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1

Picrite xenoliths from the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of picrite xenoliths have been found within Hell's Half Acre, a Holocene lava field of the eastern Snake River Plain. Mineralogically and chemically, they are in close agreement with expectations for fractionates and partly substantiate the hypothesis that fractionation is the primary cause of diversity among the region's tholeiite basalts. The fractionation mechanism interpreted for the picrites' origin

John F. Karlo; Charles V. Clemency

1980-01-01

2

Conceptual Hydrogeologic Models for the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop two alternative conceptual hydrogeologic models of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer to explain the spatial distribution of strontium and uranium isotope data. The ESRP aquifer flows southwesterly within a northeastern trending structural basin 200 miles long and 50 to 70 miles wide. The basin is composed of 3000 to 10000 feet of Late Cenozoic basalt, eolian

E. G. Johnson; T. L. McLing; R. M. Holt

2001-01-01

3

Regional gravity and magnetic anomalies in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the eastern Snake River Plain, the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the magnetic intensity are, in general, high. In detail, both the gravity and the magnetic anomalies are a complex of highs and lows, in contrast to the simpler anomalies over the western Snake River Plain. The broad gravity high associated with the eastern Snake River Plain cannot be produced

D. R. Mabey

1978-01-01

4

The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that

L. W. Braile; R. B. Smith; J. Ansorge; M. R. Baker; M. A. Sparlin; C. Prodehl; M. M. Schilly; J. H. Healy; St. Mueller; K. H. Olsen

1982-01-01

5

Late Quaternary constructional development of the Axial Volcanic Zone, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

E-print Network

Late Quaternary constructional development of the Axial Volcanic Zone, eastern Snake River Plain volcanic ridge that trends northeast across the middle of the eastern Snake River Plain, and acts, but overlying supergroups emplaced from 515 to 247 ka commonly exhibit a ponded morphology along a construct

Wetmore, Paul H.

6

Thermal and tectonic implications of heat flow in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal data from 248 wells and drill holes, a thermal model for the effects of the Snake Plain aquifer on observed heat flow, an estimate of the regional heat flow in the eastern Snake River Plain, a detailed moving source, regional thermal model, and a discussion of the origin and the relationship of the eastern and western halves of the

Charles A. Brott; David D. Blackwell; John P. Ziagos

1981-01-01

7

Thermal and Tectonic Implications of Heat Flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal data from 248 wells and drill holes, a thermal model for the effects of the Snake Plain aquifer on observed heat flow, an estimate of the regional heat flow in the eastern Snake River Plain, a detailed moving source, regional thermal model, and a discussion of the origin and the relationship of the eastern and western halves of the

Charles A. Brott; David D. Blackwell; John P. Ziagos

1981-01-01

8

Late Quaternary Basin-Range faulting north of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the decade since the Borah Peak earthquake, paleoseismic studies have elucidated details of the late Quaternary histories of the Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead faults of eastern Idaho, which comprise part of the northward continuation of the Basin-Range province across the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The faults are segmented but have temporally and\\/or spatially clustered paleoseismic activity. Each

Knuepfer

1993-01-01

9

Sediment-Basalt Architecture, Pliocene and Pleistocene Eastern and Central Snake River Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is a synthesis of known stratigraphic studies of the Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene basalts and interbedded sedimentary beds on the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This information is important for understanding the post-caldera tectonic evolution of the ESRP, especially for tracking patterns of volcanic eruption and changes in topography. Geophysical surveys and existing well logs indicate the depth

C. M. Helm-Clark; P. K. Link

2006-01-01

10

The geology of East Butte, a rhyolitic volcanic dome on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Butte is a prominent volcanic dome located on the eastern Snake River Plain. It is situated 51 km west of Idaho Fallls in the southeast corner of the Idaho National Engineering facility. East Butte rises 350 meters above the Quaternary basalt flows which encircle its 2.4 kilometer diameter base. Its maximum elevation is 2003 meters above sea level. East

J. E. Bretches; J. S. King

1985-01-01

11

Subsidence of a volcanic basin by flexure and crustal flow: The eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is a linear volcanic basin interpreted by many workers to reflect late Cenozoic migration of North America over the Yellowstone hotspot. Thermal subsidence of this volcanic province with respect to Yellowstone has been documented by several workers, but no one has characterized subsidence with respect to the adjacent Basin and Range Province. This paper

Nadine McQuarrie I; David W. Rodgers

12

Results of the 2004 GPS Study of Extension Rates in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigators suggest the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is extending by dike intrusion, which enables it to keep pace with SW-NE extension that is occurring in the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Northwest-trending, linear eruptive fissures and aligned volcanic vents within ESRP volcanic rift zones provide observational evidence for dike intrusion in the ESRP as recent as 2000 yrs

J. Chadwick; S. Payne

2004-01-01

13

Evolution of Quaternary Tholeiitic Basalt Eruptive Centers on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tectonic and magmatic evolution of Quaternary olivine tholeiites in the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP) are evaluated by their spatial distribution and geochemi- cal signatures. Individual lava-flow groups and their as- sociated shield-building eruptive centers are either ex- posed at the surface or inferred to exist beneath overly- ing volcanic layers. Stratigraphy and dimensions of over- lapping subsurface flow

Scott S. Hughes; Paul H. Wetmore; Jason L. Casper

2002-01-01

14

Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied

Tullis

1995-01-01

15

Heat flow and seismicity patterns in the vicinity of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

New heat flow data and thermal modeling are used to calculate crustal temperatures in and adjacent to the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). The estimated crustal temperature are then used to investigate the relationship between crustal strength and the observed parabolic pattern of seismicity around the SRP. Heat flow below the SRP aquifer in deep wells on the Idaho National

Blackwell; S. A. D. D. Kelley; J. L. Steele

1993-01-01

16

Mixing primitive and evolved olivine tholeiite magmas in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butte 5206, a small monogenetic olivine tholeiite basalt (OTB) shield in the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), erupted during late-Pleistocene time along the Arco–Big Southern Butte Volcanic Rift Zone. Geochemical data from Butte 5206 and other basalts that erupted in the vicinity, including correlated samples from coreholes, are evaluated for possible mechanisms of magma evolution in the ESRP. Thermodynamic and

Myles L. Miller; Scott S. Hughes

2009-01-01

17

Genesis of a Chemically Enriched Olivine Tholeiite from the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) volcanic province is overlain by 1-2 km of dominantly Quaternary olivine tholeiite lava flows associated with the Yellowstone hotspot. A second highly evolved geochemical basalt suite has been identified in previous studies, typified by the lava flows of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM). Geochemical data from three new coreholes drilled on the

C. G. Chadwick; S. S. Hughes; M. McCurry; J. Chadwick

2004-01-01

18

Mafic Volcanism and Environmental Geology of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geology presented in this field guide covers a wide spectrum of internal and surficial processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, one of the largest components of the combined late Cenozoic ig- neous provinces of the western United States. Focus is on Qua- ternary basaltic plains volcanism that produced monogenetic coa- lescent shields, and phreatomagmatic eruptive centers that pro- duced

Scott S. Hughes; Richard P. Smith; William R. Hackett; Steven R. Anderson

1999-01-01

19

Compressional Wave Velocity Structure of the Upper 350 km Under the Eastern Snake River Plain Near Rexburg, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative travel time residuals for teleseismic P and PKIKP are used to determine the compressional velocity structure under the eastern Snake River Plain at Rexburg, Idaho. Damped least squares inversion of travel time residuals (modified from the method of Aki) indicates a large body of 3.5 +2.5% low relative velocity material centered under the northwest edge of the Snake River

John R. Evans

1982-01-01

20

A new look at geothermal energy potential of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passage of the Yellowstone plume beneath the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) left a wake of silicic batholiths and associated 4 to 6 Ma rhyolitic tuffs, a 1 km thick sequence of post 4 Ma basalt lava flows, and high heat flow comparable to that of the Basin-and-Range province. U.S.G.S. (United States Geological Survey) Circular 790 estimates that accessible resources

R. P. Smith; D. D. Faulder; S. M. Jackson; W. R. Hackett

1990-01-01

21

Petrogenesis of Parental and Evolved Olivine Tholeiite Magmas, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical variations in over 500 whole-rock corehole and surface samples representing ~40 individual eruptions of olivine tholeiites on the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) portray a system with two major mechanisms of petrogenesis and possibly several magmatic sources in the mantle. Parental liquids, those with high MgO and low incompatible elements (MgO ~7.5-11.2 wt. %; La ~7-19 ppm; Ba ~100-290

S. S. Hughes; D. J. Geist; M. McCurry

2006-01-01

22

Petrology of deep crustal xenoliths from the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenoliths, collected from certain hybrid lava flows and vents at three localities in the eastern Snake River Plain region of southern Idaho, were derived from underlying crystal terrains which experienced granulite-facies metamorphism at approximately 3.0 AE. Lithologicaly, charnockite, opdalite, enderbite, and norite metaigneous xenoliths are predominent, but biotite-garnet gneiss and cognate noritic xenoliths derived from fractional crystallization of the host

D. J. Matty

1984-01-01

23

Characterization and evolution of fractures in low-volume pahoehoe lava flows, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize fracture evolution in pa- hoehoe lava flows of the eastern Snake Riv- er Plain, Idaho, and highlight significant differences to flood-basalt sheet flows and implications for hydrologic models. There are four distinct fracture types in east- ern Snake River Plain flows: (1) column- bounding; (2) column-normal; (3) entabla- ture; and (4) inflation fractures. Types 1-3 are driven by

Conrad J. Schaefer; Simon A. Kattenhorn

2004-01-01

24

The 1978 Yellowstone-eastern Snake River Plain seismic profiling experiment: Crustal structure of the Yellowstone region and experiment design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 a major seismic profiling experiment was conducted in the Yellowstone-eastern Snake River Plain region of Idaho and Wyoming. Fifteen shots were recorded that provided coverage to distances of 300 km. In this paper, travel time and synthetic seismogram modeling was used to evaluate an average P wave velocity and apparent Q structure of the crust from two seismic

R. B. Smith; M. M. Schilly; L. W. Braile; J. Ansorge; J. L. Lehman; M. R. Baker; C. Prodehl; J. H. Healy; S. Mueller; R. W. Greensfelder

1982-01-01

25

Soil gases associated with rift zones in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil gases have been measured, utilizing petroleum nearsurface exploration techniques, in the volcanic province of the Eastern Snake River Plain, In Idaho, U.S.A. The analyses of the soil atmosphere included light hydrocarbon gases, helium, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Samples were collected in and near recent basaltic rift zones. Characterization of rift zone soil gases has indicated variability of their compositional

W. C. Sidle

1984-01-01

26

Formation of linear and parabolic dunes on the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho in the nineteenth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphic and stratigraphic evidence show periods of distinct hydrologic excess and deficit sometime in the past 500 years on the eastern Snake River Plain. Natural exposures at the current shore of Mud Lake contain a lacustrine silty sand beneath eolian sands; the latter deposit is expressed at the surface as hairpin parabolic and linear dunes. These dunes can be traced

Steven L. Forman; James Pierson

2003-01-01

27

Subsidence of a volcanic basin by flexure and lower crustal flow: The eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is a linear volcanic basin interpreted by many workers to reflect late Cenozoic migration of North America over the Yellowstone hotspot. Thermal subsidence of this volcanic province with respect to Yellowstone has been documented by several workers, but no one has characterized subsidence with respect to the adjacent Basin and Range Province. This paper

Nadine McQuarrie I; David W. Rodgers

1998-01-01

28

Cross-flows in observation boreholes induced by distant pumping of basalt aquifers: Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical flow velocities up to 20 ft\\/minute occur in borehole between stratified permeable zones of basalt aquifers of the eastern Snake River Plain. Water is transferred vertically in wells across relatively impermeable zones 35 to 65 ft thick between permeable zones 515 feet deep and a zone 550 to 575 ft deep. Large rates of cross flows are caused by

W. M. Bennecke; S. H. Wood; J. Olsen; W. Barrash

1993-01-01

29

Evidence for Right-lateral Shear Along the Northwest Margin of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigators have proposed that extension within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is accommodated by intrusion of dikes at a rate similar to the rate of extension in the surrounding Basin and Range. This hypothesis is primarily based on the lack of strike-slip offset along the northwest physiographic boundary of the ESRP, the lack of seismicity within the ESRP

S. J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R. W. King

2007-01-01

30

Bimodal magmatism, basaltic volcanic styles, tectonics, and geomorphic processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geology presented in this field guide covers a wide spectrum of internal and surficial processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, one of the largest components of the combined late Cenozoic igneous provinces of the western United States. Focus is on widespread Quaternary basaltic plains volcanism that produced coalescent shields and complex eruptive centers that yielded compositionally evolved magmas. The guide is constructed in several parts beginning with discussion sections that provide an overview of the geology followed by road directions, with explanations, for specific locations. The geology overview briefly summarizes the collective knowledge gained, and petrologic implications made, over the past few decades. The field guide covers plains volcanism, lava flow emplacement, basaltic shield growth, phreatomagmatic eruptions, and complex and evolved eruptive centers. Locations and explanations are also provided for the hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, and environmental issues such as range fires and cataclysmic floods associated with the region.

Hughes, S.S.; Smith, R.P.; Hackett, W.R.; McCurry, M.; Anderson, S.R.; Ferdock, G.C.

1997-01-01

31

Martian Plains Volcanism in Syria Planum and Tempe Mareotis as Analogs to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho: Similarities and Possible Petrologic Contributions to Topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare martian volcanic shield topographic characteristics to topography of a similar range of shield features in the Eastern Snake River Plains of Idaho, where compositional variations are known to contribute to petrologic and topographic differences.

S. E. H. Sakimoto; T. K. P. Gregg; S. S. Hughes; J. Chadwick

2003-01-01

32

Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a topographic parameter analysis of the volcanic edifices of the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho and Tempe Terra Mars. The topographic parameters in these areas partially overlap, suggesting similar causes of diversity.

S. L. Weren; S. E. H. Sakimoto; S. S. Hughes; T. K. P. Gregg

2004-01-01

33

Upper mantle P wave velocity structure of the eastern Snake River Plain and its relationship to geodynamic models of the region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomographic inversions of ~5( teleseismic P wave travel time residuals image a narrow, deep, low-velocity region centered beneath the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. Aligned in the direction of North American plate motion, the eastern Snake River Plain is the locus of time-progressive volcanism leading to the Yellowstone hotspot. The low-velocity ano- maly extends to depths of at least 200

Rebecca L. Saltzer; Eugene D. Humphreys

1997-01-01

34

Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.

Tullis, J.A.

1995-09-01

35

Contemporary Tectonic Motion of the Eastern Snake River Plain: A Campaign Global Positioning System Study  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of precision campaign GPS data from 1995 and 2004 from ten benchmarks on the eastern Snake River Plain (eSRP) has revealed that the province moved 2.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr to the SW (232.4 ± 6.3°) relative to a fixed North American reference frame. The benchmarks had no measurable displacement relative to one another at the resolution of the GPS during the nine-year study, evidence that the province moves as a rigid, non-extending block. This scenario is supported by the aseismic nature of the province and the lack of measurable horizontal stress in boreholes. However, an additional small component of intra-plain extension must also be invoked to account for the observed NW-trending volcanic rift zones that transect the eSRP. We suggest that intra-plain extension is too slow (<1 mm/yr) to measure using our campaign GPS methods, but may be sufficient over millennial time scales to accommodate rift zone formation. Slower velocities measured on three benchmarks within the neighboring Basin and Range ‘seismic parabola’ are consistent with this region serving as a zone of detachment between the North American craton and the faster-moving eSRP.

Suzette Payne; John Chadwick; Dave Rodgers; Teresa Vanhove

2007-11-01

36

Extremal travel time inversion of explosion seismology data from the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have inverted travel time data from seismic refraction profiles within the Snake River Plain, a volcanic-tectonic depression in southern Idaho, for crustal and uppermost mantle compressional velocity structure. The data in the vicinity of the youngest, northeastern volcanics in Yellowstone require the presence of a significant low velocity zone in the lower crust at depths between 20 and 40

Keith Priestley; John Orcutt

1982-01-01

37

Volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: A comparative planetary geology-guidebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Planetary Geology Field Conference on the central Snake River Plain was conceived and developed to accomplish several objectives. Primarily, field conferences are sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to draw attention to aspects of terrestrial geology that appear to be important in interpreting the origin and evolution of extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. Another aspect is to present results

R. Greeley; J. S. King

1977-01-01

38

Lower crustal flow: The origin of Late Cenozoic extension north of the eastern Snake River Plain  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has shown that the initiation of late Cenozoic faulting and concomitant footwall uplift north of the eastern Snake River Plain (eSRP) are much younger than previously thought. Examples of these young ages include the Centennial Range (< 2.0 Ma), Gravely Range (< 2.0 Ma), Lemhi Range (< 6.6 Ma), Beaverhead Mts. (< 6.6 Ma), Tendoy Mts. (< 6.6 Ma). Basins south of the eSRP exhibit a bi-modal distribution of growth ages during the Neogene. Seismic moment tensor and earthquake rupture data define extension directions that are both oblique to and symmetric about the axis of the eSRP. However, extension directions on the eSRP itself are parallel to the axis. The authors propose that the orientations of extension are a response to lower crustal flow in a conduit formed between the mid-crust and the upper mantle. Estimates of the lower crustal pressure gradients, geothermal gradient, and channel dimensions are used calculate a lower crustal flux between the extending regions north of the eSRP and the eSRP. This value is three orders of magnitude greater than the estimated flux based on geologically determined strain rates. These calculations suggest that lower crustal flow is a viable mechanism to explain extension north of the eSRP as well as to explain the origin of the extension throughout the Intermountain seismic belt. The advantage of this model is that upper crustal extension does not have to couple with upper mantle extension and thereby it is not necessary to invoke far field stress changes to explain changes in the local stress field.

Anders, M.H.; Hopper, J.R.; Abad, R.; Spiegelman, M. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

1993-04-01

39

Irrigated acreage and other land uses on the Snake River Plain, Idaho and eastern Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-date digital multispectral scanner data were analyzed to delineate land-use classes. Source of irrigation water (surface water, ground water, and combined) was determined from county maps of 1975 water-related land use, data from previous investigations, and field checking. In 1980, about 3.1 million acres of the Snake River Plain were irrigated: 2.0 million acres with surface water, 1.0 million with

G. F. Lindholm; S. A. Goodell

1984-01-01

40

Preliminary geological interpretation and lithologic log of the exploratory geothermal test well (INEL-1), Idaho National Enginering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10,365 ft (3159 m) geothermal test well was drilled in the spring of 1979 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The majority of rock types encountered in the borehole are of volcanic origin. An upper section above 2445 ft (745 m) consists of basaltic lava flows and interbedded sediments of alluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic

D. J. Doherty; L. A. McBroome; M. A. Kuntz

1979-01-01

41

The Effect of Cooling History on Fracture Patterns in Basalt Lava Flows: Insights From Field Observations, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present field observations of fracture characteristics within basalt lava flows of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho, in an attempt to relate complex fracture geometries to flow morphology and cooling history. In so doing, we demonstrate that simple conduction cooling models, typically used to explain the development of column-bounding fractures (colonnade), are insufficient to account for the variety

C. J. Schaefer

2001-01-01

42

Chemical Stratigraphy of Basalts From the 5000' Borehole NPR-E\\/WO2, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: Evidence for Mixed Asthenosphere-Lithosphere Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basaltic volcanism in the eastern Snake River Plain presents a fundamental conundrum: the major and trace element concentrations of these basalts suggest derivation from an asthenospheric source, consisting of depleted mantle and possibly a Yellowstone plume component, whereas isotopes suggest derivation from an enriched lithospheric source similar to that which underlies the Archean Wyoming province. We have analyzed 59 whole

J. W. Shervais; B. B. Hanan; S. K. Vetter

2003-01-01

43

Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for NO3 contamination in agricultural areas.

Plummer, L. N.; Rupert, M. G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

2000-01-01

44

Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The southern termination of the Howe segment of the Lemhi fault was placed between Howe lines H1 and H2, 2.2 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. In the adjacent basin, south-dipping normal faults at the northern end of Howe line 81-3 and two southwest-dipping normal faults at the northeastern end of Howe line 82-2 that can be correlated with Howe segment. South of the surface expression, two southwest-dipping normal faults on Howe line H1 can be correlated with the Howe segment. Further into the ESRP, Howe lines H2, H3, and S4 show continuous flat lying reflectors and indicate no fault offset. The southern termination of the Arco segment of the Lost River fault was placed between Arco lines S2 and A3, a distance of 4.6 km south of the fault’s southernmost surface expression. Within the basin, west-dipping normal faults interpreted on Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2 can be correlated with the Arco segment. Further south within the Arco volcanic rift zone (VRZ), three seismic lines (Arco lines A2, S2, and A3) permit two interpretations. The west- and south-dipping normal faults on Arco lines A2 and S2 could be associated with slip along the Arco segment. These normal faults have an opposite dip to an east-dipping fault on Arco line A3. The observed small-offsets (< 85 m) along the oppositely dipping normal faults can be interpreted as a graben structure that resulted from dike intrusion within the Arco VRZ. Arco line A4 further south within the Arco VRZ shows flat lyin

S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

2006-10-01

45

Seismic hazards astride the boundary between the eastern Snake River Plain and northern Basin and Range Province Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of the damaging 1983 M[sub w] 6.8 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake, which ruptured a central segment of the Lost River fault, has increased the awareness of seismic hazards in this portion of the Northern Basin and Range Province (NBR). As a result, comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were performed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which is located within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) but adjacent to the NBR. In this region, the most significant seismic sources are three late-Quaternary NBR normal faults, the Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead faults, and ESRP volcanic zones. For each source, the maximum earthquake, source geometry, recurrence and their uncertainties were estimated and incorporated into the probabilistic analysis through the use of logic trees. Recent paleoseismic trenching of the Lost River and Lemhi faults and volcanic mapping in the ESRP provided much of the data necessary to characterize the most significant seismic sources. Issues such as fault segmentation, temporal clustering, the nature of fault termination, and the maximum magnitude and recurrence of volcanic zone earthquakes were evaluated in the hazard analyses. Deterministic and probabilistic ground motions were computed using both empirical and stochastic approaches. In the deterministic analysis, the southern segments of the Lemhi fault controlled the hazard at the INEL due to their proximity and potential to generate M[sub w] [approximately]7 earthquakes. In the estimation of deterministic ground motions, potential rupture scenarios were evaluated for a Lemhi earthquake. In the probabilistic analysis, the hazard is dominated by the ESRP random earthquake, and the Lemhi and Lost River faults. The difference in the results of the two analyses points out the uncertainties in assessing seismic hazards due to random earthquakes and in regions of large but infrequent earthquakes.

Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L. (Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States)); Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. (Geomatrix Consultants, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Smith, R.P.; Jackson, S.M.; Hackett, W.R. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.M. (Pacific Engineering and Analysis, El Cerrito, CA (United States)); Knuepfer, P.L.K. (State Univ. of New York, Binghamton, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Bruhn, R.L.; Wu, D. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1993-04-01

46

Lava flow-field emplacement at Rock Corral Butte, Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho: It's doesn't look like Hawaii from here  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock Corral Butte (RCB) is a basaltic shield volcano located at 43° 22.25'N, 113° 1.20'W within the Eastern Snake River Plains. The summit region is characterized by complex topography associated with late-stage eruption of spatter. Rock Corral Butte is surrounded by a large flow field (>16 km2) that is remarkable for its rolling, 2 to 4-m-scale topography that is superposed

T. K. Gregg; S. Hughes; S. E. Sakimoto

2004-01-01

47

Recent magmatotectonic activity in the Eastern Snake River Plain-Island Park region revealed by SAR interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) has been applied in this study to address crustal deformation in a 10,000-km 2 region located immediately west of the Yellowstone hotspot. InSAR results show that surface movements in the study area were non-linear and episodic during the period of observation (1993-2006). The Island Park region and its adjacent Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) were characterized by northeast-trending zones of uplift (+ 1 cm yr - 1 ) and subsidence (- 1 cm yr - 1 ) with various extents through time. The western edge of Yellowstone caldera experienced episodes of subsidence (- 1 cm yr - 1 ) during 1997-2000 and uplift (+ 3 cm yr - 1 ) during 2004-2006. Differential surface movements of varying rates were also detected between 1993 and 2006 in the vicinity of Basin and Range normal faults to the north of Henrys Fork caldera. Throughout the study area, surface displacements across the Island Park region, the ESRP, and the adjacent Basin and Range province generally reversed the movement direction in 2004, in concert with displacement reversal to uplift in the Yellowstone caldera. Crustal deformation in the general vicinity of major Basin and Range faults is interpreted to reflect diffuse extensional strain adjacent to the deeper segments of faults, rather than near-surface slip. The northeast-trending displacement zones in the ESRP and the Island Park region may indicate folding in response to converging zones of extension in the surrounding Basin and Range province. Surface displacements of the Yellowstone caldera are interpreted to reflect migration of magma or hydrothermal fluids. The inverse relation between vertical displacements in Yellowstone and its surrounding regions may reflect an upper crustal flexural response or a large-scale movement of hydrothermal fluids, though neither hypothesis is completely supported by the processed data.

Aly, M. H.; Rodgers, D. W.; Thackray, G. D.; Hughes, S. S.

2009-11-01

48

In Situ Production of Chlorine-36 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho: Implications for Describing Ground-Water Contamination Near a Nuclear Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the calculated contribution to ground water of natural, in situ produced 36Cl in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and to compare these concentrations in ground water with measured concentrations near a nuclear facility in southeastern Idaho. The scope focused on isotopic and chemical analyses and associated 36Cl in situ production calculations on 25 whole-rock samples from 6 major water-bearing rock types present in the eastern Snake River Plain. The rock types investigated were basalt, rhyolite, limestone, dolomite, shale, and quartzite. Determining the contribution of in situ production to 36Cl inventories in ground water facilitated the identification of the source for this radionuclide in environmental samples. On the basis of calculations reported here, in situ production of 36Cl was determined to be insignificant compared to concentrations measured in ground water near buried and injected nuclear waste at the INEEL. Maximum estimated 36Cl concentrations in ground water from in situ production are on the same order of magnitude as natural concentrations in meteoric water.

L. D. Cecil; L. L. Knobel; J. R. Green (USGS); S. K. Frape (University of Waterloo)

2000-06-01

49

Iodine-129 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2010-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1953 to 1988, approximately 0.941 curies of iodine-129 (129I) were contained in wastewater generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with almost all of this wastewater discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Most of the wastewater containing 129I was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; lesser quantities also were discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. During 2010–12, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy collected groundwater samples for 129I from 62 wells in the ESRP aquifer to track concentration trends and changes for the carcinogenic radionuclide that has a 15.7 million-year half-life. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000013±0.0000005 to 1.02±0.04 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and generally decreased in wells near the INTEC, relative to previous sampling events. The average concentration of 129I in groundwater from 15 wells sampled during four different sample periods decreased from 1.15 pCi/L in 1990–91 to 0.173 pCi/L in 2011–12. All but two wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases in concentration, and all but one sample had concentrations less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 1 pCi/L. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. The decreases in 129I concentrations, in areas around INTEC where concentrations increased between 2003 and 2007, were attributed to less recharge near INTEC either from less flow in the Big Lost River or from less local snowmelt and anthropogenic sources. Although wells near INTEC sampled in 2011–12 showed decreases in 129I concentrations compared with previously collected data, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed small increases. These slight increases are attributed to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a pulse of water from a particular disposal period. Wells sampled for the first time around the Naval Reactors Facility had 129I concentrations slightly greater than background concentrations in the ESRP aquifer. These concentrations are attributed to possible leakage from landfills at the Naval Reactors Facility or seepage from air emission deposits from INTEC, or both. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected discrete groundwater samples from 25 zones in 11 wells equipped with multilevel monitoring systems to help define the vertical distribution of 129I in the aquifer. Concentrations ranged from 0.000006±0.000004 to 0.082±0.003 pCi/L. Two new wells completed in 2012 showed variability of up to one order of magnitude of concentrations of 129I among various zones. Two other wells showed similar concentrations of 129I in all three zones sampled. Concentrations were well less than the maximum contaminant level in all zones.

Bartholomay, Roy C.

2013-01-01

50

50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section 226.205 Wildlife and...

2010-10-01

51

Predation of Radio-Marked Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) Ducklings by Eastern Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) and Western Fox Snakes (Pantherophis vulpinus) on the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the predation rate of Eastern Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) and Western Fox Snakes (Pantherophis vulpinus) on waterfowl, particularly ducklings, is minimal. Most information that exists focuses on the percent of waterfowl found in the diet of sampled turtles or snakes. Although this information is useful, it does not elucidate the potential effect of reptile predation on waterfowl

Kevin P. Kenow; Joshua M. Kapfer; Carl E. Korschgen

2009-01-01

52

Measurement of crustal flexure in the Lake Hills, South Central Idaho and Timing of Eastern Snake River Plain Subsidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Miocene rhyolite along the north flank of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) near Carey, Idaho, was studied to investigate the flexure and subsidence history of the ESRP. The rhyolite has been divided into three formations that include seven individual ignimbrite flows. A petrology study of 26 vitrophyre samples, from the lower 4 flows, revealed 3 distinct formations based on percentage of small, large and skeletal feldspars, degree of welding and percentage of glomerocysts. Formations Tiv O (oldest) and Tiv Y (youngest) are indistinguishable in hand sample and in outcrop; however, the middle formation, Tiv M, harbors a distinct phenocryst-poor and thin vitrophyre. New 40Ar/39Ar analysis yields ages of 9.21±0.18 Ma and 9.16±0.20 Ma for Tiv O, 8.39±0.54 Ma for Tiv M and 8.76±0.38 Ma for Tiv Y. Field mapping and measurement of ignimbrite compaction foliations delineates three structural domains. Together the three domains exhibit a map-scale east-trending flexural antiform. Domain 1 extends 0-4 km north of the ESRP. Stratigraphically up section, southerly dips have an average of Tiv O 10°, Tiv M 7°, Tiv Y 7° and for Quaternary basalt 5°. With a slightly undulating topography, Domain 2 stretches 4-6 km north of the ESRP and displays dips of 10-21° to the north and south. All unit groups are present within Domain 2; however, in numerous locals Tiv M is directly underlain by Challis volcanics (Tcv) and where Tiv O is present, the unit is thinner. Domain 3 extends 6-12km north of the ESRP and has predominantly north dipping foliations between 10-21°. As in Domain 2, Tiv O is thinner or not present throughout domain 3. We interpret the formation of the antiform as a crustal flexure response to the subsidence of the ESRP. The northward thinning of Tiv O, suggests a topographic high in the previous paleotopography within Domain 2 and the initiation of the subsidence of the ESRP prior to rhyolite deposition. Two distinct angular unconformities between Tiv O-Tiv Y and Tiv Y-Qb, further indicate that subsidence continued during and after the emplacement of the rhyolite. Previous studies of crustal flexure along the northern edge of the ESRP have been conducted at Howe Point (100 km NE of the Lake Hills) and Lidy Hot Springs (130 km NE of Lake Hills). Together with the new data from the Lake Hills presented within, over 130 km of crustal flexure has been identified and analyzed along the northern boundary of the ESRP. The Lake Hills experienced flexure before, during and after ignimbrite deposition. Two episodes of flexure occurred at Howe Point. Major flexure (25°) occurred from 16-10 Ma while minor flexure commenced after 6.0 Ma. Lidy Hot springs experienced major flexure before 7-10 Ma and minor flexure after 6.0 Ma. Major flexure and ESRP subsidence has been was previously proposed to signify an isostatic crustal response to the emplacement of plutonic loads below the ESRP. However, initiation of crustal flexure preceded the emplacement of Yellowstone hotspot ignimbrites in all three locations. Only minor flexure has been identified in all three locations during or after ignimbrite deposition, suggesting plutonic loading had already occurred prior to ignimbrite deposition.

Michalek, M.; Rodgers, D. W.

2007-12-01

53

High-precision provenance determination using detrital-zircon ages and petrography of Quaternary sands on the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Big Lost trough is an upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary basin containing volcanic sills in the northeastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The basin receives sediment primarily from Basin and Range fluvial systems of the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Creek. The Big Lost trough contains a >200-m-thick succession of lacustrine, fluvial, eolian, and playa sediments, recording

J. K. Geslin; P. K. Link; C. M. Fanning

1999-01-01

54

33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

55

33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge, mile...

2011-07-01

56

Snakes! Snakes! Snakes!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students in grades 4-6, the teaching unit presents illustrations and facts about snakes. Topics include common snakes found in the United States, how snakes eat, how snakes shed their skin, poisonous snakes, the Eastern Indigo snake, and the anatomy of a snake. A student page includes a crossword puzzle and surprising snake facts. A…

Nature Naturally, 1983

1983-01-01

57

Time-dependent inversion of three-component GPS time series for steady and transient effects of the Yellowstone Hotspot on the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crustal deformation in the Northern Basin and Range and Snake River Plain results from extension overprinted by volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot. The Snake River Plain is a seismically quiet, low-relief physiographic feature that extends from eastern Oregon through southern Idaho and into northwestern Wyoming. The Northern Basin and Range surrounds the Snake River Plain and is distinguished by

S. J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R. W. King

2009-01-01

58

High-K alkali basalts of the Western Snake River Plain: Abrupt transition from tholeiitic to mildly alkaline plume-derived basalts, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

article i nfo Basaltic volcanism in the western Snake River Plain underwent an abrupt change circa ~700 ka to 900 ka, from low-K tholeiitic basalt and ferrobasalt to high-K transitional alkali basalt. The low-K tholeiitic basalts share major element, trace element, and isotopic characteristics with olivine tholeiites of the eastern Snake River Plain, and must have been derived by similar

John W. Shervais; Scott K. Vetter

2009-01-01

59

Lower Snake River Subbasin Management Plan WDFW March 2004 1  

E-print Network

Lower Snake River Subbasin Management Plan WDFW ­ March 2004 1 Lower Snake River Subbasin Management Plan Introduction The Lower Snake River subbasin is located in Whitman, Garfield, Columbia, Asotin. Extending from Idaho to the east and the Columbia River to the west, this subbasin is the third largest

60

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Productivity Nez Perce Tribe  

E-print Network

or unutilized. Harvest of Snake River fall Chinook salmon still occurs in ocean and mainstem Columbia RiverSnake River Fall Chinook Salmon Productivity Jay Hesse Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries) remaining critical uncertainties. Historical abundance of fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin

61

Optimization of Water-Level Monitoring Networks in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer Using a Kriging-Based Genetic Algorithm Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term groundwater monitoring networks can provide essential information for the planning and management of water resources. Budget constraints in water resource management agencies often mean a reduction in the number of observation wells included in a monitoring network. A network design tool, distributed as an R package, was developed to determine which wells to exclude from a monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information. A kriging-based genetic algorithm method was used to optimize the monitoring network. The algorithm was used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the smallest increase in the weighted sum of the (1) mean standard error at all nodes in the kriging grid where the water table is estimated, (2) root-mean-squared-error between the measured and estimated water-level elevation at the removed sites, (3) mean standard deviation of measurements across time at the removed sites, and (4) mean measurement error of wells in the reduced network. The solution to the optimization problem (the best wells to retain in the monitoring network) depends on the total number of wells removed; this number is a management decision. The network design tool was applied to optimize two observation well networks monitoring the water table of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho; these networks include the 2008 Federal-State Cooperative water-level monitoring network (Co-op network) with 166 observation wells, and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey-Idaho National Laboratory water-level monitoring network (USGS-INL network) with 171 wells. Each water-level monitoring network was optimized five times: by removing (1) 10, (2) 20, (3) 40, (4) 60, and (5) 80 observation wells from the original network. An examination of the trade-offs associated with changes in the number of wells to remove indicates that 20 wells can be removed from the Co-op network with a relatively small degradation of the estimated water table map, and 40 wells can be removed from the USGS-INL network before the water table map degradation accelerates. The optimal network designs indicate the robustness of the network design tool. Observation wells were removed from high well-density areas of the network while retaining the spatial pattern of the existing water-table map.

Fisher, J. C.

2013-12-01

62

Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Thousand Springs and Niagara quadrangles, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snake River underlies most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic rocks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface but is deeper than 1,000 ft in a few areas. The Snake River has excavated a canyon into the nearly flat lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, which discharges from the northern canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along the describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill. To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Sam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

1991-01-01

63

27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9.208 ...Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name . The name of the...area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of...

2010-04-01

64

High-precision provenance determination using detrital-zircon ages and petrography of Quaternary sands on the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Big Lost trough is an upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary basin containing volcanic sills in the northeastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The basin receives sediment primarily from Basin and Range fluvial systems of the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Creek. The Big Lost trough contains a >200-m-thick succession of lacustrine, fluvial, eolian, and playa sediments, recording high-frequency Quaternary climatic fluctuations interbedded with basalt flows. Alternating deposition of clay-rich lacustrine sediments and sandy fluvial and eolian sediments in the central part of the basin was in response to the interaction of fluvial and eolian systems with Pleistocene Lake Terreton. The source areas for modern sands from the fluvial systems can be differentiated by using both petrography and U/Pb age spectra from detrital-zircon populations. Provenance data from subsurface sands indicate that the Big Lost trough was supplied with sand largely deposited by the Big Lost River, with local redeposition by eolian processes, similar to the modern depositional system. Provenance and stratigraphic data suggest that during Pleistocene wet climate cycles, the center of the basin was dominated by lacustrine sedimentation; during dry climate cycles, the base level dropped, the Big Lost River prograded across the basin, and the eolian system became active. At least seven climate oscillations are recorded in strata deposited between {approximately}140 and {approximately}1250 ka.

Geslin, J.K.; Link, P.K. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Dept. of Geology] [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Dept. of Geology; Fanning, C.M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences] [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

1999-04-01

65

A conceptual model of ground-water flow in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity with implications for contaminant transport  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water flow in the west-central part of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer is described in a conceptual model that will be used in numerical simulations to evaluate contaminant transport at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and vicinity. The model encompasses an area of 1,940 square miles (mi2) and includes most of the 890 mi2 of the INL. A 50-year history of waste disposal associated with research activities at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the aquifer. A thorough understanding of the fate and movement of these contaminants in the subsurface is needed by the U.S. Department of Energy to minimize the effect that contaminated ground water may have on the region and to plan effectively for remediation. Three hydrogeologic units were used to represent the complex stratigraphy of the aquifer in the model area. Collectively, these hydrogeologic units include at least 65 basalt-flow groups, 5 andesite-flow groups, and 61 sedimentary interbeds. Three rhyolite domes in the model area extend deep enough to penetrate the aquifer. The rhyolite domes are represented in the conceptual model as low permeability, vertical pluglike masses, and are not included as part of the three primary hydrogeologic units. Broad differences in lithology and large variations in hydraulic properties allowed the heterogeneous, anisotropic basalt-flow groups, andesite-flow groups, and sedimentary interbeds to be grouped into three hydrogeologic units that are conceptually homogeneous and anisotropic. Younger rocks, primarily thin, densely fractured basalt, compose hydrogeologic unit 1; younger rocks, primarily of massive, less densely fractured basalt, compose hydrogeologic unit 2; and intermediate-age rocks, primarily of slightly-to-moderately altered, fractured basalt, compose hydrogeologic unit 3. Differences in hydraulic properties among adjacent hydrogeologic units result in much of the large-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy of the aquifer in the model area, and differences in horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity in individual hydrogeologic units result in much of the small-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy of the aquifer in the model area. The inferred three-dimensional geometry of the aquifer in the model area is very irregular. Its thickness generally increases from north to south and from west to east and is greatest south of the INL. The interpreted distribution of older rocks that underlie the aquifer indicates large changes in saturated thickness across the model area. The boundaries of the model include physical and artificial boundaries, and ground-water flows across the boundaries may be temporally constant or variable and spatially uniform or nonuniform. Physical boundaries include the water-table boundary, base of the aquifer, and northwest mountain-front boundary. Artificial boundaries include the northeast boundary, southeast-flowline boundary, and southwest boundary. Water flows into the model area as (1) underflow (1,225 cubic feet per second (ft3/s)) from the regional aquifer (northeast boundary-constant and nonuniform), (2) underflow (695 ft3/s) from the tributary valleys and mountain fronts (northwest boundary-constant and nonuniform), (3) precipitation recharge (70 ft3/s) (constant and uniform), streamflow-infiltration recharge (95 ft3/s) (variable and nonuniform), wastewater return flows (6 ft3/s) (variable and nonuniform), and irrigation-infiltration recharge (24 ft3/s) (variable and nonuniform) across the water table (water-table boundary-variable and nonuniform), and (4) upward flow across the base of the aquifer (44 ft3/s) (uniform and constant). The southeast-flowline boundary is represented as a no-flow boundary. Water flows out of the model area as underflow (2,037 ft3/s) to the regional aquifer (southwest boundary-variable and nonuniform) and as ground-water withdrawals (45 ft3/s) (water table boundary-variable and nonuniform). Ground-water flow i

Ackerman, Daniel J.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Davis, Linda C.; Orr, Brennon R.

2006-01-01

66

Paleomagnetic correlation of the surface and subsurface stratigraphy in the southern part of the Idaho National Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To refine the geologic framework used in conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at and near the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), cross sections of the subsurface stratigraphy have been created using paleomagnetic inclination and polarity measurements on basalt flows from 51 coreholes and 83 surface sites. Paleomagnetic data were used to correlate surface and subsurface basalt stratigraphy, determine relative ages, and, in conjunction with other studies, determine the absolute age of some basalt flows. From stratigraphic top to bottom, key results include: Quaking Aspen Butte flows erupted from Quaking Aspen Butte south of the INL, flowed northeast, and are found in the subsurface in corehole USGS 132. Vent 5206 flows, erupted near the southwestern border of the INL, flowed north and east, and are found in the subsurface in coreholes USGS 132, USGS 129, USGS 131, USGS 127, USGS 130, USGS 128, and STF-AQ-01. Mid Butte flows erupted north of U.S. Highway 20, flowed northwest, and are found in the subsurface at coreholes ARA-COR-005 and STF-AQ-01. High K20 flows erupted from a vent near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, flowed south and east, and are found in the subsurface in coreholes USGS 131, USGS 127, USGS 130, USGS 128, USGS 123, STF-AQ-01, and ARA-COR-005. Vent 5252 flows erupted just south of U.S. Highway 20 near Middle and East Buttes, flowed northwest and are found in the subsurface in coreholes ARA-COR-005, STF-AQ-01, USGS 130, USGS 128, ICPP 214, USGS 123, ICPP 023, USGS 121, USGS 127, and USGS 131. The Big Lost Reversed Polarity Cryptochron flows erupted from a now-buried vent near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, flowed southwest to corehole USGS 135, and northeast to coreholes USGS 132, USGS 129, USGS 131, USGS 127, USGS 130, STF-AQ-01, and ARA-COR-005. AEC Butte flows erupted from AEC Butte near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and flowed south to corehole Middle 1823, northwest to corehole USGS 134, northeast to coreholes USGS 133 and NRF 7P, and south to coreholes USGS 121, ICPP 023, USGS 123, and USGS 128. These results demonstrate that coreholes a few kilometers apart have stratigraphic successions that correlate over tens to hundreds of meters of depth. Correlations between coreholes separated by greater distances are less consistent since some stratigraphic sequences are missing and (or) added, or are at different depths. The Big Lost, AEC Butte, and flows of similar age show subsidence towards the Big Lost Trough. Cross-sections in the southwestern INL, through the unsaturated zone and the top of the saturated zone of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer show very slight tilting to the southeast towards the Axial Volcanic Zone.

Hodges, M. K.; Davis, L. C.; Champion, D. E.

2010-12-01

67

Geochemical and oxygen isotope studies of high-silica rhyolitic ignimbrites from the Eastern and Central Snake River Plain and Yellowstone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanism along the track of the Yellowstone hot spot has progressed from SW to NE in successive volcanic fields comprised of nested caldera complexes. Most caldera-forming eruptions within a field are separated by 0.2 to 1 m.y., similar to the present-day Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Volcanic fields may be separated in time and space by as much as 2 m.y. and 50-150 km from center to center. A series of 4.5- to 12-Ma ignimbrites from the eastern and central Snake River Plain, related to large-volume caldera eruptions, have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements, and for ?18O to examine how individual ignimbrites and volcanic fields have varied with respect to chemistry in space and space. An additional 45 samples of Lava Creek Tuff (LCT), erupted from the Yellowstone Caldera at 0.640 Ma, were similarly analyzed for comparison. SRP-Yellowstone high-silica rhyolitic ignimbrites have a large range and systematic variation in incompatible elements such as Zr, Hf, Rb, Sr, Ce, and Sc. Zr-Hf systematics show trends toward lower Zr and Hf in progressively younger rocks, with LCT having the lowest values. Samples from City of Rocks, Road Canyon, and Basin are significantly off trend due to enrichment in Zr relative other SRP ignimbrites. Rhyolitic SRP ignimbrites have whole rock ?18O values ranging from 0.4-7.5, and averaging 3.8 per mil. Quartz separates from the SRP ignimbrites have ?18O values that range from 1.9-9.4 and average 4.7 per mil. Unaltered, normal granites and rhyolites have whole rock oxygen isotope values of about 6.5-7.0 per mil and quartz separates generally have isotopic values that are 1.5-2.0 per mil higher than whole rock values. Therefore, most of our data on quartz and whole rock samples from SRP ignimbrites have low ?18O values, due to either hydrothermal alteration by meteoric waters or low ?18O magmas. LCT samples have ?18O values from 0.3-7.4, averaging 5.8 per mil. Previous studies have shown that low ?18O magma occurs transiently after caldera collapse in Yellowstone National Park, producing low ?18O values in post-collapse rhyolitic lava flows due to incorporation of hydrothermally altered county rock during collapse, however low ?18O magma has not been demonstrated for Lava Creek Tuff ignimbrites. The low values in Yellowstone LCT are due to hydrothermal alteration affects. SRP ignimbrite samples are visibly and chemically unaltered, suggesting low ?18O magmas. Most likely, low ?18O ignimbrites form by assimilation of the previously-altered high silica rhyolites. We suggest a model where the initial caldera-forming volcanism and subsequent hydrothermal activity have profoundly affected the chemistry of the crust which was assimilated into later magmas which erupted within a particular volcanic field.

Shanks, W. P.; Morgan, L. A.; Bindeman, I.

2006-12-01

68

Snake River is this year's Most Endangered River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, a collection of US grassroots organizations spearheaded by American Rivers, the nation's leading river conservation organization, works closely to identify US rivers that are endangered (usually by human activities). A list of endangered rivers is compiled and published in an annual report entitled "America's Most Endangered Rivers" (see the April 15, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The report draws national attention to the rivers on the list, sending a powerful wake up call "to mobilize the public and policymakers to take significant action before it is too late." This year's full report will be released on April 10, but the organization has already declared the most endangered river to be the Snake River, in Washington State. Last year, the Snake River also ranked at the top of the list.

69

Snake River sockeye salmon estimated adult LGR  

E-print Network

Snake River sockeye salmon # smolts estimated adult LGR migrating from returns returns Valley the understanding of sockeye salmon survival and SAR. For the 2005 outmigration the valley to valley SAR is 0 we estimated that 78% (651) of the returning adults out-migrated in the 2007 juvenile migration

70

WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

71

Geothermal features of Snake River plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snake River plain is the track of a hot spot beneath the continental lithosphere. The track has passed through southern Idaho as the continental plate has moved over the hot spot at a rate of about 3.5 cm\\/yr. The present site of the hot spot is Yellowstone Park. As a consequence of the passage, a systematic sequence of geologic

Blackwell

1987-01-01

72

SNAKE RIVER TRANSECT STUDY, JULY 1969  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents conditions at Station 153018 located on the Snake River (17040104, 170402, 170501) 7 miles downstream from the Lewiston-Clarkston bridge. Diurnal and spatial variances occurring at the station were observed during a 24-hour period. On February 25 through 29...

73

Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q; Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Clark, D.R. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

74

Amphibia-Reptilia 32 (2011): 424-427 Eastern Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) with proportionally  

E-print Network

Amphibia-Reptilia 32 (2011): 424-427 Eastern Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis sexual size dimorphism and trophic morphology dimorphism in Eastern Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis examined SSD and TMD in Eastern Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis). Our first objective was to verify

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

75

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO  

EPA Science Inventory

An ecological risk assessment was completed for the Middle Snake River, Idaho. In this assessment, mathematical simulations and field observations were used to analyze exposure and ecological effects and to estimate risk. The Middle Snake River which refers to a 100 km stret...

76

UPPER/MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER BASIN STATUS REPORT, 1975  

EPA Science Inventory

The Snake River (17040104, 170402, 170501) begins with relatively high water quality, with nutrient levels below those considered potentially causative to algal activity. Below Heise, nutrient concentrations rise and the quality of the river is degraded. Phosphorus enters the S...

77

Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Pasadena Valley and Ticeska quadrangles, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snaked River underlies the most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic ricks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but is deeper than 1,000 ft in few areas. The Snake River had excavated a canyon into the nearly flat-lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon intersects the Snake River Plain aquifer, which discharges from the north canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill. To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

1990-01-01

78

Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon—The Choice for Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snake River was once the most productive tributary of one of the greatest salmon producing river systems in the world, the Columbia River. Four dams completed on the lower Columbia River and Snake River from 1938 to 1961 resulted in decreased, but still robust adult returns of spring and summer chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) to the Snake River basin.

Douglas J. Nemeth; Russell B. Kiefer

1999-01-01

79

Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Bliss, Hagerman, and Tuttle quadrangles, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snake River underlies most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic rocks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but is deeper than 1,000 ft in a few areas. The Snake River has excavated a canyon into the nearly flat-lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill (fig. 1). To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

1990-01-01

80

Dworshak & Brownlee Hydro Operations For Snake River Fall Chinook  

E-print Network

of Reclamation obtains flow augmentation water from uncontracted storage space, powerhead space and water leased are subjected to warm water temperatures and predators. In the Snake Basin, flow augmentation operations Snake River and tributaries. SRBA Water As part of the 2004 Nez Perce Water Rights Settlement

81

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake

John G. Williams; Theodore C. Bjomn

1997-01-01

82

Thermal influence on defensive behaviours of the Eastern garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of body temperature on the defensive behaviours of the Eastern garter snake was investigated. Snakes encountered in the field were grabbed by hand at mid-body to imitate the attack of a predator or were approached in the same manner but without any contact by the investigator. Behavioural responses were related to snake body and ambient temperatures. When approached

KELLY M PASSEK; JAMES C GILLINGHAM

1997-01-01

83

COLUMBIA/SNAKE RIVER TEMPERATURE TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA and the States of Idaho, Oregon and Washington are working in coordination with the Columbia River Tribes to establish a temperature TMDL for the mainstems of the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Both rivers are on state 303(d) lists of impaired waters for exceedances of water qua...

84

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

Muir, William D.; Connor, William P.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

1999-03-01

85

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

William D. Muir; William P. Connor; Billy D. Arnsberg

1999-01-01

86

THE VELOCITY OF GROUND-WATER FLOW IN BASALT AQUIFERS OF THE SNAKE RIVER PLAIN, IDAHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum apparent velocity of ground-water flow in basalt aquifers beneath the eastern part of the Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho has been measured with chemical and radioactive tracers for distances up to 3,500 feet in a single aquifer. Maximum apparent velocities observed in the single-aquifer test ranged from 24 to 141 feet per day, under hydraulic gradients of

Paul H. JONES

87

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1981-1986 Final Report of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-stock Program was to hatch eggs from upriver stocks, rear the fish to spawning maturity, and use the resulting eggs for stock restoration in the Snake River. Approximately 15,000 eyed Snake River fall chinook salmon eggs were obtained each winter in 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984 from various Columbia River hatcheries.

Harrell; Lee W

1987-01-01

88

Silicic phreatomagmatism in the Snake River Plain: the Deadeye Member  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-welded rhyolitic pyroclastic units in the central Snake River Plain are interbedded with the much better exposed, large-volume `Snake-River type' rheomorphic welded rhyolitic ignimbrites and rhyolite lavas. We document one such unit to investigate why it is so different from the interbedded welded ignimbrites. The newly recognised Deadeye Member of southern Idaho is a soil-bounded eruption-unit that comprises ashfall layers and a 4-m-thick ignimbrite that extends for >35 km. The ignimbrite is non-welded, lithic-clast poor and varies from massive to diffuse low-angle cross-bedded. It contains abundant angular clasts of non-vesicular black glass, and upper parts contain accretionary lapilli. The ashfall layers above it contain coated ash pellets and ash clumps, which record moist aggregation of fine ash. The magmas of the Deadeye eruption were closely similar in composition and temperature to those that generated the intensely welded rheomorphic ignimbrites of the central Snake River Plain. We infer that the marked contrast in physical appearance of the Deadeye ignimbrite compared to the other, more typical Snake-River-type welded ignimbrites was the result of emplacement at relatively low temperatures during an eruption in a lacustrine environment. Magmatic volatile-driven fragmentation of the rhyolitic magma was influenced by interaction with lake water that also led to cooling. The Deadeye Member is the first-recorded example of explosive silicic phreatomagmatism in the central Snake River Plain.

Ellis, B.; Branney, M. J.

2010-12-01

89

High-K alkali basalts of the Western Snake River Plain (Idaho): Abrupt transition from tholeiitic to mildly alkaline plume-derived basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basaltic volcanism in the western Snake River Plain underwent an abrupt change circa ~700 ka to 900 ka, from low-K tholeiitic basalt and ferrobasalt to high-K transitional alkali basalt. The low-K tholeiitic basalts share major element, trace element, and isotopic characteristics with olivine tholeiites of the eastern Snake River Plain, and must have been derived by similar processes from similar sources. In

John W. Shervais; Scott K. Vetter

2009-01-01

90

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1998 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March of 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat

Bert Lewis; Robert G. Griswold; Doug Taki

2000-01-01

91

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and

Doug Taki; Andre E. Kohler; Robert G. Griswold

2004-01-01

92

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is

Doug Taki; Andre E. Kohler; Robert G. Griswold; Kim Gilliland

2006-01-01

93

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2000 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and

Andre E. Kohler; Robert G. Griswold; Doug Taki

2002-01-01

94

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is

Andre E. Kohler; Robert G. Griswold; Doug Taki

2009-01-01

95

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1999 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and

Robert G. Griswold; Doug Taki; Bert Lewis

2001-01-01

96

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and

Andre E. Kohler; Doug Taki; Robert G. Griswold

2004-01-01

97

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number

Andre E. Kohler; Doug Taki; Robert G. Griswold

2004-01-01

98

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and

Andre E. Kohler; Doug Taki; Robert G. Griswold

2004-01-01

99

Mollusk Survey in the Snake River, Hells Canyon, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted surveys and several experiments on mollusks, focusing on listed, rare, or sensitive species, in reservoirs, tributaries and main stem of the Snake River in Hells Canyon Idaho and Oregon, USA. The most important result of this study was documentation of the undescribed Taylorconcha sp. throughout the Snake River in Hells Canyon, although we did not find Taylorconcha sp. within 12 miles downstream of HCD, most likely due to river armoring. Additional results include: 1) the mollusk community was similar throughout the Snake River, except where the Salmon River entered the Snake River; 2) Taylorconcha sp. abundance was directly related to the abundance of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a highly invasive snail, and with moderate abundance of detritus; 3) hand picking cobbles was more efficient than suction dredging for snails and limpets but not for bivalves, 4) the most abundant mollusks were two invasive species, P. antipodarum and Corbicula fluminea and; 5) only one live small colony of native Gonidea angulata (Unionidae) and no live Anodonta californiensis (Unionidae) were found in the survey.

Lester, G. T.; Falter, C. M.; Myers, R.; Richards, D. C.

2005-05-01

100

Variability in Biological Characteristics of Northern Squawfish in the Lower Columbia and Snake Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We described and compared population structure, growth, mortality, and reproduction of northern Squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis among four reservoirs of the lower Columbia River and among four reservoirs of the lower Snake River. We also pooled data for comparisons among three larger areas: Columbia River reservoirs, Snake River reservoirs, and the unimpounded Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam. Females made up

Robert M. Parker; Mark P. Zimmerman; David L. Ward

1995-01-01

101

AN EASTERN INDIGO SNAKE (DRYMARCHON COUPERI) MARK RECAPTURE STUDY IN SOUTHEASTERN GEORGIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of the Eastern Indigo Snake (Drymarchon couperi) that is federally listed as threatened will require population monitoring throughout the species' range. From 1998 through 2006, we used mark-recapture methods to monitor D. couperi at Fort Stewart, Georgia, USA. We captured 93 individual D. couperi while surveying for snakes at Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) burrows, and we recaptured 40 (43%)

DIRK J. STEVENSON; KEVIN M. ENGE; LAWRENCE D. CARLILE; KAREN J. DYER; TERRY M. NORTON; NATALIE L. HYSLOP; RICHARD A. KILTIE

2009-01-01

102

Habitat fragmentation effects on annual survival of the federally protected eastern indigo snake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon couperi) is a federally listed species, most recently threatened by habitat loss and habitat degradation. In an effort to estimate snake survival, a total of 103 individuals (59 males, 44 females) were followed using radio-tracking from January 1998 to March 2004 in three landscape types that had increasing levels of habitat fragmentation: (1) conservation cores; (2) conservation areas along highways; (3) suburbs. Because of a large number of radio-tracking locations underground for which the state of snakes (i.e. alive or dead) could not be assessed, we employed a multistate approach to model snake apparent survival and encounter probability of live and dead snakes. We predicted that male snakes in suburbs would have the lowest annual survival. We found a transmitter implantation effect on snake encounter probability, as snakes implanted on a given occasion had a lower encounter probability on the next visit compared with snakes not implanted on the previous occasion. Our results indicated that adult eastern indigo snakes have relatively high survival in conservation core areas, but greatly reduced survival in conservation areas along highways and in suburbs. These findings indicate that habitat fragmentation is likely to be the critical factor for species' persistence.

Breininger, D. R.; Mazerolle, M. J.; Bolt, M. R.; Legare, M. L.; Drese, J. H.; Hines, J. E.

2012-01-01

103

MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the project was to collect, analyze, assemble, and assess water quality data and resulting chemical/nutrient loads entering and transported in the Middle Snake River Reach of Idaho, between Milner Dam and King Hill. Studies were conducted during the period of 1990 ...

104

Neogene paleogeography of western Snake River plain, Idaho and Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of Miocene through Pleistocene siliciclastic and volcaniclastic sequences in the western Snake River Plain of Idaho and Oregon allows detailed paleogeographic reconstruction of sedimentation associated with the development of a rapidly subsiding continental basin. Extensional tectonism was accompanied by voluminous outpourings of basaltic and silicic volcanic material. These in turn were reworked basinward by marginal alluvial fan-braided stream networks

M. L. Porter; L. T. Middleton

1984-01-01

105

Boise geothermal system, western Snake River plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Boise geothermal system lies in an area of high heat flow along the northern margin of the western Snake River plain. Exploratory drilling for petroleum and geothermal water, seismic reflection profiling, and regional gravity data permit construction of a detailed structure section across the western plain. A faulted acoustic basement of volcanic rocks lies at depths of 2400 to

S. H. Wood; W. L. Burnham

1984-01-01

106

EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION ON SURVIVAL AND HOMING OF SNAKE RIVER  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION ON SURVIVAL AND HOMING OF SNAKE RIVER CHINOOK SALMON AND STEELHEAD TROUT and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, was also obtained. Losses to juvenile and adult Pacific-that reflect losses from all sources, including nitro- gen supersaturation-indicate that chinook salmon, O

107

1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon  

E-print Network

#12;Content: 1.2000-2009 time-series return information for Snake River: a. Fall Chinook Salmon b Of #12;Snake R. Salmon R. Clearwater R. Snake R. IHR LMO LGO LGR HCD OXD BLD Columbia R. Idaho Washington Oregon Sawtooth 1,600 Pahsimeroi 9,800 Rapid River 82,000 SFSR 32,000 Clearwater 33,000Lewiston Salmon

108

UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, PRELIMINARY BASIN EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this paper was to provide a process and a plan by which the Environmental Protection Agency can insure that water quality goals established in the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 are met in the waters of the Upper Snake Basin (17040201, 17040206, 170...

109

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2).

Williams, John G.; Bjomn (Bjornn), Theodore C.

1997-03-01

110

Reevalution of background iodine-129 concentrations in water from the Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho, 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background concentrations of iodine-129 (129I, half-life = 15.7 million years) resulting from natural production in the earth?s atmosphere, in situ production in the earth by spontaneous fission of uranium-238(238U), and fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s were reevaluated on the basis of 52 analyses of ground- and surface-water samples collected from the eastern Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho. The background concentration estimated using the results of a subset of 30 ground-water samples analyzed in this reevaluation is 5.4 attocuries per liter (aCi/L; 1 aCi = 10-18 curies) and the 95-percent nonparametric confidence interval is 5.2 to 10.0 aCi/L. In a previous study, a background 129I concentration was estimated on the basis of analyses of water samples from 16 sites on or tributary to the eastern Snake River Plain. At the 99-percent confidence level, background concentrations of 129I in that study were less than or equal to 8.2 aCi/L. During 1993?94, 34 water samples from 32 additional sites were analyzed for 129I to better establish the background concentrations in surface and ground water from the eastern Snake River Plain that is presumed to be unaffected by wastedisposal practices at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Surface water contained larger 129I concentrations than water from springs and wells contained. Because surface water is more likely to be affected by anthropogenic fallout and evapotranspiration, background 129I concentrations were estimated in the current research using the laboratory results of ground-water samples that were assumed to be unaffected by INEEL disposal practices.

Cecil, L. DeWayne; Hall, L. Flint; Green, Jaromy R.

2003-01-01

111

Thermal influence on defensive behaviours of the Eastern garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis  

PubMed

The influence of body temperature on the defensive behaviours of the Eastern garter snake was investigated. Snakes encountered in the field were grabbed by hand at mid-body to imitate the attack of a predator or were approached in the same manner but without any contact by the investigator. Behavioural responses were related to snake body and ambient temperatures. When approached without contact, snakes with higher body temperatures fled more often than snakes with lower body temperatures. Snakes that showed body flattening or flattening with mouth gaping had significantly lower average body temperatures than snakes that showed mouth gaping without flattening, those that showed neither mouth gaping nor flattening or those that showed biting (both with and without mouth gaping and flattening). The energetic constraints of a lower body temperature appear to influence the defensive behaviours of garter snakes. Colder snakes are more likely to show body flattening; warmer snakes either flee or, if they are unable to flee, are more likely to show more mouth gaping, biting or none of these behaviours.1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9299047

Passek; Gillingham

1997-09-01

112

Geothermal alteration of basaltic core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquifer resources on the axial volcanic zone of the Snake River Plain. Thirty samples from 1,912 m of core were sampled and analyzed for clay content and composition using X-ray diffraction. Observations from core samples and geophysical logs are also used to establish alteration zones. Mineralogical data, geophysical log data and physical characteristics of the core suggest that the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the axial zone is located 960 m below the surface, much deeper than previously suspected. Swelling smectite clay clogs pore spaces and reduces porosity and permeability to create a natural base to the aquifer. Increased temperatures favor the formation of smectite clay and other secondary minerals to the bottom of the hole. Below 960 m the core shows signs of alteration including color change, formation of clay, and filling of other secondary minerals in vesicles and fractured zones of the core. The smectite clay observed is Fe-rich clay that is authigenic in some places. Geothermal power generation may be feasible using a low temperature hot water geothermal system if thermal fluids can be attained near the bottom of the Kimama well.

Sant, Christopher J.

113

Riparian vegetation of the Snake River in Washington State  

SciTech Connect

In January 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers selected reservoir drawdown and lowered pool elevation as the preferred alternative in the Columbia River Salmon Flow Measured Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). During March 1992, reservoirs upstream from Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams on the Snake River were drawn down below the minimum operating pool (MOP), which is 5 vertical feet below ordinary high water level (0@) level. The reservoir upstream from Lower Granite Dam was drawn down to approximately 37 ft below 0 while that upstream of Little Goose Dam was drawn down to approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) below MOP. Following the drawdown (March 1--31, 1992), the reservoirs of all four dams in the Snake River of Washington State (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor) were maintained at MOP (April 1--July 31,1992). This allowed a defined portion of shoreline to be exposed for an extended period. The objectives of the study were to monitor impacts to the associated upland, riparian/wetland, and aquatic vegetation and newly exposed shorelines of four reservoirs of the Snake River during the flow measures study; and monitor the newly exposed shorelines for invasion of pioneering species during the entire period of the wildlife monitoring study.

Phillips, R.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mettler, L. [US Army Corps of Engineers (United States)

1994-06-01

114

Snake River Steelhead Straying Risk To Oregon Mid-C Steelhead Populations and  

E-print Network

Snake River Steelhead Straying Risk To Oregon Mid-C Steelhead Populations and Transportation-C steelhead populations and abundance of naturally spawning Snake River hatchery strays · Relationship of transportation and stray rates · Adult conversion rates from Bonneville Dam to Lower Granite Dam for in-river

115

Interpretation of a gravity profile across the western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gravity and magnetic anomalies over the western Snake River Plain suggest that the plain is underlain by a layer of dense magnetic rock that may be the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group and by a thin upper crust. The western Snake River Plain may have formed as a rift in Miocene time in response to northeast lateral spreading with

Don R. Mabey

1976-01-01

116

Temperatures and heat flow in INEL-GT1 and WO2 boreholes, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The researchers have logged temperatures in the deep geothermal test at the INEL test site on the eastern Snake River Plains in Idaho (INEL-GT1) three times over a period of 8 years. The first logging was on 8\\/20\\/82 when they reached a depth of 2100 m. They were unable to get past the casing shoe at that depth. In 1983

Blackwell

1990-01-01

117

Water Cycle Dynamics in the Snake River Basin, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska’s Seward Peninsula is underlain in the south by areas of near-freezing, continuous and discontinuous permafrost. These conditions make it susceptible to changing climatic conditions such as acceleration of the hydrologic cycle or general atmospheric warming. This study looks at the hydrologic record of the Snake River over the mid-twentieth century through present. The Snake River basin drains an area of about 22 square kilometers into Norton Sound near the Bering Strait, off the western coast of Alaska. Climate for this area is maritime in summer and somewhat continental in winter once the sea ice forms. Hydrometeorological parameters have been measured locally for more than fifty years with temperature being measured regularly over the last 100 years. Discharge has been measured in the Snake River intermittently over that time period as well. This study looks closely at drivers of inter-annual variations in soil moisture in the basin over the observational record using a physically based numerical hydrological model. Unlike many areas of Alaska, the meteorological record at Nome, located at the mouth of the watershed, shows no statistically significant increase in precipitation over either the last 30 years or the last 100 years. However, there has been a small increase in temperature over the 100 year time period.

Busey, R.; Hinzman, L. D.

2009-12-01

118

Organochlorine residue levels in Mississippi River water snakes in southern Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the usefulness of water snakes in pollution monitoring. This was accomplished by assessing the organochlorine load in tissues of snakes inhabiting three sites along the Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Two species of water snakes, Nerodia rhombifera and Nerodia cyclopion, were chosen for analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Fishes account for 95.2 and 98.4%,

T. D. Sabourin; W. B. Stickle; T. C. Michot; C. E. Villars; D. W. Garton; H. R. Mushinsky

1984-01-01

119

Recommendations for Amendments--Mainstem Columbia/Snake Rivers Elements of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program  

E-print Network

effect of the Federal Columbia River Power System on Snake River anadromous salmon and steelhead by killing Columbia and Snake River salmon. Recommendations General Basinwide Recommendations 1] FollowRecommendations for Amendments--Mainstem Columbia/Snake Rivers Elements of the Northwest Power

120

Two Alternative Juvenile Life History Types for Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River basin were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1992. At the time of listing, it was assumed that fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin adhered strictly to an ocean-type life history characterized by saltwater entry at age 0 and first-year wintering in the ocean. Research showed, however,

William P. Connor; John G. Sneva; Kenneth F. Tiffan; R. Kirk Steinhorst; Doug Ross

2005-01-01

121

Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.  

SciTech Connect

This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999.

Garcia, Aaron P.

2000-04-01

122

Steven T. Knick, USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Snake River Field Station,  

E-print Network

Contacts: Steven T. Knick, USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Snake River Field changes in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, in southwestern Idaho, were deter these habitats. Similarly, bird species that are dependent on shrubland ecosystems respond differently

Torgersen, Christian

123

77 FR 42327 - Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State's population resides. It is located in Ada, Canyon...extending 81 miles along the Snake River. The NCA includes...Impact Statement for the Snake River Birds of Prey National...fully covered in the ROD. It is available for...

2012-07-18

124

BIOSTIMULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES AND RECEIVING WATERS OF THE SNAKE RIVER BASIN, 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Field Investigations Center, Denver and Region 10, EPA conducted a 4 phase study concentrating on nutrient caused algal growth problems in the Snake River Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501). The study area included the Snake River and principal tributaries between Hei...

125

Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks from June 16 to October 18, 2006, to evaluate fish performance. Eyed eggs from Yellowstone and Snake River cutthroat trout were

Greg A. Kindschi; Christopher A. Myrick; Frederic T. Barrows; Matthew Toner; William C. Fraser; Jason Ilgen; Linda Beck

2009-01-01

126

The Snake River Plain, Idaho - Representative of a new category of volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the volcanic geology of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, and comparison with other basaltic regions suggest a new category of volcanic activity, termed basaltic plains volcanism. Typified by the Snake River Plain, this style of volcanism is intermediate between basaltic flood (or plateau) eruptions and Hawaiian volcanism. Characteristics that are common to both Hawaiian and plains volcanism are:

Ronald Greeley

1982-01-01

127

Hafnium Isotope Composition of Archean Zircons from Xenoliths of the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition, structure, spatial extent, and history of Archean crust buried beneath the Snake River Plain (SRP) are important for assessing the role of the lithosphere in regional igneous and tectonic activity. We report the U-Pb age and Hf isotope composition of Archean zircons from xenoliths entrained in Snake River Plain basalts. The xenoliths come from three localities on the

S. A. Dufrane; J. D. Vervoort; W. P. Leeman; D. E. Wolf

2007-01-01

128

SOURCE AND EFFECT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE IN THE SNAKE RIVER WATERSHED, SUMMIT COUNTY, COLORADO  

E-print Network

SOURCE AND EFFECT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE IN THE SNAKE RIVER WATERSHED, SUMMIT COUNTY, COLORADO Drainage in the Snake River Watershed, Summit County, Colorado Thesis directed by Dr. Diane M. Mc (the weathering of disseminated pyrite) sources of acid rock drainage (ARD). Stream waters

129

A Review and Assessment of Transportation Studies for Juvenile Chinook Salmon in the Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed research conducted by the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service from 1968 through 1989 on the benefits of using trucks and barges to transport migrating juvenile Chinook salmon Onchorhynchus tsawytscha from the Snake River around dams and reservoirs in the lower Snake and Columbia rivers. Early results from studies that used trucks indicated that Chinook salmon benefited from transportation:

David L. Ward; Raymond R. Boyce; Franklin R. Young; Frederick E. Olney

1997-01-01

130

The Dynamics and Effects of Bacterial Kidney Disease in Snake River Spring Chinook Salmon  

E-print Network

(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by Owen Sprague Hamel A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment River Spring Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by Owen Sprague Hamel Chairperson kidney disease (BKD) is endemic in Snake River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stocks

Washington at Seattle, University of

131

78 FR 23588 - Final Supplementary Rules for the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State's population resides. It is located in Ada, Canyon...extending 81 miles along the Snake River. The NCA includes...within the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National...is permitted, provided it does not occur on...the canyon walls of the Snake River within the...

2013-04-19

132

Exploratory and defensive behaviours change with sex and size in eastern garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis)  

E-print Network

and sex in Thamnophis sirtalis. I conducted three behavioural trials to elicit three separate responsesExploratory and defensive behaviours change with sex and size in eastern garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) Zac Maillet This thesis is being submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a BSc

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

133

Detection of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus RNA in North American Snakes  

PubMed Central

The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus. PMID:23033405

Bingham, Andrea M.; Graham, Sean P.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; White, Gregory S.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

134

Implications of a Drawdown of the Snake-Columbia River on Barge Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The listing of the Snake-Columbia River salmon under the Endangered species Cut will lead to a set of river management changes aimed at species recovery. One measure almost certain to be implemented is a periodic river drawdown. A drawdown will speed fish migration downriver but will also temporarily close the river to barge transportation. Grain shippers in the region rely

Michael Martin; Joel R. Hamilton; Ken Casavant

1992-01-01

135

Willingness to pay for non angler recreation at the lower Snake River reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study applied the travel cost method to estimate demand for non angler recreation at the impounded Snake River in eastern Washington. Net value per person per recreation trip is estimated for the full non angler sample and separately for camping, boating, water-skiing, and swimming/picnicking. Certain recreation activities would be reduced or eliminated and new activities would be added if the dams were breached to protect endangered salmon and steelhead. The effect of breaching on non angling benefits was found by subtracting our benefits estimate from the projected non angling benefits with breaching. Major issues in demand model specification and definition of the price variables are discussed. The estimation method selected was truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for self selection bias. Copyright 2005 National Recreation and Park Association.

McKean, J.R.; Johnson, D.; Taylor, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.

2005-01-01

136

Historical and current perspectives on fish assemblages of the Snake River, Idaho and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake River is the tenth longest river in the United States, extending 1,667 km from its origin in Yellowstone National Park in western Wyoming to its union with the Columbia River at Pasco, Washington. Historically, the main-stem Snake River upstream from the Hells Canyon Complex supported at least 26 native fish species, including anadromous stocks of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Of these anadromous species, only the white sturgeon remains in the Snake River between the Hells Canyon Complex and Shoshone Falls. Today, much of the Snake River has been transformed into a river with numerous impoundments and flow diversions, increased pollutant loads, and elevated water temperatures. Current (1993-2002) fish assemblage collections from 15 sites along the Snake River and Henrys Fork contained 35 fish species, including 16 alien species. Many of these alien species such as catfish (Ictaluridae), carp (Cyprinidae), and sunfish (Centrarchidae) are adapted for warmwater impounded habitats. Currently, the Snake River supports 19 native species. An index of biotic integrity (IBI), developed to evaluate large rivers in the Northwest, was used to evaluate recent (1993-2002) fish collections from the Snake River and Henrys Fork in southern Idaho and western Wyoming. Index of biotic integrity site scores and component metrics revealed a decline in biotic integrity from upstream to downstream in both the Snake River and Henrys Fork. Two distinct groups of sites were evident that correspond to a range of IBI scores-an upper Snake River and Henrys Fork group with relatively high biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 46-84) and a lower Snake River group with low biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 10-29). Sites located in the lower Snake River exhibited fish assemblages that reflect poor-quality habitat where coldwater and sensitive species are rare or absent, and where tolerant, less desirable species predominate. Increases in percentages of agricultural land, total number of diversions, and number of constructed channels were strongly associated with these decreasing IBI scores.

Maret, T.R.; Mebane, C.A.

2005-01-01

137

Rhyolitic volcanism of the central Snake River Plain: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Snake River Plain (CSRP) of southern Idaho and northern Nevada, USA, forms part of the Columbia River-Yellowstone large igneous province. Volcanic rocks of the province are compositionally bimodal (basalt-rhyolite), and the rhyolites produce a broadly time-transgressive record of a hotspot which is currently located under Yellowstone. Snake River Plain rhyolites represent hot (>850 °C), dry magmas and have field characteristics consistent with high emplacement temperatures. Individual ignimbrite sheets reach 1,000 km3 and exhibit little to no compositional zonation on a large scale but reveal considerable complexity on a crystal scale, particularly with regard to pyroxene compositions. Multiple pyroxene compositions may exist in a single ignimbrite which, along with multiple glass compositions in widely dispersed fallout tephra, suggests complex storage of rhyolite prior to eruption. Unlike most igneous rocks, the mineral cargo of the CSRP rhyolites exhibits little isotopic variability, with unimodal 87Sr/86Sr values returned from plagioclase grains inferred to represent the combination of strong crystal-melt coupling and rapid diffusional re-equilibriation. All the rhyolites within the CSRP have a characteristic low- ? 18O signature; with >20,000 km3 of rhyolite exhibiting this depletion, the CSRP represents the largest low- ? 18O province on Earth. The low-18O nature of the rhyolites requires assimilation of hydrothermally altered materials which may be from altered Eocene batholithic rocks or from down-dropped intra-caldera tuffs. The wide range of crustal assimilants, with highly variable radiogenic isotope characteristics, available in the CSRP is permissive of a variety of petrogenetic models based on radiogenic isotopic data.

Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J. A.; Boroughs, S.; Mark, D. F.; Starkel, W. A.; Bonnichsen, B.

2013-08-01

138

Snakes of the Savannah River Plant with Information About Snakebite Prevention and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to provide information on the snakes of South Carolina, to point out the necessary steps to avoid a snakebite, and to indicate the current medical treatment for poisonous snakebite. It includes a checklist of South Carolina reptiles and a taxonomic key for the identification of snakes in the Savannah River Plant. Three…

Gibbons, Whit

139

Bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism in the central and western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this trip is to examine Miocene to Pleistocene basalt and rhyolite flows, ignimbrites and hypabyssal intrusions in a transect from the western Snake River Plain graben across the older part of the Snake River Plain "hot-spot-track." The earlier, dominantly explosive rhyolitic phase of volcanism will be examined primarily in the Cassia Mountains, near Twin Falls, Idaho. The second day of the field trip will focus on the Graveyard Point intrusion, a strongly differentiated diabase sill in easternmost Oregon. This late Tertiary sill is well exposed from floor to roof in sections up to 150 m thick, and is an example of the type of solidified shallow magma chamber that may be present beneath some Snake River Plain basalt volcanoes. The field trip will conclude with an examination of the diverse styles of effusive and explosive basaltic volcanism in the central and western Snake River Plain.

McCurry, M.; Bonnichsen, B.; White, C.; Godchaux, M.M.; Hughes, S.S.

1997-01-01

140

HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973  

EPA Science Inventory

Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

141

SNAKE AND CLEARWATER RIVERS, PRESENT AND POST-IMPOUNDMENT WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS, 1964  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on present water quality conditions in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers (17060107, 17060103, 17060306) in the vicinity of Lewiston, Idaho and Clarkston, Washington. It discusses how changes in the streams characteristics resulting from the constru...

142

33 CFR 117.1007 - Elizabeth River-Eastern Branch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elizabeth River-Eastern Branch. 117.1007 Section...Requirements Virginia § 117.1007 Elizabeth River—Eastern Branch. (a) The draw...over the Eastern Branch of the Elizabeth River in Norfolk, VA. The controller...

2010-07-01

143

Tectonic implications of the heat flow of the western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-flow values within the western Snake River Plain average about 1.7 ..mu..cal\\/cm² sec, but even higher values are measured in granitic rocks along the margins of the Snake River Plain (2.5 ..mu..cal\\/cm² sec or higher). The heat-flow distribution is related to the combined effects of crustal thermal refraction and a large, transient crustal heat source. A regional model consistent with

CHARLES A. BROTT; DAVID D. BLACKWELL; JOHN C. MITCHELL

1978-01-01

144

Time-dependent inversion of three-component GPS time series for steady and transient effects of the Yellowstone Hotspot on the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal deformation in the Northern Basin and Range and Snake River Plain results from extension overprinted by volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot. The Snake River Plain is a seismically quiet, low-relief physiographic feature that extends from eastern Oregon through southern Idaho and into northwestern Wyoming. The Northern Basin and Range surrounds the Snake River Plain and is distinguished by its higher elevations, higher rates of seismicity, and active normal faulting. Horizontal GPS velocities indicate the strain rate in the Snake River Plain is an order of magnitude lower than in the Northern Basin and Range and that a zone of right-lateral shear extends along the northern Snake River Plain boundary to accommodate the different strain rates. The 2004-2009 inflation of the Yellowstone caldera and subsidence adjacent to northern caldera rim resulting from magma intrusion and withdrawal are transient effects embedded in GPS velocities and may impact interpretations of regional kinematics. We invert continuous GPS time series from Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) along with survey-mode GPS site time series to estimate simultaneously the long-term steady motions and short-term transient magma intrusion in the Snake River Plain and Northern Basin and Range. We model the magma intrusion as Mogi sources beneath the Yellowstone caldera at shallow depths. The steady motions are described by crustal block rotations and strain rates that together predict spatially smooth variations in surface velocities. We estimate fault locking and block rotations that have been corrected for transient motions resulting from magma intrusion. From this we estimate that the magmatic deformation outside of the caldera at distances of 160-180 km, where we observe the largest differential strain rates, contributes less than about 0.3 mm/yr to the overall velocities and does not contribute to the difference in strain rates currently observed.

Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.

2009-12-01

145

Bold colors in a cryptic lineage: do Eastern Indigo Snakes exhibit color dimorphism?  

PubMed

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

146

Bold Colors in a Cryptic Lineage: Do Eastern Indigo Snakes Exhibit Color Dimorphism?  

PubMed Central

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M.; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

147

33 CFR 207.718 - Navigation locks and approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. 207.718 Section...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. (a) General...Depth of water in the lock depends upon river levels which may vary from day...

2010-07-01

148

33 CFR 207.718 - Navigation locks and approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash.  

...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. 207.718 Section...approach channels, Columbia and Snake Rivers, Oreg. and Wash. (a) General...Depth of water in the lock depends upon river levels which may vary from day...

2014-07-01

149

Snakes of the Lake ErieSnakes of the Lake Erie IslandsIslands  

E-print Network

Eastern Hognose Blue Racer Eastern Fox Snake Northern Brown Snake (DeKay's) Eastern Garter Snake Lake Erie ranges from yellow to red Small Snake! 10-15 inches in length #12;Eats mostly Redbacked salamanders Also ~ only found on Pelee · Endangered status #12;Eastern Fox SnakeEastern Fox Snake Elaphe

King, Richard B.

150

Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America  

E-print Network

, black bear, Crotalus horridus, diet, ophiophobia, rattlesnake, scent, snake, Ursus americanus Abstract (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia

Clark, Rulon W.

151

A review of crust and upper mantle structure studies of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system: A major lithospheric anomaly in the western U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system is one of the largest, basaltic, volcanic field in the world. Here, there is clear evidence for northeasterly progression of rhyolitic volcanism with its present position in Yellowstone. Many theories have been advanced for the origin of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone system. Yellowstone and Eastern Snake River Plain have been studied intensively using various geophysical techniques. Some sparse geophysical data are available for the Western Snake River Plain as well. Teleseismic data show the presence of a large anomalous body with low P- and S-wave velocities in the crust and upper mantle under the Yellowstone caldera. A similar body in which compressional wave velocity is lower than in the surrounding rock is present under the Eastern Snake River Plain. No data on upper mantle anomalies are available for the Western Snake River Plain. Detailed seismic refraction data for the Eastern Snake River Plain show strong lateral heterogeneities and suggest thinning of the granitic crust from below by mafic intrusion. Available data for the Western Snake River Plain also show similar thinning of the upper crust and its replacement by mafic material. The seismic refraction results in Yellowstone show no evidence of the low-velocity anomalies in the lower crust suggested by teleseismic P-delay data and interpreted as due to extensive partial melting. However, the seismic refraction models indicate lower-than-normal velocities and strong lateral inhomogeneities in the upper crust. Particularly obvious in the refraction data are two regions of very low seismic velocities near the Mallard Eake and Sour Creek resurgent domes in the Yellowstone caldera. The low-velocity body near the Sour Creek resurgent dome is intepreted as partially molten rock. Together with other geophysical and thermal data, the seismic results indicate that a sub-lithospheric thermal anomaly is responsible for the time-progressive volcanism along the Eastern Snake River Plain. However, the exact mechanism responsible for the volcanism and details of magma storage and migration are not yet fully understood. ?? 1984.

Iyer, H.M.

1984-01-01

152

An examination of cardiovascular collapse induced by eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom.  

PubMed

The Pseudonaja genus (Brown snakes) is widely distributed across Australia and bites account for significant mortality. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) and, less often, early cardiovascular collapse occur following envenoming by these snakes. We have previously examined possible mechanism(s) behind the early cardiovascular collapse following Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenoming. In the present study, we investigate early cardiovascular collapse in anaesthetized rats following administration of eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom, and prevention of this effect with prior administration of 'priming' doses (i.e. doses of venom which caused a transient hypotensive response) of venom. P. textilis venom (5-10 ?g/kg, i.v.) induced cardiovascular collapse in anaesthetized rats, characterized by a rapid decrease in systolic blood pressure until non recordable. Prior administration of 'priming' doses of P. textilis venom (2 and 3 ?g/kg) or, at least, 4-5 doses of O. scutellatus (2 ?g/kg, i.v.) or Daboia russelii limitis (20 ?g/kg, i.v.) venoms prevented cardiovascular collapse induced by P. textilis venom. Moreover, early collapse was also inhibited by prior administration of 2 discrete doses of Acanthophis rugosus venom. Prior administration of commercial polyvalent snake antivenom (500-3000 units/kg, i.v.) or heparin (300 units/kg, i.v.) also inhibited P. textilis venom-induced cardiovascular collapse. Our results indicate that P. textilis venom-induced cardiovascular collapse can be prevented by prior administration of sub-lethal doses of venom from P. textilis, O. scutellatus, A. rugosus and D. russelii limitis. This suggests that sudden cardiovascular collapse following envenoming is likely to involve a common mechanism/pathway activated by different snake venoms. PMID:23830990

Chaisakul, Janeyuth; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; Hodgson, Wayne C

2013-08-29

153

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them in two reaches of the Snake River. Also, subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at Lyons Ferry Hatchery were PIT tagged at the hatchery, transported, and released weekly at Pittsburg Landing on the Snake River and Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River to collect data on survival detection probabilities, and travel time.

Williams, John G.; Bjornn (Bjomn), Theodore C.

1998-05-01

154

The relationship of Snake River stream-type Chinook survival rates to in-river, ocean and climate conditions  

E-print Network

chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of the Columbia River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic of Snake River chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic of productivity and survival rates for stream-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations

155

Ecology in policymaking: Water and the restoration of America's Snake River Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myth presented as science complicates green engineering attempts to restore the natural condition of degraded ecosystems. Ecologists have yet to provide a widely accepted theory of how rivers and wetlands functioned before human disturbance, and engineers cannot restore what science cannot describe. In the American West, where the powerful Snake River feeds the Columbia en route to the Pacific Ocean,

Todd Shallat

2000-01-01

156

TRIBUTARY AND MAINSTEM WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality conducted water quality sampling in the mainstem and major tributaries of the Snake River between Twin Falls Reservoir and Upper Salmon Falls Dam. Sampling was conducted at nine river mainstem stations ...

157

Secondary Deformation Within the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff and Subjacent Pliocene Units Near the Teton Dam: Road Log to the Regional Geology of the Eastern Margin of the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed geologic mapping has revealed that a 20 km by 20 km area between the south flank of Big Bend Ridge and the Teton River, has been involved in gravity sliding and secondary flow. A sheet consisting of 130 m of 2 Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff and at least 30 m of underlying alluvial gravel, basalts, and tuffaceous lacustrine sediments

Glenn F. Embree; Roger D. Hoggan

158

Origin and stratigraphy of phreatomagmatic deposits at the Pleistocene Sinker Butte Volcano, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinker Butte is the erosional remnant of a very large basaltic tuff cone of middle Pleistocene age located at the southern edge of the western Snake River Plain. Phreatomagmatic tephras are exposed in complete sections up to 100 m thick in the walls of the Snake River Canyon, creating an unusual opportunity to study the deposits produced by this volcano

Brittany D. Brand; Craig M. White

2007-01-01

159

Origin and stratigraphy of phreatomagmatic deposits at the Pleistocene Sinker Butte Volcano, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinker Butte is the erosional remnant of a very large basaltic tuff cone of middle Pleistocene age located at the southern edge of the western Snake River Plain. Phreatomagmatic tephras are exposed in complete sections up to 100 m thick in the walls of the Snake River Canyon, creating an unusual opportunity to study the deposits produced by this volcano through

Brittany D. Brand; Craig M. White

2007-01-01

160

Magma Flow and the Redistribution of Crystals in Shallow Intrusions at Sinker Butte Volcano, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinker Butte is the erosional remnant of one of the largest tholeiitic volcanoes in the western Snake River Plain. Because the edifice was dissected by the Snake River, a nearly complete record of its eruptions is exposed in the walls and alcoves of the canyon. The stratigraphy indicates that initial eruptions produced a shield cone composed of many thin pahoehoe

C. M. White; K. R. Kurz

2007-01-01

161

Effects of Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River and its floodplain, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA  

E-print Network

Effects of Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River and its floodplain, Grand Teton National Park In 1906, the Bureau of Reclamation created Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River in what later became Grand Teton National Park. The geomorphic, hydrologic and vegetation adjustments downstream of the dam have

Marston, Richard A.

162

Age at ocean entry of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon and its significance to adult returns prior to summer spill at Lower Granite, Little  

E-print Network

Age at ocean entry of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon and its significance to adult returns that juvenile Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon migrated seaward during summer and fall and entered began to: (1) describe age at ocean-entry for the Snake River Basin population of full-term wild adults

163

Inter- and intraspecific variation in mercury bioaccumulation by snakes inhabiting a contaminated river floodplain.  

PubMed

Although mercury (Hg) is a well-studied contaminant, knowledge about Hg accumulation in snakes is limited. The authors evaluated Hg bioaccumulation within and among four snake species (northern watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon; queen snakes, Regina septemvittata; common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis; and rat snakes, Elaphe obsoleta [Pantherophis alleghaniensis]) from a contaminated site on the South River (Waynesboro, VA, USA) and two nearby reference sites. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in northern watersnake tail tissue at the contaminated site ranged from 2.25 to 13.84 mg/kg dry weight (mean: 4.85 ± 0.29), or 11 to 19 times higher than reference sites. Blood THg concentrations (0.03-7.04 mg/kg wet wt; mean: 2.24 ± 0.42) were strongly correlated with tail concentrations and were the highest yet reported in a snake species. Within watersnakes, nitrogen stable isotope values indicated ontogenetic trophic shifts that correlated with THg bioaccumulation, suggesting that diet plays a substantial role in Hg exposure. Female watersnakes had higher mean THg concentrations (5.67 ± 0.46 mg/kg) than males (4.93 ± 0.49 mg/kg), but no significant differences between sexes were observed after correcting for body size. Interspecific comparisons identified differences in THg concentrations among snake species, with more aquatic species (watersnakes and queen snakes) accumulating higher mean concentrations (5.60 ± 0.40 and 4.59 ± 0.38 mg/kg in tail tissue, respectively) than the more terrestrial species, garter snakes and rat snakes (1.28 ± 0.32 and 0.26 ± 0.09 mg/kg, respectively). The results of the present study warrant further investigation of potential adverse effects and will aid in prioritizing conservation efforts. PMID:23401211

Drewett, David V V; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Chin, Stephanie Y; Hopkins, William A

2013-04-01

164

Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 2000.  

SciTech Connect

From 1997 to 2000, we collected data on the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon above Lower Granite Dam as part of a five-year evaluation of three acclimation/release facilities: Pittsburgh Landing, Captain John, and Big Canyon Creek. The use of multiple facilities is intended to distribute spawning throughout the habitat normally used in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and our study was designed to determine if this is achieved. In the Snake River, spawning normally occurs throughout a 100 mile reach. Pittsburgh Landing is located within the upper half of this reach, and Captain John is located within the lower half. In the Clearwater River, most spawning occurs within the lower 41 miles and the Big Canyon Creek facility is located therein. Our approach for determining spawning distribution was to first trap returning fish at Lower Granite Dam, identify their origin (all yearling fish were externally marked before they were released), and use radio tags and redd searches to determine where they spawned. Thus far we radio tagged 203 adult fish that were initially released at the acclimation sites. We confirmed the spawning location of 74 of these fish, 42 from releases at Pittsburgh Landing, seven from Captain John, and 25 from releases at the Big Canyon Creek facility. All of the fish from Pittsburgh Landing spawned in the Snake River, 86% within the upper half of the Snake River study area, and 14% in the lower half. Of the adult fish from Captain John, roughly 71% spawned in the lower half of the Snake River study area, 14% spawned in the upper half, and 14% spawned in the Clearwater River. Of the adult fish from releases at Big Canyon Creek, 80% spawned in the Clearwater River and 20% spawned in the Snake River (four in the lower half and one in the upper half). To augment the study, we determined the spawning locations of 16 adult fish that were directly released as subyearlings at or near the three acclimation sites. Ten of the fish were from Pittsburgh Landing, three from Big Canyon Creek, and three from the Captain John area. All of the fish from Pittsburgh Landing spawned in the Snake River (nine in the upper half, and one in the lower half). All of the fish from Big Canyon Creek spawned in the Clearwater River, and all of the fish from Captain John area spawned in the lower half of the Snake River study area. We also tagged and tracked six adult natural fish. These fish were initially captured and PIT-tagged in the Snake River when they were juveniles, and, based on our observations, all spawned in the Snake River and did not wander into other rivers after crossing Lower Granite Dam. Our results indicate that the supplementation program will accomplish its objective in terms of spawning distribution, although currently the sample size for some groups is too small for the results to be conclusive. To finish the study we plan to tag 340 fish in the fall-winter of 2001-2002, and complete the final report by November 2002.

Garcia, Aaron P.

2001-08-01

165

Implications of a Drawdown of the Snake-Columbia River on Barge Transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The listing of the Snake-Columbia River salmon under the Endangered species Cut will lead to a set of river management changes aimed at species recovery. One measure almost certain to be implemented is a periodic river drawdown. A drawdown will speed fish migration downriver but will also temporarily close the river to barge transportation. Grain shippers in the region rely on the barge carriage to move a significant share of annual production to export elevators on the Lower Columbia. A number of other bulk commodities utilize barges as well. This study outlines the aggregate and distributional economic implications of a suspension of barge transportation resulting from a river drawdown.

Martin, Michael; Hamilton, Joel R.; Casavant, Ken

1992-08-01

166

Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is low in the natural gamma ray isotopes uranium, thorium, and potassium, while rhyolites produce high total gamma ray responses. Sediment interbeds become apparent as the radioactivity associated with fine grained minerals is significantly higher than that of the host rock (e.g. basalt) due to high hydrogen concentration within the crystal structure of clays. Basalt lacks conductive minerals and results in high resistivity but moderate magnetic susceptibility. The sediments on the other hand are highly conductive and have a low magnetic susceptibility. The basalt and rhyolite units are relatively massive except for fractures which become apparent in the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. Signal is lost in soft sediments resulting in dark regions when full amplitude is displayed for the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. The massive basalt shows short P- and S-wave travel times and therefore a high sonic velocity, while the sediments display only P-wave first arrivals.

Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

2013-12-01

167

Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA)

2002-09-01

168

Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River During Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Migration  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10°C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir’s epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four lower Snake reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water’s surface, and during periods of low river discharge, often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The depth of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may also be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. This report describes field data collection, modeling, and analysis of hydrodynamic and temperature conditions in the Lower Granite Reservoir during the summer flow augmentation periods of 2002, 2003, and 2004 plus a brief one-week period in 2005 of Lower Monumental, Little Goose, and Lower Granite Reservoirs. Circulation patterns in all four lower Snake River reservoirs were numerically simulated for periods of 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 using CE-QUAL-W2. Simulation results show that these models are sufficiently capable of matching diurnal and long term temperature and velocity changes in the reservoirs. In addition, the confluence zone of the Clearwater and Snake rivers was modeled using the 3-D model Flow3-D. This model was used to better understand mixing processing and entrainment. Once calibrated and validated, the reservoir models were used to investigate downstream impacts of alternative reservoir operation schemes, such as increasing or decreasing the ratio of Clearwater to Snake discharge. Simulation results were also linked with the particle tracking model FINS to better understand alterations of integrated metrics due to alternative operation schemes. These findings indicate that significant alterations in water temperature throughout the lower Snake River are possible by altering hypolimnetic discharges from Dworshak Reservoir and may have a significant impact on the behavior of migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon during periods of flow augmentation.

Cook, Chris B.; Dibrani, Berhon; Richmond, Marshall C.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Fu, Tao

2006-01-30

169

BACTERIOLOGY AND ALGAL ASSAYS, LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS, IDAHO AND WASHINGTON, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this portion of the study is to determine 1) the overall water quality of the impoundment area, and 2) to determine the effect of impoundment on bacterial water quality. Data from the pre-impoundment study indicated that the Snake and Clearwater Rivers (17060103) ...

170

Regional Economic Impacts of the Snake River Steelhead and Salmon Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remaining runs of wild steelhead trout, sockeye, and chinook salmon on the Snake River are threatened with extinction, and wild coho salmon are declared extinct. Huge sums are being spent to recover the endangered anadromous fish. Hatchery steelhead trout and salmon provide recreational fishing as far inland as Idaho. This study utilizes a modified Leontief input–output model and a detailed

John R. McKean; Donn M. Johnson; R. Garth Taylor

2011-01-01

171

Fish Growth DRAFT: 2 April 8, 1999 Growth of Snake River chinook salmon  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.5: Application of size and growth information to juvenile chinook ecology. . 18 InfluenceFish Growth DRAFT: 2 April 8, 1999 Growth of Snake River chinook salmon W. Nicholas Beer Columbia energy density in consumption for bio-energetics modeling. 6. Interpretation of growth indicators. 7

Washington at Seattle, University of

172

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the 1999 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

Achord, Stephen

2001-06-01

173

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the 2000 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

Achord, Stephen (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2001-08-01

174

AN ANALYSIS OF MINIMUM FLOW REQUIREMENTS IN THE SNAKE, BLACKFOOT, AND PORTNEUF RIVERS. 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was done in support of an analysis of the State of Idahos Water Plan. The report analyzes the impact of low flows upon dissolved oxygen in the Snake, Blackfoot, and Portneuf Rivers, Idaho (17040201, 17040206). A steady-state water quality model (Yearsley, 1975) was u...

175

Steelhead Genetic Diversity at Multiple Spatial Scales in a Managed Basin: Snake River, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the genetic diversity of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in 74 wild populations and 5 hatchery stocks in Idaho's Snake River basin at the drainage, watershed, and population spatial scales using 11 microsatellite loci. We found significant genetic diversity at multiple spatial scales. Analysis of molecular variance showed that genetic diversity was greater among watersheds within drainages (3.66%) than among

Jennifer L. Nielsen; Alan Byrne; Sara L. Graziano; Christine C. Kozfkay

2009-01-01

176

Gas Bubble Disease in Smallmouth Bass and Northern Squawfish from the Snake and Columbia Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1975 and 1976, 179 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and 85 northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected by angling from the lower Snake and mid-Columbia rivers, southeastern Washington. All fish were examined externally for gas bubble syndrome. Emboli were found beneath membranes of the opercula, body, and fins of 72% of the smallmouth bass and 84% of the northern squawfish.

Jerry C. Montgomery; C. Dale Becker

1980-01-01

177

Evidence for Fractionation and Recharge in Shallow Basaltic Magma Chambers: Kimama Butte, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small, monogenetic shield volcanoes are the most prominent feature of the Snake River Plain, Idaho. Even though monogenetic shields are very short lived, it is not uncommon for compositional heterogeneity to be present within a single volcano. Kimama Butte shows distinct changes in major and trace element compositions and in olivine and plagioclase from the earliest, most distal flows to

M. Hurst; E. H. Christiansen

2004-01-01

178

Origin of hybrid ferrolatite lavas from Magic Reservoir eruptive center, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy and geochemical characteristics of intermediate composition ferrolatites and related lavas from the Magic Reservoir eruptive center (central Snake River Plain) have been investigated to evaluate the origin and petrologic significance of these hybrid lavas. The ferrolatites are chemically uniform, but contain a disequilibrium phenocryst\\/xenocryst assemblage derived in part from mixed rhyolitic and basaltic magmas that are closely represented

Norio Honjo; William P. Leeman

1987-01-01

179

Types of phreatomagmatic volcanoes in the western Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western Snake River Plain graben in southwestern Idaho includes a large hydrovolcanic field which was produced in late Miocene to Pleistocene time by the interaction of rising basaltic magmas with the waters and water-saturated deposits of an enormous freshwater lake, Lake Idaho. The phreatomagmatic volcanoes in this field may be grouped into three types: emergent, subaqueous and subaerial. Emergent

Martha M. Godchaux; Bill Bonnichsen; Margaret D. Jenks

1992-01-01

180

Gravity and Crustal Structure in the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gravity survey was made over the western Snake River Plain, Idaho. ; The data were reduced to sea level and expressed as simple Bouguer gravity ; anomalies for an assumed density of 2.67 g\\/cm³. Three elongated, ; northwesttrending, en echelon gravity highs were defined by the survey. The ; largest high is about 150 km long and 40 km

D. P. Hill

1963-01-01

181

Hot dry rock geothermal site evaluation, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and water chemistry studies have been performed to evaluate a hot dry rock geothermal prospect along the northern margin of the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho. The potential reservoir rock, Idaho Batholith granite, outcrops just north of the site, and is step faulted down to the south; it is more than 3 km deep in the southern

B. H. Arney; J. H. Beyer; D. B. Simon; F. B. Tonani; R. B. Weiss

1980-01-01

182

Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them

John G. Williams; Theodore C. Bjornn

1998-01-01

183

Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and

Genter

1986-01-01

184

MIDDLE REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER: WATER QUALITY AND BENTHIC BIOMONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examined spatial and temporal trends in water quality, sestonic and benthic algal concentrations, and benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness, population density, and biomass at nine stations along the Middle Snake River from Pillar Falls to Upper Salmon Falls Dam. Pri...

185

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.  

SciTech Connect

The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.

Harrell, Lee W.

1985-02-01

186

The River Dammed: The Proposed Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a dilemma case in which a congresswoman must cast her vote on the removal of the lower Snake River dams. Students assume the roles of stakeholders in this decision who represent government agencies, small businesses, large industries, farmers, local tribes, environmentalists, and sports fishermen. Some of the stakeholders are members of the congresswoman's family. This activity will help students understand the effect of dams on physical stream processes, demonstrate how physical alterations of streams lead to long-term effects on habitat both upstream and downstream from the alteration, illustrate how human systems become dependent on large environment-altering structures and, help students become aware of how enmeshed various government agencies are in this and other water issues. Students will also become aware that the point-of-view of each stakeholder often determines how facts are interpreted and presented to defend or oppose a proposed action.

Price, Alan

187

Reanalysis and Interpretation of 25 Years of Snake–Columbia River Juvenile Salmonid Survival Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tagging studies to estimate salmonid smolt survival during out-migration have been an integral component of hydroproject mitigation programs for decades in the Snake–Columbia River basin. Fifty-three smolt survival investigations from 1971 to 1996 were reexamined to identify general patterns for survival of smolts through turbines, spillbays, and river reaches. Average survival that measured both direct and indirect effects from turbine

Shane A. Bickford; John R. Skalski

2000-01-01

188

SNAKE RIVER BASIN, WATER QUALITY CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT, SEPTEMBER 1968  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings of studies which have provided the impetus to Federal-State water pollution control planning in the Snake Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) since 1962. It tells where pollution exists and why it exists. It tells what corrective action has alre...

189

Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1992-04-01

190

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (8) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

Kohler, Andre E. [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; Griswold, Robert G. [Biolines Environmental Consulting; Taki, Doug [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

2009-07-31

191

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (8) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

2006-07-14

192

Trends in organic pollutants and lipids in juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon with different outmigrating histories through the Lower Snake and Middle Columbia Rivers.  

PubMed

A three-year field study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 to monitor the spatial and temporal trends of organic pollutants in migrating juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sampled from the Lower Snake and Middle Columbia River Basins. Specifically, hatchery-reared juvenile salmon were monitored as they navigated the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by either transport barge (Barged) or remained in the river (In-River) from Lower Granite Dam to a terminal collection dam, either John Day Dam or Bonneville Dam. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides were detected in the bodies of both In-River and Barged salmon during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 outmigrating season. At the terminal dam, In-River fish had greater concentrations of persistent organic pollutants POPs than Barged salmon. Of the POPs detected, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were found at the greatest concentrations in the salmon bodies. These elevated lipid-normalized concentrations in the In-River fish were due to lipid depletion in all years as well as increased exposure to POPs in some years as indicated by an increase in wet weight contaminant concentrations. Salmon were also exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicated by the phenanthrene (PHN) signal for biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) at the hatcheries or prior to Lower Granite Dam. There were detectable levels of biliary FACs as fish migrated downstream or were barged to the terminal dam. Therefore, the potential exists for these organic pollutants and lipid levels to cause adverse effects and should be included as one of the variables to consider when examining the effects of the FCRPS on threatened and endangered juvenile salmon. PMID:21937091

Arkoosh, Mary R; Strickland, Stacy; Van Gaest, Ahna; Ylitalo, Gina M; Johnson, Lyndal; Yanagida, Gladys K; Collier, Tracy K; Dietrich, Joseph P

2011-11-01

193

Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Passing through Bypass Systems, Turbines, and Spillways with and without Flow Deflectors at Snake River Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss tagged with passive integrated transponders (PITs), we estimated passage survival through bypass systems, turbines, and spill bays with and without flow deflectors at Snake River dams relative to survival of fish released into the tailrace below the dam. Actively migrating fish were collected and marked with PIT tags at Snake

William D. Muir; Steven G. Smith; John G. Williams; Benjamin P. Sandford

2001-01-01

194

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and Johnson 1997; Pravecek and Kline 1998; Kline and Heindel 1999; Hebdon et al. 2000; Flagg et al. 2001; Kline and Willard 2001; Frost et al. 2002; Hebdon et al. 2002; Hebdon et al. 2003; Kline et al. 2003a; Kline et al. 2003b; Willard et al. 2003a; Willard et al. 2003b; Baker et al. 2004; Baker et al. 2005; Willard et al. 2005; Baker et al. 2006; Plaster et al. 2006; Baker et al. 2007). The immediate goal of the program is to utilize captive broodstock technology to conserve the population's unique genetics. Long-term goals include increasing the number of individuals in the population to address delisting criteria and to provide sport and treaty harvest opportunity. (1) Develop captive broodstocks from Redfish Lake sockeye salmon, culture broodstocks and produce progeny for reintroduction. (2) Determine the contribution hatchery-produced sockeye salmon make toward avoiding population extinction and increasing population abundance. (3) Describe O. nerka population characteristics for Sawtooth Valley lakes in relation to carrying capacity and broodstock program reintroduction efforts. (4) Utilize genetic analysis to discern the origin of wild and broodstock sockeye salmon to provide maximum effectiveness in their utilization within the broodstock program. (5) Transfer technology through participation in the technical oversight committee process, provide written activity reports, and participate in essential program management and planning activities. Idaho Department of Fish and Game's participation in the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program includes two areas of effort: (1) sockeye salmon captive broodstock culture, and (2) sockeye salmon research and evaluations. Although objectives and tasks from both components overlap and contribute to achieving the same goals, work directly related to sockeye salmon captive broodstock research and enhancement will appear under a separate cover. Research and enhancement activities associated with Snake River sockeye salmon are permitted under NOAA permit numbers 1120, 1124, and 1481. This report details fish

Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

2008-12-17

195

Columbia-Snake River Irrigators Association Eastern Oregon Irrigators Association  

E-print Network

and Summary Technical Paper) Provided to: Gov. Gary Locke, WA Gov. Dirk Kempthorne, ID Gov. John Kitzhaber Olsen, Ph.D., PNP, CSRIA Board Representative Fred Ziari, President, EOIA John Saven, Executive Director,OR Gov. Judy, Martz, MT WA State Legislative Leadership Mr. Jim Waldo, Gov. Lockes's Water Policy Rep. Mr

196

Project Hotspot: Subsurface Stratigraphy and Petrologic Evolution of Snake River Plain Basalts from Kimama Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key to understanding the volcanic and magmatic history of the Snake River Plain is identifying stratigraphic and geochemical trends through time. Project Hotspot, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, seeks to understand the long-term volcanic and sedimentary history of the Snake River volcanic province and its potential as a geothermal resource through the detailed logging of the Kimama drill core. One of three new, deep drill holes in the Snake River Plain (SRP), the Kimama drill hole (1912 m depth) is located along the volcanic axis of the central SRP. As one of the deepest coreholes on the Snake River Plain, Kimama core provides the opportunity to identify and evaluate these trends to better understand the sequence of magma genesis and volcanism. Detailed lithologic logging has identified at least 550 basalt flows (0.1-50 m thick) grouped into at least 30 flow groups, or individual magmatic episodes, that range in thickness from 13 m to 170 m thick (most 20-100 m thick). Basalt flows are designated based upon morphological characteristics including the presence of rubbly, highly fractured flow tops, massive to vesicular flow interiors, and rubbly flow bases. Flow groups are commonly separated by sedimentary interbeds, which range in thickness from 3 m to 52 m and indicate hiatuses in volcanic activity. The compilation of well log data shows an apparent agreement between lithologic and geophysical stratigraphy, with observed basalt flow group breaks and sediment interbeds at least roughly mirrored by spikes and dips in natural gamma and neutron log signals. Previous studies have shown that Snake River Plain basalt flow groups typically progress from less-evolved, more primitive basalts at depth to more evolved basalts upsection. These inter-flow group fractionation cycles are visible in preliminary plots of element concentrations by depth from the Kimama core. However, basalt flows at depths of 318.7 m and 526.6 m show higher values of Fe2O3 wt. % as well as higher incompatible element concentrations outside of expected ranges, indicating more evolved compositions similar to those at Craters of the Moon, Idaho. These data suggest the presence of multiple magma sources at varying depths that fed simultaneous eruptions. Additionally, they have broader implications for the source of mafic volcanism on the SRP and the overall evolution of Yellowstone Hotspot volcanism through time.

Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.; Christiansen, E. H.; Bradshaw, R. W.

2011-12-01

197

Geochronology, paleomagnetism and petrology of the Upper Cenozoic Bruneau Formation in the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined application of potassium-argon and paleomagnetic techniques revealed an understanding of the sequence of geologic events during the last 2.2 m.y. in the western part of the Snake River Plain. Two factors introduce large errors in the whole-rock K-Ar dating of fine-grained, glass-rich, geologically young Snake River basalts: a low potassium content which is not uniformly distributed; and the

M. H. Amini

1983-01-01

198

Harvest Management and Recovery of Snake River Salmon Stocks : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 7 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

Management measures to regulate salmon fishing harvest have grown increasingly complex over the past decade in response to the needs for improved protection for some salmon runs and to alter harvest sharing between fisheries. The development of management plans that adequately address both needs is an immensely complicated task, one that involves a multitude of stocks, each with its own migration patterns and capacity to sustain exploitation. The fishing industry that relies on these fish populations is also highly diverse. The management task is made especially difficult because the stocks are often intermingled on the fishing grounds, creating highly mixed aggregates of stocks and species on which the fisheries operate. This situation is the one confronting harvest managers attempting to protect Snake River salmon. This report provides an overview of some of the factors that will need to be addressed in assessing the potential for using harvest management measures in the recovery of Snake River salmon stocks. The major sections of the report include the following: perspectives on harvest impacts; ocean distribution and in-river adult migration timing; description of management processes and associated fisheries of interest; and altemative harvest strategies.

Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Gilbertson, Larry G.

1993-06-01

199

AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER-EASTERN  

E-print Network

River-eastern Lake Ontario bass fishery has long been known as one of the finest sport fisheries-eastern Lake Ontario bass fishery to licensed New York resi- dent anglers. Benefits to out-of-state anglers included in this study. In addition, general recreational benefits of the fishery to tourists and others

200

Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)  

SciTech Connect

Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

Not Available

1993-03-01

201

Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Services listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. The first planning of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from a captive broodstock occurred in 1994 with the release of 14,119 fish to Redfish Lake. Two release strategies were used with four broodstock lineages represented. In 1995, 95,411 hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon were planted to Stanley Basin waters, including the release of additional broodstock lineage groups and release strategies in Redfish Lake, a yearling smolt release to Redfish Lake Creek, and a direct release to Pettit Lake.

Kline, Paul A.

1997-04-01

202

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (8) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

2004-06-01

203

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2002 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake (3) conduct kokanee salmon (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

2004-08-01

204

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; and (7) assist IDFG with captive broodstock production activities.

Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E. (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

2004-01-01

205

Agribusiness geothermal energy utilization potential of Klamath and Western Snake River Basins, Oregon. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource assessment and methods of direct utilization for existing and prospective food processing plants have been determined in two geothermal resource areas in Oregon. Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. and Amalgamated Sugar Company in the Snake River Basin; Western Polymer Corporation (potato starch extraction) and three prospective industries--vegetable dehydration, alfalfa drying and greenhouses--in the Klamath Basin have been analyzed for direct utilization

Lienau

1978-01-01

206

Regional geophysical setting of the Yellowstone Hotspot track along the Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the regional geophysical setting of the Yellowstone Hotspot track along the Snake River Plain (SRP) and surrounding regions in support of a proposed scientific drilling program for one of the world's youngest, best-preserved intra-continental hotspots. The preliminary scientific drilling plan is to core a series of intermediate-depth drill holes near the axes of the western

J. M. Glen; S. J. Payne; C. Bouligand; C. M. Helm-Clark; D. E. Champion

2006-01-01

207

KAr dating quaternary and Neogene volcanic rocks of the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-eight K-Ar dates for lavas of the Snake River Plain (SRP) and vicinity provide calibration for the stratigraphic framework discussed by Malde and Powers (1962). The Idavada Volcanics, predominantly silicic volcanic rocks, are 9 to 13 m.y. old in the western SRP. Rocks of similar type and comparable stratigraphic position are 8 to 10 m.y. old in the central SRP

R. L. Armstrong; W. P. Leeman; H. E. Malde

1975-01-01

208

Accommodation of Right-lateral Shear Along the Northwest Boundary of the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northwest boundary of the Snake River Plain (SRP) is a transition from range-bounding normal faults in the Centennial tectonic belt (CTB) to the topographically low and volcanic-dominated province of the SRP. Within the CTB, the northern and central segments of three prominent NW-trending normal faults are seismically active, but their activity decreases southward toward the SRP. Deformation in the

S. J. Payne; R. W. King; S. A. Kattenhorn; R. McCaffrey

2008-01-01

209

Pyroxene thermometry of rhyolite lavas of the Bruneau–Jarbidge eruptive center, Central Snake River Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bruneau–Jarbidge eruptive center of the central Snake River Plain in southern Idaho, USA produced multiple rhyolite lava flows with volumes of <10km3 to 200km3 each from ~11.2 to 8.1Ma, most of which follow its climactic phase of large-volume explosive volcanism, represented by the Cougar Point Tuff, from 12.7 to 10.5Ma. These lavas represent the waning stages of silicic volcanism

Henrietta E. Cathey; Barbara P. Nash

2009-01-01

210

Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

Stovall, Stacey H.

1994-08-01

211

South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

NONE

1995-09-01

212

Monitoring and mapping selected riparian habitat along the lower Snake River  

SciTech Connect

Studies in this document were initiated to establish baseline information on riparian and wetland habitat conditions at the areas studied under the current reservoir operations on the lower Snake River. Two approaches were used to assess habitat at 28 study sites selected on the four pools on the lower Snake River. These areas all contribute significant riparian habitat along the river, and several of these areas are designated habitat management units. At 14 of the 28 sites, we monitored riparian habitat on three dates during the growing season to quantify vegetation abundance and composition along three transects: soil nutrients, moisture, and pH and water level and pH. A second approach involved identifying any differences in the extent and amount of riparian/wetland habitat currently found at the study areas from that previously documented. We used both ground and boat surveys to map and classify the changes in vegetative cover along the shoreline at the 14 monitoring sites and at 14 additional sites along the lower Snake selected to represent various riparian/wetland habitat conditions. Results of these mapping efforts are compared with maps of cover types previously generated using aerial photography taken in 1987.

Downs, J. L; Tiller, B. L [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Witter, M. [Shannon and Wilson, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States). Geotechnical and Environmental Consultants, Seattle, Washington (United States); Mazaika, R. [Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

1996-01-01

213

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and BioChemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake

E. C. Chuku; D. N. Ogbonna; B. A. Onuegbu; M. T. V. Adeleke

2008-01-01

214

System Dynamics to Climate-Driven Water Budget Analysis in the Eastern Snake Plains Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability, weather extremes and climate change continue to threaten the sustainability of water resources in the western United States. Given current climate change projections, increasing temperature is likely to modify the timing, form, and intensity of precipitation events, which consequently affect regional and local hydrologic cycles. As a result, drought, water shortage, and subsequent water conflicts may become an increasing threat in monotone hydrologic systems in arid lands, such as the Eastern Snake Plain Aquifer (ESPA). The ESPA, in particular, is a critical asset in the state of Idaho. It is known as the economic lifeblood for more than half of Idaho’s population so that water resources availability and aquifer management due to climate change is of great interest, especially over the next few decades. In this study, we apply system dynamics as a methodology with which to address dynamically complex problems in ESPA’s water resources management. Aquifer recharge and discharge dynamics are coded in STELLA modeling system as input and output, respectively to identify long-term behavior of aquifer responses to climate-driven hydrological changes.

Ryu, J.; Contor, B.; Wylie, A.; Johnson, G.; Allen, R. G.

2010-12-01

215

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

2004-02-01

216

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

2003-12-01

217

Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and geospatial data to understand the basement and sub-basement structures in the study area. Major tectonic features including the Ouachita thrust-fold belt, Lampasas arch, Llano uplift, and Bend arch surround the southeast Fort Worth Basin. The effects of these tectonic units in the basement were imaged in form of faulted and folded basement and sub-basement layers. Euler deconvolution and integrated forward gravity modeling were employed to extend the interpretations beyond the 3D seismic survey into a regional context. The Harney Basin is a relatively flat lying depression in the northeast portion of the enigmatic High Lava Plains volcanic province in eastern Oregon. In addition to the High Lava Plains active source seismic data, I also employed gravity, magnetic, digital elevation, geologic maps, and other geospatial data in this integrated study. I generated an upper crustal 3D seismic tomographic model of the Harney Basin and surrounding area using the active source seismic data. I then integrated it with gravity, magnetic, and geologic data to produce a geophysical model of the upper crustal structure, which reveals that the basin reaches as deep as 6 km in the central areas. I observed two major caldera shaped features within the basin. These calderas reveal seismic low velocity areas along with low gravity and magnetic anomalies. I interpreted the extent of these calderas with the help of integrated geophysical results. I propose a nested caldera complex in the northern Harney Basin and another caldera in the southern part. The Snake River Plain is an arcuate-shaped topographic low that lies in southern Idaho. This rifted valley is filled by large volume of mafic magma with numerous exposures of silicic volcanic centers. The scientific discussion on the structural complexities and evolution of the Snake River Plain and the role of extension in its formation has been going on for decades. Similarly, high gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with the Snake River Plains, and their possible causes are still the subject of many studies. Numerous recent

Khatiwada, Murari

218

Snake River Salmon Recovery Board Partnerships to Improve Habitat in  

E-print Network

­ Location and Land Ownership Marengo #12;Tucannon Subbasin Hyrdology At Marengo Milestones · 1992 - Tucannon restoration and intensive monitoring Tucannon River Accomplishments Action Units Complete Remain Riparian · Intensive monitoring is underway to track status and trend of habitat and fish · Durable partnerships

219

INDEPENDENT SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY BOARD SNAKE RIVER SPILL-TRANSPORT REVIEW  

E-print Network

River Basin Indian Tribes, and National Marine Fisheries Service 851 SW 6th Avenue, Suite 1100 Portland, Oregon 97204 J. Richard Alldredge, Ph.D., Professor of Statistics at Washington State University. Nancy and Environmental Research, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada. Robert J. Naiman, Ph.D., Professor

220

Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.  

SciTech Connect

The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River was small (n=6). In spite of this project's shortcomings, bull trout continue to be observed in low numbers at Snake River dam fish facilities. It is highly possible that bull trout observed at the Snake River dam fish facilities are originating from sources other than the Tucannon River. We suggest that these fish might come from upstream sources like the Clearwater or Salmon rivers in Idaho, and are simply following the outmigration of juvenile anadromous fish (a food supply) as they emigrate toward the Pacific Ocean. Based on our study results, we recommend abandoning radio telemetry as a tool to monitor bull trout movements in the mainstem Snake River. We do recommend continuing PIT tagging and tag interrogation activities to help determine the origin of bull trout using the Snake River hydropower facilities. As a complementary approach, we also suggest the use of genetic assignment tests to help determine the origin of these fish. Lastly, several recommendations are included in the report to help manage and recover bull trout in the Tucannon subbasin.

Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2008-11-20

221

Geochemical and Isotopic Evidence for the Origin of Continental Flood Basalts with Particular Reference to the Snake River Plain Idaho, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluminous outpourings of olivine and quartz tholeiite cover vast tracts of the western U.S.A. around the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Voluminous eruptive units within each province are petrographically and chemically homogeneous and generally lack significant lateral or temporal variation. These features suggest relatively homogeneous source regions. A possible scenario for the Snake River Plain involves extraction of tholeiitic melts from

M. A. Menzies; W. P. Leeman; C. J. Hawkesworth

1984-01-01

222

Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. This report describes field data collection, modeling, and analysis of hydrodynamic and temperature conditions in the Lower Granite Reservoir during the summer flow augmentation periods of 2002, 2003, and 2004. Although temperature, and hence density, differences during flow augmentation periods between the Clearwater and Snake rivers were approximately equal (7-12 C) for all four years, the discharge ratio varied which resulted in significant differences in entrainment of cooler Clearwater River water into the Lower Granite Reservoir epilimnion. However, as a direct result of system management, Lower Granite Dam tailrace temperatures were maintained near 20 C during all years. Primary differences in the other three lower Snake River reservoirs were therefore a result of meteorological conditions and dam operations, which produced variations in wind setup and surface heating. Circulation patterns in all four lower Snake River reservoirs were numerically simulated for periods of 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 using CE-QUAL-W2. Simulation results show that these models are capable of matching diurnal and long-term temperature and velocity changes in the reservoirs. In addition, the confluence zone of the Clearwater and Snake rivers was modeled using the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic model Flow3D. Once calibrated and validated, the reservoir models were used to investigate downstream impacts of alternative reservoir operation schemes, such as increasing or decreasing the ratio of Clearwater to Snake river discharge. Simulation results were linked with the particle tracking model FINS to develop reservoir-integrated metrics that varied due to these alternative operation schemes. Findings indicate that significant alterations in water temperature throughout the lower Snake River are possible by altering hypolimnetic discharges from Dworshak Reservoir, which may also impact the behavior of migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon during periods of flow augmentation.

Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2006-01-01

223

Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts  

PubMed Central

Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ?50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. “Delayed” mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750?km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry. PMID:22690317

Rechisky, Erin L.; Welch, David W.; Porter, Aswea D.; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C.; Winchell, Paul M.; McKern, John L.

2012-01-01

224

Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts.  

PubMed

Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ?50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. "Delayed" mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750?km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry. PMID:22690317

Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M; McKern, John L

2012-01-01

225

Quantifying recreation use values from removing dams and restoring free-flowing rivers: A contingent behavior travel cost demand model for the Lower Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A travel cost demand model that uses intended trips if dams are removed and the river restored is presented as a tool for evaluating the potential recreation benefits in this counterfactual but increasingly policy relevant analysis of dam removal. The model is applied to the Lower Snake River in Washington using data from mail surveys of households in the Pacific

John Loomis

2002-01-01

226

Envir202b Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 F. Stahr The River Dammed: Proposed Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams A Case Study  

E-print Network

Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams ­ A Case Study Assignment & Schedule for Day 2 We will next workEnvir202b ­ Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 F. Stahr The River Dammed: Proposed as your group will be asked to answer the following questions: 1) What changes (if any) to the dams

227

Index of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids by Northern Squawfish in the Lower and Middle Columbia River and in the Lower Snake River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a predation index to describe the relative magnitude of predation on juvenile salmonids by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis throughout the lower and middle Columbia River and lower Snake River. The predation index was the product of an abundance index and a consumption index. We evaluated various catch indices and found that catch per unit effort best reflected differences

David L. Ward; James H. Petersen; John J. Loch

1995-01-01

228

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

2004-08-01

229

Effect of activities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the Magic Valley study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater generated at facilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (figure 1) have been discharged to waste-disposal ponds and wells since the early 1950 s. Public concern has been expressed that some of these constituents could migrate through the Snake River Plain aquifer to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area Because of these concerns the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conduct three studies to gain a greater understanding of the chemical quality of water in the aquifer. One study described a one-time sampling effort for radionuclides, trace elements, and organic compounds in the eastern part of the A&B Irrigation District in Minidoka County (Mann and Knobel, 1990). Another ongoing study involves sampling for tritium from 19 springs on the north side of the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area (Mann, 1989; Mann and Low, 1994). A third study an ongoing annual sampling effort in the area between the southern boundary of the INEEL and Hagerman (figure 1) (hereafter referred to as the Magic Valley study area), is being conducted with the Idaho Department of Water Resources in cooperation with the DOE. Data for a variety of radiochemical and chemical constituents from this study have been published by Wegner and Campbell (1991); Bartholomay, Edwards, and Campbell (1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b); and Bartholomay, Williams, and Campbell (1995, 1996, 1997b). Data discussed in this fact sheet were taken from these reports. An evaluation of data collected during the first four years of this study (Bartholomay Williams, and Campbell, 1997a) showed no pattern of water-quality change for radionuclide data as concentrations randomly increased or decreased. The inorganic constituent data showed no statistical change between sample rounds.

Bartholomay, Roy C.

1998-01-01

230

Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. In 1994, the authors estimated the total September Redfish Lake O. nerka population at 51,529 fish (95% CI, {+-} 33,179). The Alturas Lake O. nerka population was estimated at 5,785 fish ({+-} 6,919). The total density and biomass of Alturas Lake was estimated at 27 fish/hectare ({+-} 33) and 0.7 kg/hectare, respectively. The total O. nerka population estimate for Pettit Lake was 14,743 fish ({+-} 3,683). Stanley Lake O. nerka total population size, density, and biomass was estimated at 2,695 fish ({+-} 963), 37 fish/hectare ({+-} 13), and 0.5 kg/hectare, respectively. Estimated numbers of O. nerka outmigrant smolts passing Redfish Lake Creek and Salmon River trapping sites increased in 1994. The authors estimated 1,820 (90% CI 1,229--2,671) and 945 (90% CI 331--13,000) smolts left Redfish and Alturas lakes, respectively. The total PIT tag detection rate at mainstem dams for Redfish Lake outmigrants was 21% in 1994. No Alturas Lake outmigrants were detected at any of the downstream facilities with detection capabilities (zero of 50 fish).

Kline, Paul A.

1995-08-01

231

Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at and Near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2003 and 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1953 to 1988, wastewater containing approximately 0.94 curies of iodine-129 (129I) was generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho. Almost all of this wastewater was discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) on the INL site. Most of the wastewater was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; however, some wastewater also was discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 129I from 36 wells used to monitor the Snake River Plain aquifer, and from one well used to monitor a perched zone at the INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000066 +- 0.0000002 to 0.72 +- 0.051 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Many wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases of as much as one order of magnitude in concentration from samples collected during 1990-91, and all of the samples had concentrations less than the Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 pCi/L. The average concentration of 129I in 19 wells sampled during both collection periods decreased from 0.975 pCi/L in 1990-91 to 0.249 pCi/L in 2003. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater after 1988 and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. Although water from wells sampled in 2003 near the INTEC showed decreases in concentrations of 129I compared with data collected in 1990-91, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed slight increases. These slight increases may be related to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a mass of water from a particular disposal period. In 2007, the USGS collected samples for 129I from 36 wells that are used to monitor the aquifer south of INTEC and from 2 wells that are used to monitor perched zones at INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from 0.000026 +- 0.000002 to 1.16 +- 0.04 pCi/L, and the concentration at one well exceeded the maximum contaminant level (1 pCi/L) for public drinking water supplies. The average concentration of 19 wells sampled in 2003 and 2007 did not differ; however, slight increases and decreases of concentrations in several areas around the INTEC were evident in the aquifer. The decreases are attributed to the discontinued disposal and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. The increases may be due to the movement into the aquifer of remnant perched water below the INTEC. In 2007, the USGS also collected samples from 31 zones in 6 wells equipped with multi-level WestbayTM packer sampling systems to help define the vertical distribution of 129I in the aquifer. Concentrations ranged from 0.000011 +- 0.0000005 to 0.0167 +- 0.0007 pCi/L. For three wells, concentrations of 129I between zones varied one to two orders of magnitude. For two wells, concentrations varied for one zone by more than an order of magnitude from the wells' other zones. Similar concentrations were measured from all five zones sampled in one well. All of the 31 zones had concentrations two or more magnitudes below the maximum contaminant level.

Bartholomay, Roy C.

2009-01-01

232

Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989; the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989 owing to a longer counting time in the liquid scintillation system. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contained less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. (USGS)

Mann, L.J.

1989-01-01

233

Characterization and mapping of the Browns Creek rhyolite: Western Snake River Plain, ID, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to map and characterize the geologic units that comprise the Brown's Creek region of the western Snake River Plain, with a focus on the eruptive behavior and physical characteristics of the exposed rhyolite. Located near Oreana ID, southeast of the Owyhee Front, the rhyolite in Browns Creek and adjacent rocks has never been mapped in detail. The volcanics in the Browns Creek area are predominantly comprised of low to high silica rhyolite (73%-78% SiO2), and a previously published 40Ar/39Ar date returned an age of 11.20 ± .02 Ma. The rhyolites have phenocryst assemblages of Na-plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar, pyroxene, oxides, and zircon. Both phenocryst content and crystal size vary widely from approximately 15-50% and 1-10 mm respectively. The rhyolite in the Browns Creek region has a ?18O value of 8.5‰ and marks a very sharp boundary (<10 km) between normal ?18O rhyolites of the Western Snake River plain to the northwest, and the roughly contemporaneous and much more voluminous low-?18O rhyolites of the Central Snake River Plain to the southeast. The earliest, large scale mapping suggested that the rhyolite in the Browns Creek region was a rheomorphic ignimbrite, sourced from the North, while later workers proposed that the unit was composed of an early, small, non-welded ignimbrite, followed by two separate lava flows. Detailed field work and sample collection from this study indicates that the outcrops of rhyolite lava display a continuum of phenocryst contents and structural features, consistent with a single evolving magma which effused from multiple vent areas. Steeply dipping flow features are pervasive, basal and marginal breccias are common, and the unit rarely displays the lower aspect ratio outcrops typical of other large lava flows in the region. Currently, our preferred explanation for these observations is that of a single magma showing an evolutionary trend of crystallization and fractionation, with periodic effusion from multiple vent locations, until crystal content exceeds the possibility of eruption. This interpretation is broadly consistent with geochemical data, which displays continuous evolutionary trends in trace elements, and little or no evidence for discrete magma batches. These characteristics are unusual when compared to other roughly contemporaneous rhyolites throughout southern Idaho, and may represent a fundamental change in the source region and/or tectonics between the low-?18O rhyolites of the Central Snake River Plain and the normal ?18O rhyolites of the Owyhee Front.

Clippinger, D. T.; Boroughs, S.; Bonnichsen, B.

2012-12-01

234

A simulation study of factors controlling white sturgeon recruitment in the Snake River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five of the nine populations of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, located between dams on the Middle Snake River, have declined from historical levels and are now at risk of extinction. One step towards more effectively protecting and managing these nine populations is ranking factors that influence recruitment in each of these river segments. We developed a model to suggest which of seven mechanistic factors contribute most to lost recruitment in each river segment: (1) temperature-related mortality during incubation, (2) flow-related mortality during incubation, (3) downstream export of larvae, (4) limitation of juvenile and adult habitat, (5) mortality of all ages during summer episodes of poor water quality in reservoirs, (6) entrainment mortality of juveniles and adults, and (7) angling mortality. We simulated recruitment with, and without, each of the seven factors, over a typical series of hydrologic years. We found a hierarchical pattern of limitation. In the first tier, river segments with severe water quality problems grouped together. Poor water quality during summer had a strong negative effect on recruitment in the river segments between Swan Falls Dam and Hell's Canyon Dam. In the second tier, river segments with better water quality divided into short river segments and longer river segments. Populations in short river segments were limited by larval export. Populations in longer river segments tended to be less strongly limited by any one factor. We also found that downstream effects could be important, suggesting that linked populations cannot be viewed in isolation. In two cases, the effects of a factor on an upstream population had a significant influence on its downstream neighbors. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

Jager, H.I.; Van Winkle, W.; Chandler, J.A.; Lepla, K.B.; Bates, P.; Counihan, T.D.

2002-01-01

235

INVENTORY AND MONITORING OF BALD EAGLES AND OTHER RAPTORIAL BIRDS OF THE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO 1998 Bald Eagle Territory Descriptions and Raptor Surveys  

E-print Network

Raptor species codes for raptorial birds to be inventoried and monitored in the Snake River study area Activity and productivity status for bald eagle breeding territories within the Idaho portion of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1998 Activity and productivity status for bald eagle breeding territories within the Idaho portion of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1999 Activity and productivity status for bald eagle breeding territories within the Idaho portion of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2000 Historic trends in bald eagle productivity at nesting areas in Eastern Idaho, the Idaho portion of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1987-1997 Known productivity at the Cress Creek bald eagle breeding area since re-establishment of nesting pairs Known productivity at the Menan Buttes bald eagle breeding area since re-establishment of nesting pairs Known productivity at the Cartier Slough bald eagle breeding area since re-establishment of nesting pairs Known productivity at the Annis Slough bald eagle breeding area since re-establishment of nesting pairs Snake River study area Trend in bald eagle productivity at nesting areas in East Idaho, the Idaho portion of the

unknown authors

236

Proteomic profiling of liver from Elaphe taeniura, a common snake in eastern and southeastern Asia  

PubMed Central

Snake liver has been implicated in the adaptation of snakes to a variety of habitats. However, to date, there has been no systematic analysis of snake liver proteins. In this study, we undertook a proteomic analysis of liver from the colubrid snake Elaphe taeniura using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flightmass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We also constructed a local protein sequence database based on transcriptome sequencing to facilitate protein identification. Of the 268 protein spots revealed by 2-DE 109 gave positive MS signals, 84 of which were identified by searching the NCBInr, Swiss-Prot and local databases. The other 25 protein spots could not be identified, possibly because their transcripts were not be stable enough to be detected by transcriptome sequencing. GO analysis showed that most proteins may be involved in binding, catalysis, cellular processes and metabolic processes. Forty-two of the liver proteins identified were found in other reptiles and in amphibians. The findings of this study provide a good reference map of snake liver proteins that will be useful in molecular investigations of snake physiology and adaptation. PMID:24130453

Chen, Liang; Xia, Hengchuan; Wang, Yiting; Chen, Keping; Qin, Lvgao; Wang, Bin; Yao, Qin; Li, Jun; He, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ermi

2013-01-01

237

Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.  

PubMed

The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production. PMID:23883395

Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

2013-09-17

238

Antecedence of the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River, eastern Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the eastern terminus of the Himalayan orogen, distortion and capture of southeast Asian drainage basins reflects regional patterns of crustal strain due to the indentation of the Indian Plate into Eurasia. After flowing eastward >1000 km along the southern margin of Tibet, the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River turns abruptly southward through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis rapidly exhuming a crustal scale antiform in an impressive >2 km knickpoint. This conspicuous drainage pattern and coincidence of focused fluvial incision and rapid rock exhumation has been explained by the capture of an ancestral, high-elevation Yarlung River by headward erosion of a Himalayan tributary. However, recent observation of Tibetan detritus in Neogene foreland basin units complicates this explanation, requiring a connection from Tibet to the foreland prior to the estimated onset of rapid rock exhumation. We constrain the sedimentary provenance of foreland basin units deposited near the Brahmaputra River confluence in the eastern Himalayan foreland basin using detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology. We interpret the significant presence of Gangdese-age detritus in each foreland basin unit to indicate that connection of the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River was established during, or prior to foreland deposition in the Early Miocene. Our results indicate that connection of the Yarlung-Siang-Brahmaputra River precedes exhumation of the syntaxis, demonstrating the potential for the progressive coevolution of rock uplift and rapid erosion of the Namche Barwa massif.

Lang, Karl A.; Huntington, Katharine W.

2014-07-01

239

Slab-controlled Tectonomagmatism of the Pacific Northwest: A Holistic view of Columbia River, High Lava Plains, and Snake River Plain/Yellowstone Volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We interpret post-20 Ma tectonomagmatism across the U.S. Pacific Northwest in the context of subduction related processes. While mantle plume models have long enjoyed favor as an explanation for the post 20-Ma magmatism in the region, conceptually their support has hinged almost entirely on two major features: (1) Steens/Columbia River flood basalt volcanism (plume head); and (2) The Snake River Plain/Yellowstone hotspot track (plume tail). Recent work, synthesized in this presentation, suggests that these features are more plausibly the result of mantle dynamical processes driven by southerly truncation of the Farallon/Juan de Fuca subduction zone and slab detachment along the evolving margin of western North America (Long et al., 2012; James et al., 2011). Plate reconstructions indicate that shortening of the subduction zone by the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction resulted in a significant increase in the rate of trench retreat and slab rollback ca 20 Ma. Both numerical modeling and physical tank experiments in turn predict large-scale mantle upwelling and flow around the southern edge of the rapidly retreating slab, consistent both with the observed Steens/Columbia River flood volcanism and with the strong E-W mantle fabric observed beneath the region of the High Lava Plains of central and eastern Oregon. The High Lava Plains and Snake River Plain time-progressive volcanism began concurrently about 12 Ma, but along highly divergent tracks and characterized by strikingly different upper mantle structure. Crustal and upper mantle structure beneath the High Lava Plains exhibits evidence typical of regional extension; i.e. thin crust, flat and sharp Moho, and an uppermost mantle with low velocities but otherwise largely devoid of significant vertical structure. In contrast, the Snake River Plain exhibits ultra-low mantle velocities to depths of about 180 km along the length of the hotspot track. Seismic images of the upper mantle in the depth range 300-600 km show that a northern segment of the orphaned Farallon plate lies sub-horizontally in the mantle transition zone parallel to and along the length of the SRP. The images also provide evidence for present-day upwelling from the deep upper mantle around the northern edge of the remnant slab beneath SRP as well as around its leading tip beneath Yellowstone. These results, coupled with petrologic and geochemical constraints, provide compelling support for a subduction model that accounts for virtually all post-20 Ma Cenozoic volcanism and structural deformation in the Cascadian back arc. James, D.E., Fouch, M.J., Carlson, R.W., Roth, J.B., 2011. Slab fragmentation, edge flow, and the origin of the Yellowstone hotspot track. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 311, 124-135. Long, M.D., Till, C.B., Druken, K.A., Carlson, R.W., Wagner, L.S., Fouch, M.J., James, D.E., Grove, T.L., Schmerr, N., Kincaid, C., 2012. Mantle dynamics beneath the Pacific Northwest and generation of voluminous back-arc volcanism. G-cubed in press.

James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.; Long, M. D.; Druken, K. A.; Wagner, L. S.; Chen, C.; Carlson, R. W.

2012-12-01

240

Evaluation of Reconnection Options for White Sturgeon in the Snake River Using a Population Viability Model  

SciTech Connect

Abstract.- This paper describes a simulation study of reconnection options for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus subpopulations in adjacent river segments above and below CJ Strike Dam on the Snake River, Idaho, USA. In contrast to the downstream river segment, the upstream river segment is long and has areas that are suitable for spawning during normal and wet hydrologic conditions. We evaluated demographic and genetic consequences of upstream and downstream passage using different model assumptions about trashrack spacing and density dependent effects on the spawning interval. Our genetic results predict that, although reconnection would introduce new alleles to the upstream subpopulation, it would also preserve alleles from the downstream subpopulation by propagating them in the larger subpopulation above the dam. Our demographic results predict that halving the space between trashracks would have large and unequivocal benefits, whereas the effects of reconnection would be smaller and more sensitive to model assumptions. Simulated upstream passage tended to benefit both subpopulations only in the absence of density dependent limitation. In the presence of density dependence, the combination of halved trashrack spacing and upstream and downstream passage produced the best results. Narrower trashracks kept spawning adults in the upstream segment with spawning habitat, while allowing their progeny to migrate downstream. Screening appears to be the best option for such a species in this configuration of a long river segment acting as a demographic source above a short one acting as a demographic sink.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Chandler, James A. [Idaho Power Company; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting

2007-01-01

241

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2008 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and wild fish were combined in some of the analyses. For yearling Chinook salmon, overall percentages for combined release groups used in survival analyses in the Snake River were 80% hatchery-reared and 20% wild. For steelhead, the overall percentages were 65% hatchery-reared and 35% wild. Estimated survival from the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam to the tailrace of Little Goose Dam averaged 0.939 for yearling Chinook salmon and 0.935 for steelhead.

Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

2009-06-23

242

Use of surrogate technologies to estimate suspended sediment in the Clearwater River, Idaho, and Snake River, Washington, 2008-10  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated levels of fluvial sediment can reduce the biological productivity of aquatic systems, impair freshwater quality, decrease reservoir storage capacity, and decrease the capacity of hydraulic structures. The need to measure fluvial sediment has led to the development of sediment surrogate technologies, particularly in locations where streamflow alone is not a good estimator of sediment load because of regulated flow, load hysteresis, episodic sediment sources, and non-equilibrium sediment transport. An effective surrogate technology is low maintenance and sturdy over a range of hydrologic conditions, and measured variables can be modeled to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), load, and duration of elevated levels on a real-time basis. Among the most promising techniques is the measurement of acoustic backscatter strength using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) deployed in rivers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, evaluated the use of acoustic backscatter, turbidity, laser diffraction, and streamflow as surrogates for estimating real-time SSC and loads in the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which adjoin in Lewiston, Idaho, and flow into Lower Granite Reservoir. The study was conducted from May 2008 to September 2010 and is part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lower Snake River Programmatic Sediment Management Plan to identify and manage sediment sources in basins draining into lower Snake River reservoirs. Commercially available acoustic instruments have shown great promise in sediment surrogate studies because they require little maintenance and measure profiles of the surrogate parameter across a sampling volume rather than at a single point. The strength of acoustic backscatter theoretically increases as more particles are suspended in the water to reflect the acoustic pulse emitted by the ADVM. ADVMs of different frequencies (0.5, 1.5, and 3 Megahertz) were tested to target various sediment grain sizes. Laser diffraction and turbidity also were tested as surrogate technologies. Models between SSC and surrogate variables were developed using ordinary least-squares regression. Acoustic backscatter using the high frequency ADVM at each site was the best predictor of sediment, explaining 93 and 92 percent of the variability in SSC and matching sediment sample data within +8.6 and +10 percent, on average, at the Clearwater River and Snake River study sites, respectively. Additional surrogate models were developed to estimate sand and fines fractions of suspended sediment based on acoustic backscatter. Acoustic backscatter generally appears to be a better estimator of suspended sediment concentration and load over short (storm event and monthly) and long (annual) time scales than transport curves derived solely from the regression of conventional sediment measurements and streamflow. Changing grain sizes, the presence of organic matter, and aggregation of sediments in the river likely introduce some variability in the model between acoustic backscatter and SSC.

Wood, Molly S.; Teasdale, Gregg N.

2013-01-01

243

Pesticide and PCB residues in the upper Snake River ecosystem, Southeastern Idaho, following the collapse of the Teton Dam 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Teton Dam in Southeastern Idaho collapsed on June 5, 1976. The resulting flood damaged a large area and caused the release of toxicants into the Snake River. A pesticide recovery team in a helicopter worked the flooded area for three weeks and collected 1,104 containers, about 35% of which contained toxicants. It was estimated that less than 60% of

J. A. Perry

1979-01-01

244

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565

James R. Faulkner; Steven G. Smith; William D. Muir

2009-01-01

245

Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001?2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth?s water...

246

COLONIZATION OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES ON ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATES IN THE SNAKE AND BEAR RIVER DRAINAGES, 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted as part of a continuing monitoring program by the EPA on the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of waterways of the United States. The principal objective was to assess benthic invertebrate communities in the Snake and Bear River systems (1704...

247

Biological Characteristics of Northern Pikeminnow in the Lower Columbia and Snake Rivers before and after Sustained Exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the response of northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis to a sustained removal program in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. We compared catch rates of fish 250 mm fork length and larger before and after implementation of removals and examined relationships between catch rates and year-class strength. We also describe the response of mortality rates, relative weight, growth, and

Christopher J. Knutsen; David L. Ward

1999-01-01

248

Response of Smallmouth Bass to Sustained Removals of Northern Pikeminnow in the Lower Columbia and Snake Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the response of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu density, year-class strength, consumption of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp., mortality, relative weight, and growth to sustained removals of northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. Although fishery exploitation of northern pikeminnow (250 mm fork length and larger) averaged 12.1% annually from 1991 to 1996, we detected no

David L. Ward; Mark P. Zimmerman

1999-01-01

249

Seismic expression and geological significane of a lacustrine delta in neogene deposits of the western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lacustrine deposits in rift basin environments and groundwater resources in lacustrine sediments have become major petroleum targets and methods are needed to identify facies of permeable strata within thick sections of impermeable mud rocks characteristic of these deposits. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles and well data from the western Snake River plain basin are used to identify a buried lacustrine delta

Wood

1994-01-01

250

Assessing the accuracy of thermoluminescence for dating baked sediments beneath late Quaternary lava flows, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baked sediments beneath lava flows on the Snake River Plain, Idaho, with independent age control by either C-14 or K\\/Ar dating were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The age of flows ranges from approx. 2 to 100 ka and multiple TL analyses by the total bleach method yielded ages that overlap at one sigma with

Steven L. Forman; James Pierson; R. P. Smith; W. R. Hackett; G. Valentine

1994-01-01

251

Reproductive Ecology of the Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus) on the Snake River Plain in South-central Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus) is an abundant and conspicuous breeding species through- out the Snake River Plain in south-central Idaho. The paucity of literature regarding this species reflects a lack of interest in this habitat, rather than indicating the Sage Thrasher's abundance or ease with which it may be studied. No published data on incubation time, nesting success, nesting

TIMOTHY D. REYNOLDS; TERRELL D. RtCH

252

Snake River Fall Chinook life History Diversity: Flow/Spill A recent update on Fall Chinook Migration Characteristics  

E-print Network

Snake River Fall Chinook life History Diversity: Flow/Spill ­ A recent update on Fall Chinook/production subyearling fall Chinook releases above Lower Granite Dam were analyzed to estimate survival and travel time in the reach Lower Granite Dam to McNary Dam. Fish were grouped into two-week blocks based on their detection

253

Use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags to Monitor Migration Timing of Snake River Chinook Salmon Smolts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1989, there was little detailed knowledge of the migrational timing of wild smolts of Snake River spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from individual streams. With the development of the passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag and methods for collecting and tagging parr, acquisition of information on migrational timing became feasible. We PIT-tagged wild chinook salmon parr in several

Stephen Achord; Gene M. Matthews; Orlay W. Johnson; Douglas M. Marsh

1996-01-01

254

Hydrogeology and Water Quality in the Snake River Alluvial Aquifer at Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson, Wyoming, September 2008-June 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrogeology and water quality of the Snake River alluvial aquifer, at the Jackson Hole Airport in northwest Wyoming, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Jackson Hole Airport Board and the Teton Conservation District duri...

P. R. Wright

2010-01-01

255

Geologic Map of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata and Coal Stratigraphy of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Rawlins-Little Snake River Area, South-Central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a map and detailed descriptions of geologic formations for a 1,250 square mile region in the Rawlins-Little Snake River coal field in the eastern part of the Washakie and Great Divide Basins of south-central Wyoming. Mapping of geologic formations and coal beds was conducted at a scale of 1:24,000 and compiled at a scale of 1:100,000. Emphasis was placed on coal-bearing strata of the China Butte and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described and well logs were examined to determine the lateral continuity of individual coal beds; the coal-bed stratigraphy is shown on correlation diagrams. A structure contour and overburden map constructed on the uppermost coal bed in the China Butte Member is also provided.

Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.; Ellis, M.S.; Barclay, C.S.V.; East, J.A.

2008-01-01

256

Evaluating Surrogacy of Hatchery Releases for the Performance of Wild Yearling Chinook Salmon from the Snake River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined juvenile and adult detections of Snake River yearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha implanted with passive integrated transponder tags migrating through the hydroelectric facilities in the Federal Columbia River Power System were analyzed using the ROSTER statistical release–recapture model. This model was used to estimate the downriver survival of smolts, ocean survival, adult passage success, and smolt-to-adult ratios (SARs)

Rebecca A. Buchanan; John R. Skalski; Albert E. Giorgi

2010-01-01

257

Spawning ecology of finespotted Snake River cutthroat trout in spring streams of the Salt River valley, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied spawning ecology of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) in streams that originate as springs along the Salt River, a Snake River tributary in western Wyoming. We assessed (1) relative numbers of upstream-migrant and resident adults present during the spawning period in spring streams, (2) influence of habitat modification on use of spring streams for spawning, and (3) habitat features used for spawning in spring streams. Four spring streams were studied, 2 with substantial modification to enhance trout habitat and 2 with little or no modification. Modifications consisted primarily of constructing alternating pools and gravel-cobble riffles. Only a small portion of adult fish in spring streams during the spawning period had migrated upstream from the Salt River between March and the middle of June. Larger numbers of adult fish and more redds were observed in the 2 modified streams compared with the 2 streams with little or no modification. Most spawning occurred on constructed riffles with small gravel and over a narrow range of depths and velocities. Cutthroat trout, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and their hybrids were observed in 1 stream with habitat modifications, indicating that measures to halt invasion by rainbow trout, as well as habitat improvement, are needed to preserve this native trout within the Salt River valley.

Joyce, M.P.; Hubert, W.A.

2004-01-01

258

Mapping the response of riparian vegetation to possible flow reductions in the Snake River, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was initiated to determine the general effects of potential flow reductions in the middle Snake River (Swan Falls Dam downstream to the Idaho-Oregon border) on its riparian vegetation. Considerable water from the river is currently used to irrigate the adjacent Snake River Plain, and increased demand for water in the future is likely. The problem was subdivided into several research components including: field investigation of the existing riparian vegetation and river environment, hydrological modeling to calculate the effects of one flow scenario on hydrological regime, and integration of vegetation and hydrological modeling results with a Geographic Information System (GIs) to map the riverbed, island, and bank conditions under the scenario flow. Field work was conducted in summer 1990. Riparian vegetation along 40 U.S. Geological Survey cross-sections was sampled at approximately 1.25 mile intervals within the 50 mile long study area. Cross-section and flow data were provided by the U.S. Geological. Survey. GIs mapping of land/water cover using ARC/INFO was based on 1987 aerial photographs. Riverbed contour maps were produced by linking cross-section data, topographic contouring software ( ANUDEM), and GIs. The maps were used to spatially display shallow areas in the channel likely to become vegetated under reduced flow conditions. The scenario would reduce flow by approximately 20% (160 MAF) and lower the river an average of 0.5 ft. The scenario flow could cause a drop in the elevation of the riparian zone comparable to the drop in mean river level and expansion of the lower riparian zone into shallow areas of the channel. The GIs maps showed that the shallow areas of the channel more likely to become vegetated under the scenario flow are located in wide reaches near islands. Some possible ecological consequences of the scenario flow include a greater area of riparian habitat, reduced flow velocity and sedimentation in shallow channels leading to channel deactivation, increased island visitation and nest predation by predatory mammals due to loss of a water barrier between some islands and banks, and larger populations of alien plant species in the new riparian vegetation.

Carter Johnson, W.; Dixon, Mark D.; Simons, Robert; Jenson, Susan; Larson, Kevin

1995-09-01

259

Contrasting patterns of productivity and survival rates for stream-type chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) populations of the Snake and Columbia rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of increasing hydropower development and operation appear extremely important in the decline and near extripation of stream-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) stocks of the upper Columbia and Snake rivers. We evaluated temporal and spatial patterns of productivity and survival rates (for index stocks from the Snake, upper Columbia, and lower Columbia regions) to determine the cause of

Howard A. Schaller; Charles E. Petrosky; Olaf P. Langness

1999-01-01

260

Simultaneously Extracted Metals/Acid-Volatile Sulfide and Total Metals in Surface Sediment from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and the Lower Snake River  

SciTech Connect

Metals have been identified as contaminants of concern for the Hanford Reach because of upriver mining, industrial activities, and past nuclear material production at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This study was undertaken to better understand the occurrence and fate of metals in sediment disposition areas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

Patton, Gregory W; Crecelius, Eric A

2001-01-24

261

Simultaneously Extracted Metals/Acid-Volatile Sulfide and Total Metals in Surface Sediment from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia RIver and the Lower Snake River  

SciTech Connect

Metals have been identified as contaminants of concern for the Hanford Reach because of upriver mining, industrial activities, and past nuclear material production at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This study was undertaken to better understand the occurrence and fate of metals in sediment disposition areas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

Patton, Gregory W.; Crecelius, Eric A.

2001-01-24

262

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1980's, Snake River sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka adults have only returned to Redfish Lake, one of five lakes in the Sawtooth Basin which historically reared sockeye. 1997 project objectives included (1) characterization of the limnology of Sawtooth Valley lakes; (2) fertilization of Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) O.nerka lake population surveys; (4) estimation of kokanee escapement and fry production in Alturas Lake Creek, Stanley Lake Creek, and Fishhook Creek; (5) reduce the number of spawning kokanee in Fishook Creek; (6) evaluate hatchery rainbow trout overwinter survival and potential competition and predation interactions with O.nerka in Pettit Lake; (7) assess predation from bull trout Salvelinus malma, brook trout S.fontinalis, and northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonsis on lentic O.nerka; (8) establish screw tap and weir sites to monitor smolt emigration.

Taki, Doug; Lewis, Bert (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Bob (Biolines, Stanley, ID

1999-08-01

263

Groundwater ''fast paths'' in the Snake River plain aquifer: Radiogenic isotope ratios as natural groundwater tracers  

SciTech Connect

Preferential flow paths are expected in many groundwater systems and must be located because they can greatly affect contaminant transport. The fundamental characteristics of radiogenic isotope ratios in chemically evolving waters make them highly effective as preferential flow path indicators. These ratios tend to be more easily interpreted than solute-concentration data because their response to water-rock interaction is less complex. We demonstrate this approach with groundwater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in the Snake River Plain aquifer within and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These data reveal slow-flow zones as lower {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr areas created by prolonged interaction with the host basalts and a relatively fast flowing zone as a high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr area.

Johnson, Thomas M.; Roback, Robert C.; McLing, Travis L.; Bullen, Thomas D.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Doughty, Christine; Hunt, Randall J.; Smith, Robert W.; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Murrell, Michael T.

2000-09-01

264

Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin, 1990-1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River Basin.

Waples, Robin S.; Teel, David J.; Aebersold, Paul B.

1991-08-01

265

Rivers Draining Eastern Tibet: Geomorphologic Description and Inferences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large rivers draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau include, from west to east, the Tsangpo, Salween, Mekong, and Yangzi Rivers. Their basin sizes range from 80,000 to 130,000 km2. Geomorphic characterization of these four major rivers and their drainage basins reveals that the Tsangpo River has a very different geomorphic expression than do the Salween, Mekong, and Yangzi Rivers (also known as the `Three Rivers'). A basin-wide length-to-width ratio of 2 shows that the Tsangpo drainage is much rounder than the linear and arcuate Salween, Mekong, and Yangzi Rivers, which exhibit L-W ratios of approximately 8, 6, and 7, respectively. Within the Tsangpo drainage basin, tributary areas are much larger on the north side of the Tsangpo verses the south. This is also reflected in the basin-average asymmetry of the Tsangpo, whose vector points to the SSW and has the largest (0.27) magnitude of asymmetry of the four basins. The relatively high hypsometric integral of the Tsangpo River (0.591, compared to 0.560, 05.81, and 0.551 in the Salween, Mekong, and Yangzi Rivers, respectively) indicates more basin-wide dissection than throughout the Three Rivers region. Mean Tsangpo basin-wide relief calculated over a 1-km radius moving circle is 711 ± 344 m -- significantly higher than the 505 ± 220 m, 510 ± 225 m, and 588 ± 232 m that characterize the Three Rivers. The highest relief and slope values within the basins of the Three Rivers are found within 1 km of the main channel. Relief and slope values decrease dramatically upstream in the Salween, Mekong, and Yangzi Rivers at a change in the stream longitudinal profiles and is a pattern that can be traced across the Three Rivers. This appears to be a point north of which fluvial dissection has not progressed. These basin- averaged metrics are consistent with and complement previous studies that concentrated solely on stream and basin geometry. West to east and north to south transitions in the metrics might reflect deeper structure related to the Indian plate indentor.

Ault, A. L.; Meltzer, A. S.

2006-12-01

266

The megageomorphology of the radar rivers of the eastern Sahara  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Eastern Sahara is devoid of surface drainage; this unusual characteristic distinguishes its morphology from that of most other desert regions where running water dominates landscape development. A map derived from SIR-A/B and LANDSAT images and the literature, shows the major presently known paleodrainages in the Eastern Sahara. This compilation permits consideration of the key questions: Where did the radar rivers come from and where did they go? Analysis of SIR-A data led McCauley et al. to suggest that the radar rivers, because of their southwestward trends, once flowed into the Chad basin. This key North African feature is a regional structural low formed in the Early Cretaceous in response to initial opening of the South Atlantic. The problem of the origin of headwaters for the radar rivers was less tractable. The idea that the source areas of the radar rivers might originally have been the same as those later captured by the Nile was proposed tentatively. A more extensive review of the Cenozoic tectonic history of North Africa reveals no reason now to suppose that the Central African tributaries of the present Nile were ever connected to the large alluvial valleys in southwestern Egypt and northwestern Sudan. formed in the Early Cretaceous in response to initial opening of the South Atlantic. The problem of the origin of headwaters for the radar rivers was less tractable. The idea that the source areas of the radar rivers might originally have been the same as those (The Ethiopian Highlands) later captured by the Nile was proposed tentatively. A more extensive review of the Cenozoic tectonic history of North Africa reveals no reason now to support that the Central African tributaries of the present Nile were ever connected to the large alluvial valleys in southwestern Egypt and northwestern Sudan.

Mccauley, John F.; Breed, Carol S.; Schaber, Gerald G.

1986-01-01

267

‘Snake River (SR)-type’ volcanism at the Yellowstone hotspot track: distinctive products from unusual, high-temperature silicic super-eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new category of large-scale volcanism, here termed Snake River (SR)-type volcanism, is defined with reference to a distinctive\\u000a volcanic facies association displayed by Miocene rocks in the central Snake River Plain area of southern Idaho and northern\\u000a Nevada, USA. The facies association contrasts with those typical of silicic volcanism elsewhere and records unusual, voluminous\\u000a and particularly environmentally devastating styles

M. J. Branney; B. Bonnichsen; G. D. M. Andrews; B. Ellis; T. L. Barry; M. McCurry

2008-01-01

268

Spatial and temporal patterns in channel change on the Snake River downstream from Jackson Lake dam, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operations of Jackson Lake dam (JLD) have altered the hydrology and sediment transport capacity of the Snake River in Grand Teton National Park. Prior research has provided conflicting assessments of whether the downstream river was perturbed into sediment surplus or sediment deficit. In this paper, we present the results of an aerial photo analysis designed to evaluate whether the history of channel change indicates either significant deficit or surplus of sediment that could be expressed as narrowing or expansion of the channel over time. We analyze changes in braid index, channel width, channel activity, and net channel change of the Snake River based on four series of aerial photographs. Between 1945 and 1969, a period of relatively small main-stem floods, widespread deposition, and up to 31% reduction in channel width occurred throughout the Snake River. Between 1969 and 2002, a period of large main-stem floods, the style of channel change reversed with a decrease in braid index and an increase in channel width of up to 31%. These substantial changes in the channel downstream from the dam primarily occurred in multithread reaches, regardless of proximity to tributaries, and no temporal progression of channel narrowing or widening was observed. We demonstrate that channel change downstream from JLD is more temporally and longitudinally complex than previously described.

Nelson, Nicholas C.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Schmidt, John C.

2013-10-01

269

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the eight year of a study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A total of 20,313 hatchery steelhead were tagged with passive integrated transpoder (PIT) tags and released at Lower Granite Dam for reach survival estimation. They did not PIT tag any yearlying chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) for reach survival estimates in 2000 because sufficient numbers for these estimates were available from other studies. Primary research objectives in 2000 were (1) to estimate reach and project survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, and (2) to evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. In addition, they estimated survival from point of release to Lower Granite Dam and below for chinook salmon, steelhead, and sockeye salmon (O.nerka) PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin smolt traps. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2000 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures. Further details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text.

Zabel, Richard; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2001-02-01

270

Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

2003-06-01

271

Geohydrology of the regional aquifer system, western Snake River plain, southwestern Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A three dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to simulate steady state and nonsteady-state hydrologic conditions of the regional aquifer system in the western Snake River Plain of Idaho. Water budget analysis showed that groundwater recharge was about 1,400,000 acre-ft in 1980; groundwater pumpage was estimated to be 300,000 acre-ft. Two mass water level measurements were made in March and August 1980 to define the water table in the regional system. The model was discretized into 25 rows, 72 columns, and 3 layers. Each cell represented 4 sq mi. The model was calibrated to 1980 hydrologic conditions. Calibrated transmissivity of layer 1 (500 ft thick) ranged from 1,500 to 21,500 sq ft/day. Calibrated specific yield of unconfined aquifers was 0.10 and calibrated storage coefficient of confined aquifers ranged from 0.0004 to 0.007. The calibrated model was verified by simulating monthly water-level fluctuations for 1980. Simulated water levels matched measured levels in the Boise River Valley, but the match in other areas was poor. (USGS)

Newton, G. D.

1989-01-01

272

Impacts of the Snake River drawdown experiment on fisheries resources in Little Goose and Lower Granite Reservoirs, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In March 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated a test to help evaluate physical and environmental impacts resulting from the proposed future drawdown of Snake River reservoirs. Drawdown would reduce water levels in Snake River reservoirs and is being proposed as a solution to decrease the time it takes for salmon and steelhead smolts to migrate to the ocean. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated impacts to specific fisheries resources during the drawdown experiment by surveying Lower Granite Reservoir to determine if fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas and steelhead (0. mykiss) access to tributary creeks were affected. In addition, shoreline areas of Little Goose Reservoir were monitored to evaluate the suitability of these areas for spawning by fall chinook salmon. Relative abundance of fish species in nearshore areas was also determined during the drawdown, and stranded resident fish and other aquatic organisms were observed.

Dauble, D D; Geist, D R

1992-09-01

273

Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2005; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2005 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

2006-10-01

274

Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2003; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2003 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 199801003, 199801004, 199403400, 198335003), Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, B.D.

2004-08-01

275

Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2001; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2002 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 1998-01-003 and 1994-03-400) and the Idaho Power Company.

Garcia, Aaron P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

2003-09-01

276

Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2004; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2004 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

2005-10-01

277

Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2007 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2007; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches counted upstream of Lower Granite Dam into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2007 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Arnsberg, B.D. [Nez Perce Tribe; Groves, P.A. [Idaho Power Company

2008-11-25

278

Adult Returns of Subyearling and Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from a Snake River Hatchery or Transported Downstream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the release-to-adult returns of coded-wire-tagged groups of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design: subyearlings and yearlings released directly from a hatchery versus those barged below two main-stem hydroelectric dams on the Snake River, Washington. Releases comprised six brood years over a 6-year period. In every release year, chinook salmon released as

Robert M. Bugert; Glen W. Mendel

1997-01-01

279

Hydrosystem, Dam, and Reservoir Passage Rates of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia and Snake Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed upstream migration rates of more than 12,000 radio-tagged adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss past a series of dams and reservoirs on the Columbia and Snake rivers. Most fish passed each dam in less than 2 d. Migration behavior in reservoirs and through multiple dam–reservoir reaches varied within and between years and between species. Within

Matthew L. Keefer; Christopher A. Peery; Theodore C. Bjornn; Michael A. Jepson; Lowell C. Stuehrenberg

2004-01-01

280

Management of Northern Pikeminnow and Implications for Juvenile Salmonid Survival in the Lower Columbia and Snake Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation by large northern pikeminnow (formerly northern squawfish) Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major source of mortality for juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. Large-scale, agency-operated fisheries have been implemented in this area since 1990 to harvest northern pikeminnow with a goal of 10–20% exploitation. We used indirect methods to analyze the success of the fisheries,

Thomas A. Friesen; David L. Ward

1999-01-01

281

Subsurface geology and geothermal prospects in the Nampa-Caldwell area of the western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface geological and geophysical data show a 2100-m-thick sequence of interbedded basalt and sediment lie beneath the Idaho Group sediments in the Nampa-Caldwell area of the western Snake River Plain. Numerous faults in the subsurface define a central horst that divides the subsurface into separate basins. Overlying the basalt section are widespread sandstone aquifers that can be expected to yeild

S. H. Wood; J. C. Mitchell; J. Anderson

1980-01-01

282

Preliminary Multi-Isotopic Data and Potential Regional Connections for Late Cenozoic Basalts of the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research regarding the origin and evolution of Snake River Plain (SRP) basalts west of the 116° meridian has utilized field mapping, petrographic and geochemical data, and some Sr-isotopic analyses. These studies showed that in the past 2 m.y. at least three suites of chemically and isotopically distinct basalts were produced. The oldest (1.0 Ma to 1.6 Ma) are iron-rich

T. A. Rivera; C. M. White; M. D. Schmitz

2007-01-01

283

Assessing the accuracy of thermoluminescence for dating baked sediments beneath late Quaternary lava flows, Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baked sediments beneath lava flows on the Snake River Plain, Idaho, with independent age control by either ¹⁴C or K\\/Ar dating were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The age of flows ranges from â¼2 to 100 ka and multiple TL analyses by the total bleach method yielded ages that overlap at one sigma with independent

Steven L. Forman; James Pierson; G. Valentine; W. R. Hackett

1994-01-01

284

Large-volume, low-delta18O rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Miocene Bruneau-Jarbidge and adjacent volcanic fields of the central Snake River Plain, southwest Idaho, are dominated by high-temperature rhyolitic tuffs and lavas having an aggregate volume estimated as 7000 km3. Samples from units representing at least 50% of this volume are strongly depleted in 18O, with magmatic feldspar delta18OVSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) values between -1.40\\/00 and 3.80\\/00.

Scott Boroughs; John Wolff; Bill Bonnichsen; Martha Godchaux; Peter Larson

2005-01-01

285

A genetic evaluation of relatedness for broodstock management of captive, endangered Snake River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of captive broodstocks is becoming more frequently employed as the number of species facing endangerment or extinction\\u000a throughout the world increases. Efforts to rebuild the endangered Snake River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, population have been ongoing for over a decade, but the use of microsatellite data to develop inbreeding avoidance matrices\\u000a is a more recent component to the

Christine C. Kozfkay; Matthew R. Campbell; Jeff A. Heindel; Danny J. Baker; Paul Kline; Madison S. Powell; Thomas Flagg

2008-01-01

286

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

Smith, Steven G.

1998-02-01

287

Neogene Palynology of the Snake River Plain: Climate Change and Volcanic Effects.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary palynological analyses of lake sediment and inter-flow samples reveal environmental and vegetation changes in response to climatic and volcanic events over the late Neogene. On the evolutionary timescale, sagebrush steppe has expanded and coniferous and deciduous forests have declined. In part this trend has followed the cooling and drying of the late Neogene, but volcanic impact may also be recorded in the effects of long-term subsidence and in periodic deposition of volcanic tephra. The most detailed palynological record yet published for the region (Thompson, 1992) records increasing pine and juniper percentages and decreasing sagebrush and Sarcobatus percentages spanning the Pliocene Glenns Ferry Formation and Pleistocene Bruneau Formation. Palynology of a well in Lake Idaho sediments (Canyon County, Davis, this abstract) shows the same decline of sagebrush and Sarcobatus, but records decreasing juniper percentages during the Pliocene. These Lake Idaho records are spanned by the palynology of the Great Salt Lake (Davis, 2002), which records a modern pollen flora from the late Miocene onward. Salt sage and sagebrush steppe developed progressively from the late Miocene through the Holocene, with peaks in sagebrush pollen percentages during the Mio- Pliocene transition and the late Pleistocene. The Great Salt Lake and Glenns Ferry records both include low percentages of the pollen of deciduous forest taxa such as oak and elm throughout the Pliocene and sporadically into the Pleistocene. Recent studies of soils associated with volcanic tephra reveal a Pliocene upland with abundant grass and high percentages of the pollen and spores of aquatic vegetation: a landscape with drainages choked by ash falls. Palynology above the Fossil Gulch Ash (Hagerman Valley) contains abundant charcoal and high percentages of the pollen of mountain conifers, suggesting devastation of the local vegetation and erosion into Lake Idaho from the surrounding mountains. Palynology of late Miocene - early Pliocene samples on the Snake River Plain (Banbury Basalt) is characterized by elevated percentages of Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthus pollen, abundant Sarcobatus pollen and low percentages of the pollen of oak, elm, and other deciduous forest taxa. High percentages of these types, found in the mid-Miocene Succor Creek deposits (Taggart and Cross, 1980) might result from a combination of factors, including late-Miocene subsidence of the western Snake River Plain and late-Miocene uplift of the Cascade Range.

Davis, O. K.; Ellis, B.; Link, P.; Wood, S.; Shervais, J. W.

2006-12-01

288

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2006-03-01

289

White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

2005-08-01

290

Survival of Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs in 2003 and from McNary Dam Tailrace to John Day Dam Tailrace in the Columbia River from 1999 to 2002, 1999-2003 Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results from an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River during 2003 and in the Columbia River during 1999-2002. Earlier years of the study included serial releases of PIT-tagged hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon upstream from Lower Granite Dam, but these were discontinued in 2003. Instead, we estimated survival from

William D. Muir; Gordon A. Axel; Steven G. Smith

2004-01-01

291

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

Iwamoto, Robert N.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; McIntyre, Kenneth W.

1994-04-01

292

Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat, and exacerbating adverse water quality conditions. A reduction in carry over can lead to seasonal reductions in instream flows, which may also negatively affect fish, wildlife, and recreation in Idaho. The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project does provide opportunities to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat by improving water quality and instream flows. Control of point sources, such as sewage and industrial discharges, alone will not achieve water quality goals in Idaho reservoirs and streams. Slow, continuous releases of rented water can increase and stabilize instream flows, increase available fish and wildlife habitat, decrease fish displacement, and improve water quality. Island integrity, requisite for waterfowl protection from mainland predators, can be maintained with improved timing of water releases. Rebuilding Snake River salmon and steelhead runs requires a cooperative commitment and increased flexibility in system operations to increase flow velocities for fish passage and migration. Idaho's resident fish and wildlife resources require judicious management and a willingness by all parties to liberate water supplies equitably.

Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

1992-10-01

293

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes in Eastern Washington on the Snake and Columbia Rivers by sampling tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas for N2O, CH4, and CO2 during winter and summer, 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, dissolved gases within the surface water column, ebullition within shallow embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate net GHG emissions from hydropower. Emissions of N2O and CH4 were greatest within embayments, ranging up to 6.8 mg/l and 78 mg/l, respectively. Carbon dioxide tended to be greater in embayments and in forebay environments of the hydroelectric projects, exceeding 1800 mg/l and 5,900 mg/l in these areas, respectively. Concentrations of N2O and CH4 tended to be greatest in samples that were collected directly from hyporheic pore-water, while CO2 was most prevalent within the surface water column.

Arntzen, E. V.; Miller, B.

2012-12-01

294

Seismic imaging through volcanic rocks of the Snake River Plain, Idaho for the ICDP Project Hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New high-resolution downhole and surface seismic reflection data tied to drill holes related to the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project (ICDP Project Hotspot) provide insights into seismic imaging in volcanic terranes. The downhole data at the Kimberly and Kimama drill sites in southern Idaho show low seismic attenuation and large seismic velocity contrasts at volcanic flow boundaries. These lithologic and seismic boundaries tie to reflections in both borehole and surface seismic images. The Kimberly site drilled through 1,958 m of mostly rhyolite, with thin sedimentary interbeds throughout the section. Sedimentary interbeds at depth correspond with slow velocity zones that relate to reflections on surface seismic profiles. The reflection observed on 360-channel vibroseis seismic profiles that relates to a flow boundary at 300-400 m depth increases in depth with increasing elevation away from the Kimberly drill site, suggesting flow volumes may be estimated with surface seismic methods. The Kimama site drilled through 1,912 m of mostly basalt with sedimentary interbeds at depth. Downhole and surface vibroseis seismic results here also suggest seismic reflection methods are useful to image flow boundaries. Ongoing drilling at a third site in Mountain Home, Idaho will tie lithologies and measured physical properties to surface seismic data. These seismic data show key lithologic boundaries related to Quaternary basalts, lake sediments related to paleo Lake Idaho, and underlying Tertiary basalts. Ongoing analysis should help clarify the limits and capabilities of surface seismic imaging in volcanic terranes.

Liberty, L. M.; Schmitt, D. R.; Shervais, J. W.

2011-12-01

295

Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves  

SciTech Connect

Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and P. townsendii hibernate throughout much of the area, occasionally in mixed-species groups. Myotis leibii uses the dark and protected regions of the cave, usually wedged into tiny pockets and crevices near or at the highest portion of the ceiling. Individuals of P. townsendii may be found at any height or depth in the cave. Temperature appears to be primary limiting factor in habitat selection. Myotis leibii was found in significantly cooler air temperatures than P. townsendii. Neither species tolerated continuous temperatures below 1.5 C. Relative humidity does not seem to be a significant factor in the distribution or habitat selection of the two species in lava-tube caves. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Genter, D.L.

1986-04-30

296

Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

Johnson, Keith A.

1996-09-01

297

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This reports details the 1998 study results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends observed in the cumulative data resulting from this project; data has been collected from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after 3 years of detection data from PIT-tags (passive-integrated-transponder tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish. Data showing these patterns had originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate a smolt transportation program conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish for this project. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam. We continued to tag fish from Idaho in all years subsequent to 1992. Principal results from our tagging and interrogation efforts during 1997-1998 are given.

Achord, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Axel, Gordon A. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2000-12-01

298

Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1953 to 1983, an estimated 0.01 to 0.136 Ci (curies)/year of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The wastewater was directly discharged to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until February 9, 1984, when the well was replaced by an unlined infiltration pond; a second pond was put into use on October 17, 1985. For 1984-86, the annual amount of iodine-129 in wastewater discharged to the ponds ranged from 0.0064 to 0.039 Ci. In August 1986, iodine-129 concentrations in water from 35 wells near the ICPP ranged from less than the reporting level to 3.6 +or-0.4 pCi/L (picocuries/L). By comparison, in April 1977 the water from 20 wells contained a maximum of 27 +or-1 pCi/L of iodine-129; in 1981, the maximum concentration in water from 32 wells was 41 +or-2 pCi/L. The average concentrations of iodine-129 in water from 18 wells that were sampled in 1977, 1981 and 1986 were 4.0, 6.7 and 1.3 pCi/L, respectively. The marked decrease in the iodine-129 concentration from 1981 to 1986 is the result of three factors: (1) The amount of iodine-129 disposed annually; (2) a change from the routine use of the disposal well to the infiltration ponds; and (3) a dilution of the iodine-129 in the aquifer by recharge from the Big Lost River. (USGS)

Mann, L.J.; Chew, E.W.; Morton, J.S.; Randolph, R.B.

1988-01-01

299

Bathymetry Differencing to Quantify Volumetric Change within the Snake River in Hells Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly complete baseline multibeam echosounder (MBES) survey of the 90 km of the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River that runs along the border of Idaho and Oregon, US was collected to monitor volumetric change in the sediment resources of this reach (e.g. fall Chinook salmon spawning gravel and beach-building sand). This baseline will be compared to future MBES surveys to determine the impact of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) that cuts off the supply of coarse sediment from the relatively small, unimpounded upstream area. MBES surveying is unique from other survey methods (terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS)), aerial LiDAR, RTK-GPS, or photogrammetry) in ways that lead to unique errors in the point measurements. For example, unlike static TLS acquisition, MBES surveys are performed from a moving platform that relies on GPS positioning, which introduces one of the largest sources of error into the point cloud. Because the GPS antenna is on the Earth's surface, this error is more extreme and more variable than aerial surveys where the sky view is unobstructed. Beyond the GPS positional accuracy, the errors of each MBES survey point are impacted by the geometry of the beam angle and range, which determine the beam footprint. The extremely rugged river bottom in the Hells Canyon Reach magnifies the error of the points when they are interpolated into a surface for differencing. The methods presented here account for both error sources in the surface (point and interpolation) in order to accurately determine the volumetric change between surveys.

Welcker, C. W.; Hensleigh, J.; Wheaton, J. M.; Anderson, K.; Butler, M.; Hocker, B.

2013-12-01

300

Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake River Chinook salmon: a biological-economic synthesis.  

PubMed

The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can provide valuable tools for science-based policy and management. PMID:18402583

Halsing, David L; Moore, Michael R

2008-04-01

301

Víz alatti volt-e a mio-pliocén vulkánosság a Snake-síksági vulkánvidéken (Idaho, USA)? — Terepi megfigyelések, mint az ?skörnyezeti rekonstrukció eszközei How subaqueous was the volcanism in the Mio\\/Pliocene Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) volcanic field? — Volcanological field observations as tools to reconstruct palaeoenvironments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western Snake River Plain volcanic field in South-west Idaho is considered to be an extensive Mio-Pliocene volcanic field that formed voluminous lava shields, pahoehoe lava fields, scoria cones, and great variety of phreatomagmatic volcanoes. In many ways the Snake River Plain volcanic field is considered as a special type of volcanic fields, where broad, large volume shield volcanoes form

NÉMETH KÁROLY; CRAIG WHITE

302

Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for Statement of Work Report (SOW), which includes sub-categories Work Element (WE), and within the WE the Milestone Titles.

Banks, Duane D. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

2009-11-14

303

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Redfish Lake in 2007. The hatchery origin component originated from a 2006 fall presmolt direct-release. The juvenile out-migrant traps on Alturas Lake Creek and Pettit Lake Creek were operated by the SBT from April 19 to May 23, 2007 and April 18 to May 29, 2007, respectively. The SBT estimated 1,749 natural origin and 4,695 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Pettit Lake and estimated 8,994 natural origin and 6,897 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Alturas Lake in 2007. The hatchery origin component of sockeye salmon out-migrants originated from fall presmolt direct-releases made to Pettit and Alturas lakes in 2006. In 2007, the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC) chose to have all Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles (tagged and untagged) transported due to potential enhanced survival. Therefore, mainstem survival evaluations were only conducted to Lower Granite Dam. Unique PIT tag interrogations from Sawtooth Valley juvenile out-migrant traps to Lower Granite Dam were utilized to estimate survival rates for out-migrating sockeye salmon smolts. Survival rate comparisons were made between smolts originating from Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes and the various release strategies. Alturas Lake hatchery origin smolts tagged at the out-migrant trap recorded the highest survival rate of 78.0%. In 2007, 494 hatchery origin adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. We observed 195 areas of excavation in the lake from spawning events. This was the highest number of redds observed in Redfish Lake since the program was initiated. Suspected redds were approximately 3 m x 3 m in size and were constructed by multiple pairs of adults. To monitor the predator population found within the lakes, we monitored bull trout spawning in Fishhook Creek, a tributary to Redfish Lake; and in Alpine Creek, a tributary to Alturas Lake. This represented the tenth consecutive year that the index reaches have been surveyed on these two streams. Adult counts (41 adults) and redd counts (22 redds

Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

2008-12-17

304

Parabolic distribution of circumeastern Snake River Plain seismicity and latest Quaternary faulting: Migratory pattern and association with the Yellowstone hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intermountain and Idaho seismic belts within Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana form an unusual parabolic pattern about the axis of the aseismic eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). This pattern is also reflected in the distribution of latest Quaternary normal faults. Several late Cenozoic normal faults that trend perpendicular to the axis of the eastern SRP extend from the aseismic region to the region of latest Quaternary faulting and seismicity. A study of the late Miocene to Holocene displacement history of one of these, the Grand Valley fault system in southeastern Idaho and western Wyoming, indicates that a locus of high displacement rates has migrated away from the eastern SRP to its present location in southern Star Valley in western Wyoming. In Swan Valley the studied area closest to the eastern SRP, isotopic ages, and paleomagnetic data for over 300 samples from 47 sites on well-exposed late Cenozoic volcanic rocks (the tuff of Spring Creek, the tuff of Heise, the Huckleberry Ridge tuff, the Pine Creek Basalt, and an older tuff thought to be the tuff of Cosgrove Road) are used to demonstrate differences in the displacement rate on the Grand Valley fault over the last ˜10 m.y. Tectonic tilts for these volcanic rocks are estimated by comparing the results of paleomagnetic analyses in Swan Valley to similar analyses of samples from undeformed volcanic rocks outside of Swan Valley. Basin geometry and tilt axes are established using seismic reflection profiles and field mapping. Combining these data with the tilt data makes it possible to calculate displacement rates during discrete temporal intervals. An average displacement rate of ˜1.8 mm/yr is calculated for the Grand Valley fault in Swan Valley between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma. In the subsequent 2.0-m.y. interval the rate dropped 2 orders of magnitude to ˜0.014 mm/yr; during the preceding 5.5-m.y. interval the displacement rate is ˜0.15 mm/yr, or about 1 order of magnitude less than the rate between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma. Mapping of fault scarps and unfaulted deposits along the Grand Valley fault system shows that latest Quaternary fault scarps are restricted to the portion farthest from the eastern SRP, the southern part of the Star Valley fault. Surface displacements estimated from scarp profiles and deposit ages estimated from soil development suggest a latest Quaternary displacement rate of 0.6-1.2 mm/yr for the southern portion of the Star Valley fault. Morphologic evidence suggests that this displacement rate persisted on the Star Valley fault throughout most of the Quaternary. The latest Quaternary displacement rate calculated for the southern portion of the Star Valley fault is similar to the rate calculated for Swan Valley during the interval from 2.0 to 4.4 Ma. This similarity, together with evidence for a low Quaternary displacement rate on the fault system in Swan Valley, suggests that the location of the highest displacement rate has migrated away from the eastern SRP. Other normal faults in southeastern Idaho, northwestern Wyoming, and southwestern Montana, while less well described than the Grand Valley fault system, exhibit a similar outward migrating pattern of increased fault activity followed by quiescence. Furthermore, a temporal and spatial relationship between fault activity and the 3.5 cm/yr northeastward track of the Yellowstone hotspot is observable on the Grand Valley fault system and on other north-northwest trending late Cenozoic faults that border the eastern SRP. The temporal and spatial relationship of Miocene to present high displacement rates for other circumeastern SRP faults and the observable outwardly migrating pattern of fault activity suggest that a similar parabolic distribution of seismicity and high displacement rates was symmetrically positioned about the former position of the hotspot. Moreover, the tandem migration of the hotspot and the parabolic distribution of increased fault activity and seismicity are closely followed by a parabolic-shaped "collapse shadow," or region of fault inactivity and aseismicity. We suggest that t

Anders, Mark H.; Geissman, John Wm.; Piety, Lucille A.; Sullivan, J. Timothy

1989-02-01

305

Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not reported here, but will be presented in future reports written after workshops and input by federal, state, and tribal researchers. In this report, we compared the postrelease performance of natural subyearlings to the postrelease performance of surrogate and production subyearlings. We made this comparison to help the fisheries community determine which of the two hatchery rearing strategies produced fish that were more similar to natural subyearlings. We compared the following attributes of postrelease performance (1) detection dates at dams, (2) detections during the implementation of summer spill, (3) travel times, (4) migrant sizes, and (5) the joint probability of migration and survival. Overall, we found that postrelease performance was more similar between natural and surrogate subyearlings than between natural and production subyearlings. Further, the similarity between natural and surrogate subyearlings was greater in 2006 than in 2005, partly as the result of changes in incubation and early rearing practices we recommended based on 2005 results.

Connor, William P.

2008-04-01

306

Avoiding the Pitfalls of Anisotropy in Paleomagnetic Correlation of Snake River Plain Ignimbrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Migration of the Yellowstone hotspot center tracks northeast along the central Snake River Plain (cSRP), leaving a succession of calderas, bimodal rhyolitic and basaltic volcanism, and crustal deformation. Large-scale explosive volcanism common to this province between 12.5-8 Ma is characterized by unusually high-temperature, intensely welded, rheomorphic rhyolitic ignimbrites, typical of what is now known as ';Snake River (SR)-type volcanism'. Individual eruption volumes likely exceed 450 km3 but are poorly known due to the difficulty of correlating units between widely spaced (50-200 km) exposures along the north and south of the plain. Radiometric dating does not have the resolution to identify the eruptive units. Our goal is to use a combination of paleomagnetic, petrographic, chemical and field characterization to establish robust correlations and better constrain eruption volumes and frequencies. Paleomagnetic correlation using the stable remanence, which is the focus of this presentation, has the advantage of very high temporal resolution of the order of centuries. This is due to the geologically rapid rate of geomagnetic secular variation and high accuracy to which extrusive rocks may record the instantaneous direction of the magnetic field. We have collected more than 1200 paleomagnetic samples from over 90 sites to help build a regional stratigraphy between the dozens of known ignimbrite units in the cSRP. During this process, however, we have found that the use of paleomagnetism is complicated by the large variation in the paleomagnetic direction that sometimes exists both within and between sub-lithologies of the same flow. Individual SR-type ignimbrite cooling-units have an upper and lower glassy margin (vitrophyre) enclosing a lithoidal (microcrystalline) zone. These vitrophyre lithologies often have a shallow paleomagnetic direction compared to the lithoidal lithologies. Here we present preliminary results from a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of one cooling unit and its thermal contact zone to better understand the source of discrepant directions. We found a relationship between anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetization (ATRM), coercivity, natural remanent magnetization intensity, and deflection of remanence direction. A strong lineation in the ATRM anisotropy suggests contemporaneous rheomorphic shear strain of the welding fabric during early stages of emplacement plays a key role in generating magnetic anisotropy. The low anisotropy of the lithoidal zone and its correlation with the magnetic direction of the underlying baked soil implies that crystallization somehow helps anneal this anisotropy prior to cooling below the unblocking temperature of the constituent magnetic minerals. We hypothesize that the glassy margins retain an anisotropic fabric related to emplacement which affects their ability to accurately record the magnetic field during cooling. The anisotropic fabric in the lithoidal zone is overprinted by continued grain growth and/or alteration and, therefore, more accurately records the paleomagnetic field direction.

Finn, D. R.; Coe, R. S.; Kelly, H.; Murphy, J.; Reichow, M. K.; Knott, T.; Branney, M.

2013-12-01

307

Hafnium Isotope Composition of Archean Zircons from Xenoliths of the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition, structure, spatial extent, and history of Archean crust buried beneath the Snake River Plain (SRP) are important for assessing the role of the lithosphere in regional igneous and tectonic activity. We report the U-Pb age and Hf isotope composition of Archean zircons from xenoliths entrained in Snake River Plain basalts. The xenoliths come from three localities on the SRP: Square Mountain (SM), Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) and the Spencer-Kilgore (SK) volcanic field. Cathodoluminescence imaging and previous age dating of the zircons show that many are complexly zoned and for this reason a majority of the Hf isotope data was determined via laser ablation MC-ICPMS. We used a New Wave UP-213 Nd-YAG laser interfaced with a Thermo-Finnigan Neptune MC-ICPMS and Element II HR-ICPMS for Hf isotope determinations U-Pb age dating, respectively. Previous U-Pb age dating has shown that the zircons vary from having simple age systematics (e.g., SM xenolith DM103 has a single zircon age population of ~ 2.58 Ga) to highly complex (e.g., COM xenoliths have zircons with ages populations from 2.7 to 3.2 Ga). All these zircons are Archean in age, although some have young low-U overgrowths jacketing their Archean cores which yield 206Pb/238U ages of ~19-25 Ma. There is no evidence in any of the xenoliths for zircon growth between late Archean and these young ages which attests to the stability of the lithosphere during this span of time. The Hf isotopic compositions of the Archean zircon grains are extremely unradiogenic consistent with their old age. For example, a SM xenolith (DM103) has present-day ?Hf values of -61 to -58 (initial ?Hf values at 2.56 Ga of -5 to -2), comparable with data determined by conventional solution-based methods. Another zircon from a COM xenolith (COM22) has an Archean core (2.7 Ga) and a large overgrowth with an age of ~20 Ma. Remarkably the present day ?Hf values of the core and overgrowth are identical within analytical uncertainties, -76 and -73, respectively. This indicates the young overgrowth consists entirely of recycled Archean crust with no detectable involvement of mantle derived Hf. The low ?Hf values imply little material exchange between Archean crust and SRP melts (typical ?Hf between -10 and +10). The ages (~20 Ma) and the lack of a mantle component of the zircon overgrowths seem to preclude that young zircon growth was produced during SRP magmatism. However, the recent transfer of heat into the Archean basement may provide important clues concerning the processes operative in the lithosphere prior to and perhaps during SRP magmatism.

Dufrane, S. A.; Vervoort, J. D.; Leeman, W. P.; Wolf, D. E.

2007-12-01

308

Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1953 to 1990, an estimated 0.56 to 1.18 curies of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The waste- water was discharged directly to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well prior to February 1984 and through unlined disposal ponds in 1984-90. The wastewater did not contain measurable concentrations of iodine-129 in 1989-90. Samples were collected from 51 wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer and 1 well that obtains water from a perched ground-water zone. The samples were analyzed for iodine-129 using an accelerator mass spectrometer which is two to six orders of magnitude more sensitive than neutron- activation methods. Therefore, iodine-129 was detectable in samples from a larger number of wells distributed over a larger area than previously was possible. Ground-water flow velocities calculated using iodine-129 data are estimated to be at least 6 feet per day. These velocities compare favorably with those of 4 to 10 feet per day calculated from tritium data and tracer studies at wells down- gradient from the ICPP. In 1990-91, concentrations of iodine-129 in water samples from wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from less than 0.0000006+0.0000002 to 3.82.+0.19 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The mean concentration in water from 18 wells was 0.81+0.19 pCi/L as compared with 1.30+0.26 pCi/L in 1986. The decrease in the iodine-l29 concentrations from 1986 to 1990-91 chiefly was the result of a decrease in the amount of iodine-129 disposed of annually, and changes in disposal techniques.

Mann, L. J.; Beasley, T. M.

1994-01-01

309

Influence of flow and temperature on survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summer flow augmentation to increase the survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is implemented annually to mitigate for the development of the hydropower system in the Snake River basin, but the efficacy of this practice has been disputed. We studied some of the factors affecting survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon from capture, tagging, and release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of the first dam encountered by smolts en route to the sea. We then assessed the effects of summer flow augmentation on survival to the tailrace of this dam. We tagged and released 5,030 wild juvenile fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River from 1998 to 2000. We separated these tagged fish into four sequential within-year release groups termed cohorts (N = 12). Survival probability estimates (mean ?? SE) to the tailrace of the dam for the 12 cohorts when summer flow augmentation was implemented ranged from 36% ?? 4% to 88% ?? 5%. We fit an ordinary least-squares multiple regression model from indices of flow and temperature that explained 92% (N = 12; P < 0.0001) of the observed variability in cohort survival. Survival generally increased with increasing flow and decreased with increasing temperature. We used the regression model to predict cohort survival for flow and temperature conditions observed when summer flow augmentation was implemented and for approximated flow and temperature conditions had the summer flow augmentation not been implemented. Survival of all cohorts was predicted to be higher when flow was augmented than when flow was not augmented because summer flow augmentation increased the flow levels and decreased the temperatures fish were exposed to as they moved seaward. We conclude that summer flow augmentation increases the survival of young fall chinook salmon.

Connor, W.P.; Burge, H.L.; Yearsley, J.R.; Bjornn, T.C.

2003-01-01

310

Radiogenic isotopic constraints from the Project Hotspot Kimama core: implications for Hotspot-controlled lithosphere interactions beneath the Snake River Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project Hotspot, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, seeks to understand the evolution of Snake River Plain -Yellowstone Plateau volcanism through time. Radiogenic isotope chemistry, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology from the Kimama core temporally constrain the mass proportions and flux of magma source components in Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau (SRP-YP) basaltic volcanism. We present new radiogenic isotope data for the Kimama core of the central Snake River Plain that support the regional model of plume-continental lithosphere interaction and westward source variation over the past ~ 12 Ma. The 1912 m Kimama core provides a nearly continuous depositional record of basaltic lava flows on the central Snake River Plain from the late Miocene through Pleistocene. Most of the basalt flows are Snake River olivine tholeiites with MgO 6-10%, Fe2O3 < 16%, and K2O <0.9%. Compositionally evolved basalts similar to those erupted at Craters of the Moon (high K2O, Fe2O3, and Zr) were identified at various depths throughout the core. We analyzed 15 basalt samples from a range of geochemical compositions and depths within the Kimama core for Nd, Sr, Hf, and Pb. Radiogenic Pb isotope values for Kimama basalts ranged from 206Pb/204Pb ~18.0--18.5, 207Pb/204Pb ~15.6--15.7, and 208Pb/204Pb ~38.5--39.0. Radiogenic Hf isotopes range from 0.282683--0.282745. Evolved basalts span the same range of 177Hf/176Hf, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb as the more primitive basalt compositions (high MgO, Cr, and Ni). Ar/Ar and paleomagnetic dating establish a relatively linear basalt accumulation rate of 305 m/m.y. and a projected bottom hole age of 6.2 Ma.

Potter, K. E.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.

2013-12-01

311

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 45,907 hours of setline effort and 186 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2001. A total of 390 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 12 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 36.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 42 cm to 307 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 66 cm to 235 cm and averaged 160 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. An additional 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 2001. The locations of 17 radio-tagged white sturgeon were monitored in 2001. The movement of these fish ranged from 38.6 km (24 miles) downstream to 54.7 km (34 miles) upstream; however, 62.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 309 aged white sturgeon. The results suggest fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. A total of 14 white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River in 2001.

Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2003-03-01

312

Effects of Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Fish Residing in the Snake and Columbia Rivers, 1996 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Increased spill at dams has commonly brought dissolved gas supersaturation higher than levels established by state and federal water quality criteria in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. These increased spill volumes are intended to provide safe passage for migrating juvenile salmon. However, dissolved gas supersaturation resulting from spill in past decades has led to gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish. Therefore, during the period of high spill in 1996, the authors monitored the prevalence and severity of gas bubble disease by sampling resident fish in Priest Rapids Reservoir and downstream from Bonneville, Priest Rapids, and Ice Harbor Dams.

Schrank, Boyd P.

1998-03-01

313

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for PIT-tagged hatchery and wild juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers during 1998. Estimates of post-detection bypass survival for yearling chinook salmon at McNary Dam are also reported. Results are reported primarily in the form of data tables and figures with minimal description of methods and analysis. Detailed information on the methodology and statistical models used for this report is provided in five previous annual reports on this study, which are cited here.

Smith, Steven G.

2000-03-01

314

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the second year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through the dams and reservoirs of the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected at selected locations above, at, and below Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release, Modified Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models.

Muir, William D.

1995-02-01

315

Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are made up of at least 178 basalt-flow groups, 103 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 4 rhyolite domes. Stratigraphic units identified in 333 wells in this 890-mile{sup 2} area include 121 basalt-flow groups, 102 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 1 rhyolite dome. Stratigraphic units were identified and correlated using the data from numerous outcrops and 26 continuous cores and 328 natural-gamma logs available in December 1993. Basalt flows make up about 85% of the volume of deposits underlying the area.

Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.

1997-08-01

316

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

317

Snakes of Eastern North America by Carl H. Ernst; Roger W. Barbour Review by: Michael V. Plummer  

E-print Network

:449-457. KOFRON,C. 1985. Systematics of the neotropical gas- tropod-eating snake genera, Tropidodipsasand Si- bon., Chipping Norton, Australia. WELLS,R. W., ANDC. R. WELLINGTON.1983. A syn- opsis of the class Reptilia:449-457. KOFRON,C. 1985. Systematics of the neotropical gas- tropod-eating snake genera, Tropidodipsasand Si- bon

Plummer, Michael V.

318

Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995  

SciTech Connect

Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1992--95.

Bartholomay, R.C.; Tucker, B.J.; Ackerman, D.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

1997-04-01

319

Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

1993-06-01

320

Flow Augmentation and Reservoir Drawdown : Strategies for Recovery of Threatened and Endangered Stocks of Salmon in the Snake River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 2 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The premise for flow augmentation is based on the argument that increasing water velocity increases smolt migration speed, which in turn improves smolt survival through reservoirs and at ocean entry. The purpose of this document is to examine key technical issues regarding the benefits of flow augmentation as a strategy for improving survival of downstream migrants. Reservoir drawdown, an altemative strategy for increasing water velocity through the mainstream Snake and Columbia rivers will also be examined. Data sets and analyses that pertain to Snake River stocks will be emphasized, particularly those stocks currently listed as threatened or endangered. This document focuses on treating two smolt responses that can be useful in reflecting the effects of flow augmentation, or increased water velocity; travel time or migration speed, and survival. Although there has been recent interest in using migrational timing as a measure of flow effects that response reflects principally the temporal initiation of the migration event and does not provide a performance measure once fish are in transit between two locations.

Giorgi, Albert E.

1993-06-01

321

Long-term, One-dimensional Simulation of Lower Snake River Temperatures for Current and Unimpounded Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to compare water temperatures in the Lower Snake River for current (impounded) and unimpounded conditions using a mathematical model of the river system. A long-term analysis was performed using the MASS1 one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and water quality model. The analysis used historical flows and meteorological conditions for a 35-year period spanning between 1960 and 1995. Frequency analysis was performed on the model results to calculate river temperatures at various percent of time exceeded levels. Results were are also analyzed to compute the time when, during the year, water temperatures rose above or fell below various temperature levels. The long-term analysis showed that the primary difference between the current and unimpounded river scenarios is that the reservoirs decrease the water temperature variability. The reservoirs also create a thermal inertia effect which tends to keep water cooler later into the spring and warmer later into the fall compared to the unimpounded river condition. Given the uncertainties in the simulation model, inflow temperatures, and meteorological conditions the results show only relatively small differences between current and unimpounded absolute river temperatures.

Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2001-02-15

322

Crystal forms of a lysine-49 phospholipase A 2 from the eastern cottonmouth snake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an effort to determine the structure of a lysine-49 variant phospholipase A 2 from the venom of a North American pit viper, the eastern cottonmouth ( Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), we have produced five different crystal forms grown under a variety of crystallization conditions. They include an orthorthombic form (P2 12 12 1 or P2 12 12; a=87.8(3) Å, b=76.2(3) Å, c=57.4(4) Å), an hexagonal form (space group P6 122 or its enantiomer; a= b=62.22(3) Å, c=137.1(3) Å) and two tetragonal forms - a neutral pH form (space group P4 12 12 or its enantiomer; a = b = 81.99(3) Å) and high pH form (space group P4 12 12; a = b = 71.5(1) Å, c = 57.6(2) Å one molecule per asymmetric unit) — the latter of which was used for structure determination.

Clancy, Laura L.; Rydel, Timothy J.; Muchmore, Steven W.; Holland, Debra R.; Watenpaugh, Keith D.; Finzel, Barry C.; Einspahr, Howard M.

1990-09-01

323

Review of Monitoring Plans for Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Gas Supersaturation Levels on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.  

SciTech Connect

Montgomery Watson was retained by the Bonneville Power Administration to evaluate the monitoring program for gas bubble disease signs and dissolved gas supersaturation levels on the Columbia and Snake rivers. The results of this evaluation will provide the basis for improving protocols and procedures for future monitoring efforts. Key study team members were Dr. John Colt, Dr. Larry Fidler, and Dr. Ralph Elston. On the week of June 6 through 10, 1994 the study team visited eight monitoring sites (smolt, adult, and resident fish) on the Columbia and Snake rivers. Additional protocol evaluations were conducted at the Willard Field Station (National Biological Survey) and Pacific Northwest Laboratories at Richland (Battelle). On June 13 and 14, 1994, the study team visited the North Pacific Division office of the U.S. Corps of Engineers and the Fish Passage Center to collect additional information and data on the monitoring programs. Considering the speed at which the Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring Program was implemented this year, the Fish Passage Center and cooperating Federal, State, and Tribal Agencies have been doing an incredible job. Thirty-one specific recommendations are presented in this report and are summarized in Section 14.

Fidler, Larry; Elston, Ralph; Colt, John

1994-07-01

324

Identification of juvenile fall versus spring chinook salmon migrating through the lower Snake River based on body morphology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the use of body morphology to distinguish among subyearling fall-run, subyearling spring-run, and yearling spring-run smolts of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at two lower Snake River dams during the summer emigration. Based on principal-components analysis, subyearling fall-run chinook salmon had smaller heads and eyes, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling spring-run chinook salmon had characteristics of both subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon were classified with more than 80% accuracy by means of discriminant analysis. Classification accuracy for subyearling spring-run chinook salmon was only 26%. We conclude that body morphology can be used to accurately identify the age of chinook salmon smolts but not the run. Therefore, genetic analyses are the only means of reliably determining the run composition of summer migrants in the lower Snake River.

Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Garland, R.D.; Verhey, P.A.

2000-01-01

325

Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal.

Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

1997-05-01

326

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to Eagle Fish Hatchery on September 14, 2004 and later incorporated into hatchery spawn matrices. Nine anadromous females, 102 captive females from brood year 2001, and one captive female from brood year 2000 broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2004. Spawn pairings produced approximately 140,823 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed stage of development averaging 72.8%. Eyed-eggs (49,134), presmolts (130,716), smolts (96), and adults (241) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 2004. Reintroduction strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, five broodstocks and five unique production groups were in culture at Idaho Department of Fish and Game (Eagle Fish Hatchery and Sawtooth Fish Hatchery) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (Oxbow Fish Hatchery) facilities. Two of the five broodstocks were incorporated into the 2004 spawning design.

Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

2006-05-01

327

Geometry and styles of displacement transfer, eastern Sun River Canyon Area, Sawtooth Range, Montana  

E-print Network

GEOMETRY AND STYLES OF DISPLACEMENT TRANSFER, EASTERN SUN RIVER CANYON AREA, SAWTOOTH RANGE, MONTANA A Thesis by BARBARA LOUISE GOLDBURG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Geology GEOMETRY AND STYLES OF DISPLACEMENT TRANSFER, EASTERN SUN RIVER CANYON AREA, SAIAITOOTH RANGE, MONTANA A Thesis by BARBARA LOUISE GOLDBURG Approved as to style and content by: Jo...

Goldburg, Barbara Louise

2012-06-07

328

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2007.  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, we used radio and acoustic telemetry to evaluate the migratory behavior, survival, mortality, and delay of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River and Lower Granite Reservoir. Monthly releases of radio-tagged fish ({approx}95/month) were made from May through October and releases of 122-149/month acoustic-tagged fish per month were made from August through October. We compared the size at release of our tagged fish to that which could have been obtained at the same time from in-river, beach seine collections made by the Nez Perce Tribe. Had we relied on in-river collections to obtain our fish, we would have obtained very few in June from the free-flowing river but by late July and August over 90% of collected fish in the transition zone were large enough for tagging. Detection probabilities of radio-tagged subyearlings were generally high ranging from 0.60 (SE=0.22) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the different study reaches and months. Lower detection probabilities were observed in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches where fewer fish were detected. Detection probabilities of acoustic-tagged subyearlings were also high and ranged from 0.86 (SE=0.09) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches during August through October. Estimates of the joint probability of migration and survival generally declined in a downstream direction for fish released from June through August. Estimates were lowest in the transition zone (the lower 7 km of the Clearwater River) for the June release and lowest in the confluence area for July and August releases. The joint probability of migration and survival in these reaches was higher for the September and October releases, and were similar to those of fish released in May. Both fish weight and length at tagging were significantly correlated with the joint probability of migrating and surviving for both radio-tagged and acoustic-tagged fish. For both tag types, fish that were heavier at tagging had a higher probability of successfully passing through the confluence (P=0.0050 for radio-tagged fish; P=0.0038 for acoustic-tagged fish). Radio-tagged fish with greater weight at tagging also had a higher probability of migrating and surviving through both the lower free-flowing reach (P=0.0497) and the transition zone (P=0.0007). Downstream movement rates of radio-tagged subyearlings were highest in free-flowing reaches in every month and decreased considerably with impoundment. Movement rates were slowest in the transition zone for the June and August release groups, and in the confluence reach for the July release group. For acoustic-tagged subyearlings, the slowest movement rates through the confluence and upper reservoir reaches were observed for the September release group. Radio-tagged fish released in August showed the greatest delay in the transition zone, while acoustic-tagged fish released in September showed the greatest delay in the transition zone and confluence reaches. Across the monthly release groups from July through September, the probability of delaying in the transition zone and surviving there declined throughout the study. All monthly release groups of radio-tagged subyearlings showed evidence of mortality within the transition zone, with final estimates (across the full 45-d detection period) ranging from 0.12 (SE not available) for the May release group to 0.58 (SE = 0.06) for the June release group. The May and September release groups tended to have lower mortality in the transition zone than the June, July, and August release groups. Live fish were primarily detected away from shore in the channel, whereas all dead fish were located along shorelines with most being located in the vicinity of the Memorial Bridge and immediately upstream. During the May detection period, before the implementation of summer flow augmentation, temperatures in the Clearwater River and Snake River arms of Lower Granite Reservoir and the downstream boundary of the confluence ranged from 8 to 17 C. During the June-August detection periods, however, temperatures in

Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; McMichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-08-21

329

Survey of pathogens in hatchery Chinook salmon with different out-migration histories through the Snake and Columbia rivers.  

PubMed

The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is known about the occurrence and transmission of infectious agents in barged juvenile salmon relative to juvenile salmon that remain in-river to navigate to the ocean. We conducted a survey of hatchery-reared spring Chinook salmon at various points along their out-migration path as they left their natal hatcheries and either migrated in-river or were barged through the FCRPS. Salmon kidneys were screened by polymerase chain reaction for nine pathogens and one family of water molds. Eight pathogens were detected; the most prevalent were Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Species in the family Saprolegniaceae were also commonly detected. Pathogen prevalence was significantly greater in fish that were barged through the FCRPS than in fish left to out-migrate in-river. These results suggest that the transmission of infectious agents to susceptible juvenile salmon occurs during the barging process. Therefore, management activities that reduce pathogen exposure during barging may increase the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon after they are released. PMID:21834329

Van Gaest, A L; Dietrich, J P; Thompson, D E; Boylen, D A; Strickland, S A; Collier, T K; Loge, F J; Arkoosh, M R

2011-06-01

330

Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. The results suggest fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate egg mats documented white sturgeon spawning in four consecutive years. A total of 49 white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River from 1999-2002, and seven from the Salmon River during 2000.

Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Management, Lapwai, ID)

2004-02-01

331

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

2006-05-01

332

Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

1997-05-01

333

Long-Term Population Dynamics of the Endangered Snake River Sockeye Salmon: Evidence of Past Influences on Stock Decline and Impediments to Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines in populations of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been most pronounced in the southern extent of their range, and numerous anthropogenic stressors and natural drivers have been identified as potential causes. Using a paleolimnological approach, we have reconstructed the natural variability in the population dynamics of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon O. nerka over approximately the past 1,370 years.

Daniel T. Selbie; Bert A. Lewis; John P. Smol; Bruce P. Finney

2007-01-01

334

Track of the Yellowstone hotspot: Young and ongoing geologic processes from the Snake River Plain to the Yellowstone Plateau and Tetons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fi eld trip highlights various stages in the evolution of the Snake River Plain- Yellowstone Plateau bimodal volcanic province, and associated faulting and uplift, also known as the track of the Yellowstone hotspot. The 16 Ma Yellowstone hotspot track is one of the few places on Earth where time-transgressive processes on conti- nental crust can be observed in the

L. A. Morgan; K. L. Pierce; W. C. Pat Shanks

335

Crustal deformation of the Yellowstone–Snake River Plain volcano-tectonic system: Campaign and continuous GPS observations, 1987–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yellowstone–Snake River Plain tectonomagmatic province resulted from Late Tertiary volcanism in western North America, producing three large, caldera-forming eruptions at the Yellowstone Plateau in the last 2 Myr. To understand the kinematics and geodynamics of this volcanic system, the University of Utah conducted seven GPS campaigns at 140 sites between 1987 and 2003 and installed a network of 15

C. M. Puskas; R. B. Smith; C. M. Meertens; W. L. Chang

2007-01-01

336

ANALYSIS OF DATA ON NUTRIENTS AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GROUND WATER IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1980-91  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin (17...

337

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged

Steven G. Smith; William D. Muir; Douglas M. Marsh

2006-01-01

338

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the twelfth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged

Steven G. Smith; William D. Muir; Douglas M. Marsh

2005-01-01

339

Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains a continuous monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of

R. C. Bartholomay; B. R. Orr; M. J. Liszewski; R. G. Jensen

1995-01-01

340

Migration Depths of Adult Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon in the Lower Columbia and Snake Rivers in Relation to Dissolved Gas Supersaturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High spill volume at dams can create supersaturated dissolved gas conditions that may have negative effects on fish. Water spilling over Columbia and Snake River dams during the spring and summer creates plumes with high dissolved gas that extend downstream of dam spillways and throughout reservoirs and creates gas-supersaturated conditions throughout the water column. During the spring and summer of

Eric L. Johnson; Tami S. Clabough; David H. Bennett; Theodore C. Bjornn; Christopher A. Peery; Christopher C. Caudill; Lowell C. Stuehrenberg

2005-01-01

341

Evaluation of the Prototype Surface Bypass for Salmonid Smolts in Spring 1996 and 1997 at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 1996 and 1997, we studied the prototype surface bypass and collector (SBC) at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in Washington. Our objectives were to determine the most efficient SBC configuration and to describe smolt movements and swimming behavior in the forebay. To do this, we used hydroacoustic and radiotelemetry techniques. The SBC was retrofitted onto the

Gary E. Johnson; Noah S. Adams; Robert L. Johnson; Dennis W. Rondorf; Dennis D. Dauble; Theresa Y. Barila

2000-01-01

342

BIOLOGICAL METRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NONPOINT POLLUTION IN THE SNAKE RIVER ECOREGION OF SOUTHERN IDAHO, 1990-91 FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to develop and test a biological assessment program for representative streams in the Snake River Basin ecoregion of southern Idaho. A habitat analysis component was included to provide an independent measure of environmental conditions. The over...

343

Hydrogeology and Water Quality in the Snake River Alluvial Aquifer at Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson, Wyoming, Water Years 2011 and 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrogeology and water quality of the Snake River alluvial aquifer at the Jackson Hole Airport in northwest Wyoming was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Jackson Hole Airport Board, during water years 2011 and 2012 as part...

P. R. Wright

2013-01-01

344

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 29 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 49 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests the fish are currently growing faster than fish historicly inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. Five white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River.

Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2003-03-01

345

Origin and stratigraphy of phreatomagmatic deposits at the Pleistocene Sinker Butte Volcano, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sinker Butte is the erosional remnant of a very large basaltic tuff cone of middle Pleistocene age located at the southern edge of the western Snake River Plain. Phreatomagmatic tephras are exposed in complete sections up to 100 m thick in the walls of the Snake River Canyon, creating an unusual opportunity to study the deposits produced by this volcano through its entire sequence of explosive eruptions. The main objectives of the study were to determine the overall evolution of the Sinker Butte volcano while focusing particularly on the tephras produced by its phreatomagmatic eruptions. Toward this end, twenty-three detailed stratigraphic sections ranging from 20 to 100 m thick were examined and measured in canyon walls exposing tephras deposited around 180° of the circumference of the volcano. Three main rock units are recognized in canyon walls at Sinker Butte: a lower sequence composed of numerous thin basaltic lava flows, an intermediate sequence of phreatomagmatic tephras, and a capping sequence of welded basaltic spatter and more lava flows. We subdivide the phreatomagmatic deposits into two main parts, a series of reworked, mostly subaqueously deposited tephras and a more voluminous sequence of overlying subaerial surge and fall deposits. Most of the reworked deposits are gray in color and exhibit features such as channel scour and fill, planar-stratification, high and low angle cross-stratification, trough cross-stratification, and Bouma-turbidite sequences consistent with their being deposited in shallow standing water or in braided streams. The overlying subaerial deposits are commonly brown or orange in color due to palagonitization. They display a wide variety of bedding types and sedimentary structures consistent with deposition by base surges, wet to dry pyroclastic fall events, and water saturated debris flows. Proximal sections through the subaerial tephras exhibit large regressive cross-strata, planar bedding, and bomb sags suggesting deposition by wet base surges and tephra fallout. Medial and distal deposits consist of a thick sequence of well-bedded tephras; however, the cross-stratified base-surge deposits are thinner and interbedded within the fallout deposits. The average wavelength and amplitude of the cross strata continue to decrease with distance from the vent. These bedded surge and fall deposits grade upward into dominantly fall deposits containing 75-95% juvenile vesiculated clasts and localized layers of welded spatter, indicating a greatly reduced water-melt ratio. Overlying these "dryer" deposits are massive tuff breccias that were probably deposited as water saturated debris flows (lahars). The first appearance of rounded river gravels in these massive tuff breccias indicates downward coring of the diatreme and entrainment of country rock from lower in the stratigraphic section. The "wetter" nature of these deposits suggests a renewed source of external water. The massive deposits grade upward into wet fallout tephras and the phreatomagmatic sequence ends with a dry scoria fall deposit overlain by welded spatter and lava flows. Field observations and two new 40Ar- 39Ar incremental heating dates suggest the succession of lavas and tephra deposits exposed in this part of the Snake River canyon may all have been erupted from a closely related complex of vents at Sinker Butte. We propose that initial eruptions of lava flows built a small shield edifice that dammed or disrupted the flow of the ancestral Snake River. The shift from effusive to explosive eruptions occurred when the surface water or rising ground water gained access to the vent. As the river cut a new channel around the lava dam, water levels dropped and the volcano returned to an effusive style of eruption.

Brand, Brittany D.; White, Craig M.

2007-02-01

346

Seismic Evidence for the Influence of Subduction and Slab Fragmentation on Flood Volcanism in the Cascadian Backarc and on the Snake River Plain\\/Yellowstone Hotspot Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snake River Plain\\/Yellowstone (SRP\\/Y) volcanic complex is widely considered a classic example of a plume generated continental hotspot. By that model, the plume head appeared ca 17 Ma near the Oregon-Idaho-Nevada border, with the outpouring of the Steens and Columbia River flood basalts. The SRP\\/Y hotspot is assumed to be the product of plume tail upwelling over the past

D. E. James; M. J. Fouch; R. W. Carlson; J. B. Roth

2010-01-01

347

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information on PIT-tagging of wild Chinook salmon parr in Idaho in 2003 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish and similarly tagged fish from Oregon. We report estimated parr-to-smolt survival and arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam, as well as interrogation data collected at several other sites throughout the Snake and Columbia River system. This research continues studies that began under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding in 1991. Results from previous study years were reported by Achord et al. (1994; 1995a,b; 1996a; 1997; 1998; 2000; 2001a,b; 2002, 2003, 2004). Goals of this ongoing study are: (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence migration patterns. (4) Characterize the migration behavior and estimate survival of different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. In 2003-2004, we also continued to measure water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program. These data, along with parr/smolt migration, survival, and timing data, will help to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between fish movement/survival and environmental factors.

Achord, Stephen; Hodge, Jacob M.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

2005-06-01

348

Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K takes you on a trip down Idaho's Snake River near 1000 Springs and Blur Heart Springs while it explains how rivers are formed, their uses, and how they make valleys, canyons and even plains.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-04

349

Pyroxene thermometry of rhyolite lavas of the Bruneau-Jarbidge eruptive center, Central Snake River Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bruneau-Jarbidge eruptive center of the central Snake River Plain in southern Idaho, USA produced multiple rhyolite lava flows with volumes of <10 km 3 to 200 km 3 each from ~11.2 to 8.1 Ma, most of which follow its climactic phase of large-volume explosive volcanism, represented by the Cougar Point Tuff, from 12.7 to 10.5 Ma. These lavas represent the waning stages of silicic volcanism at a major eruptive center of the Yellowstone hotspot track. Here we provide pyroxene compositions and thermometry results from several lavas that demonstrate that the demise of the silicic volcanic system was characterized by sustained, high pre-eruptive magma temperatures (mostly ?950 °C) prior to the onset of exclusively basaltic volcanism at the eruptive center. Pyroxenes display a variety of textures in single samples, including solitary euhedral crystals as well as glomerocrysts, crystal clots and annealed microgranular inclusions of pyroxene ± magnetite ± plagioclase. Pigeonite and augite crystals are unzoned, and there are no detectable differences in major and minor element compositions according to textural variety — mineral compositions in the microgranular inclusions and crystal clots are identical to those of phenocrysts in the host lavas. In contrast to members of the preceding Cougar Point Tuff that host polymodal glass and mineral populations, pyroxene compositions in each of the lavas are characterized by single rather than multiple discrete compositional modes. Collectively, the lavas reproduce and extend the range of Fe-Mg pyroxene compositional modes observed in the Cougar Point Tuff to more Mg-rich varieties. The compositionally homogeneous populations of pyroxene in each of the lavas, as well as the lack of core-to-rim zonation in individual crystals suggest that individual eruptions each were fed by compositionally homogeneous magma reservoirs, and similarities with the Cougar Point Tuff suggest consanguinity of such reservoirs to those that supplied the polymodal Cougar Point Tuff. Pyroxene thermometry results obtained using QUILF equilibria yield pre-eruptive magma temperatures of 905 to 980 °C, and individual modes consistently record higher Ca content and higher temperatures than pyroxenes with equivalent Fe-Mg ratios in the preceding Cougar Point Tuff. As is the case with the Cougar Point Tuff, evidence for up-temperature zonation within single crystals that would be consistent with recycling of sub- or near-solidus material from antecedent magma reservoirs by rapid reheating is extremely rare. Also, the absence of intra-crystal zonation, particularly at crystal rims, is not easily reconciled with cannibalization of caldera fill that subsided into pre-eruptive reservoirs. The textural, compositional and thermometric results rather are consistent with minor re-equilibration to higher temperatures of the unerupted crystalline residue from the explosive phase of volcanism, or perhaps with newly generated magmas from source materials very similar to those for the Cougar Point Tuff. Collectively, the data suggest that most of the pyroxene compositional diversity that is represented by the tuffs and lavas was produced early in the history of the eruptive center and that compositions across this range were preserved or duplicated through much of its lifetime. Mineral compositions and thermometry of the multiple lavas suggest that unerupted magmas residual to the explosive phase of volcanism may have been stored at sustained, high temperatures subsequent to the explosive phase of volcanism. If so, such persistent high temperatures and large eruptive magma volumes likewise require an abundant and persistent supply of basalt magmas to the lower and/or mid-crust, consistent with the tectonic setting of a continental hotspot.

Cathey, Henrietta E.; Nash, Barbara P.

2009-11-01

350

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000-2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the 2001 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these data in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Achord, Stephen; Axel, Gordon A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

2002-07-01

351

Project Hotspot - The Snake River Scientific Drilling Project - Investigating the Interactions of Mantle Plumes and Continental Lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province is the world's best modern example of a time- transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. Recently, a 100 km wide thermal anomaly has been imaged by seismic tomography to depths of over 500 km beneath the Yellowstone Plateau. The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field consists largely of rhyolite lavas and ignimbrites, with few mantle-derived basalts. In contrast, the Snake River Plain (SRP), which represents the track of the Yellowstone hotspot, consists of rhyolite caldera complexes that herald the onset of plume-related volcanism and basalts that are compositionally similar to ocean island basalts like Hawaii. The SRP preserves a record of volcanic activity that spans over 16 Ma and is still active today, with basalts as young as 200 ka in the west and 2 ka in the east. The SRP is unique because it is young and relatively undisturbed tectonically, and because it contains a complete record of volcanic activity associated with passage of the hotspot. This complete volcanic record can only be sampled by drilling. In addition, the western SRP rift basin preserves an unparalleled deep-water lacustrine archive of paleoclimate evolution in western North America during the late Neogene. The central question addressed by the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project is how do mantle hotspots interact with continental lithosphere, and how does this interaction affect the geochemical evolution of mantle-derived magmas and the continental lithosphere? Our hypothesis is that continental mantle lithosphere is constructed in part from the base up by the underplating of mantle plumes, which are compositionally distinct from cratonic lithosphere, and that plumes modify the impacted lithosphere by thermally and mechanically eroding cratonic mantle lithosphere, and by underplating depleted plume-source mantle. Addition of mafic magma to the crust represents a significant contribution to crustal growth, and densifies the crust by adding mafic material to the lower and middle crust, and by transferring fusible components from the lower crust to the upper crust as rhyolite lavas and ignimbrites. We further hypothesize that the structure, composition, age and thickness of continental lithosphere influence the chemical and isotopic evolution of plume-derived magmas, and localizes where they erupt on the surface. We propose to test these hypotheses by addressing two fundamental questions: (1) Are the chemical and isotopic compositions of the basaltic and rhyolitic magmas a function of lithosphere thickness, composition and age at the locality where they erupted? (2) Are the eruptive flux and mantle source signatures consistent with the mantle plume model for the Snake River-Yellowstone volcanic system? To address these fundamental questions, we plan a transect of the continental margin that begins with lavas erupted through Mesozoic-Paleozoic accreted terranes of oceanic provenance that lie west of the craton margin, as defined by the Sr=0.706 line, and continues through progressively thicker and older lithosphere of Proterozoic to Archean age. The rationale is to examine how basalt chemistry varied through time at different locations along this transect in response to changes in the thickness, age, and composition of the underlying mantle lithosphere and the age of the erupted basalt. We will leverage this transect with samples from existing drill holes that intercept basalt at critical locations across the plain and with three new deep drill holes. This strategy will result in the recovery of the complete sequence of SRP basalts at relatively low cost.

Shervais, J. W.

2008-12-01

352

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of two parts describing research activities completed during 1997 under Bonneville Power Administration Project Number 93-29. Part 1 provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 1997 for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. The results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More detailed information on methodology and the statistical models used in the analysis are provided in previous annual reports cited in the text. Analysis of the relationships among travel time, survival, and environmental factors for 1997 and previous years of the study will be reported elsewhere. Part 2 of this report describes research to determine areas of loss and delay for juvenile hatchery salmonids above Lower Granite Reservoir.

Hockersmith, Eric E.

1999-03-01

353

Source and Crystallization Characteristics of Basalts in the Kimama core: Project Hotspot Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral chemistry and petrography of basalts from the Kimama drill core recovered by Hotspot: Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho establish crystallization conditions of these lavas. Twenty-three basalt samples, from 20 individual lava flows were sampled from the upper 1000 m (of the 1912 m drilled) core drilled on the axis of the Snake River Plain, and represent approximately 3 m.y. of volcanism (rocks at the bottom of the hole are ~6 Ma). Rock from the upper 1000 m are typically fresh, while those lower in the core are more altered and are less likely to preserve fresh phenocrysts to analyze. Intratelluric phenocrysts (pre-eruption) are: olivine, plagioclase and Cr-spinel inclusions in olivine and plagioclase; groundmass phases (post-eruption) are: olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite and ilmenite. Olivine core compositions range from Fo84-68, plagioclase cores range from An80-62, clinopyroxene ranges in composition from Wo47-34, En47-28, Fs30-15, spinel inclusions are Cr (up to 20 wt % Cr2O3) and Al-rich (up to 35 wt % Al2O3) and evolve to lower concentrations of Cr and Al and higher Fe and Ti, chromian titanomagnetite to magnetite, and ilmenite are groundmass oxide phases. Thermobarometry of Kimama core basalts indicates that the phenocryst phases crystallized at temperatures of 1155 to 1255°C at depths of 7 to 17 km, which is within or near the seismically imaged mid-crustal sill. Plagioclase hygrometry suggests that these lavas are relatively anhydrous with less than 0.4 wt % H2O. Groundmass phases crystallized at lower temperatures (<1140°C) after eruption. Oxygen fugacity inferred from Fe-Ti oxide equilibria is at or just below the QFM buffer. The origin of the basaltic rocks of the Snake River Plain has been attributed to a mantle plume or to other, shallow mantle processes. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element geochemistry of the olivine tholeiites from the Kimama core are used to distinguish between these two sources (deep or shallow mantle). Whole rock compositions were corrected for plagioclase and olivine fractionation to calculate primary liquids to estimate mantle potential temperatures. Olivine phenocrysts have the pyroxenite source characteristics of low Mn and Ca, but a peridotite source characteristic of low Ni. Thus, trace element models were used to test whether there is pyroxenite in the source of the Snake River Plain basalts, as hypothesized for Hawaii and other plume-related hotspots (e.g., Sobolev et al., 2005; Herzberg, 2011). Olivine chemistry and trace element models establish that the basalt source is a spinel peridotite, not a pyroxenite. The average mantle potential temperature obtained for these samples is 1577°C, 177°C hotter than ambient mantle, suggesting that the basaltic liquids were derived from a thermal plume. Silica activity barometry shows that melt segregation occurs between 80 and 110 km depth, which is within or very near the spinel stability field, and suggests that the lithosphere has been eroded by the plume to a maximum depth of 80 km, and recent mantle tomography suggests that it may be even thinner.

Bradshaw, R. W.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.; Potter, K. E.

2012-12-01

354

Simulated growth and production of endangered Snake River Sockeye Salmon: Assessing management strategies for the nursery lakes  

SciTech Connect

This document examines the potential of employing a series of lake management strategies to enhance production of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in its historical nursery lakes in central Idaho. A combination of limnological sampling, experimentation, and simulation modeling was used to assess effects of lake fertilization and kokanee reduction on growth and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon. Juvenile sockeye salmon from a broodstock of this endangered species are being introduced into the lakes from 1995 to 1998. Results of our analyses indicated that several lakes were suitable for receiving broodstock progeny. Field experimentation and simulation modeling indicated that lake fertilization, coupled with a program of kokanee reduction, provided the management option most likely to enhance the survival of stocked juvenile sockeye salmon. Simulation models that encompass physiological requirements, ecological interactions, and life-history consequences could be used as templates to help develop recovery plans for other endangered fishes. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Luecke, C.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.; Budy, P.; Gross, H.P. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)] [and others] [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); and others

1996-06-01

355

Effects of Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Fish Residing in the Snake and Columbia Rivers, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of spill at dams has commonly generated levels of dissolved gas supersaturation that are higher than levels established by state and federal agencies setting criteria for acceptable water quality in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Large spill volumes are sometimes provided voluntarily to increase the proportion of migrating juvenile salmon that pass dams through nonturbine routes. However, total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) resulting from spill in past decades has led to gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish. Therefore, during the period of high spill in 1997, the authors monitored the prevalence and severity of gas bubble disease by sampling resident fish in Ice Harbor reservoir and downstream from Ice Harbor and Bonneville Dams.

Ryan, Brad A.

1998-04-01

356

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over-fishing practices is limiting the recruitment of white sturgeon into larger size classes (>183 cm). Habitat, food resources, and migration have been severely altered by the impoundment of the Snake River and it appears that the recruitment of young may not be severely affected as recruitment of fish into size classes > 183 cm.

Hoefs, Nancy (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2004-02-01

357

Straddle-packer aquifer test analyses of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, with the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, and the Idaho Geologic Survey, used a straddle-packer system to investigate vertical variations in characteristics of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Sixteen single-well aquifer tests were conducted on.isolated intervals in three observation wells. Each of these wells has approximately 200 feet of open borehole below the water table, penetrating the E through G and I basalt flow groups and interbedded sediments of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The success of the aquifer tests was limited by the inability to induce measurable drawdown in several zones. Time-drawdown data from aquifer tests were matched to type curves for 8 of the 16 zones tested. A single aquifer test at the water table exhibited greater curvature than those at depth. The increased degree of curvature suggests an unconfined response and resulted in an estimate of specific yield of 0.03. Aquifer tests below the water table generally yielded time-drawdown graphs with a rapid initial response followed by constant drawdown throughout the duration of the tests; up to several hours in length. The rapid initial response implies that the aquifer responds as a confined system during brief pumping periods. The nearly constant drawdown suggests a secondary source of water, probably vertical flow from overlying and underlying aquifer layers. Three analytical models were applied for comparison to the conceptual model and to provide estimates of aquifer properties. This, Hantush-Jacob leaky aquifer, and the Moench double-porosity fractured rock models were fit to time-drawdown data. The leaky aquifer type curves of Hantush and Jacob generally provided the best match to observed drawdown. A specific capacity regression equation was also used to estimate hydraulic conductivity.

Johnson, G.S.; Frederick, D.B.

1997-01-01

358

Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

2011-01-01

359

Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA.  

PubMed

Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and foundthat both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined. PMID:21699133

Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K

2011-03-01

360

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

2001-04-01

361

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

Ward, David L.

2000-12-01

362

White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

2002-02-01

363

Snake bites  

MedlinePLUS

... bites by any of the following: Cobra Copperhead Coral snake Cottonmouth (water moccasin) Rattlesnake Various snakes found ... Swelling Thirst Tiredness Tissue damage Weakness Weak pulse Coral snake bites may be painless at first. Major ...

364

Smolt-to-adult return rates of juvenile chinook salmon transported through the Snake-Columbia River hydropower system, USA, in relation to densities of co-transported juvenile steelhead  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce mortality associated with passage of migrating juvenile salmonids through the Snake-Columbia River Federal power system, a large percentage of smolts migrating from the Snake River basin are currently transported downstream through the hydropower system in fish-transport barges. It has recently been suggested that transportation-associated stressors may reduce the fitness of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and increase mortality

Tyler Wagner; James L Congleton; Douglas M Marsh

2004-01-01

365

Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and uppermost part of the Snake River Plain aquifer at test area north, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

A complex sequence of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds underlies Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho. Wells drilled to depths of at least 500 feet penetrate 10 basalt-flow groups and 5 to 10 sedimentary interbeds that range in age from about 940,000 to 1.4 million years. Each basalt-flow group consists of one or more basalt flows from a brief, single or compound eruption. All basalt flows of each group erupted from the same vent, and have similar ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium contents, and natural-gamma emissions. Sedimentary interbeds consist of fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that accumulated for hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years during periods of volcanic quiescence. Basalt and sediment are elevated by hundreds of feet with respect to rocks of equivalent age south and cast of the area, a relation that is attributed to past uplift at TAN. Basalt and sediment are unsaturated to a depth of about 200 feet below land surface. Rocks below this depth are saturated and make up the Snake River Plain aquifer. The effective base of the aquifer is at a depth of 885 feet below land surface. Detailed stratigraphic relations for the lowermost part of the aquifer in the depth interval from 500 to 885 feet were not determined because of insufficient data. The stratigraphy of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds in the upper 500 feet of the unsaturated zone and aquifer was determined from natural-gamma logs, lithologic logs, and well cores. Basalt cores were evaluated for potassium-argon ages, paleomagnetic properties, petrographic characteristics, and chemical composition. Stratigraphic control was provided by differences in ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium content, and natural-gamma emissions of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds.

Anderson, S.R.; Bowers, B.

1995-06-01

366

SNAKE SPECIES RICHNESS IN RELATION TO HABITAT IN THE POST OAK SAVANNAH OF EAST CENTRAL TEXAS  

E-print Network

observed or captured. The most abundant species were the plain-bellied water snake (Nerodia erythrogaster), western ribbon snake (Thamnophis proximus), and eastern coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum). The least abundant species were the brown snake (Storeria...

Putegnat, John

2006-07-11

367

Geomorphic constraints on Middle Yangtze River reversal in eastern Sichuan Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yangtze, the longest river in Asia, was hypothesized to be assembled through a series of Cenozoic capture events, such as the reversal of Middle Yangtze River and the capture of Upper Yangtze River, but the history remains largely unknown. Here, we present new geomorphic observations in the structural context of the eastern Sichuan Basin, namely the Eastern Sichuan fold belt, and identify an important drainage divide along the "midline" of this arc-shape fold belt. Based on longitudinal profile analysis, we find that the river capture events more likely occurred in the syncline valleys of low-relief landscape. Our results yield a new perspective on Middle Yangtze River reversal, and we propose that the "midline" drainage divide, rather than the Three Gorges, was the starting site of Middle Yangtze River reversal. In this manner, the reversal could have been accomplished by a sequence of river reversal over range-parallel segments in syncline valleys with less impact on the pre-existing drainage system in eastern Sichuan Basin.

Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hongbo; Liu, Shaofeng

2013-06-01

368

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007-2008 showed these antennas (and anchoring method) are not adequate to withstand high spring flows in this drainage. Future plans involve removing these antennas before high spring flows. (5) At Little Goose Dam in 2008, length and/or weight were taken on 505 recaptured fish from 12 Idaho stream populations. Fish had grown an average of 40.1 mm in length and 10.6 g in weight over an average of 288 d. Their mean condition factor declined from 1.25 at release (parr) to 1.05 at recapture (smolt). (6) Mean release lengths for detected fish were significantly larger than for fish not detected the following spring and summer (P < 0.0001). (7) Fish that migrated through Lower Granite Dam in April and May were significantly larger at release than fish that migrated after May (P < 0.0001) (only 12 fish migrated after May). (8) In 2008, peak detections at Lower Granite Dam of parr tagged during summer 2007 (from the 12 stream populations in Idaho and 4 streams in Oregon) occurred during moderate flows of 87.5 kcfs on 7 May and high flows of 197.3 kcfs on 20 May. The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile passage occurred on 30 April, 11 May, and 23 May, respectively. (9) In 2007-2008, estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam for Idaho and Oregon streams (combined) averaged 19.4% (range 6.2-38.4% depending on stream of origin). In Idaho streams the estimated parr-to-smolt survival averaged 21.0%. This survival was the second highest since 1993 for Idaho streams. Relative parr densities were lower in 2007 (2.4 parr/100 m2) than in all previous years since 2000. In 2008, we observed low-to-moderate flows prior to mid-May and relatively cold weather conditions throughout the spring migration season. These conditions moved half of the fish through Lower Granite Dam prior to mid-May; then high flows moved 50 to 90% of the fish through the dam in only 12 days. Clearly, complex interrelationships of several factors drive the annual migrational timing of the stocks.

Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E. [Fish Ecology Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center

2009-07-09

369

Mortality of Yearling Chinook Salmon Prior to Arrival at Lower Granite Dam, on the Snake River : Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

Efforts have been initiated to develop a research plan that will provide insight into causes of, and ultimately solutions to, the apparent excessive mortality of juvenile chinook upstream from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River. In the context of the proposed salmon stock listings under the Endangered Species Act, issues that potentially affect wild stocks of spring chinook salmon probably warrant immediate consideration and resolution. Mark-recapture data at Lower Granite Dam indicate that few yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts survive to that site after release from various hatcheries. Upriver stocks of yearling spring and summer chinook exhibit pronounced losses en route to the dam. In 1989 and 1990, only about 8 to 18% of PIT-tagged representatives from McCall or Sawtooth hatchery were detected at the dam. General survival indices for these stocks indicate that perhaps only 15 to 35% of the yearlings survived to that site. This suggests these stocks may sustain as much mortality traversing this unobstructed reach of river as the general population would passing through the entire hydroelectric complex.

Giorgi, Albert E.

1991-10-01

370

Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report details the 2002 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these differences in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam.

Achond, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Sandford, Benjamin P. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

2003-07-01

371

Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the out-migration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988-1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988-1990). We sampled 860-2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney-spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1-11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any 1 year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86-100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4-17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68-87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

Elliott, D. G.; Pascho, R. J.; Jackson, L. M.; Matthews, G. M.; Harmon, J. R.

1997-01-01

372

Strain Rates and Contemporary Deformation in the Snake River Plain and Surrounding Basin and Range From GPS and Seismicity  

SciTech Connect

New horizontal GPS velocities along with earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features are used to assess how strain is accommodated in the Northern Basin and Range Province. We used GPS phase data collected from 1994 to 2007 to estimate horizontal velocities for 132 stations within the Snake River Plain (SRP) and surrounding basin and range. These velocities show regional scale clockwise rotation indicating basal driving forces beyond those associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot. Within the western Centennial Tectonic Belt (CTB), the GPS measurements indicate the basin and range is extending at a rate between 5x10-9/yr and 10x10-9/yr, which is an order of magnitude greater than the strain rate we observe with GPS in the SRP, explaining its low seismicity. Between these two regions is the “Centennial Shear Zone”, a NE-trending zone of right-lateral shear with estimated slip rates that increase northeastward from 0.9±0.3 mm/yr in the SW to 1.7±0.2 mm/yr in NE. We interpret the new GPS velocities to indicate: 1) right-lateral shear may be accommodated by strike-slip earthquakes on NE-trending faults in the Centennial Shear Zone; 2) three basin and range faults (Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead) do not extend into the SRP, but instead terminate at the SRP margin; and 3) extension in the SRP occurs at a much lower rate than the rate of normal faulting in the western CTB.

S. J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R. W. King

2008-08-01

373

Assessment of the Flow-Survival Relationship Obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts. The relationships were based on mark and recovery experiments conducted at various Snake and Columbia River sites between 1964 and 1979 to evaluate the effects of dams and flow regulation on the migratory characteristic`s chinook sa mon and steelhead trout smolts. The reliability of this information is crucial because it forms the logical basis for many of the flow management options being considered today to protect,upriver populations of chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In this paper I evaluate the primary data, assumptions, and calculations that underlie the flow-survival relationship derived by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for chinook salmon smolts.

Steward, C.R. (Cleveland R.)

1994-04-01

374

Boron isotopic variations in NW USA rhyolites: Yellowstone, Snake River Plain, Eastern Oregon  

E-print Network

multiplier laser ablation-ICP-MS. 11 B values are systematically lighter in SRPY rhyolites (-5.6 to -8, and could reflect melting of juvenile basalt-derived protoliths in the crust. B isotope ratios of low-18 O originally metasediments, it is likely that bulk B and 11 B were selectively removed by metamorphic

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

375

East Butte: A volcanic dome of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary mapping shows East Butte to be a single, large cumulo-dome composed dominantly of rhyolite which can be classified into three main groups based on color and structure. The rhyolite of East Butte is aphanitic with phenocrysts of sanidine and quartz which vary from 1 to 5 mm in length. Vesicular reddish black inclusions of basalt up to 10 cm in length, found in all varieties of the East Butte rhyolites are believed to have originated from fragmentation of the basalt walls of the conduit by rhyolitic magma as it was emplaced. Most of the inclusions contain plagioclase phenocrysts. These phenocrysts measure up to 1 to 2 cm in length and have a typical euhedral, tabular habit. A 250-m diameter depression which has the appearance of a crater is located at the top of East Butte. Evidence supporting the fact that the depression is a crater is displayed by three small (3 to 5 m in height) mounds of massive rhyolite which border the depression.

Bretches, J. E.; King, J. S.

1984-04-01

376

Shear Wave Velocities and Crustal Structure of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

structure indicates a 12-kin thick high-velocity layer (depth 8 to 20 km), with P and S velocities of 6.54 and 3.87 km\\/s, respectively; this overlies a 21-km thick lower crust, with P and S velocities of 6.82 and 3.61 km\\/s, respectively. P velocities and layer thicknesses are based on our interpretation of refraction data (Braile et al., 1979) and are

Roger W. Greensfelder; Robert L. Kovach

1982-01-01

377

East Butte: A volcanic dome of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary mapping shows East Butte to be a single, large cumulo-dome composed dominantly of rhyolite which can be classified into three main groups based on color and structure. The rhyolite of East Butte is aphanitic with phenocrysts of sanidine and quartz which vary from 1 to 5 mm in length. Vesicular reddish black inclusions of basalt up to 10 cm in length, found in all varieties of the East Butte rhyolites are believed to have originated from fragmentation of the basalt walls of the conduit by rhyolitic magma as it was emplaced. Most of the inclusions contain plagioclase phenocrysts. These phenocrysts measure up to 1 to 2 cm in length and have a typical euhedral, tabular habit. A 250-m diameter depression which has the appearance of a crater is located at the top of East Butte. Evidence supporting the fact that the depression is a crater is displayed by three small (3 to 5 m in height) mounds of massive rhyolite which border the depression.

Bretches, J. E.; King, J. S.

1984-01-01

378

Microsatellite evidence of invasion and rapid spread of divergent New Zealand mudsnail ( Potamopyrgus antipodarum ) clones in the Snake River basin, Idaho, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used microsatellites to assess genetic diversity and spatial structuring of the invasive apomictic New Zealand mudsnail\\u000a (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the initial focal area of its recent North American invasion, a portion of the upper Snake River basin (Idaho) that is\\u000a segmented by a series of hydropower dams. Thirty-four samples (812 total snails) from a 368 km reach of this drainage

Robert Hershler; Hsiu-Ping Liu; William H. Clark

2010-01-01

379

Lopsided Fish in the Snake River Basin — Fluctuating Asymmetry as a way of Assessing Impact of Hatchery Supplementation in Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of developmental instability (an individual's failure to produce a consistent phenotype in a given environment) was\\u000a evaluated to detect the effects of outplanting hatchery fish on wild salmon. Juvenile chinook salmon were collected in 1989,\\u000a 1990, and 1991 from five drainages in the Snake River Basin. In each drainage we attempted to collect fish from streams with\\u000a no

Orlay Johnson; Kathleen Neely; Robin Waples

2004-01-01

380

The precipitation of aluminum, iron and manganese at the junction of Deer Creek with the Snake River in Summit County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The oxidation of disseminated pyrite in relatively acid schists and gneisses of the Snake River drainage basin provides abundant iron sulfate and sulfuric acid to ground and surface water. This acid water dissolves large quantities of many elements, particularly aluminum and surprisingly large quantities of elements, such as magnesium and zinc, not expected to be abundant in the drainage basin. The adjoining drainage to the west, Deer Creek, is underlain by basic rocks, from which the water inherits a high pH. Despite the presence of base- and precious- metal veins in the drainage basin of Deer Creek, it carries less metal than the Snake River. The principal precipitate on the bed of the Snake River is hydrated iron oxide with small quantities of the other metals. In Deer Creek manganese oxide is precipitated with iron oxide and large quantities of other metals are carried down with this precipitate. Below the junction of these streams the pH stabilizes at a near-neutral value. Iron is removed from the Snake River water at the junction, and aluminum is precipitated for some distance downstream. The aluminum precipitate carries down other metals in concentrations slightly less than that in the manganese precipitate on Deer Creek. The natural processes observed in this junction if carried to a larger scale could provide the mechanism described by Ansheles (1927) for the formation of bauxite. In the environment described, geochemical exploration by either water or stream sediment techniques is difficult because of (1) the extreme pH differential between the streams above their junction and (2) the difference in the precipitates formed on the streambeds. ?? 1963.

Theobald, P.K., Jr.; Lakin, H.W.; Hawkins, D.B.

1963-01-01

381

Seismic facies, sedimentology, and significance of a lacustrine delta in Neogene Lake Idaho' deposits: Western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top of a buried fine-grained delta system of paleo- Lake Idaho' is detected by high-resolution seismic profiles, 300 m beneath the western Snake River Plain near Caldwell, Idaho. Characteristic 3--5[degree] dip of seismic reflectors in the prodelta-mud facies plus electrical-resistivity logs and cuttings from a 670-m well show a 150-m coarsening-upward prodelta sequence overlain by well-sorted fine sand and

Wood

1993-01-01

382

Population Viability of the Snake River Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 11 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

A stochastic simulation model of spring chinook population dynamics was parameterized using 36 years of redd count data from five index streams on the middle fork of the Salmon River in Idaho. Two versions of the model, one in which spawning age structure was presumed to follow an evolutionarily stable strategy and another in which spawning age structure was constrained to observed values were examined. The models were then used to generate 1000 statistically representative population projections over the next 100 years to assess risk of extinction and prospects for stock rebuilding. Current levels of production and mortality appear to suffice for maintaining the status quo, virtually assuring persistence over the next 100 years, barring catastophes, but providing no hope for rebuilding. A doubling of the current population level over the next 100 years can be expected to follow an increase in {alpha} (density independent mortality or fry production) of 5 to 25%, but rebuilding to the population levels prevailing in the 1950`s will require an increase in {alpha} of at least 37%.

Emlen, John Merritt

1993-06-01

383

Statistical Evaluation of Travel Time Estimation Based on Data from Freeze-Branded Chinook Salmon on the Snake River, 1982-1990.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to assess the strengths and limitations of existing freeze brand recapture data in describing the migratory dynamics of juvenile salmonids in the mainstream, impounded sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers. With the increased concern over the threatened status of spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River drainage, we used representative stocks for these races as our study populations. However, statistical considerations resultant from these analyses apply to other species and drainages as well. This report describes analyses we conducted using information derived from freeze-branded groups. We examined both index production groups released from hatcheries upstream from Lower Granite Dam (1982--1990) and freeze-branded groups used as controls in smolt transportation evaluations conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (1986, 1989). The scope of our analysis was limited to describing travel time estimates and derived relationships, as well as reach survival estimates through the mainstem Snake River from Lower Granite to McNary Dam.

Smith, Steven G.; Skalski, J.R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

1993-10-01

384

Radio-Tracking Studies of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead to Determine the Effect of ''Zero'' River Flow During Water Storage at Little Goose Dam on the Lower Snake River, Final Report of Research.  

SciTech Connect

Allowable instantaneous minimum river flows are established in the Columbia and Snake Rivers to ensure safe passage of anadromous fish during their migration to the spawning grounds. However, water storage during periods of low power demands (at night and on weekends) would be beneficial to the power producers. This storage procedure is called ''zero'' river flow and is now permitted on a limited basis when there are few if any actively migrating anadromous fish present in the river system. Requests were made to extend ''zero'' river flow into periods when anadromous fish were actively migrating and a study was initiated. Radio-tracking studies were conducted on the Snake River between Lower Monumental and Little Goose Dams to determine the effect of ''zero'' river flow on the migration of adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri. From July through September, 1981, a total of 258 steelhead and 32 chinook salmon were radio-tagged. The rate of migration was used to determine differences between test and control fish and a gamma distribution model was used to describe the migration rate for radio-tagged fish. Estimates of the parameters of the model were used to statistically compare ''zero'' flow and normal river flow conditions for the radio-tagged fish. The results show that the ''zero'' flow condition delays the migration of adult chinook salmon and steelhead; therefore, extended periods of ''zero'' flow to store water are not recommended when fish are actively migrating in the river system. 16 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Liscom, Kenneth

1985-09-01

385

Prevalence and recurrence of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in eastern North American rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the prevalence of escaped farmed fishes in the wild is an essential first step to assessing the risk resulting from interactions between farmed and wild fishes. This is especially important in eastern North America, where Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture occurs near wild Atlantic salmon rivers and where many wild salmon popula- tions are severely depressed. Here, we

Matthew R. J. Morris; Dylan J. Fraser; Anthony J. Heggelin; Frederick G. Whoriskey; Jonathan W. Carr; Shane F. O'Neil; Jeffrey A. Hutchings

2008-01-01

386

Variations in Cross-Stratification within the Tuff Deposits at Sinker Butte, a Western Snake River Plain Hydrovolcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sinker Butte is the remnant of an emergent basaltic hydrovolcano that erupted about 1 Ma beneath the surface of Plio-Pleistocene Lake Idaho, near the southern margin of the Western Snake River Plain. The Snake River has eroded through the deposits, creating an unusual opportunity to study the entire eruptive sequence. One of the most interesting aspects of this volcano is the many different types of cross-stratification and dune bedding which can be found in the fragmental rocks. The first stage of this eruption created a series of subaqueous tuff deposits which formed a volcanic-sedimentary platform that grew towards the surface of the lake. The platform would have been growing at inconsistent rates around the vent causing the resulting deposits to vary around the platform. Cross-stratification in these deposits include channel scour and fill, dune bedding, trough cross bedding, and bouma-turbidite sequences. As the eruption progressed, this platform built above the water level, which represents the subaerial stage of the eruption. At this time the magma/water interaction was still significant, causing a pulsatory type of eruption creating many thin interbedded pyroclastic surge and airfall deposits. Near the vent large-scale regressive low-angle dunes (wavelength 1-2 m) are found interbedded with thin planar beds. The crests of regressive dunes migrate upstream, with the coarser fragments dropped on the upstream side of the crest. These are thought to form as a result of wet surges due to the presence of accretionary and/or armored lapilli as well as vesicles due to trapped volatiles in wet ash. Dunes in deposits further from the vent are generally thinly bedded and have gentler dip angles and shorter wavelengths. Other types of cross-stratification found at Sinker are wavy-planar beds, which are a mixture of airfall and surge, and deformed low angle dune beds (.5-1 m wavelength) containing abundant soft sediment deformation and sag structures. Found high in some sections are large-scale progressive dune-forms (1-2 m wavelength). These may be attributed to a late dry surge towards the end of eruption, just before the volcano isolated itself from all external water. The low angle cross-stratification and irregular truncations reflect the highly pulsatory nature of surges during deposition. The dune bed thicknesses and average wavelength appear to decrease away from the vent. This finer cross-stratification may be result of the same type of surges that formed the larger regressive dunes, but may represent a loss in momentum, density and turbulence as the surge travels further from its source.

Brand, B. D.; White, C.

2003-12-01

387

Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

1993-06-01

388

Barge Transportation of Juvenile Salmonids on the Columbia and Snake Rivers, 1977  

E-print Network

., and steelhead truut, Salmo gairdneri, H'ere continuall)' supplied with fresh river waleI' pumped Ihruugh, Oncorhynchus sp., and steelhead trout, Sa/rna gairdneri, from upriver collection points to safe release sites

389

A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF). Our results show an ENE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Centennial Tectonic belt and an E-oriented extensional strain rate of 6.2 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Intermountain Seismic belt combined with the northern Great Basin. These extensional strain rates contrast with the regional north-south contraction of -2.6 {+-} 1.1 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} calculated in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau over a 125 x 650 km region. Tests that include dike-opening reveal that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones does not occur in the Snake River Plain at present. This slow internal deformation in the Snake River Plain is in contrast to the rapidly-extending adjacent Basin and Range provinces and implies shear along boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of <0.5 to 1.7 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic belt. The fastest lateral shearing occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional GPS velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic belt, Idaho batholith, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and central Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is driven by extension to the south in the Great Basin and not localized extension in the Basin and Range or Yellowstone hotspot volcanism. We propose that the GPS velocity field reflects the regional deformation pattern since at least 15-12 Ma, with clockwise rotation over the Northern Basin and Range Province consistent with Basin and Range extension initiating 16 Ma. The region modified by hotspot volcanism has a low-strain rate. If we assume the low rate of deformation is reflected in the length of time between eruptions on the order of 10{sup 4} to >10{sup 6} yrs, the low-strain field in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau would extend through the Quaternary.

S.J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R.W. King; S.A. Kattenhorn

2012-04-01

390

Prevalence of Rentbacterium salmoninarum in juvenile spring chinook salmon at Columbia and Snake river hatcheries, 1993-1996  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored the prevalence and severity of Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) infections in juvenile hatchery spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at eight Columbia and Snake river hatcheries from 1993 through 1996. This study followed a prior study that monitored RS in the same hatcheries from 1988 through 1992. In the current study, we found that the prevalence of RS-positive fish declined at two hatcheries relative to the preceding 5 years. Prevalence dropped from near 90% in 1992 to below 50% at both sites by 1993 and was less than 20% at three locations in 1995. In contrast, prevalence increased at four of seven sites in 1993 and six of seven sites in 1994. This indicated that previously reported declines in RS prevalence at these locations might have been temporary. Our results showed that in 1993 the majority of fish at all monitored hatcheries had low RS-antigen levels and remained that way at most locations through 1996. These results suggest that certain hatchery practices may limit the severity of RS infections. Although elevations at two sites in 1994 and 1995 indicate reductions in RS were temporary in the short term, long-term monitoring will undoubtedly be required given the many factors that influence disease processes.

VanderKooi, S. P.; Maule, A. G.

1999-01-01

391

Occurrence and flux of selected pesticides in surface water of the upper snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During May and June 1994, 37 water samples were collected at 31 sites in the upper Snake River Basin and analyzed for 83 pesticides and pesticide metabolites. EPTC, atrazine, and the atrazine metabolite deethylated atrazine were the most frequently detected and were found in 30, 20, and 13 of the samples, respectively. Fifteen additional pesticides were detected at least once. All the compounds detected were at concentrations of less than 1 microgram per liter. Total annual applications of EPTC and atrazine within subbasins and their instantaneous instream fluxes have a logarithmic relation with coefficients of determination (R2 values) of 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. At the time of sampling, the median daily flux of EPTC was about O. 0001% of the annual amount applied in a subbasin, whereas the median daily flux of atrazine was between 0.001 and 0.01%. The difference in fluxes between EPTC and atrazine probably results from differences in their physical properties and in the method and timing of application.

Clark, G.M.

1997-01-01

392

Biological Evaluation of the Behavioral Guidance Structure at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington in 1998  

SciTech Connect

In 1998 a behavioral guidance structure (BGS; a steel wall 330m long and 17-24 m deep) was installed in the forebay of Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River, Washington. The purpose of the BGS was to change the horizontal distribution of downstream migrants approaching the south half of the powerhouse by guiding them toward the surface bypass and collector attached to the dam upstream of the north half of the powerhouses. The effectiveness of the BGS was evaluated with biotelemetry and hydroacoustics. The BGS was designed to be movable, thereby allowing a comparison between the horizontal distribution of the fish when the BGS was deployed as a diversion device and when the BGS was moved 800 m upstream of the dam and no longer influenced fish movements immediately upstream of the powerhouse. Radio telemetry and hydroacoustic techniques showed that about 80% of the fish migrating toward Turbines 1-3 were successfully diverted north. Radio telemetry data revealed that the mean residence times of chinook salmon, hatchery steelhead, and wild steelhead were 1.6, 1.7, and 2.4 times longer, respectively, when the BGS was out compared to when it was in. And overall fish passage efficiency was significantly higher when the BGS was in (93.7%) than out (91.2%).

Adams, Noah (U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resource Division); Johnson, Gary E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Rondorf, Dennis W. (VISITORS); Anglea, Steven M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wik, Timothy O. (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Walla Walla District)

2001-01-01

393

Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

Teuscher, D.

1996-05-01

394

cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects.  

PubMed

A 5' truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, Crotalus atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC(50) of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC(50)s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E; Sánchez, Elda E; Pérez, John C

2013-03-15

395

cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects  

PubMed Central

A 5? truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, C. atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC50 of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC50s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E.; Sanchez, Elda E.; Perez, John C.

2013-01-01

396

Intravascular hemolysis induced by the venom of the Eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius, in a mouse model: Identification of directly hemolytic phospholipases A2.  

PubMed

Intravascular hemolysis has been described in envenomings by the Eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius, in dogs. An experimental model of intravascular hemolysis was developed in mice after intravenous (i.v.) injection of M. fulvius venom. Within one hr, there was prominent hemolysis, associated with a drastic drop in hematocrit, morphological alterations of erythrocytes, hemoglobinemia, and hemoglobinuria. Hemoglobin was identified in urine by mass spectrometry. Histological sections of kidney revealed abundant hyaline casts, probably corresponding to hemoglobin. This effect was abrogated by p-bromophenacyl bromide, indicating that it is caused by phospholipases A2 (PLA2). A monospecific anti-Micrurus nigrocinctus antivenom neutralized hemolytic activity in vivo. When tested in vitro with erythrocytes of various species, a clear difference in susceptibility was observed. Mouse and dog erythrocytes showed the highest susceptibility, whereas human and rabbit erythrocytes were not affected at the experimental conditions tested. The higher susceptibility of dog and mouse erythrocytes correlates with a high ratio of phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin in erythrocyte plasma membrane. When mouse erythrocytes were subjected to mechanical stress, after incubation with venom, hemolysis increased significantly, suggesting that both phospholipid hydrolysis by PLA2s and mechanical stress associated with rheological factors are likely to contribute to cell lysis in vivo. Several PLA2s isolated from this venom reproduced the hemolytic effect, and the complete amino acid sequence of one of them (fraction 17), which also induces myotoxicity, is reported. Since very few PLA2s inducing intravascular hemolysis have been described from snake venoms, this enzyme is a valuable tool to identify the structural determinants of hemolytic activity. The mouse model described in this study may be useful to explore the pathophysiology of intravascular hemolysis. PMID:25088177

Arce-Bejarano, Ruth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María

2014-11-01

397

Migratory behavior and forebay delay of radio-tagged juvenile fall chinook salmon in a lower snake river impoundment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During July and August 1995-1997, we used radiotelemetry to estimate the migration rate of 405 juvenile fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (mean fork length, 138-144 mm) through Little Goose Reservoir. Migration rates decreased significantly as fish approached the dam. Median migration rates in 1995 were 26.0 km/d through the 45.9-km reach immediately below Lower Granite Dam, 14.9 km/d through the next 14.4 km, and 0.8 km/d in the Little Goose Dam forebay (0.6 km). Median migration rates through the same reaches were consistent among years: 24.8, 13.4, and 0.8 km/d in 1996 and 20.2, 10.2, and 1.0 km/d in 1997. Most fish migrated through the upper 45.9 km within 5 d and through the lower two reaches (15.0 km) within an additional 5 d. However, 10% to 20% of the fish spent a week or more in the forebay and lower reservoir. Radio-tagged smolts displayed two behaviors after entering the forebay: crossing the forebay and upstream excursions. Study fish crossed the forebay an average of 0.6-1.0 time/h, and 157 upstream excursions were identified, 15 of which were at least 14.4 km in length. Fish behavior in the forebay was associated with declining water velocities near the dam. Detections of passive integrated transponder tags suggest that similar delays occur in other lower Snake River reservoirs. Based on studies from the Columbia River, delays for 20% of the juvenile fall chinook salmon outmigrants in each of these forebays may have contributed to high predation losses and pose a serious challenge to efforts aimed at restoring this threatened salmon stock.

Venditti, D.A.; Rondorf, D.W.; Kraut, J.M.

2000-01-01

398

A summary of regional water quality for Eastern UK rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in water quality and chemical loads are described for UK rivers draining to the North Sea. These variations are related to regional differences in geology, climate, land use and population distribution. The study uses water quality data collected under the Harmonised Monitoring Scheme. Regional maps of average concentrations and tables of loads, concentrations and loads per unit area are

A. J. Robson; C. Neal

1997-01-01

399

Chemical Weathering in the Eastern Himalaya: Geochemistry of Bhutanese Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical weathering of Ca-Mg silicate minerals and subsequent marine carbonate precipitation is the fundamental sink for atmospheric CO2 in the long-term carbon cycle. Considerable effort has been made to examine Himalayan rivers and their relationship with weathering processes, in particular using mass balance estimates to quantify the weathering consumption of CO2 and the potential impact on global climate conditions. Weathering reactions produce alkalinity in rivers and thus dissolved load chemistry can be an effective means for assessing the total weathering budget of a watershed as well as for apportioning weathering fluxes between silicate and carbonate mineral sources. While weathering studies are abundant for the drainage basins of the Nepal and Indian Himalaya, they are lacking for Bhutan. Here we present new major element data for 35 rivers and streams across the Himalayan region of Bhutan. The rivers of Bhutan generally flow north to south through deeply incised gorges and are major tributaries to the Brahmaphutra. Within Bhutan, watersheds are largely underlain by the gneisses and metasediments of the High Himalayan Crystalline Series (HHC), with only the high reaches of the major streams flowing over the Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS) carbonates. Water samples were taken from all the major and most minor rivers at the end of the 2010 monsoon season (late August-September). Because of the strong seasonality of precipitation in Bhutan, these late-monsoon samples are taken to be reasonable first-order proxies for calculating annual dissolved load fluxes. The rivers are characterized by high calcium, with bicarbonate as the dominant anion, typical of carbonate weathering regimes. We note that in some cases, there is the strong influence of hot spring fluids in our stream samples, with 100-fold increases in downstream TDS. Initial analyses of our samples show that despite significant HHC dominated drainages, silicate alkalinity makes up on average 35% of the total alkalinity budget for the rivers of Bhutan, with a minimum of 5% and a maximum of 85%. This is comparable to other Himalayan streams with larger TSS influence to the west in Nepal, where carbonate weathering typically dominates stream dissolved loads.

Evans, M.; Petersen, C.

2011-12-01

400

Multiscale Genetic Structure of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in the Upper Snake River Basin.  

SciTech Connect

Populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvierii have declined throughout their native range as a result of habitat fragmentation, overharvest, and introductions of nonnative trout that have hybridized with or displaced native populations. The degree to which these factors have impacted the current genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations is of primary interest for their conservation. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity and genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho and Nevada with data from six polymorphic microsatellite loci. A total of 1,392 samples were analyzed from 45 sample locations throughout 11 major river drainages. We found that levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation varied extensively. The Salt River drainage, which is representative of the least impacted migration corridors in Idaho, had the highest levels of genetic diversity and low levels of genetic differentiation. High levels of genetic differentiation were observed at similar or smaller geographic scales in the Portneuf River, Raft River, and Teton River drainages, which are more altered by anthropogenic disturbances. Results suggested that Yellowstone cutthroat trout are naturally structured at the major river drainage level but that habitat fragmentation has altered this structuring. Connectivity should be restored via habitat restoration whenever possible to minimize losses in genetic diversity and to preserve historical processes of gene flow, life history variation, and metapopulation dynamics. However, alternative strategies for management and conservation should also be considered in areas where there is a strong likelihood of nonnative invasions or extensive habitat fragmentation that cannot be easily ameliorated.

Cegelski, Christine C.; Campbell, Matthew R.

2006-05-30

401

Investigating the proposed linkage between Eastern Himalayan syntaxial evolution and river capture of the Yarlung Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that the rapid exhumation and anomalously young metamorphism of the Namche Barwa eastern Himalayan syntaxis in the Plio-Pleistocene resulted from river capture of the Yarlung Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra (the "tectonic aneurysm" model; e.g. Zeitler et al.GSA Today 2001) . In order to test this hypothesis, the occurrence of river capture, and its timing, must be ascertained. Today, the Yarlung Tsangpo flows east along the Indus-Yarlung suture before taking a 180º turn at the eastern Himalayan syntaxis to flow south across the Himalaya as the Brahmaputra. Whether this river pattern results from river capture, or whether the river is antecedent to orogenesis, is much debated, yet robust constraints on the occurrence of the proposed river capture and an independent time-frame for such an event are lacking. The Yarlung Tsangpo drains the Jurassic-Paleogene Trans-Himalayan arc of the Asian plate north of the suture and the Tethyan Himalaya of the Indian plate to the south of the suture, while the Brahmaputra prior to any capture would have drained the southern Himalayan slopes composed only of Precambrian-Palaeozoic Indian crust, much of which metamorphosed to high grade during the Oligo-Miocene. Hence, the first occurrence of Trans-Himalayan arc detritus which is distinctive of the Yarlung Tsangpo, in the Neogene palaeo-Brahmaputra deposits in the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh, is key to date the river capture. We have applied a multi-disciplinary provenance study to these sediments and identify the earliest occurrence of detritus from the arc in the Early Miocene. Dating the time of river capture has implications both for the timing of uplift of Tibet and models of tectonic-erosion interactions: - Whilst some workers propose an early uplift of the plateau, others propose a later independent uplift event, at least for the east of the plateau, caused by an additional mechanism. This late uplift event has been invoked by previous workers as the cause of the river capture of the Yarlung Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra due to effective lowering of base level. If this cause and effect correlation is correct, this uplift event must have occurred prior to the Early Miocene. - These data allow us to explore the proposed interaction between the Namche Barwa snytaxial evolution and the timing of river capture. Given we have now dated the time of this river capture at ~18 Ma, the modelled coupling between capture and onset of rapid exhumation (dated at Plio-Pleistocene) would need to accommodate a lag time of ~8 Ma for this hypothesis to hold true.

Bracciali, Laura; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randy; Millar, Ian; Akhter, Syed

2014-05-01

402

Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations in yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from the Snake River Basin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the parr-to-smolt transformation (smoltification) of juvenile salmonids, preadaptive changes in osmoregulatory and ionoregulatory ability are regulated in part by the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. If food intake is sufficient, plasma IGF-I increases during smoltification. On the other hand, plasma IGF-I typically decreases in fasting fish and other vertebrate animals. Because food availability is limited for juvenile salmonids undertaking an extended 6- to 12-week spring migration to and through the Snake-Columbia River hydropower system (northwestern USA), IGF-I concentrations might be expected to decrease, potentially compromising seawater tolerance. To address this possibility, yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha reared in three Snake River Basin hatcheries were sampled before release and at two downstream dams. Dry masses of migrating fish either did not increase during the migration (in 2000, an average-flow year), or decreased significantly (in 2001, a low-flow year). In both years, plasma IGF-I levels were significantly higher (1.6-fold in 2000, 3.7-fold in 2001) for fish sampled at the last dam on the lower Columbia River than for fish sampled prior to release. Plasma IGF-I concentrations in migrating fish may, nonetheless, have been nutritionally down-regulated to some degree, because plasma IGF-I concentrations in juvenile chinook salmon captured at a Snake River dam and transported to the laboratory increased in fed groups, but decreased in unfed groups. The ability of migrating smolts to maintain relatively elevated IGF-I levels despite restricted food intake and loss of body mass is likely related to smoltification-associated changes in hormonal balance. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Congleton, J. L.; Biga, P. R.; Peterson, B. C.

2003-01-01

403

Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

2003-07-01