all three sites experienced lower annual flows during the earlier (1980s) sampling period than during the latter one, as well as slightly more negative average LC-excess values and lower slopes of the respective water lines. All three sites are downstream from dams that affect annual discharges; nevertheless, at all three sites, maximum monthly flows occur in the May-June period and minimal flows in the August-September period, consistent with a hydrologic regime influenced by cold season precipitation. A model (OIPC) prediction of the isotopic composition of precipitation at each site suggests that the most negative delta values would occur in January (e.g. ?2H = -127 ‰ near the international boundary and -104 ‰ at the site near Burbank) and the most positive delta values in September (e.g. corresponding ?2H = -77‰ and -70‰). Consistent with the occurrence of highest flows during the May-June time period and with the prediction of winter precipitation depleted in 2H and 18O, the delta values of water samples taken from the Snake River at Burbank did attain their most negative annual values during the month of June and the most positive in September. In startling contrast, however, delta values of water samples taken from the two sites on the Columbia River were most positive during the May-June period of high flows. And also startlingly, they were most negative during periods of lower discharge (in October at the Vernita site near the Snake confluence, and in August near the International Boundary). These observations indicate that, even between geographically close and hydrologically similar sites, isotopic extrapolations should be undertaken with caution.

Landwehr, J. M.; Coplen, T. B.

2012-12-01

272

White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2005-08-01

273

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

Iwamoto, Robert N.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; McIntyre, Kenneth W.

1994-04-01

274

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes in Eastern Washington on the Snake and Columbia Rivers by sampling tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas for N2O, CH4, and CO2 during winter and summer, 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, dissolved gases within the surface water column, ebullition within shallow embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate net GHG emissions from hydropower. Emissions of N2O and CH4 were greatest within embayments, ranging up to 6.8 mg/l and 78 mg/l, respectively. Carbon dioxide tended to be greater in embayments and in forebay environments of the hydroelectric projects, exceeding 1800 mg/l and 5,900 mg/l in these areas, respectively. Concentrations of N2O and CH4 tended to be greatest in samples that were collected directly from hyporheic pore-water, while CO2 was most prevalent within the surface water column.

Arntzen, E. V.; Miller, B.

2012-12-01

275

Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

Johnson, Keith A.

1996-09-01

276

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Snake River sockeye salmon were listed as endangered in 1991. Since then, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have been involved in a multi-agency recovery effort. The purpose of this document is to report activities completed in the rearing environments of the Sawtooth Valley Lakes, central Idaho. SBT objectives for 1995 included: continuing population monitoring and spawning habitat surveys; estimating smolt carrying capacity of the lakes, and supervising limnology and barrier modification studies. Hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley lakes ranged from 32 to 339 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Stanley followed by Redfish (217 fish/ha), Pettit (95 fish/ha), and Alturas. Except for Alturas, population abundance estimates were similar to 1993 results. In Alturas Lake, O. nerka abundance declined by approximately 90%. In 1994, about 142,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lakes wa s 19,000 and 2,000 fry, respectively. Egg to fry survival was 11%, 13%, and 7% in Fishhook, Alturas and Stanley Lake Creeks. Kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek was slightly lower than 1993 estimates but similar to the mean escapement since 1991. About 9,200 kokanee entered the creek in 1994 compared to 10,800 in 1993. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 200, a 68% reduction from 1993. Conversely, O. nerka spawning densities increased to 3,200 in Alturas Lake Creek, up from 200 the previous year.

Teuscher, David (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A. (Utah State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Ecology Center and Watershed Science Unit)

1995-05-01

277

Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can provide valuable tools for science-based policy and management.

Halsing, D. L.; Moore, M. R.

2008-01-01

278

Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1953 to 1983, an estimated 0.01 to 0.136 Ci (curies)/year of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The wastewater was directly discharged to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until February 9, 1984, when the well was replaced by an unlined infiltration pond; a second pond was put into use on October 17, 1985. For 1984-86, the annual amount of iodine-129 in wastewater discharged to the ponds ranged from 0.0064 to 0.039 Ci. In August 1986, iodine-129 concentrations in water from 35 wells near the ICPP ranged from less than the reporting level to 3.6 +or-0.4 pCi/L (picocuries/L). By comparison, in April 1977 the water from 20 wells contained a maximum of 27 +or-1 pCi/L of iodine-129; in 1981, the maximum concentration in water from 32 wells was 41 +or-2 pCi/L. The average concentrations of iodine-129 in water from 18 wells that were sampled in 1977, 1981 and 1986 were 4.0, 6.7 and 1.3 pCi/L, respectively. The marked decrease in the iodine-129 concentration from 1981 to 1986 is the result of three factors: (1) The amount of iodine-129 disposed annually; (2) a change from the routine use of the disposal well to the infiltration ponds; and (3) a dilution of the iodine-129 in the aquifer by recharge from the Big Lost River. (USGS)

Mann, L. J.; Chew, E. W.; Morton, J. S.; Randolph, R. B.

1988-01-01

279

Bathymetry Differencing to Quantify Volumetric Change within the Snake River in Hells Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly complete baseline multibeam echosounder (MBES) survey of the 90 km of the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River that runs along the border of Idaho and Oregon, US was collected to monitor volumetric change in the sediment resources of this reach (e.g. fall Chinook salmon spawning gravel and beach-building sand). This baseline will be compared to future MBES surveys to determine the impact of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) that cuts off the supply of coarse sediment from the relatively small, unimpounded upstream area. MBES surveying is unique from other survey methods (terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS)), aerial LiDAR, RTK-GPS, or photogrammetry) in ways that lead to unique errors in the point measurements. For example, unlike static TLS acquisition, MBES surveys are performed from a moving platform that relies on GPS positioning, which introduces one of the largest sources of error into the point cloud. Because the GPS antenna is on the Earth's surface, this error is more extreme and more variable than aerial surveys where the sky view is unobstructed. Beyond the GPS positional accuracy, the errors of each MBES survey point are impacted by the geometry of the beam angle and range, which determine the beam footprint. The extremely rugged river bottom in the Hells Canyon Reach magnifies the error of the points when they are interpolated into a surface for differencing. The methods presented here account for both error sources in the surface (point and interpolation) in order to accurately determine the volumetric change between surveys.

Welcker, C. W.; Hensleigh, J.; Wheaton, J. M.; Anderson, K.; Butler, M.; Hocker, B.

2013-12-01

280

Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong River (eastern Thailand).  

PubMed

The Bangpakong River is the most important watershed in the Eastern part of Thailand. Water quality parameters were sampled from June 1998 through May 1999 at 11 sites along a 227 km gradient, covering the wet season (June-November) and the dry season (December-May). Surface water was collected at three different stations per site (close to the banks and in the middle of the river), and analyzed for temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, suspended solids, pH. ammonia, fecal coliforms, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand as well as conductivity, phosphate, and heavy metals. The Scottish water quality index (WQI) was adaptated to the tropical environment. The averaged WQI was low (41%) and quality declined significantly during the dry season (ANOVA, p<0.001). Although the quality rose somewhat at middle sites, only 27% of the WQI values during wet season and 2.5% during dry season were higher than 50%, denoting poor environmental quality. Within each season, the main sources of variability were the differences between sites along the gradient (48% during the wet season, 63% during the dry season), whereas monthly variability represented less than 20% of the variability. The seasonal results show that the river is suitable only for tolerant fish and wildlife species and is of doubtful use for potable water supply during the dry season. As quality improves during the wet period, water can be used for the production of potable water, but only with advanced treatment, and for indirect and noncontact recreational activities. In the middle stretches of the river, higher water quality permits multiple uses at moderate cost. PMID:11561624

Bordalo, A A; Nilsumranchit, W; Chalermwat, K

2001-10-01

281

Looking beneath Snake River Plain using gravity and magnetic methods Murari Khatiwada and G. Randy Keller, ConocoPhillips School of Geology and Geophysics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73069  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tectonic evolution and structural complexities of the Snake River Plain (SRP), the role of extension in its formation, and the effects of the YellowStone (YS) hotspot track have been a topic of scientific discussion for decades. In this research, we are addressing some of these issues by focusing on the Western Snake River Plain (WRSP) using a pre-existing gravity and

M. Khatiwada; G. Keller

2010-01-01

282

Monitoring plan for mercury in fish tissue and water from the Boise River, Snake River, and Brownlee Reservoir, Idaho and Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The methylmercury criterion adopted as a water-quality standard in the State of Idaho is a concentration in fish tissue rather than a concentration in water. A plan for monitoring mercury in fish tissue and water was developed to evaluate whether fish in the Boise River, Idaho, upstream and downstream of wastewater-treatment plant discharges, meet the methylmercury water-quality criterion. Monitoring also will be conducted at sites on the Snake River, upstream and downstream of the confluence with the Boise River, and in Brownlee Reservoir, which lies along the border between Idaho and Oregon. Descriptions of standard procedures for collecting and processing samples and quality assurance steps are included. This monitoring plan is intended to provide a framework for cooperative methylmercury sampling in the lower Boise River basin.

Mebane, Christopher A.; MacCoy, Dorene E.

2013-01-01

283

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Redfish Lake in 2007. The hatchery origin component originated from a 2006 fall presmolt direct-release. The juvenile out-migrant traps on Alturas Lake Creek and Pettit Lake Creek were operated by the SBT from April 19 to May 23, 2007 and April 18 to May 29, 2007, respectively. The SBT estimated 1,749 natural origin and 4,695 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Pettit Lake and estimated 8,994 natural origin and 6,897 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Alturas Lake in 2007. The hatchery origin component of sockeye salmon out-migrants originated from fall presmolt direct-releases made to Pettit and Alturas lakes in 2006. In 2007, the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC) chose to have all Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles (tagged and untagged) transported due to potential enhanced survival. Therefore, mainstem survival evaluations were only conducted to Lower Granite Dam. Unique PIT tag interrogations from Sawtooth Valley juvenile out-migrant traps to Lower Granite Dam were utilized to estimate survival rates for out-migrating sockeye salmon smolts. Survival rate comparisons were made between smolts originating from Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes and the various release strategies. Alturas Lake hatchery origin smolts tagged at the out-migrant trap recorded the highest survival rate of 78.0%. In 2007, 494 hatchery origin adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. We observed 195 areas of excavation in the lake from spawning events. This was the highest number of redds observed in Redfish Lake since the program was initiated. Suspected redds were approximately 3 m x 3 m in size and were constructed by multiple pairs of adults. To monitor the predator population found within the lakes, we monitored bull trout spawning in Fishhook Creek, a tributary to Redfish Lake; and in Alpine Creek, a tributary to Alturas Lake. This represented the tenth consecutive year that the index reaches have been surveyed on these two streams. Adult counts (41 adults) and redd counts (22 redds

Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

2008-12-17

284

Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not reported here, but will be presented in future reports written after workshops and input by federal, state, and tribal researchers. In this report, we compared the postrelease performance of natural subyearlings to the postrelease performance of surrogate and production subyearlings. We made this comparison to help the fisheries community determine which of the two hatchery rearing strategies produced fish that were more similar to natural subyearlings. We compared the following attributes of postrelease performance (1) detection dates at dams, (2) detections during the implementation of summer spill, (3) travel times, (4) migrant sizes, and (5) the joint probability of migration and survival. Overall, we found that postrelease performance was more similar between natural and surrogate subyearlings than between natural and production subyearlings. Further, the similarity between natural and surrogate subyearlings was greater in 2006 than in 2005, partly as the result of changes in incubation and early rearing practices we recommended based on 2005 results.

Connor, William P.

2008-04-01

285

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Research Element : Project Progress Report, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2000, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: eyed-eggs were placed in Pettit Lake; age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish and Alturas lakes for volitional spawning in September. Anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to all three lakes. Total kokanee abundance in Redfish Lake was estimated at 10,268, which was the lowest abundance since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Alturas Lake was estimated at 125,462, which was one of the highest values recorded since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Pettit Lake was estimated at 40,599, which is the third highest value recorded since 1991. Upon the recommendation of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee, the National Marine Fisheries Service reopened the kokanee fishery on Redfish Lake in 1995 in an attempt to reduce kokanee numbers. Anglers fished an estimated 3,063 hours and harvested approximately 67 kokanee during the 2000 season. Angler effort and harvest were also monitored on Alturas Lake during 2000. Effort on Alturas Lake was 5,190 hours, and harvest of kokanee was 407 fish. Anglers harvested an estimated 11% of the catchable rainbow trout planted into Alturas Lake. The out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 12 to June 14, 2000. A total of 126 wild/natural and 2,378 hatchery-produced sockeye salmon smolts were captured, and total out-migration was estimated at 302 wild/natural and 6,926 hatchery-produced smolts. Estimates of smolt out-migration to Lower Granite Dam (LGR) were made by release strategy and were based on PIT-tag interrogations. An estimated 115 wild/natural smolts passed LGR from Redfish Lake. An estimated 6,987 hatchery-produced smolts released as presmolts into Sawtooth basin lakes passed LGR. None of the 148 age-1 smolts released to Redfish Lake Creek were detected at LGR. Two hundred fifty-seven anadromous sockeye returned to the Sawtooth basin in 2000. All were progeny of the captive broodstock program. The majority (200) of the adults that returned were released back to lakes in the basin for natural spawning along with hatchery produced adults. Redfish Lake received 164 adult sockeye salmon, and 20 to 29 areas of excavation were sighted. Alturas Lake received 77 adult sockeye salmon, and 14 to 19 areas of excavation were sighted. Pettit Lake received 28 adult sockeye salmon. No areas of excavation were noted in Pettit Lake, but spawning was suspected to have occurred in water too deep for observation. ndex reaches on principal tributary streams of Redfish and Alturas lakes were surveyed in August and September 2000 to track bull trout population response to no-harvest fishing regulations. Similar numbers of adult bull trout were observed in both systems, but twice as many redds were observed in Fishhook Creek. Redd counts in both streams have increased since monitoring began in 1998.

Hebdon, J. Lance (Jason Lance); Castillo, Jason; Kline, Paul A.

2002-08-01

286

Avoiding the Pitfalls of Anisotropy in Paleomagnetic Correlation of Snake River Plain Ignimbrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Migration of the Yellowstone hotspot center tracks northeast along the central Snake River Plain (cSRP), leaving a succession of calderas, bimodal rhyolitic and basaltic volcanism, and crustal deformation. Large-scale explosive volcanism common to this province between 12.5-8 Ma is characterized by unusually high-temperature, intensely welded, rheomorphic rhyolitic ignimbrites, typical of what is now known as ';Snake River (SR)-type volcanism'. Individual eruption volumes likely exceed 450 km3 but are poorly known due to the difficulty of correlating units between widely spaced (50-200 km) exposures along the north and south of the plain. Radiometric dating does not have the resolution to identify the eruptive units. Our goal is to use a combination of paleomagnetic, petrographic, chemical and field characterization to establish robust correlations and better constrain eruption volumes and frequencies. Paleomagnetic correlation using the stable remanence, which is the focus of this presentation, has the advantage of very high temporal resolution of the order of centuries. This is due to the geologically rapid rate of geomagnetic secular variation and high accuracy to which extrusive rocks may record the instantaneous direction of the magnetic field. We have collected more than 1200 paleomagnetic samples from over 90 sites to help build a regional stratigraphy between the dozens of known ignimbrite units in the cSRP. During this process, however, we have found that the use of paleomagnetism is complicated by the large variation in the paleomagnetic direction that sometimes exists both within and between sub-lithologies of the same flow. Individual SR-type ignimbrite cooling-units have an upper and lower glassy margin (vitrophyre) enclosing a lithoidal (microcrystalline) zone. These vitrophyre lithologies often have a shallow paleomagnetic direction compared to the lithoidal lithologies. Here we present preliminary results from a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of one cooling unit and its thermal contact zone to better understand the source of discrepant directions. We found a relationship between anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetization (ATRM), coercivity, natural remanent magnetization intensity, and deflection of remanence direction. A strong lineation in the ATRM anisotropy suggests contemporaneous rheomorphic shear strain of the welding fabric during early stages of emplacement plays a key role in generating magnetic anisotropy. The low anisotropy of the lithoidal zone and its correlation with the magnetic direction of the underlying baked soil implies that crystallization somehow helps anneal this anisotropy prior to cooling below the unblocking temperature of the constituent magnetic minerals. We hypothesize that the glassy margins retain an anisotropic fabric related to emplacement which affects their ability to accurately record the magnetic field during cooling. The anisotropic fabric in the lithoidal zone is overprinted by continued grain growth and/or alteration and, therefore, more accurately records the paleomagnetic field direction.

Finn, D. R.; Coe, R. S.; Kelly, H.; Murphy, J.; Reichow, M. K.; Knott, T.; Branney, M.

2013-12-01

287

Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1953 to 1990, an estimated 0.56 to 1.18 curies of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The waste- water was discharged directly to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well prior to February 1984 and through unlined disposal ponds in 1984-90. The wastewater did not contain measurable concentrations of iodine-129 in 1989-90. Samples were collected from 51 wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer and 1 well that obtains water from a perched ground-water zone. The samples were analyzed for iodine-129 using an accelerator mass spectrometer which is two to six orders of magnitude more sensitive than neutron- activation methods. Therefore, iodine-129 was detectable in samples from a larger number of wells distributed over a larger area than previously was possible. Ground-water flow velocities calculated using iodine-129 data are estimated to be at least 6 feet per day. These velocities compare favorably with those of 4 to 10 feet per day calculated from tritium data and tracer studies at wells down- gradient from the ICPP. In 1990-91, concentrations of iodine-129 in water samples from wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from less than 0.0000006+0.0000002 to 3.82.+0.19 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The mean concentration in water from 18 wells was 0.81+0.19 pCi/L as compared with 1.30+0.26 pCi/L in 1986. The decrease in the iodine-l29 concentrations from 1986 to 1990-91 chiefly was the result of a decrease in the amount of iodine-129 disposed of annually, and changes in disposal techniques.

Mann, L. J.; Beasley, T. M.

1994-01-01

288

Middle Miocene Hotspot-Related Uplift, Exhumation, and Extension north of the Snake River Plain: Evidence from Apatite (U-Th)/He Thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passage of North America over the Yellowstone hotspot has had a profound influence on the topography of the northern Rocky Mountains. One of the most prominent topographic features is the Yellowstone crescent of high topography, which comprises two elevated shoulders bounding the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP) and converging at a topographic swell centered on the Yellowstone region. Kilometer-scale erosion has occurred locally within the topographic crescent, but it is unclear if rock exhumation is due to surface uplift surrounding the propagating hot spot, subsidence of the Snake River Plain after passage of the hot spot, or relief initiated by extension in the Northern Basin and Range Province. We have applied (U-Th/He) apatite (AHe) thermochronology to the Pioneer-Boulder Mountains (PBM) on the northern flank of the SRP, and the southern Beartooth Mountains (BM) directly north of the modern Yellowstone caldera, to constrain the timing, rates, and spatial distribution of exhumation. AHe ages from the PBM indicate that >2-3 km of exhumation occurred in the core of this topographic culmination since ~11 Ma. Age-elevation relationships suggest an exhumation rate of ~0.3 mm/yr between ~11 and 8 Ma. Eocene Challis volcanic rocks are extensively preserved and Eocene topographic highs are locally preserved to the north and south of the PBM, indicating minimal erosion adjacent to the PBM culmination. Spatial patterns of both exhumation and topography indicate that faulting was not the primary control on uplift and exhumation. Regional exhumation at 11-8 Ma was synchronous with silicic eruptions from the ~10.3 Ma Picabo volcanic field located immediately to the south and with S-tilting of the southern flank of the PBM that is likely the result of loading of the ESRP by mid-crustal mafic intrusions. AHe data from Archean rocks of the southern BM reveal Miocene-Pliocene cooling ages and include samples as young as ~2-6 Ma. Discordant single grain ages in samples with Miocene mean ages suggest that exhumation is now reaching to depths of the Miocene He partial retention zone. Miocene-Pliocene erosional exhumation of the South Snowy block is partly attributed to integration of the Yellowstone River drainage system and incision of the Yellowstone Canyon. The thermochronology of these two locations shows that localized uplift, exhumation and incision occurred progressively as NA moved over the hot spot, but that exhumation is not uniform and not always controlled by Neogene basin-bounding faults. This suggests a causal relationship between hotspot processes and exhumation through potential contributions of flexure and mantle dynamics to uplift, and changes in drainage networks and base-level associate with uplift and/or extension.

Foster, D. A.; Vogl, J.; Min, K. K.; Bricker, A.; Gelato, P. W.

2013-12-01

289

Sources and Flow Directions of Dikes at Sinker Butte Volcano, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least thirteen basaltic dikes are exposed in a 140° arc along the south and east sides of the Pleistocene Sinker Butte Volcano. The dikes are exposed for up to 500 m along strike and are between 28 and 115 cm in width. Most have nearly vertical dips. Greater abundances of plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts in the interiors of many of the dikes suggest they were concentrated by flow differentiation, although complex zoning and internal chilled borders in a few of the dikes are attributed to multiple magma pulses. The dikes are best exposed along the walls of the Snake River Canyon, where they intrude a thick series of phreatomagmatic tuffs sandwiched between sequences of lava flows. Some of the dikes cut the lower sequence of lavas, and several merge with the capping flows; however, the relationship between the dikes and the overlying lavas is not yet clear. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was determined for about 80 oriented drill cores collected from nine of the Sinker Butte dikes. Seven showed strong anisotropies (up to 9.7%). Average magnetic lineations, which are assumed to reflect flow directions, are nearly horizontal for two of the dikes, plunge about 45° downward and away from the presumed vent area in two others, and are nearly vertical for the other three. The AMS data indicating horizontal and inclined flow directions are consistent with the propagation of radial dikes outward from a magma column or lava lake located in the upper part of the edifice. Vertical flow directions may have been upward in response to the impermeable barrier at the base of the tephra section, or may have been downward in response to draining of magma from the central conduit or lava lake. Our model for the emplacement and transport of magma in the radial dikes at this center should be further refined by detailed field mapping and studies of crystal alignments currently in progress.

Fowler, K. R.; White, C.; Champion, D. E.

2005-12-01

290

Winter Habitat Use by Cutthroat Trout in the Snake River near Jackson, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Winter habitat use by Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri was monitored with radiotelemetry during November-March 1998-2001 in channelized and unaltered sections of the Snake River near Jackson, Wyoming. The use of run and off-channel pool habitat was significantly correlated to water temperature; run use was most frequent when mean water temperature exceeded 1.0??C, and off-channel pool use was greatest when mean water temperature was below 1.0??C. Available habitat was surveyed during winter 1999-2000 and was compared with actual habitat use. This comparison indicated that cutthroat trout avoided riffle habitat, selected deep runs, and strongly selected off-channel pool habitat. Large, deep, off-channel pools with groundwater influence were uncommon in the study area but were frequently selected as over-wintering habitat in the channelized section during all three study years. During 2000-2001, mainstem water temperatures were significantly colder than in 1998-1999 or 1999-2000, and anchor ice was observed more frequently in 2000-2001 than in 1998-1999 or 1999-2000 (on 18 d versus 5 d and 3 d, respectively). Mean water temperatures in off-channel pools were not significantly different among years. Depth and shelf ice were most frequently identified as cover elements in the channelized section. Run habitat was more common and used more frequently upstream of the channelized section. Large woody debris was more common and selected more frequently as cover in the unaltered section than in the channelized section.

Harper, D. D.; Farag, A. M.

2004-01-01

291

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

Johnson, Keith A.

1995-12-01

292

Radiogenic isotopic constraints from the Project Hotspot Kimama core: implications for Hotspot-controlled lithosphere interactions beneath the Snake River Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project Hotspot, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, seeks to understand the evolution of Snake River Plain -Yellowstone Plateau volcanism through time. Radiogenic isotope chemistry, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology from the Kimama core temporally constrain the mass proportions and flux of magma source components in Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau (SRP-YP) basaltic volcanism. We present new radiogenic isotope data for the Kimama core of the central Snake River Plain that support the regional model of plume-continental lithosphere interaction and westward source variation over the past ~ 12 Ma. The 1912 m Kimama core provides a nearly continuous depositional record of basaltic lava flows on the central Snake River Plain from the late Miocene through Pleistocene. Most of the basalt flows are Snake River olivine tholeiites with MgO 6-10%, Fe2O3 < 16%, and K2O <0.9%. Compositionally evolved basalts similar to those erupted at Craters of the Moon (high K2O, Fe2O3, and Zr) were identified at various depths throughout the core. We analyzed 15 basalt samples from a range of geochemical compositions and depths within the Kimama core for Nd, Sr, Hf, and Pb. Radiogenic Pb isotope values for Kimama basalts ranged from 206Pb/204Pb ~18.0--18.5, 207Pb/204Pb ~15.6--15.7, and 208Pb/204Pb ~38.5--39.0. Radiogenic Hf isotopes range from 0.282683--0.282745. Evolved basalts span the same range of 177Hf/176Hf, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb as the more primitive basalt compositions (high MgO, Cr, and Ni). Ar/Ar and paleomagnetic dating establish a relatively linear basalt accumulation rate of 305 m/m.y. and a projected bottom hole age of 6.2 Ma.

Potter, K. E.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.

2013-12-01

293

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29, 2003. We estimated that 4,637 wild/natural and 12,226 hatchery-produced sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Redfish Lake in 2003. The hatchery-produced component included an estimated 5,352 out-migrants produced from a summer direct-release made to Redfish Lake in 2002 and 6,874 out-migrants produced from a fall direct-release made in 2002. The juvenile out-migrant traps on Alturas Lake Creek and Pettit Lake Creek were operated by the SBT from April 23 to June 5, 2003 and April 25 to June 4, 2003, respectively. The SBT enumerated 28 wild/natural and 13,329 hatchery-produced sockeye salmon smolts that outmigrated from Pettit Lake and estimated 286 wild/natural and 553 hatchery-produced sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Alturas Lake in 2003. The hatchery-produced component of sockeye salmon out-migrants originated from presmolt releases made directly to Pettit and Alturas lakes in 2002. Median travel times for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged smolts from the Redfish Lake Creek trap site to Lower Granite Dam were estimated for wild/natural smolts and hatchery-produced smolts. Median travel times for smolts originating from the Redfish Lake Creek trap were 10.6 d for wild/natural smolts, 6.2 d for summer direct-released smolts, and 7.1 d for fall direct-released smolts. Median travel times for PIT-tagged smolts from the Pettit Lake Creek trap site to Lower Granite Dam were estimated for hatchery-produced smolts. Median travel times for smolts originating from the Pettit Lake Creek trap were 14.1 d for fall direct released smolts and 13.6 d for fall direct released smolts. Cumulative unique PIT tag interrogations from Sawtooth Valley juvenile out-migrant traps to mainstem Snake and Columbia river dams were utilized to estimate detection rates for out-migrating sockeye salmon smolts. Detection rate comparisons were made between smolts originating from Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes and the various release strategies. Pettit Lake fall direct released smolts recorded the highest detection rate of 37.14%. In 2003, 312 hatchery-produced adult socke

Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

2005-01-01

294

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for PIT-tagged hatchery and wild juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers during 1998. Estimates of post-detection bypass survival for yearling chinook salmon at McNary Dam are also reported. Results are reported primarily in the form of data tables and figures with minimal description of methods and analysis. Detailed information on the methodology and statistical models used for this report is provided in five previous annual reports on this study, which are cited here.

Smith, Steven G.

2000-03-01

295

Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are made up of at least 178 basalt-flow groups, 103 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 4 rhyolite domes. Stratigraphic units identified in 333 wells in this 890-mile{sup 2} area include 121 basalt-flow groups, 102 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 1 rhyolite dome. Stratigraphic units were identified and correlated using the data from numerous outcrops and 26 continuous cores and 328 natural-gamma logs available in December 1993. Basalt flows make up about 85% of the volume of deposits underlying the area.

Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.

1997-08-01

296

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

297

Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995  

SciTech Connect

Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1992--95.

Bartholomay, R.C.; Tucker, B.J.; Ackerman, D.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

1997-04-01

298

Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

1993-06-01

299

Long-term, One-dimensional Simulation of Lower Snake River Temperatures for Current and Unimpounded Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to compare water temperatures in the Lower Snake River for current (impounded) and unimpounded conditions using a mathematical model of the river system. A long-term analysis was performed using the MASS1 one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and water quality model. The analysis used historical flows and meteorological conditions for a 35-year period spanning between 1960 and 1995. Frequency analysis was performed on the model results to calculate river temperatures at various percent of time exceeded levels. Results were are also analyzed to compute the time when, during the year, water temperatures rose above or fell below various temperature levels. The long-term analysis showed that the primary difference between the current and unimpounded river scenarios is that the reservoirs decrease the water temperature variability. The reservoirs also create a thermal inertia effect which tends to keep water cooler later into the spring and warmer later into the fall compared to the unimpounded river condition. Given the uncertainties in the simulation model, inflow temperatures, and meteorological conditions the results show only relatively small differences between current and unimpounded absolute river temperatures.

Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2001-02-15

300

Oxyanion Concentrations in Eastern Sierra Nevada Rivers – 2. Arsenic and Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples were collected from the Truckee River-Pyramid Lake system, the Walker River-Walker Lake system, and the Carson River, all located in eastern California and western Nevada, U.S.A., at three different times (i.e., summer 1991, spring 1992, and autumn 1992) over a two year period. The concentrations of As, Na, Cl, SPO4, and pH were measured in these river samples

Kevin H. Johannesson; W. Berry Lyons; Suey Huey; Georgia a. Doyle; Eric E. Swanson; Ed Hackett

1997-01-01

301

Determining Columbia and Snake River Project Tailrace and Forebay Zones of Hydraulic Influence using MASS2 Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Although fisheries biology studies are frequently performed at US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects along the Columbia and Snake Rivers, there is currently no consistent definition of the ``forebay'' and ``tailrace'' regions for these studies. At this time, each study may use somewhat arbitrary lines (e.g., the Boat Restriction Zone) to define the upstream and downstream limits of the study, which may be significantly different at each project. Fisheries researchers are interested in establishing a consistent definition of project forebay and tailrace regions for the hydroelectric projects on the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The Hydraulic Extent of a project was defined by USACE (Brad Eppard, USACE-CENWP) as follows: The river reach directly upstream (forebay) and downstream (tailrace) of a project that is influenced by the normal range of dam operations. Outside this reach, for a particular river discharge, changes in dam operations cannot be detected by hydraulic measurement. The purpose of this study was to, in consultation with USACE and regional representatives, develop and apply a consistent set of criteria for determining the hydraulic extent of each of the projects in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. A 2D depth-averaged river model, MASS2, was applied to the Snake and Columbia Rivers. New computational meshes were developed most reaches and the underlying bathymetric data updated to the most current survey data. The computational meshes resolved each spillway bay and turbine unit at each project and extended from project to project. MASS2 was run for a range of total river flows and each flow for a range of project operations at each project. The modeled flow was analyzed to determine the range of velocity magnitude differences and the range of flow direction differences at each location in the computational mesh for each total river flow. Maps of the differences in flow direction and velocity magnitude were created. USACE fishery biologists requested data analysis to determine the project hydraulic extent based on the following criteria: 1) For areas where the mean velocities are less than 4 ft/s, the water velocity differences between operations are not greater than 0.5 ft/sec and /or the differences in water flow direction are not greater than 10 degrees, 2) If mean water velocity is 4.0 ft/second or greater the boundary is determined using the differences in water flow direction (i.e., not greater than 10 degrees). Based on these criteria, and excluding areas with a mean velocity of less than 0.1 ft/s (within the error of the model), a final set of graphics were developed that included data from all flows and all operations. Although each hydroelectric project has a different physical setting, there were some common results. The downstream hydraulic extent tended to be greater than the hydraulic extent in the forebay. The hydraulic extent of the projects tended to be larger at the mid-range flows. At higher flows, the channel geometry tends to reduce the impact of project operations.

Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

2010-12-01

302

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin ; Volume 1 ; Evaluation of the 1995 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Subyearling Chinook in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was initiated in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of the project include: (1) to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and to help identify future research and analysis needs; (2)

Richard L

1997-01-01

303

Thickness of the Mississippi River Valley confining unit, eastern Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern arose in the late 1980s over the vulnerability of the Mississippi Valley alluvial aquifer to contamination from potential surface sources related to pesticide or fertilizer use, industrial activity, landfills, or livestock operations. In 1990 a study was begun to locate areas in Arkansas where the groundwater flow system is susceptible to contamination by surface contaminants. As a part of that effort, the thickness of the clay confining unit overlying the alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas was mapped. The study area included all or parts of 27 counties in eastern Arkansas that are underlain by the alluvial aquifer and its overlying confining unit. A database of well attributes was compiled based on data from driller's logs and from published data and stored in computer files. A confining-unit thickness map was created from the driller's-log database using geographic information systems technology. A computer program was then used to contour the data. Where the confining unit is present, it ranges in thickness from 0 feet in many locations in the study area to 140 feet in northeastern Greene County and can vary substantially over short distances. Although general trends in the thickness of the confining unit are apparent, the thickness has great spatial variability. An apparent relation exists between thickness of the confining unit and spatial variability in thickness. In areas where the thickness of the confining unit is 40 feet or less, such as in Clay, eastern Craighead, northwestern Mississippi, and Woodruff Counties, thickness of the unit tends robe more uniform than in areas where the thickness of the unit generally exceeds 40 feet, such as in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties. At some sites the confining unit is very thick compared to its thickness in the immediate surrounding area. Locations of abandoned Mississippi River meander channels generally coincide with location of locally thick confining unit. Deposition of the confining unit onto the coarser alluvial aquifer deposits has reduced the relief of the land surface. Hence, the altitude of the top of the alluvial aquifer varies more than the altitude of the land surface and is indicative of a depositional setting.

Gonthier, Gerard J.; Mahon, Gary L.

1993-01-01

304

Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal.

Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

1997-05-01

305

Identification of juvenile fall versus spring chinook salmon migrating through the lower Snake River based on body morphology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the use of body morphology to distinguish among subyearling fall-run, subyearling spring-run, and yearling spring-run smolts of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at two lower Snake River dams during the summer emigration. Based on principal-components analysis, subyearling fall-run chinook salmon had smaller heads and eyes, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling spring-run chinook salmon had characteristics of both subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon were classified with more than 80% accuracy by means of discriminant analysis. Classification accuracy for subyearling spring-run chinook salmon was only 26%. We conclude that body morphology can be used to accurately identify the age of chinook salmon smolts but not the run. Therefore, genetic analyses are the only means of reliably determining the run composition of summer migrants in the lower Snake River.

Tiffan, K. F.; Rondorf, D. W.; Garland, R. D.; Verhey, P. A.

2000-01-01

306

Geochemistry of Groundwater in the Beaver and Camas Creek Drainage Basins, Eastern Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is studying the fate and transport of waste solutes in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This effort ...

G. W. Rattray M. L. Ginsbach

2013-01-01

307

Project Hotspot: Linear accumulation rates of late Cenozoic basalt at Kimama, Idaho, and implications for crustal strain and subsidence rates of the central Snake River Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project Hotspot's Kimama drill hole on the Snake River Plain, Idaho recovered a 1912 m thick section of basalt core that ranges in age from ~700 ka to at least 6.14 Ma, based on five 40Ar/39Ar analyses and twenty paleomagnetic age assignments. Fifty-four flow groups comprising 510 individual flows were defined, yielding an average recurrence interval of ~11,400 years between flows. Age-depth analysis indicate that, over thicknesses >150 m and age spans >500 k.y., accumulation rates were constant at 30 m/100 k.y. The existence and persistence of this linear accumulation rate for greater than 5 m.y. documents an external tectonic control on eruption dynamics. One conceptual model relates accumulation rates to horizontal crustal strain, such that far-field extension rate controls the periodicity of dikes that feed basalt flows. In this model, each of the 54 flow groups would have a deep-seated, relatively wide (1-10m) dike that branches upward into a network of narrow (10-100 cm) dikes feeding individual lava flows. Assuming an east-west lateral lava flow extent of up to 50 km, the Kimama data record a steady-state crustal strain rate of 10-9 to 10-10 y-1. This rate is comparable to modern, decadal strain rates measured with GPS in the adjacent Basin & Range province, but exceeds decadal strain rates of zero measured in the eastern Snake River Plain. Linear accumulation rates also provide insight into basalt subsidence history. In this model, the middle-upper crust subsides due to the added weight of lava flows, the added weight of mid-crustal sills/dikes, and thermal contraction in the wake of the Yellowstone hot spot. Isostatic compensation would occur in the (nearly) molten lower crust. Assuming constant surface elevation and a basalt density of 2.6 g/cm3, the lava flow weight would account for 87% of the burial through time, yielding a steady-state "tectonic" subsidence rate of 4 m/100 k.y. attributed to the driving forces of mid-crustal injection and/or thermal contraction. An even faster tectonic rate is likely, given the evidence for decreasing surface elevation through time. We propose that tectonic subsidence was a necessary condition for maintaining basalt eruption over such a long duration -- it would inhibit the growth of a topographic plateau and maintain an appropriate level of neutral buoyancy for the periodically ascending mantle-derived magma

Rodgers, D. W.; Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.; Champion, D. E.; Duncan, R. A.

2013-12-01

308

Survey of pathogens in hatchery Chinook salmon with different out-migration histories through the Snake and Columbia rivers.  

PubMed

The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is known about the occurrence and transmission of infectious agents in barged juvenile salmon relative to juvenile salmon that remain in-river to navigate to the ocean. We conducted a survey of hatchery-reared spring Chinook salmon at various points along their out-migration path as they left their natal hatcheries and either migrated in-river or were barged through the FCRPS. Salmon kidneys were screened by polymerase chain reaction for nine pathogens and one family of water molds. Eight pathogens were detected; the most prevalent were Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Species in the family Saprolegniaceae were also commonly detected. Pathogen prevalence was significantly greater in fish that were barged through the FCRPS than in fish left to out-migrate in-river. These results suggest that the transmission of infectious agents to susceptible juvenile salmon occurs during the barging process. Therefore, management activities that reduce pathogen exposure during barging may increase the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon after they are released. PMID:21834329

Van Gaest, A L; Dietrich, J P; Thompson, D E; Boylen, D A; Strickland, S A; Collier, T K; Loge, F J; Arkoosh, M R

2011-06-01

309

Evidence for Fractionation and Recharge in Shallow Basaltic Magma Chambers: Kimama Butte, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small, monogenetic shield volcanoes are the most prominent feature of the Snake River Plain, Idaho. Even though monogenetic shields are very short lived, it is not uncommon for compositional heterogeneity to be present within a single volcano. Kimama Butte shows distinct changes in major and trace element compositions and in olivine and plagioclase from the earliest, most distal flows to the late-stage summit eruptions. The rocks from Kimama Butte display a strong Fe-enrichment trend typical of fractionating tholeiitic basalt. Major and trace element compositions range from: 6.9- 5.5% MgO, 15.6-18% Fe2O3, 15-13% Al2O3, 3.2-4.3% TiO2, 9.5-10.1% CaO, 0.6-0.8% K2O, and P2O5 0.6 -1.1%. P, the most incompatible element, increases by a factor of 1.8 and Ce increases by 1.7 times. Trace elements (Ni<80 and Cr<200 ppm) , olivine compositions (about Fo65), and low Mg# (<65) show that none of the lavas are primary melts from the mantle. High iron concentrations may be due to differentiation not great depth of origin. Element variations are best explained by the fractionation of plagioclase and olivine. For example, Al2O3 declines with increasing differentiation and Ca varies only slightly across the entire range of lavas. Moreover, normalized trace element patterns have a prominent negative Sr anomaly as a result of plagioclase fractionation. MELTS simulations were performed with a constant parent but varying pressure, water content, and fO2 to determine the conditions which best fit the observed lava compositions. The phase assemblage (no pyroxenes or oxides) and major element variations are best explained by approximately 25-30% crystallization of olivine and plagioclase at low-pressure (<3 kb to as low as 100 b). Electron microprobe analyses of plagioclase (An72) and olivine (Fo75) phenocrysts agree with the predicted mineral compositions from MELTS. However, low-pressure fractionation alone cannot explain the observed the strong enrichments of incompatible elements. Instead, they can be modeled as the result of magma recharge into the evolving chamber. Calculations suggest that recharge rate was about 0.6 the crystallization rate. Assimilation of ferrogabbro intrusions or of the Phosphoria Formation at great depth may not be necessary to explain the incompatible element enrichments.

Hurst, M.; Christiansen, E. H.

2004-12-01

310

Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1993-February 1994.  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish.

Poe, Thomas P.

1994-08-01

311

Determination of Background Uranium Concentration in the Snake River Plain Aquifer under the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium occurs naturally in the environment and is also a contaminant that is disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. To determine whether uranium concentrations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer, which underlies the laboratory, are elevated as a result of migration of anthropogenic uranium from the Subsurface Disposal Area

Molly K. Leecaster; L. Don Koeppen; Gail L. Olson

2003-01-01

312

ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED CONSTITUENTS IN THE SURFACE WATER OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, WATER YEARS 1975-1989.  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1991, a water-quality investigation of the upper Snake River Basin (1704) was initiated as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Nearly 9,000 analyses of nutrients and suspended sediment from more than 450 stations were retrieved from the U.S. Environmen...

313

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - SUMMARY OF AQUATIC BIOLOGICAL DATA FOR SURFACE WATER THROUGH 1992  

EPA Science Inventory

The initial phase of this study involved compiling data to describe the current (1992) and historical aquatic biological conditions of surface water in the Snake River Basin (1704). To assess water quality of the basin, at least 26 different macroinvertebrate and fish community ...

314

BIOLOGICAL METRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NONPOINT POLLUTION IN THE SNAKE RIVER ECOREGION OF SOUTHERN IDAHO, 1990-91 FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to develop and test a biological assessment program for representative streams in the Snake River Basin ecoregion of southern Idaho. A habitat analysis component was included to provide an independent measure of environmental conditions. The over...

315

Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996 through 1998  

SciTech Connect

Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement to radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1996-98. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL decreased or remained constant during 1996-98. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption process, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL were variable during 1996-98.

R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. C. Davis; M. R. Greene

2000-09-01

316

The precipitation of aluminum, iron and manganese at the junction of Deer Creek with the Snake River in Summit County, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of disseminated pyrite in relatively acid schists and gneisses of the Snake River drainage basin provides abundant iron sulfate and sulfuric acid to ground and surface water. This acid water dissolves large quantities of many elements, particularly aluminum and surprisingly large quantities of elements, such as magnesium and zinc, not expected to be abundant in the drainage basin.

P. K. Theobald Jr.; H. W. Lakin; D. B. Hawkins

1963-01-01

317

ANALYSIS OF DATA ON NUTRIENTS AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GROUND WATER IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1980-91  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin (17...

318

A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North

S. J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R. W. King; S. A. Kattenhorn

2012-01-01

319

Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

1997-05-01

320

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 29 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 49 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests the fish are currently growing faster than fish historicly inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. Five white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River.

Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2003-03-01

321

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information on PIT-tagging of wild Chinook salmon parr in Idaho in 2003 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish and similarly tagged fish from Oregon. We report estimated parr-to-smolt survival and arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam, as well as interrogation data collected at several other sites throughout the Snake and Columbia River system. This research continues studies that began under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding in 1991. Results from previous study years were reported by Achord et al. (1994; 1995a,b; 1996a; 1997; 1998; 2000; 2001a,b; 2002, 2003, 2004). Goals of this ongoing study are: (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence migration patterns. (4) Characterize the migration behavior and estimate survival of different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. In 2003-2004, we also continued to measure water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program. These data, along with parr/smolt migration, survival, and timing data, will help to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between fish movement/survival and environmental factors.

Achord, Stephen; Hodge, Jacob M.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

2005-06-01

322

Snakes of the Savannah River Plant with Information About Snakebite Prevention and Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Snakes not only have an indirect ecological effect, but they may also have a most direct impact on man. The effect may be physiological as a result of poisonous snakebite, or it may be psychological as a consequence of the almost universal fear and misund...

W. Gibbons

1977-01-01

323

Hydrogeology and water quality in the Snake River alluvial aquifer at Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson, Wyoming, September 2008-June 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology and water quality of the Snake River alluvial aquifer, at the Jackson Hole Airport in northwest Wyoming, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Jackson Hole Airport Board and the Teton Conservation District during September 2008-June 2009. Hydrogeologic conditions were characterized using data collected from 14 Jackson Hole Airport wells. Groundwater levels are summarized in this report and the direction of groundwater flow, hydraulic gradients, and estimated groundwater velocity rates in the Snake River alluvial aquifer underlying the study area are presented. Analytical results of chemical, dissolved gas, and stable isotopes are presented and summarized. Seasonally, the water table at Jackson Hole Airport was lowest in early spring and reached its peak in July, with an increase of 12 to 14 feet between April and July 2009. Groundwater flow was predominantly horizontal but had the hydraulic potential for downward flow. The direction of groundwater flow was from the northeast to the west-southwest. Horizontal groundwater velocities within the Snake River alluvial aquifer at the airport were estimated to be about 26 to 66 feet per day. This indicates that the traveltime from the farthest upgradient well to the farthest downgradient well was approximately 53 to 138 days. This estimate only describes the movement of groundwater because some solutes may move at a rate much slower than groundwater flow through the aquifer. The quality of the water in the alluvial aquifer generally was considered good. The alluvial aquifer was a fresh, hard to very hard, calcium carbonate type water. No constituents were detected at concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, and no anthropogenic compounds were detected at concentrations greater than laboratory reporting levels. The quality of groundwater in the alluvial aquifer generally was suitable for domestic and other uses; however, dissolved iron and manganese were detected at concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water in two monitoring wells. These secondary standards are esthetic guidelines only and are nonenforceable. Iron and manganese are likely both natural components of the geologic materials in the area and may have become mobilized in the aquifer due to reduction/oxidation (redox) processes. Additionally, measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentrations and analyses of major ions and nutrients indicate reducing conditions exist at two of the seven wells sampled. Reducing conditions in an otherwise oxic aquifer system are indicative of an upgradient or in-situ source of organic carbon. The nature of the source of organic carbon at the airport could not be determined. View report for unabridged abstract.

Wright, Peter R.

2010-01-01

324

Project Hotspot: Mineral chemistry of high-MgO basalts from the Kimama core, Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral compositions can be used to deduce magma crystallization temperatures and to infer key characteristics of magma source regions including delving into the plume or no-plume sources of intraplate basalts. To this end, mineral compositions in basalt acquired by the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project have been analyzed by electron microprobe. The samples are from the Kimama drill hole on the axis of the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho which was drilled through 1912 m of basalt and interbedded sediments. Five of the least evolved basalt flows (i.e., low Fe, Ti, and high Ni and Cr) were chosen based on semiquantitative analyses using a Bruker Tracer IV handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Phenocryst phases include olivine and plagioclase; many olivine phenocrysts also contain inclusions of Cr-Al-rich spinel. Groundmass phases are olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite, and ilmenite. Olivine phenocrysts are normally zoned with cores of Fo 81-70; the rims of Fo 70-50 overlap with the compositions of olivine in the groundmass. Spinels included in olivines in the most MgO-rich lavas are Al-rich (up to 34 wt% Al2O3), similar to those in ocean island basalts (Barnes and Roeder, 2001) and some zone to higher Fe and Ti. Plagioclase phenocryst cores (An 76-65) overlap significantly with the compositions of groundmass plagioclase (An 72-40). Clinopyroxene is confined to the groundmass and creates an ophitic texture. Pyroxene compositions are typically: Wo 45-37, En 42-30, Fs 30-15 and more evolved pyroxenes trend towards Craters of the Moon pyroxenes which have lower Ca. Temperature and oxygen fugacity were calculated from magnetite-ilmenite pairs using QUILF (Anderson et al., 1993), which yielded temperatures of 750-1000°C and fO2 near or just below the QFM buffer. The magnetite-ilmenite pairs are all groundmass phases; thus, these are post-eruption temperatures and fO2 estimates. Olivine compositions were used to test if the source of the Snake River Plain basalts contains a subducted oceanic crustal component as suggested by Sobolev et al. (2005) and Herzberg (2011). The olivines in the Kimama core have Mn, Fe/Mn, and Ca concentrations that are similar to Hawaiian shield-building basalts, and are consistent with derivation of their parent magmas from pyroxenite sources, such as those hypothesized for some mantle plumes. However, Ni concentrations (500-1500 ppm) in olivines from Kimama are relatively low, and the olivines are too evolved (Fo <81) to be definitive with regard to the presence or absence of pyroxenite in the source.

Bradshaw, R. W.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M. J.; Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.

2011-12-01

325

The venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius) reveals high venom complexity in the intragenomic evolution of venoms  

PubMed Central

Background Snake venom is shaped by the ecology and evolution of venomous species, and signals of positive selection in toxins have been consistently documented, reflecting the role of venoms as an ecologically critical phenotype. New World coral snakes (Elapidae) are represented by three genera and over 120 species and subspecies that are capable of causing significant human morbidity and mortality, yet coral-snake venom composition is poorly understood in comparison to that of Old World elapids. High-throughput sequencing is capable of identifying thousands of loci, while providing characterizations of expression patterns and the molecular evolutionary forces acting within the venom gland. Results We describe the de novo assembly and analysis of the venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We identified 1,950 nontoxin transcripts and 116 toxin transcripts. These transcripts accounted for 57.1% of the total reads, with toxins accounting for 45.8% of the total reads. Phospholipases A2 and three-finger toxins dominated expression, accounting for 86.0% of the toxin reads. A total of 15 toxin families were identified, revealing venom complexity previously unknown from New World coral snakes. Toxins exhibited high levels of heterozygosity relative to nontoxins, and overdominance may favor gene duplication leading to the fixation of advantageous alleles. Phospholipase A2 expression was uniformly distributed throughout the class while three-finger toxin expression was dominated by a handful of transcripts, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that toxin divergence may have occurred following speciation. Positive selection was detected in three of the four most diverse toxin classes, suggesting that venom diversification is driven by recurrent directional selection. Conclusions We describe the most complete characterization of an elapid venom gland to date. Toxin gene duplication may be driven by heterozygote advantage, as the frequency of polymorphic toxin loci was significantly higher than that of nontoxins. Diversification among toxins appeared to follow speciation reflecting species-specific adaptation, and this divergence may be directly related to dietary shifts and is suggestive of a coevolutionary arms race.

2013-01-01

326

Source and Crystallization Characteristics of Basalts in the Kimama core: Project Hotspot Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral chemistry and petrography of basalts from the Kimama drill core recovered by Hotspot: Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho establish crystallization conditions of these lavas. Twenty-three basalt samples, from 20 individual lava flows were sampled from the upper 1000 m (of the 1912 m drilled) core drilled on the axis of the Snake River Plain, and represent approximately 3 m.y. of volcanism (rocks at the bottom of the hole are ~6 Ma). Rock from the upper 1000 m are typically fresh, while those lower in the core are more altered and are less likely to preserve fresh phenocrysts to analyze. Intratelluric phenocrysts (pre-eruption) are: olivine, plagioclase and Cr-spinel inclusions in olivine and plagioclase; groundmass phases (post-eruption) are: olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite and ilmenite. Olivine core compositions range from Fo84-68, plagioclase cores range from An80-62, clinopyroxene ranges in composition from Wo47-34, En47-28, Fs30-15, spinel inclusions are Cr (up to 20 wt % Cr2O3) and Al-rich (up to 35 wt % Al2O3) and evolve to lower concentrations of Cr and Al and higher Fe and Ti, chromian titanomagnetite to magnetite, and ilmenite are groundmass oxide phases. Thermobarometry of Kimama core basalts indicates that the phenocryst phases crystallized at temperatures of 1155 to 1255°C at depths of 7 to 17 km, which is within or near the seismically imaged mid-crustal sill. Plagioclase hygrometry suggests that these lavas are relatively anhydrous with less than 0.4 wt % H2O. Groundmass phases crystallized at lower temperatures (<1140°C) after eruption. Oxygen fugacity inferred from Fe-Ti oxide equilibria is at or just below the QFM buffer. The origin of the basaltic rocks of the Snake River Plain has been attributed to a mantle plume or to other, shallow mantle processes. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element geochemistry of the olivine tholeiites from the Kimama core are used to distinguish between these two sources (deep or shallow mantle). Whole rock compositions were corrected for plagioclase and olivine fractionation to calculate primary liquids to estimate mantle potential temperatures. Olivine phenocrysts have the pyroxenite source characteristics of low Mn and Ca, but a peridotite source characteristic of low Ni. Thus, trace element models were used to test whether there is pyroxenite in the source of the Snake River Plain basalts, as hypothesized for Hawaii and other plume-related hotspots (e.g., Sobolev et al., 2005; Herzberg, 2011). Olivine chemistry and trace element models establish that the basalt source is a spinel peridotite, not a pyroxenite. The average mantle potential temperature obtained for these samples is 1577°C, 177°C hotter than ambient mantle, suggesting that the basaltic liquids were derived from a thermal plume. Silica activity barometry shows that melt segregation occurs between 80 and 110 km depth, which is within or very near the spinel stability field, and suggests that the lithosphere has been eroded by the plume to a maximum depth of 80 km, and recent mantle tomography suggests that it may be even thinner.

Bradshaw, R. W.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.; Potter, K. E.

2012-12-01

327

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over-fishing practices is limiting the recruitment of white sturgeon into larger size classes (>183 cm). Habitat, food resources, and migration have been severely altered by the impoundment of the Snake River and it appears that the recruitment of young may not be severely affected as recruitment of fish into size classes > 183 cm.

Hoefs, Nancy (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2004-02-01

328

Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

2011-01-01

329

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

2001-04-01

330

Multibeam Bathymetry to Measure Volumetric Change and Particle Size Distributions in the Snake River through Hells Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-beam bathymetry (MBB) surveys can be used to measure the change in storage and particle size distributions on riverbeds even in the inaccessible and rugged Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River. Our work to date has shown that differencing repeated MBB surveys can be an effective method of measuring volumetric changes in riverbed storage of sediment and that the data can also be used to categorize particle size distributions across the entire riverbed. The volumetric and particle size information allows us to investigate the patterns of sand and salmon spawning gravels and the underlying transport and supply processes. These methods will continue to be refined as part of Idaho Power's long-term compliance monitoring program and will provide a unique, long-term record of sediment transport in a steep, canyon-bound river. The Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River flows north 95 kilometers from Hells Canyon Dam to the confluence with the Salmon River and forms the border between Idaho and Oregon. The reach contains 15 named rapids (Class II to IV) and has an average slope of approximately 0.002%, an average bankfull width of 75-100 m, and an extreme confinement ratio (bankfull width: floodplain width) of 1. The bankfull flow (recurrence interval of about 2 years) of 1,400 cms has not been changed by the construction of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) immediately upstream, because the HCC reservoirs can only store 11% of the mean annual flow and 87% of the upstream drainage area had already been impounded by dams. Most methods of bathymetric surveying and particle size characterization were developed in small, wadeable streams and cannot be used in large, unwadeable channels like Hells Canyon. Many of the previous methods also require too much time or effort to feasibly cover the 950 hectares of riverbed in Hells Canyon. Instead, we have adapted multibeam sonar technology typically used in coastal areas or large, low-gradient rivers to the steep, canyon-bound section of the Snake River. Since 2008, Idaho Power has been collecting high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to generate a continuous bathymetric surface through Hells Canyon to use as a baseline. Data were collected using RTK-GPS positioning and a MBB sonar unit mounted to a 9 m long jetboat during spring high water conditions. Areas of survey overlap within and between years have shown limited areas of dramatic changes in storage (meters of change over a few days to years). Data collected during the MBB surveys (elevation, backscatter, snippets, and derivative data products) have been used to create preliminary maps of particle size distribution after calibration with point measurements of the bed surface D50 from historic underwater imagery. This baseline survey will be compared to future surveys in selected reaches to measure volumetric changes of sediment stored on the riverbed. Future work will focus on statistical differencing of bathymetric surfaces to categorize areas of accumulation, deposition, and no measurable change and improved particle size mapping with calibration with current underwater video images to be collected in the fall of 2011.

Anderson, K.; Morehead, M. D.; Anderson, K.; Wilson, T.; Butler, M.; Conner, J. T.; Hocker, B.

2011-12-01

331

Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan-Modification. A Modification of Mid-Snake TMDL and Upper Snake Rock TDML to Account for the Aquaculture Wasteload Allocation. Part One: Fish Production Facilities and Conservation Hatcheries; Part Two: Fish Processors; and Part Three: Billingsley Creek Facilties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the modification of three total maximum daily loads (TMDLs): the Middle Snake River Watershed Management Plan (or Mid-Snake TMDL), the Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan (or Upper Snake Rock TMDL), and the Billingsley Creek...

2005-01-01

332

Smolt-to-adult return rates of juvenile chinook salmon transported through the Snake-Columbia River hydropower system, USA, in relation to densities of co-transported juvenile steelhead  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce mortality associated with passage of migrating juvenile salmonids through the Snake-Columbia River Federal power system, a large percentage of smolts migrating from the Snake River basin are currently transported downstream through the hydropower system in fish-transport barges. It has recently been suggested that transportation-associated stressors may reduce the fitness of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and increase mortality

Tyler Wagner; James L Congleton; Douglas M Marsh

2004-01-01

333

Snake bites  

MedlinePLUS

... bites by any of the following: Cobra Copperhead Coral snake Cottonmouth (water moccasin) Rattlesnake Various snakes found ... Swelling Thirst Tiredness Tissue damage Weakness Weak pulse Coral snake bites may be painless at first. Major ...

334

Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin ; Volume 1 ; Evaluation of the 1995 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Subyearling Chinook in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of the project include: (1) to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and to help identify future research and analysis needs; (2) to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to assist in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; and (3) to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4) to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community.

Townsend, Richard L.

1997-06-01

335

Geomorphic constraints on Middle Yangtze River reversal in eastern Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yangtze, the longest river in Asia, was hypothesized to be assembled through a series of Cenozoic capture events, such as the reversal of Middle Yangtze River and the capture of Upper Yangtze River, but the history remains largely unknown. Here, we present new geomorphic observations in the structural context of the eastern Sichuan Basin, namely the Eastern Sichuan fold belt, and identify an important drainage divide along the "midline" of this arc-shape fold belt. Based on longitudinal profile analysis, we find that the river capture events more likely occurred in the syncline valleys of low-relief landscape. Our results yield a new perspective on Middle Yangtze River reversal, and we propose that the "midline" drainage divide, rather than the Three Gorges, was the starting site of Middle Yangtze River reversal. In this manner, the reversal could have been accomplished by a sequence of river reversal over range-parallel segments in syncline valleys with less impact on the pre-existing drainage system in eastern Sichuan Basin.

Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hongbo; Liu, Shaofeng

2013-06-01

336

9. VIEW OF VILLAGE FROM LEFT BANK (SOUTH) OF SNAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF VILLAGE FROM LEFT BANK (SOUTH) OF SNAKE RIVER, FACING NORTHEAST. FOREGROUND SHOWS TYPICAL ROCK FORMATIONS. COTTAGE 281, NOT VISIBLE IN PHOTO #8, IS VISIBLE. - Swan Falls Village, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

337

Lena River Water Propagation over the Eastern Part of the Laptev Sea Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lena River is one of the major sources of fresh water into the Siberian part of the Arctic Ocean. This study is focused on regularities of the Lena River waters propagation over the Laptev Sea shelf. Summer salinity (S), temperature (T) data and the Lena River runoff and temperature data are analyzed over the period 1965-2001. An integral approach of estimation salt and heat content of 5 m thickness layers was applied for several regions within the eastern Laptev Sea shelf. This part of the sea is under the permanent strong fluvial impact because 89 % of the Lena River waters come through eastern delta channels. The data analysis shows that cyclonic (CCR) and anticyclonic (ACCR) atmospheric circulation regimes essentially affect the propagation and redistribution of the Lena river runoff as well as different mechanisms of river and marine water interaction. There is a negative correlation between summer river runoff and surface layer salt content under CCR conditions implying that river discharge primarily controls the freshening of the surface water layer. Under CCR onshore winds prevent the northward propagation of the river plume. The river plume becomes thicker and stably stratified in comparison to ACCR conditions. It causes limited entrainment of ambient salty waters resulted in persistent negative correlation between river discharge and surface layer salt content. Under ACCR conditions the correlation between surface layer salt content and river discharge is positive. Offshore winds prevailing under ACCR result in considerable plume northward redistribution and weakening of the vertical density gradient. The positive correlation in this case suggests that the surface layer salt content under ACCR is strongly affected not only by the freshening due to riverine flux but also due to enhanced salinisation via the entrainment of the ambient salty waters. The heat content of surface layer is affected by both heat exchange with atmosphere and river heat flux. The study of heat fluxes is still under way.

Berezovskaya, S.; Dmitrenko, I.; Kassens, H.; Kirillov, S.; Yang, D.

2004-05-01

338

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007-2008 showed these antennas (and anchoring method) are not adequate to withstand high spring flows in this drainage. Future plans involve removing these antennas before high spring flows. (5) At Little Goose Dam in 2008, length and/or weight were taken on 505 recaptured fish from 12 Idaho stream populations. Fish had grown an average of 40.1 mm in length and 10.6 g in weight over an average of 288 d. Their mean condition factor declined from 1.25 at release (parr) to 1.05 at recapture (smolt). (6) Mean release lengths for detected fish were significantly larger than for fish not detected the following spring and summer (P < 0.0001). (7) Fish that migrated through Lower Granite Dam in April and May were significantly larger at release than fish that migrated after May (P < 0.0001) (only 12 fish migrated after May). (8) In 2008, peak detections at Lower Granite Dam of parr tagged during summer 2007 (from the 12 stream populations in Idaho and 4 streams in Oregon) occurred during moderate flows of 87.5 kcfs on 7 May and high flows of 197.3 kcfs on 20 May. The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile passage occurred on 30 April, 11 May, and 23 May, respectively. (9) In 2007-2008, estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam for Idaho and Oregon streams (combined) averaged 19.4% (range 6.2-38.4% depending on stream of origin). In Idaho streams the estimated parr-to-smolt survival averaged 21.0%. This survival was the second highest since 1993 for Idaho streams. Relative parr densities were lower in 2007 (2.4 parr/100 m2) than in all previous years since 2000. In 2008, we observed low-to-moderate flows prior to mid-May and relatively cold weather conditions throughout the spring migration season. These conditions moved half of the fish through Lower Granite Dam prior to mid-May; then high flows moved 50 to 90% of the fish through the dam in only 12 days. Clearly, complex interrelationships of several factors drive the annual migrational timing of the stocks.

Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E. [Fish Ecology Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

2009-07-09

339

System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report of Research 1991.  

SciTech Connect

We indexed consumption rates of northern squawfish (Ptychoch oregonensis) preying upon juvenile salmonids in four lower Snake River reservoirs. Stomach contents were also collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), channel catfish (Ictaluris gunctatus), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Northern squawfish digestive tracts were analyzed and the overall diet (% weight) was dominated by fish and crustaceans. Examination of stomach contents smallmouth bass showed that crustaceans (primarily crayfish) dominated their diets. Overall, the consumption rate of juvenile salmonids by smallmouth bass was low. The northern squawfish consumption index (CI) at Snake River locations ranged from zero at all mid-reservoir locations to 1.2 at Lower Granite forebay. In John Day Reservoir, CI values ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 in May and from 0.9 to 3.0 in July. Consumption index values were highest in forebay and tailrace areas, and were slightly higher in BRZs than in non-restricted zones.

Shively, R.S.

1991-01-01

340

Assessment of the Flow-Survival Relationship Obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts. The relationships were based on mark and recovery experiments conducted at various Snake and Columbia River sites between 1964 and 1979 to evaluate the effects of dams and flow regulation on the migratory characteristic`s chinook sa mon and steelhead trout smolts. The reliability of this information is crucial because it forms the logical basis for many of the flow management options being considered today to protect,upriver populations of chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In this paper I evaluate the primary data, assumptions, and calculations that underlie the flow-survival relationship derived by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for chinook salmon smolts.

Steward, C.R. (Cleveland R.)

1994-04-01

341

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the 2002 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these differences in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam.

Achond, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Sandford, Benjamin P. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

2003-07-01

342

Strain Rates and Contemporary Deformation in the Snake River Plain and Surrounding Basin and Range From GPS and Seismicity  

SciTech Connect

New horizontal GPS velocities along with earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features are used to assess how strain is accommodated in the Northern Basin and Range Province. We used GPS phase data collected from 1994 to 2007 to estimate horizontal velocities for 132 stations within the Snake River Plain (SRP) and surrounding basin and range. These velocities show regional scale clockwise rotation indicating basal driving forces beyond those associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot. Within the western Centennial Tectonic Belt (CTB), the GPS measurements indicate the basin and range is extending at a rate between 5x10-9/yr and 10x10-9/yr, which is an order of magnitude greater than the strain rate we observe with GPS in the SRP, explaining its low seismicity. Between these two regions is the “Centennial Shear Zone”, a NE-trending zone of right-lateral shear with estimated slip rates that increase northeastward from 0.9±0.3 mm/yr in the SW to 1.7±0.2 mm/yr in NE. We interpret the new GPS velocities to indicate: 1) right-lateral shear may be accommodated by strike-slip earthquakes on NE-trending faults in the Centennial Shear Zone; 2) three basin and range faults (Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead) do not extend into the SRP, but instead terminate at the SRP margin; and 3) extension in the SRP occurs at a much lower rate than the rate of normal faulting in the western CTB.

S. J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R. W. King

2008-08-01

343

Assessment of selected constituents in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1975-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A more extensive data-collection program in the upper Snake River Basin is needed to address a number of water-quality issues. These include an analysis of effects of land use on the quality of surface water; quantification of mass movement of nutrients and suspended sediment at key locations in the basin; distribution of aquatic organisms; and temporal and spatial distribution of pesticides in surface water, bottom sediment, and biota.

Clark, Gregory M.

1994-01-01

344

Water quality of the odzi river in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

For Odzi. the main river originating in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, the nature, sources and extent of pollution are characterised. Over a span of 9 months, the river water samples collected at six selected sites were analysed for various physical and chemical parameters namely, temperature, conductance, pH, total suspended and dissolved solids, BOD. total phosphate and nitrate levels. The Mutare river carried the seepage from abandoned mine dumps to the Odzi River. Water quality of the Odzi River at different points assessed by the water quality indices (WQI) is compared. According to the quality indices during the study period, water quality in the upper reaches of the river was medium to good. It dwindled in the plains, due to the seepage from abandoned mine dumps and discharges from the farm lands. PMID:11394770

Jonnalagadda, S B; Mhere, G

2001-07-01

345

Snake bite: coral snakes.  

PubMed

North American coral snakes are distinctively colored beginning with a black snout and an alternating pattern of black, yellow, and red. They have fixed front fangs and a poorly developed system for venom delivery, requiring a chewing action to inject the venom. The severity of a coral snake bite is related to the volume of venom injected and the size of the victim. The length of the snake correlates positively with the snakes venom yield. Coral snake venom is primarily neurotoxic with little local tissue reaction or pain at the bite site. The net effect of the neurotoxins is a curare like syndrome. In canine victims there have been reports of marked hemolysis with severe anemia and hemoglobinuria. The onset of clinical signs may be delayed for as much as 10 to 18 hours. The victim begins to have alterations in mental status and develops generalized weakness and muscle fasciculations. Progression to paralysis of the limbs and respiratory muscles then follows. The best flied response to coral snake envenomation is rapid transport to a veterinary medical facility capable of 24 hour critical care and assisted ventilation. First aid treatment advocated in Australia for Elapid bites is the immediate use of a compression bandage. The victim should be hospitalized for a minimum of 48 hours for continuous monitoring. The only definitive treatment for coral snake envenomation is the administration of antivenin (M. fulvius). Once clinical signs of coral snake envenomation become manifest they progress with alarming rapidity and are difficult to reverse. If antivenin is not available or if its administration is delayed, supportive care includes respiratory support. Assisted mechanical ventilation can be used but may have to be employed for up to 48 to 72 hours. PMID:17265902

Peterson, Michael E

2006-11-01

346

Statistical Evaluation of Travel Time Estimation Based on Data from Freeze-Branded Chinook Salmon on the Snake River, 1982-1990.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to assess the strengths and limitations of existing freeze brand recapture data in describing the migratory dynamics of juvenile salmonids in the mainstream, impounded sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers. With the increased concern over the threatened status of spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River drainage, we used representative stocks for these races as our study populations. However, statistical considerations resultant from these analyses apply to other species and drainages as well. This report describes analyses we conducted using information derived from freeze-branded groups. We examined both index production groups released from hatcheries upstream from Lower Granite Dam (1982--1990) and freeze-branded groups used as controls in smolt transportation evaluations conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (1986, 1989). The scope of our analysis was limited to describing travel time estimates and derived relationships, as well as reach survival estimates through the mainstem Snake River from Lower Granite to McNary Dam.

Smith, Steven G.; Skalski, J.R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

1993-10-01

347

Sandstone-carbonate cycles in Tensleep Formation, eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcrop and core study of the Tensleep Formation in the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin has revealed cyclic deposits of eolian sandstone and marine carbonate. These cycles, several meters to tens of meters thick, represent the rise and fall of sea level on the Wyoming shelf during Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time. Falling sea level was marked

D. J. Rittersbacher; D. M. Wheeler; J. C. Horne

1986-01-01

348

77 FR 52599 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...the Elizabeth River, Norfolk, VA. The current temporary regulation...USCG- 2012-0357 using any one of the following methods...duplication, please use only one of these four methods. See...

2012-08-30

349

33 CFR 117.1007 - Elizabeth River-Eastern Branch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall be operated by the controller at the Norfolk Southern...River in Norfolk, VA. The controller shall monitor vessel traffic...closed-circuit cameras or marine-radio communications, or anytime controller's visibility is...

2009-07-01

350

Fish community persistence in Eastern North and South Dakota Rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past 25 years, the James River in North and South Dakota has experienced records in minimum and maximum discharge. Our objectives were to compare: (1) the fish community in the main river after dry (1988-90) and wet (1993-2000) years, and (2) the fish community of both the main river and tributaries between dry (1975) and wet (1998-2000) years. In South Dakota in the main river, there were 10 families and 29 species after several dry years and 11 families and 35 species after several wet years. Percichthyidae was the additional family after the wet years. Basinwide, there were 41 species present after the dry 1970s and 50 species after the wet 1990s. Overall, 93% of the species collected in 1975 have persisted. Our results provide some support for the flood pulse concept, and the findings suggest that the fish community can be useful for biomonitoring of prairie streams.

Shearer, J. S.; Berry, Jr. , C. R.

2003-01-01

351

Oxygen isotope evolution of the Lake Owyhee volcanic field, Oregon, and implications for low-?18O magmas of the Snake River Plain - Yellowstone hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain - Yellowstone (SRP-Y) hotspot trend is one of the largest known low-?18O magmatic provinces, yet the timing and distribution of hydrothermal alteration relative to hotspot magmatism remains incompletely understood. Existing models for SRP-Y low-?18O magma genesis differ regarding the timing of protolith alteration (e.g. Eocene vs. present), depth at which alteration occurs (e.g. 15 km vs. <5 km), and physical controls on the extent of alteration (e.g. caldera collapse, crustal scale fluid flow, etc.). We expand the existing oxygen isotope data set for zircon in the Lake Owyhee volcanic field (LOVF) of east central Oregon to further identify magmatic oxygen isotope trends within the field. These data offer insight into the timing of alteration and the extent of the greater SRP-Y low-?18O province, as well as the conditions that generate large low-?18O provinces. 16-14 Ma silicic volcanism in the LOVF is linked to the pre-14 Ma SRP-Y hotspot, with volcanism partially overlapping extension in the north-south trending Oregon-Idaho Graben (OIG). Ion microprobe analyses of zircons from 16 LOVF silicic lavas and tuffs reveal homogeneous zircons on both the single grain and hand sample scales: individual samples have 2 S.D. for ?18O ranging from 0.27 to 0.96‰ (SMOW), and sample averages ranging from 1.8 to 6.0‰, excluding texturally chaotic and/or porous zircons which have ?18O values as low as 0.0‰. All low-?18O LOVF magmas, including the caldera-forming Tuff of Leslie Gulch and Tuff of Spring Creek, are confined to the OIG, although not all zircons from within the OIG have low ?18O values. The presence and sequence of low-?18O magmas in the LOVF and adjacent central Snake River Plain (CSRP) cannot be explained by existing caldera subsidence or pre-hotspot source models. These data, however, combined with volumetrically limited low-?18O material in the adjacent Idaho Batholith and Basin and Range, are consistent with low-?18O magmas generated by the superposition of high hotspot-derived thermal fluxes on active extensional structures (OIG extension in the LOVF, and Basin and Range rifting in the CSRP) thereby increasing meteoric water transport to depth and generating conditions for regional scale hydrothermal alteration of the crust. The intricacies of deformation rate and style, and the resulting crustal permeability-depth relations along the hotspot track, offer a qualitative explanation for low-?18O magmas being pervasive in the CSRP, but restricted to post-caldera and late stage ignimbrites in the eastern SRP centers. This model has significant implications for the evolution of SRP-Y systems, as the thermal inputs required to drive both hydrothermal alteration and crustal melting complicate production of long-lived shallow crustal magma chambers. In addition, this model adds to a growing data set (e.g. Tangbai-Dabie-Sulu province, British Tertiary Igneous Province, etc.) demonstrating low-?18O magmas can be generated in conjunction with regional scale hydrothermal alteration of the crust, and that this process has occurred throughout the geologic past where extensional tectonics and high thermal fluxes are superimposed.

Blum, T.; Kitajima, K.; Nakashima, D.; Valley, J. W.

2013-12-01

352

Intra-vent peperites related to the phreatomagmatic 71 Gulch Volcano, western Snake River Plain volcanic field, Idaho (USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Snake River Plain volcanic field in SW Idaho contains up to 400 basaltic vents and centers that produced lava shields, pahoehoe lava fields, scoria cones, and a great variety of phreatomagmatic volcanoes between late Miocene and middle Pleistocene time. Tephra deposits produced by phreatomagmatic eruptions are particularly well exposed in the walls of the Snake River canyon, where thick accumulations of pyroclastic rocks indicate widespread phreatomagmatic eruptive events throughout most of the volcanic history of the region. Previously, many of the phreatomagmatic deposits were considered to be the products of subaqueous eruptions that took place on the floor of one or more large freshwater intra-continental lakes. Recent field based observations confirm the presence of widespread phreatomagmatic pyroclastic rocks; however, some that had been interpreted as being subaqueous exhibit textural features that are more consistent with subaerial depositional environments. Intrusive and extrusive magmatic bodies with features associated with peperite formation have also been identified. Most of these peperites can be attributed to magma-sediment mixing in intra-crater/conduit or vent settings, and therefore they can only be used as widespread paleoenvironmental indicators with limitations to demonstrate magma and surface water (e.g. lake) non-explosive interaction. One of the studied sites ("71 Gulch Volcano") was previously used to indicate the presence of a shallow lake. At this site there is clear field evidence that peperitic feeder dykes contacted muddy, sandy siliciclastic sediments forming globular peperite. The peperitic feeder dykes transition to pillowed, ponded lava up section. The ponded lavas are partially surrounded by a ~ 5-m-thick unit composed of gently dipping, dune bedded, volcanic glass shard-rich, unsorted, tuff and lapilli tuff containing abundant impact sags caused by volcanic lithics. We suggest that the 3D architecture of the erosional remnant of "71 Gulch Volcano" does not require the presence of a lake at the time of its formation; it is equally possible that that it represents a subaerial phreatomagmatic upper conduit — crater filling succession. This interpretation opens up many questions about the Mio/Pliocene evolution of SW Idaho, the timing of the volcanism, and its association with the evolution of the lacustrine systems in the region. In addition, re-evaluations of the volcanic features in SW Idaho have some general implications for the usage of phreatomagmatic pyroclastic rocks for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

Németh, Károly; White, Craig M.

2009-05-01

353

Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

1993-06-01

354

Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2003-04-23

355

Snake River Sockeye salmon habitat and limnological research. Annual report 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains studies which are part of the Bonneville Power Administration's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributarie...

D. Teuscher D. Taki

1996-01-01

356

Assessment of nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1991-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quality Assessment Program. As part of the investigation, intensive monitoring was conducted during water years 1993 through 1995 to assess surface-water quality in the basin. Sampling and analysis focused on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides because of nationwide interest in these constituents. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in water samples from 19 sites in the upper Snake River Basin, including nine on the main stem, were assessed. In general, concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment were smaller in water from the 11 sites upstream from American Falls Reservoir than in water from the 8 sites downstream from the reservoir where effects from land-use activities are most pronounced. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen at the 19 sites ranged from less than 0.05 to 1.60 milligrams per liter; total phosphorus as phosphorus, less than 0.01 to 0.11 milligrams per liter; and suspended sediment, 4 to 72 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in the main stem of the Snake River, in general, increased downstream. The largest concentrations in the main stem were in the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and the outlet of the upper Snake River Basin at King Hill. Significant differences (p Nutrient and suspended sediment inputs to the middle Snake reach were from a variety of sources. During water year 1995, springs were the primary source of water and total nitrogen to the river and accounted for 66 and 60 percent of the total input, respectively. Isotope and water-table information indicated that the springs derived most of their nitrogen from agricultural activities along the margins of the Snake River. Aquacultural effluent was a major source of ammonia (82 percent), organic nitrogen (30 percent), and total phosphorus (35 percent). Tributary streams were a major source of organic nitrogen (28 percent) and suspended sediment (58 percent). In proportion to its discharge (less than 1 percent), the Twin Falls sewage-treatment plant was a major source of total phosphorus (13 percent). A comparison of discharge and loading in water year 1995 with estimates of instream transport showed a good correlation (relative difference of less than 15 percent) for discharge, total organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Estimates of dissolved ammonia and suspended sediment loads correlated poorly with instream transport; relative differences were about 79 and 61 percent, respectively. The pesticides EPTC, atrazine, desethylatrazine, metolachlor, and alachlor were the most commonly detected in the upper Snake River Basin and accounted for about 75 percent of all pesticide detections. All pesticides detected were at concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter and below water-quality criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In samples collected from two small agriculturally dominated tributary basins, the largest number and concentrations of pesticides were detected in May and June following early growing season applications. At one of the sites, the pesticide atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine were detected throughout the year. On the basis of 37 samples collected basinwide in May and June 1994, total annual subbasin applications and instantaneous instream fluxes of EPTC and atrazine showed logarithmic relations with coefficients of determination (R2 values) of 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. At the time of sampling, the median daily flux of EPTC was about 0.0001 percent of the annual quantity applied, whereas the median daily flux of atrazine was between 0.001 and 0.01 percent.

Clark, Gregory M.

1997-01-01

357

A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF). Our results show an ENE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Centennial Tectonic belt and an E-oriented extensional strain rate of 6.2 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Intermountain Seismic belt combined with the northern Great Basin. These extensional strain rates contrast with the regional north-south contraction of -2.6 {+-} 1.1 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} calculated in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau over a 125 x 650 km region. Tests that include dike-opening reveal that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones does not occur in the Snake River Plain at present. This slow internal deformation in the Snake River Plain is in contrast to the rapidly-extending adjacent Basin and Range provinces and implies shear along boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of <0.5 to 1.7 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic belt. The fastest lateral shearing occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional GPS velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic belt, Idaho batholith, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and central Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is driven by extension to the south in the Great Basin and not localized extension in the Basin and Range or Yellowstone hotspot volcanism. We propose that the GPS velocity field reflects the regional deformation pattern since at least 15-12 Ma, with clockwise rotation over the Northern Basin and Range Province consistent with Basin and Range extension initiating 16 Ma. The region modified by hotspot volcanism has a low-strain rate. If we assume the low rate of deformation is reflected in the length of time between eruptions on the order of 10{sup 4} to >10{sup 6} yrs, the low-strain field in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau would extend through the Quaternary.

S.J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R.W. King; S.A. Kattenhorn

2012-04-01

358

A summary of regional water quality for Eastern UK rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in water quality and chemical loads are described for UK rivers draining to the North Sea. These variations are related to regional differences in geology, climate, land use and population distribution. The study uses water quality data collected under the Harmonised Monitoring Scheme. Regional maps of average concentrations and tables of loads, concentrations and loads per unit area are

A. J. Robson; C. Neal

1997-01-01

359

A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL  

SciTech Connect

Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps.

Prahl, C.J.

1992-01-01

360

Downstream movement of fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the lower Snake River reservoirs during winter and early spring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted a 3-year radiotelemetry study in the lower Snake River to (1) determine whether juvenile fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha pass dams during winter, when bypass systems and structures designed to prevent mortality are not operated; (2) determine whether downstream movement rate varies annually, seasonally, and from reservoir to reservoir; and (3) identify some of the factors that contribute to annual, seasonal, and spatial variation in downstream movement rate. Fall Chinook salmon juveniles moved downstream up to 169 km and at a sufficiently fast rate (7.5 km/d) such that large percentages (up to 93%) of the fish passed one or more dams during the winter. Mean downstream movement rate varied annually (9.2–11.3 km/d), increased from winter (7.5 km/d) to spring (16.4 km/d), and increased (from 6.9 to 16.8 km/d) as fish moved downstream from reservoir to reservoir. Fish condition factor at tagging explained some of the annual variation in downstream movement rate, whereas water particle velocity and temperature explained portions of the seasonal variation. An increase in migrational disposition as fish moved downstream helped to explain the spatial variation. The potential cost of winter movement might be reduced survival due to turbine passage at a time when the bypass systems and spillway passage structures are not operated. Efforts to understand and increase passage survival of winter migrants in large impoundments might help to rehabilitate some imperiled anadromous salmonid populations.

Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk

2012-01-01

361

Distinguishing between natural and hatchery Snake River fall Chinook salmon subyearlings in the field using body morphology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used body morphology to distinguish between natural- and hatchery-origin subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in rearing areas of the Snake River and at a downstream dam during seaward migration. Using subjective eye and body shape characteristics, field personnel correctly classified 88.9–100% of natural subyearlings (N = 626) and 90.0–100% of hatchery subyearlings (N = 867) in rearing areas from 2001 to 2008. The morphological characteristics used by these personnel proved to have a quantitative basis, as was shown by digital photography and principal components analysis. Natural subyearlings had smaller eyes and pupils, smaller heads, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than their hatchery counterparts during rearing and at the dam. A discriminant function fitted from this set of morphological characteristics classified the origin of fish during rearing and at the dam with over 97% accuracy. We hypothesize that these morphological differences were primarily due to environmental influences during incubation and rearing because it is highly probable that a large portion of the natural juveniles we studied were the offspring of hatchery × hatchery mating in the wild. The findings in this paper might provide guidance for others seeking to differentiate between natural and hatchery fish.

Tiffan, K. F.; Connor, W. P.

2011-01-01

362

Assessing the accuracy of thermoluminescence for dating baked sediments beneath late Quaternary lava flows, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Baked sediments beneath lava flows on the Snake River Plain, Idaho, with independent age control by either {sup 14}C or K/Ar dating were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The age of flows ranges from {approximately}2 to 100 ka and multiple TL analyses by the total bleach method yielded ages that overlap at one sigma with independent chronologic control. The TL signal of one sample of baked sediment beneath a lava flow with an inferred age of at least 641 {plus_minus} 54 ka was near saturation, perhaps reflecting a relatively high environmental dose rate, and is not datable by TL. This study underscores several major limitations of luminescence geochronology, the natural spatial and temporal variability in environmental radioactivity and the susceptibility of silicate minerals to the growth and retention of a luminescence signal. Despite these limitations, the results demonstrate the utility of luminescence geochronology to date volcanic eruptive events during the Quaternary. 39 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Forman, S.L.; Pierson, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Valentine, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); and others

1994-08-10

363

Chlorophyll-a in the rivers of eastern England.  

PubMed

Chlorophyll-a concentration variations are described for two major river basins in England, the Humber and the Thames and related to catchment characteristics and nutrient concentrations across a range of rural, agricultural and urban/industrial settings. For all the rivers there are strong seasonal variations, with concentrations peaking in the spring and summer time when biological activity is at its highest. However, there are large variations in the magnitude of the seasonal effects across the rivers. For the spring-summer low-flow periods, average concentrations of chlorophyll-a correlate with soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Chlorophyll-a is also correlated with particulate nitrogen (PN), organic carbon (POC) and suspended sediments. However, the strongest relationships are with catchment area and flow, where two straight line relationships are observed. The results indicate the importance of residence times for determining planktonic growth within the rivers. This is also indicated by the lack of chlorophyll-a response to lowering of SRP concentrations in several of the rivers in the area due to phosphorus stripping of effluents at major sewage treatment works. A key control on chlorophyll-a concentration may be the input of canal and reservoir waters during the growing period: this too relates to issues of residence times. However, there may well be a complex series of factors influencing residence time across the catchments due to features such as inhomogeneous flow within the catchments, a fractal distribution of stream channels that leads to a distribution of residence times and differences in planktonic inoculation sources. Industrial pollution on the Aire and Calder seems to have affected the relationship of chlorophyll-a with PN and POC. The results are discussed in relation to the Water Framework Directive. PMID:16626783

Neal, Colin; Hilton, John; Wade, Andrew J; Neal, Margaret; Wickham, Heather

2006-07-15

364

Multiscale Genetic Structure of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in the Upper Snake River Basin.  

SciTech Connect

Populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvierii have declined throughout their native range as a result of habitat fragmentation, overharvest, and introductions of nonnative trout that have hybridized with or displaced native populations. The degree to which these factors have impacted the current genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations is of primary interest for their conservation. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity and genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho and Nevada with data from six polymorphic microsatellite loci. A total of 1,392 samples were analyzed from 45 sample locations throughout 11 major river drainages. We found that levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation varied extensively. The Salt River drainage, which is representative of the least impacted migration corridors in Idaho, had the highest levels of genetic diversity and low levels of genetic differentiation. High levels of genetic differentiation were observed at similar or smaller geographic scales in the Portneuf River, Raft River, and Teton River drainages, which are more altered by anthropogenic disturbances. Results suggested that Yellowstone cutthroat trout are naturally structured at the major river drainage level but that habitat fragmentation has altered this structuring. Connectivity should be restored via habitat restoration whenever possible to minimize losses in genetic diversity and to preserve historical processes of gene flow, life history variation, and metapopulation dynamics. However, alternative strategies for management and conservation should also be considered in areas where there is a strong likelihood of nonnative invasions or extensive habitat fragmentation that cannot be easily ameliorated.

Cegelski, Christine C.; Campbell, Matthew R.

2006-05-30

365

Water resource management in Kabul river basin, eastern Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe drinking water shortage affects all resident of the Kabul river basin. Two and a half decades of civil war in Afghanistan\\u000a (it began in late 1978) have resulted in widespread environmental degradation and water resource development throughout the\\u000a country. The war has already finished and, therefore, water resource management for supplying water is one of the most important\\u000a tasks

G. R. Lashkaripour; S. A. Hussaini

2008-01-01

366

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2002-06-01

367

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

2003-07-01

368

Estimates of gains and losses for reservoirs on the Snake River from Blackfoot to Milner, Idaho, for selected periods, 1912 to 1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Croplands in the semiarid central part of the Snake River Plain are dependent on the availability of irrigation water, most of which comes from the Snake River. Allocation of irrigation water from the river requires that gains and losses be determined for American Falls Reservoir, Lake Walcott, and Milner Lake. From 1912 to 1983, average ungaged inflow to American Falls Reservoir , determined from monthly water budgets, was 2,690 cu ft/sec. About 94% of this inflow was spring discharge and groundwater seepage; the remainder was from small tributaries and irrigation-return flow. Ungaged inflow estimated from water budgets for various periods correlated favorably with measured discharge of two springs and water levels in two wells. Discharge of Spring Creek was a better indicator of ungaged inflow than groundwater levels. Therefore, correlation with Spring Creek discharge was used in estimating ungaged inflow to American Falls Reservoir in 1983. Daily water budget calculations of ungaged inflow to American Falls Reservoir are less variable when storage changes are determined by using three stage-recording stations rather than one. Water budgets do not indicate large amounts of leakage from American Falls Reservoir, but small amounts of leakage are indicated because flow in downstream springs increased about 25% after reservoir storage began in 1926. Water budgets for Lake Walcott and Milner Lake show average annual net gains (1951-83) to Lake Walcott and Milner Lake of 245 and 290 cu ft/sec. These amounts are verified by monthly water budgets when discharge in the Snake River is low, and measured and estimated sources of inflow. Gains and losses estimated from daily water budgets are variable, owing to inadequate determination of (1) changes in reservoir storage, (2) streamflow, (3) lake surface precipitation, and (4) lake surface evaporation. Backwater effects are accounted for in the process used to determine storage in Milner Lake. (Author 's abstract)

Kjelstrom, L. C.

1988-01-01

369

Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations in yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from the Snake River Basin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the parr-to-smolt transformation (smoltification) of juvenile salmonids, preadaptive changes in osmoregulatory and ionoregulatory ability are regulated in part by the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. If food intake is sufficient, plasma IGF-I increases during smoltification. On the other hand, plasma IGF-I typically decreases in fasting fish and other vertebrate animals. Because food availability is limited for juvenile salmonids undertaking an extended 6- to 12-week spring migration to and through the Snake-Columbia River hydropower system (northwestern USA), IGF-I concentrations might be expected to decrease, potentially compromising seawater tolerance. To address this possibility, yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha reared in three Snake River Basin hatcheries were sampled before release and at two downstream dams. Dry masses of migrating fish either did not increase during the migration (in 2000, an average-flow year), or decreased significantly (in 2001, a low-flow year). In both years, plasma IGF-I levels were significantly higher (1.6-fold in 2000, 3.7-fold in 2001) for fish sampled at the last dam on the lower Columbia River than for fish sampled prior to release. Plasma IGF-I concentrations in migrating fish may, nonetheless, have been nutritionally down-regulated to some degree, because plasma IGF-I concentrations in juvenile chinook salmon captured at a Snake River dam and transported to the laboratory increased in fed groups, but decreased in unfed groups. The ability of migrating smolts to maintain relatively elevated IGF-I levels despite restricted food intake and loss of body mass is likely related to smoltification-associated changes in hormonal balance. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Congleton, J. L.; Biga, P. R.; Peterson, B. C.

2003-01-01

370

McNary Reservoir Navigation at Ice Harbor Dam, Snake River, Washington. Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1:100-scale model simulating the Ice Harbor Dam project and navigation channel and river downstream from the project was used to test various structural modifications in an attempt to remedy navigation problems which exist as a result of crossflow from ...

1983-01-01

371

NON POINT SOURCE BASIN STATUS EVALUATION, LOWER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO, JULY 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

Region 10 has developed a nonpoint source assessment approach to assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probable nonpoint sources and determining their effect upon the fishable-swimmable aspect of Regional streams and rivers. Generally th...

372

Chemical weathering processes in the Yalong River draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand chemical weathering and controlling processes in the Yalong River of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, this study presents major ion concentrations and stable isotopes of the dissolved loads. The isotopic compositions (?13C-DIC, ?34S and ?18O-SO4) of the dissolved loads are very useful to quantify solute sources and define the carbon budget related with chemical weathering in riverine systems. The isotopic composition of sulphate demonstrates that most of the sulphate is derived from sulphide oxidation, particularly in the upper reach of the Yalong River. The correlations between ?13C-DIC, water chemistry and isotopes of sulphate, suggest that the carbon dynamics are mainly affected by carbonate weathering by sulphuric acid and equilibration processes. Approximately 13% of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the Yalong River originates from carbonate weathering by strong acid. The CO2 consumption rates are estimated to be 2.8 × 105 mol/km2/yr and 0.9 × 105 mol/km2/yr via carbonate and silicate weathering in the Yalong River, respectively. In this study, the influence of sulphide oxidation and metamorphic CO2 on the carbon budget is estimated for the Yalong River draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

Li, Si-Liang; Chetelat, Benjamin; Yue, Fujun; Zhao, Zhiqi; Liu, Cong-Qiang

2014-07-01

373

Breeding Season Demography and Movements of Eastern Towhees at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

We studied eastern towhees at the Savannah River Site, a species of concern and in decline. Breeding season survival rates, nest success rates, breeding densities and daily movements were compared between mature longleaf savanna areas and recently harvested and regenerated areas. Survival rates did not vary by sex or stand type. Predation levels were very high. Abundances were lower in mature longleaf than recently regenerated areas.

Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.

1999-09-22

374

Geographical variations of trace elements in sediments of the major rivers in eastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 26 geographically and hydrologically diverse sediment samples were collected from 12 major rivers in eastern China.\\u000a The <63-?m fraction of the sediments was analysed for both total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, and their associations\\u000a with various geochemical phases. The geographical variations of sediment-bound trace metals can be related to the bedrock\\u000a types and weathering

J. S. Chen; F. Y. Wang; X. D. Li; J. J. Song

2000-01-01

375

The environmental impact of a chloro-alkali factory in a river basin in Eastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It has been established that the electrodes of the dialyser in a chloro-alkali plant in Eastern India release mercury beyond the permissible limits into the River Koel. Mercury in elemental form, as well as certain organo-mercury compounds, including methyl mercury, have been detected at a distance of 25 km from the discharge point. Even at a distance of 5–10

Sajalendu Nanda

1993-01-01

376

78 FR 66265 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the draw of the Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, across the Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate replacing the broken tread plates and milling the top of the plates and webs to create a flat surface on the Norfolk Southern 5......

2013-11-05

377

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-07-28

378

Rhyolites in the Kimberly Drill Core, Project Hotspot: First Intracaldera Ignimbrite from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rhyolites on the track of the Yellowstone hotspot are the classic examples of continental hotspot volcanism and the study of surface outcrops is maturing rapidly. However, in the central part of the track, where silicic volcanism is most voluminous, compositionally distinctive, and isotopically most anomalous, study of these large magma systems has been hindered because eruptive sources are buried. The 2 km Kimberly core helps fill that gap; it penetrates through surficial basalt, deep into the rhyolitic underpinnings on the southern margin of the province. The Kimberly core is dominated by thick sections of rhyolite lava and welded ignimbrite, with basalt-sediment intercalations between 241 m and 424 m depth. We tentatively interpret the core to include a thick intracaldera tuff. Our preliminary studies suggest that there are three major rhyolite units in the core. Rhyolite 3, the uppermost unit, is a nearly 130 m thick, low-silica rhyolite lava. Rhyolite 2 is the most highly evolved with ~75% silica and distinctively resorbed quartz. Rhyolite 1 is at least 1,340 m thick (the base was not cut by the core), has no apparent flow contacts or cooling breaks, and may represent a single, thick intracaldera ignimbrite. Paleomagnetic inclinations form a curious V-shaped profile, shallowing by about 18? between 700 and 1700 m depth. We interpret this to be the result of slower cooling of the mid-part of the thick intracaldera ignimbrite. The lower unit is a low-silica rhyolite with high concentrations of Fe2O3 and TiO2--among the highest of any known ignimbrite on the SRP. It is chemically distinct from the upper units, very homogeneous, not vertically zoned, and lacks multiple populations of phenocrysts. It somewhat resembles the regionally extensive ~10 Ma outflow tuff of Wooden Shoe Butte. However, this is one of several large, petrologically similar ignimbrites as young as 8.6 Ma exposed in the Cassia Mountains south of the hole, so further work is needed. Like most rhyolites from the Snake River Plain, all 3 units have the characteristics of A-type rhyolites with high concentrations of alkalies, high Fe/Mg and TiO2/MgO ratios, as well as high concentrations Nb, Y, Zr and Ga. Initial analyses of plag, cpx, and qtz show that all three units are low ?18O rhyolites, like most from the Central Snake River Plain-- ?18O in feldspar ranges from 1‰ in Rhyolite 1 to 3‰ in Rhyolites 2 and 3. In the thick lower ignimbrite, whole-rock ?18O increases systematically from the base upward (0.5‰ to as much as 9‰ in the altered top and ?D ranges from -140 to -180‰). Whole rock variations correlate with water content, apparently controlled by secondary clay. We suggest that these characteristics were largely imposed by their derivation from partial melting of basaltic sills and surrounding older crust. The low ?18O values reflect recycling of hydrothermally altered crustal rocks and indicate progressive incorporation of more hydrothermally altered material into the younger magmas. More work is needed to establish correlation with regional units, understand the emplacement of the rhyolites and their volcanic setting, and ascertain the origin of these distinctive low ?18O, A-type rhyolites.

Christiansen, E. H.; McCurry, M. O.; Champion, D. E.; Bolte, T.; Holtz, F.; Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.

2013-12-01

379

Tritium, stable isotopes, and nitrogen in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho, 1990-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1990-93, water from 19 springs along the north side of the Snake River near Twin Falls and Hagerman contained from 9.2+0.6 to 78.4+5.1 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of tritium. The springs were placed into three categories based on their locations and tritium concentrations: Category I was the upstream most and contained from 52.8+3.2 to 78.4+5.1 pCi/L of tritium; Category 11 was downstream from those in Category I and contained from 9.2+0.6 to 18.6+1.2 pCi/L; and Category III was the farthest downstream and contained from 28.3+1.9 to 47.7+3.2 pCi/L. Differences in tritium concentrations in the Category I, II, and III springs are a function of the ground-water flow regime, land use, and irrigation practices in and hydraulically upgradient from each category of springs. A comparatively large part of the water from the Category I springs is derived from recharge in heavily irrigated areas in which the irrigation water largely is diverted from the Snake River. A large part of the recharge for Category II springs occurs as much as 140 miles upgradient. Tritium concentrations in Category III springs indicate an intermediate proportion of the recharge is from excess applied-irrigation water. The concept that recharge from excess applied- irrigation water from the Snake River has affected tritium in the aquifer is supported by isotopic and nitrogen data. Deuterium and oxygen-18 isotopic values, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the flow of some springs has been impacted by irrigation.

Mann, L. J.; Low, W. H.

1994-01-01

380

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Colu...

S. G. Smith W. D. Muir D. M. Marsh J. G. Williams

2006-01-01