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Sample records for eating disorders meta-analysis

  1. Tooth Erosion and Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Patrícia A. D.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Auad, Sheyla M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? Methods An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders) vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. Results Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR?=?12.4, 95%CI?=?4.1–37.5). Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR?=?19.6, 95%CI?=?5.6–68.8). Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR?=?11.6, 95%CI?=?3.2–41.7). Conclusion The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion. PMID:25379668

  2. Eating disorder prevention research: a meta-analysis 

    E-print Network

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the overall effectiveness of eating disorder prevention programs and to investigate potential moderating variables that may influence the magnitude of intervention effects. Meta...

  3. Disordered eating in male athletes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, James; Woodman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We examined the propensity for male athletes to exhibit symptoms of disordered eating. Using meta-analytic techniques, we examined overall effect size, individual effect sizes for specific sport types, standard of athletic competition and diagnostic tools from 31 studies. When all studies were considered as a homogeneous group, male athletes did not have symptoms of disordered eating that were significantly different from non-athletic controls. However, significant moderator effects emerged for sport type and measurement: (a) wrestling reported a greater incidence of disordered eating; and (b) studies that reported data from the Eating Attitudes Test yielded a significantly greater incidence of disordered eating in male athletes compared to non-athletes. Although some sports seem to present a higher risk of disordered eating compared to others, the effects are weak and heterogeneous. We make suggestions for the development of the research area, which has been severely hampered by the diagnostic tools that have been available for the study of men. PMID:25916949

  4. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and Officially Recognized Eating Disorders: Meta-Analysis and Implications for DSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),…

  5. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d?=?.41, p?=?.003; dieting (six studies), d?=?.68, p?eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26230192

  6. Association between poor oral health and eating disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Baghaie, Hooman; Lalloo, Ratilal; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-10-01

    BackgroundThere is a well-established link between oral pathology and eating disorders in the presence of self-induced vomiting. There is less information concerning this relationship in the absence of self-induced vomiting, in spite of risk factors such as psychotropic-induced dry mouth, nutritional deficiency or acidic diet.AimsTo determine the association between eating disorder and poor oral health, including any difference between patients with and without self-induced vomiting.MethodA systematic search was made of Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and article bibliographies. Outcomes were dental erosion, salivary gland function and the mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or surfaces (DMFT/S).ResultsTen studies had sufficient data for a random effects meta-analysis (psychiatric patients n = 556, controls n = 556). Patients with an eating disorder had five times the odds of dental erosion compared with controls (95% CI 3.31-7.58); odds were highest in those with self-induced vomiting (odds ratio (OR) = 7.32). Patients also had significantly higher DMFS scores (mean difference 3.07, 95% CI 0.66-5.48) and reduced salivary flow (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.44-3.51).ConclusionsThese findings highlight the importance of collaboration between dental and medical practitioners. Dentists may be the first clinicians to suspect an eating disorder given patients' reluctance to present for psychiatric treatment, whereas mental health clinicians should be aware of the oral consequences of inappropriate diet, psychotropic medication and self-induced vomiting. PMID:26429686

  7. E-therapy in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loucas, Christina E.; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Whittington, Craig; Pennant, Mary E.; Stockton, Sarah; Kendall, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The widespread availability of the Internet and mobile-device applications (apps) is changing the treatment of mental health problems. The aim of the present study was to review the research on the effectiveness of e-therapy for eating disorders, using the methodology employed by the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Electronic databases were searched for published randomised controlled trials of e-therapies, designed to prevent or treat any eating disorder in all age groups. Studies were meta-analysed where possible, and effect sizes with confidence intervals were calculated. The GRADE approach was used to determine the confidence in the effect estimates. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. For prevention, a CBT-based e-intervention was associated with small reductions in eating disorder psychopathology, weight concern and drive for thinness, with moderate confidence in the effect estimates. For treatment and relapse prevention, various e-therapies showed some beneficial effects, but for most outcomes, evidence came from single studies and confidence in the effect estimates was low. Overall, although some positive findings were identified, the value of e-therapy for eating disorders must be viewed as uncertain. Further research, with improved methods, is needed to establish the effectiveness of e-therapy for people with eating disorders. PMID:25461787

  8. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

  9. Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study 

    E-print Network

    Pearson, Crystal Anne

    2009-05-15

    I used reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and the Bulimia Test (BULIT). Reliability generalization is a type of meta-analysis used...

  10. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay healthy. ... about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  11. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Eating Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Eating disorders are illnesses in which the people experience severe ...

  12. Eating Disorders About eating disorders

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Eating Disorders About eating disorders There are many influences on an individual's self image, and in some cases, their lives. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder that affects 1% of young women-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes

  13. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  14. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Konti?, Olga; Vasiljevi?, Nadja; Trisovi?, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Laki?, Aneta; Gasi?, Miroslava Jasovi?

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  15. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  16. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

  17. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  18. Normal Healthy Eating and Eating Disorders

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    Normal Healthy Eating and Eating Disorders WHAT IS NORMAL HEALTHY EATING? Normal healthy eating an eating disorder. The main eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AN EATING DISORDER Physical · excessive weight loss · loss of menstrual period in females · sensitivity

  19. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  20. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  1. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eating problems. Anyone can have an eating disorder: boys and girls, kids, teens, and adults. Let's find out more ... to develop an eating disorder. All of these girls know their bodies are being watched ... boys develop eating disorders, it's usually because they're ...

  2. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... individual or group-based. Some antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac), which is the only medication approved by the ... help patients who also have depression or anxiety. Fluoxetine also appears to help reduce binge-eating and ...

  3. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  4. EATING DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  5. Causes of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2002-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control. PMID:11752484

  6. Identification of Pathways for Bipolar Disorder A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurnberger, John I.; Koller, Daniel L.; Jung, Jeesun; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Guella, Ilaria; Vawter, Marquis P.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Genome-wide investigations provide systematic information regarding the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE To identify biological pathways that contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP) using genes with consistent evidence for association in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS). DATA SOURCES Four independent data sets with individual genome-wide data available in July 2011 along with all data sets contributed to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Group by May 2012. A prior meta-analysis was used as a source for brain gene expression data. STUDY SELECTION The 4 published GWAS were included in the initial sample. All independent BP data sets providing genome-wide data in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were included as a replication sample. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS We identified 966 genes that contained 2 or more variants associated with BP at P < .05 in 3 of 4 GWAS data sets (n = 12 127 [5253 cases, 6874 controls]). Simulations using 10 000 replicates of these data sets corrected for gene size and allowed the calculation of an empirical P value for each gene; empirically significant genes were entered into a pathway analysis. Each of these pathways was then tested in the replication sample (n = 8396 [3507 cases, 4889 controls]) using gene set enrichment analysis for single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The 226 genes were also compared with results from a meta-analysis of gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Empirically significant genes and biological pathways. RESULTS Among 966 genes, 226 were empirically significant (P < .05). Seventeen pathways were overrepresented in analyses of the initial data set. Six of the 17 pathways were associated with BP in both the initial and replication samples: corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling, cardiac ?-adrenergic signaling, phospholipase C signaling, glutamate receptor signaling, endothelin 1 signaling, and cardiac hypertrophy signaling. Among the 226 genes, 9 differed in expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with BP: CACNA1C, DTNA, FOXP1, GNG2, ITPR2, LSAMP, NPAS3, NCOA2, and NTRK3. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Pathways involved in the genetic predisposition to BP include hormonal regulation, calcium channels, second messenger systems, and glutamate signaling. Gene expression studies implicate neuronal development pathways as well. These results tend to reinforce specific hypotheses regarding BP neurobiology and may provide clues for new approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:24718920

  7. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  8. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  9. Beat (Beat Eating Disorders).

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    This charity website provides a comprehensive range of information on eating disorders. There is an overview section about different types of eating disorders, which is in clear and easily understood terms, giving readers the option to seek more detailed information. PMID:26419568

  10. Efficacy of treatments for anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Borwin; Reitt, Markus; Röver, Christian; Michaelis, Sophie; Görlich, Yvonne; Wedekind, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    To our knowledge, no previous meta-analysis has attempted to compare the efficacy of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments for the three main anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia). Pre-post and treated versus control effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all evaluable randomized-controlled studies (n = 234), involving 37,333 patients. Medications were associated with a significantly higher average pre-post ES [Cohen's d = 2.02 (1.90-2.15); 28,051 patients] than psychotherapies [1.22 (1.14-1.30); 6992 patients; P < 0.0001]. ES were 2.25 for serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (n = 23 study arms), 2.15 for benzodiazepines (n = 42), 2.09 for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 62) and 1.83 for tricyclic antidepressants (n = 15). ES for psychotherapies were mindfulness therapies, 1.56 (n = 4); relaxation, 1.36 (n = 17); individual cognitive behavioural/exposure therapy (CBT), 1.30 (n = 93); group CBT, 1.22 (n = 18); psychodynamic therapy 1.17 (n = 5); therapies without face-to-face contact (e.g. Internet therapies), 1.11 (n = 34); eye movement desensitization reprocessing, 1.03 (n = 3); and interpersonal therapy 0.78 (n = 4). The ES was 2.12 (n = 16) for CBT/drug combinations. Exercise had an ES of 1.23 (n = 3). For control groups, ES were 1.29 for placebo pills (n = 111), 0.83 for psychological placebos (n = 16) and 0.20 for waitlists (n = 50). In direct comparisons with control groups, all investigated drugs, except for citalopram, opipramol and moclobemide, were significantly more effective than placebo. Individual CBT was more effective than waiting list, psychological placebo and pill placebo. When looking at the average pre-post ES, medications were more effective than psychotherapies. Pre-post ES for psychotherapies did not differ from pill placebos; this finding cannot be explained by heterogeneity, publication bias or allegiance effects. However, the decision on whether to choose psychotherapy, medications or a combination of the two should be left to the patient as drugs may have side effects, interactions and contraindications. PMID:25932596

  11. Maternal Smoking and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany N.; Lee, Brian K.; Lee, Nora L.; Yang, Yunwen; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 15 studies on maternal prenatal smoking and ASD risk in offspring. Using a random-effects model, we found no evidence of an association (summary OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93-1.12). Stratifying by study design, birth year, type of healthcare system, and adjustment for socioeconomic status or psychiatric history did not alter…

  12. Adolescent Health/ Eating Disorders

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Adolescent Health/ Eating Disorders Consultation Request to Doernbecher Specialty Pediatric: ___________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ For Radiology, Lab see www.doernbecher.com/referral Audiology Autism Behavioral Pediatrics Cardiac Surgery Cardiology Child Development Cleft Lip/Palate ­ Craniofacial Cochlear Implant Dermatology Diabetes Down

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  14. Eating disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  15. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  16. Prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of epidemiological studies lies in recognition of cases that do not come to treatment settings. The increasing focus on child adolescent mental health in India points to the necessity of epidemiological studies on children. Although there are a few such studies done in different parts of India in different socio-cultural settings, data from those cannot be generalized to the entire country. This need can be served by meta-analysis. There has been no meta-analysis reported from India for the child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology. Aim To review and do the meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on child and adolescent psychiatric disorder from India. Methods Sixteen community based studies on 14594 children and adolescents; and seven school based studies on 5687 children and adolescents, reporting prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder were analyzed and overall prevalence was calculated. Results The prevalence rate of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in the community has been found to be 6.46% (95% confidence interval 6.08% - 6.88%) and in the school it has been found to be 23.33% (95% confidence interval 22.25% - 24.45%). Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis determining the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India. It has been found that the reporting systems of psychiatric disorders in children are inadequate. PMID:25071865

  17. Couples Eating Disorder Prevention Program 

    E-print Network

    Ramirez-Cash, Ana L.

    2010-07-14

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are more prevalent in today's society than ever. As a result, several prevention programs targeting the common eating disorder risk factors have been developed. The purpose of the current study...

  18. Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating

    E-print Network

    Prohaska, Jennifer A.

    2012-05-31

    Previous studies have investigated the link between aggression and disordered eating behavior. This study investigated the behavioral and psychological links between disordered eating and relational aggression in a female college-age population. I...

  19. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

  20. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Using Mixed-Effects Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online…

  1. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J. L.; Langely, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of…

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Matthew E.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of evidence-based treatments is important for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the increasing number of interventions available and the prevalence of ASD. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for this population by conducting a meta-analysis of published…

  3. Psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Combination for Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nikita; Reece, John

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis aims to inform clinical practice of treatment strategies for adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). The efficacy of three empirically validated treatments was compared to determine the most effective treatment. These were: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)…

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Intimate Relationship Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…

  5. Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…

  6. Meta-Analysis of Dropout in Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Zac E.; Laska, Kevin; Jakupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many patients drop out of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); some clinicians believe that trauma-focused treatments increase dropout. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of dropout among active treatments in clinical trials for PTSD (42 studies; 17 direct comparisons). Results: The average dropout rate was 18%, but it…

  7. Meta-Analysis of the Nonword Reading Deficit in Specific Reading Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Julia A.; Matyas, Tom; Pratt, Chris

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether specific reading disorder (SRD) groups demonstrate a deficit in using phonological recoding strategies. Thirty-four studies were reviewed that had compared the nonword reading performances of SRD groups with reading-level matched (RL) control groups. The average nonword reading difference…

  8. Innovative Technology-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided…

  9. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  10. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep disordered breathing in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sedky, Karim; Bennett, David S; Carvalho, Karen S

    2014-08-01

    A relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children and adolescents has been suggested by some authors. Yet, this topic remains highly controversial in the literature. A meta-analysis was conducted in order to examine the extent of relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in pediatric populations and whether there are differences in ADHD symptoms pre- versus post-adenotonsillectomy in pediatric populations. PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo and Cochrane databases were searched using the key words "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" or "ADHD" and "obstructive sleep apnea" or "OSA" or "sleep disordered breathing" (SDB) or "SDB". English language publications through September 2012 were surveyed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in the first part of the study, and the extent of change in ADHD symptoms before and after adenotonsillectomy in the second part. Eighteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for the first part of the study. This represented 1113 children in the clinical group (874 diagnosed with SDB who were examined for ADHD symptoms; 239 diagnosed with ADHD who were examined for SDB) and 1405 in the control-group. Findings indicate that there is a medium relationship between ADHD symptoms and SDB (Hedges' g = 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.36-0.78; p = 0.000001). A high apnea hypopnea index (AHI) cutoff was associated with lower effect sizes, while child age, gender and body mass index did not moderate the relationship between SDB and ADHD. Study quality was associated with larger effect sizes. In the second part of the study, twelve studies were identified assessing pre- versus post-surgery ADHD symptoms. Hedges' g was 0.43 (95% confidence interval = 0.30-0.55; p < 0.001; N = 529) suggesting a medium effect, as adenotonsillectomy was associated with decreased ADHD symptoms at 2-13 months post-surgery. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that ADHD symptoms are related to SDB and improve after adenotonsillectomy. Therefore, patients with ADHD symptomatology should receive SDB screening. Treatment of comorbid SDB should be considered before medicating the ADHD symptoms if present. PMID:24581717

  12. Beliefs about eating and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Perrin, Nancy A; Rosselli, Francine; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Debar, Lynn L; Kraemer, Helena C

    2009-08-01

    Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to agree that there are effective treatments. Two thirds of the sample reported that certain foods are addictive and also believed that strict dieting is an effective means of reducing binge eating. Therapeutic implications of these attitudes are discussed. PMID:19665098

  13. Structural brain change in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder identified by meta-analysis

    E-print Network

    Ellison-Wright, Ian; Ellison-Wright, Zoe; Bullmore, Ed

    2008-06-30

    Research article Structural brain change in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder identified by meta-analysis Ian Ellison-Wright*1,3, Zoë Ellison-Wright2 and Ed Bullmore3 Address: 1Avon and Wiltshire Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust, Salisbury, UK, 2Child... and Adolescent Mental Health Service, Dorset County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Dorchester, UK and 3Brain Mapping Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Email: Ian Ellison-Wright* - ian.ew@inbox.com; Zoë Ellison-Wright - zoe...

  14. Eating Disorders National Institute of Mental Health

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Eating Disorders National Institute of Mental Health U.S. Department of HealtH anD HUman Service;____________________________________________ ________________________ _________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________ _________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Contents What are eating disorders? 1 What are the different types of eating disorders? 2 Anorexia nervosa 2 Bulimia nervosa 3 Binge-eating disorder 4 How are eating disorders treated? 4 Treating anorexia

  15. Animal models of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

  16. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder. PMID:22362599

  17. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  18. PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN A FAMILY GUIDE TO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF EATING DISORDERS F.E.A.S.T. FAMILY GUIDE SERIES FALL 2012 OUR LOVED ONE HAS AN EATING DISORDER.WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH THE BRAIN? Although people with eating disorders struggle to eat normally, this is only

  19. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…

  20. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

  1. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  2. Brain lesions and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Uher, R; Treasure, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

  3. Eating Disorders and the Family

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sam; Sananes, Renee

    1991-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex, often chronic, biopsychosocial disorders characterized by a pursuit for control which, in interaction with familial factors, results in disturbed patterns of relating to food and its meaning. Overt and covert resistance to intervention at the family level can reflect family dynamics but can be mitigated by engaging families of adolescents with eating disorders, by using multidisciplinary teams, and by hospitalization. PMID:21228994

  4. Resting state vagal tone in borderline personality disorder: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Julian; Kemp, Andrew H; Feeling, Nicole R; Thayer, Julian F; Kaess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the most common personality disorder in clinical settings. It is characterized by negative affectivity, emotional liability, anxiety, depression, as well as disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and risk taking), all of which have been linked to lower resting state vagal tone, which may be indexed by vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV). Here, we aimed to quantify the current evidence on alterations in resting state vmHRV in individuals with BPD, relative to healthy controls. A rigorous search of the literature, according to the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses", revealed 5 studies suitable for meta-analysis, reporting vmHRV in individuals with BPD (n=95), relative to healthy controls (n=105). Short-term measures of resting state vmHRV were extracted and subjected to meta-analysis using both random- and fixed effect models in RevMan. BPD displayed lower resting state vmHRV relative to healthy controls in random- (Hedges' g=-0.59, 95% CI [-1.11; -0.06], k=5) and fixed-effect meta-analysis (Hedges' g=-0.56, 95% CI [-0.86; -0.27], k=5). Control for potential publication bias did not change observed findings. Lowered resting state vagal tone may be an important trait characteristic underlying BPD. As prior studies have observed lowered vmHRV in a variety of psychiatric disorders, we propose that lowered vmHRV may reflect a common psychophysiological mechanism underlying difficulties in emotion regulation and impulsivity, in particular. PMID:26169575

  5. Spotlight on Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disorders (2 items) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (2 items) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (3 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Disorders (2 items) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (2 items) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (3 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  6. Mental state decoding impairment in major depression and borderline personality disorder: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Richman, Mara J; Unoka, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    BackgroundPatients with major depression and borderline personality disorder are characterised by a distorted perception of other people's intentions. Deficits in mental state decoding are thought to be the underlying cause of this clinical feature.AimsTo examine, using meta-analysis, whether mental state decoding abilities in patients with major depression and borderline personality disorder differ from those of healthy controls.MethodA systematic review of 13 cross-sectional studies comparing Reading in the Mind of the Eyes Test (RMET) accuracy performance of patients with major depression or borderline personality disorder and healthy age-matched controls (n = 976). Valence scores, where reported, were also assessed.ResultsLarge significant deficits were seen for global RMET performance in patients with major depression (d = -0.751). The positive RMET valence scores of patients with depression were significantly worse; patients with borderline personality disorder had worse neutral scores. Both groups were worse than controls. Moderator analysis revealed that individuals with comorbid borderline personality disorder and major depression did better than those with borderline personality disorder alone on accuracy. Those with comorbid borderline personality disorder and any cluster B or C personality disorder did worse than borderline personality disorder alone. Individuals with both borderline personality disorder and major depression performed better then those with borderline personality disorder without major depression for positive valence.ConclusionsThese findings highlight the relevance of RMET performance in patients with borderline personality disorder and major depression, and the importance of considering comorbidity in future analysis. PMID:26628692

  7. Treatment Programs for Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Mihandoost, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aim of this study was to determine the experimental evidence of treatment/intervention programs for deficits in social skills, attention, and behavioral disorder in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence Acquisition: Meta-analysis procedures were employed to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD exhibit deficits in attention and social skills. A total of 17 empirical research studies published between 2000 and 2013 met our inclusion criteria. Attention and social skills measures were categorized according to both modality and type of processing required. Results: Children with ADHD exhibited deficits in multiple components of attention and social skills that were not related to language-learning disorders and weaknesses in general intellectual abilities. The overall percentage effect for attention and social skills in students with ADHD was calculated (effect size = 0. 79, confidence interval = 0.57 - 1.08). This meta-analysis study showed that treatment programs reduced attention deficit and social skills in ADHD children and adolescents. Conclusions: The evidence of attention and social skills deficits in children with ADHD supports recent studies in ADHD deficits. Further research is required to explain in detail the nature, severity, and specificity of the deficits in individuals with ADHD. PMID:26576168

  8. The efficacy of motivational interviewing for disordered gambling: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, Igor; Quigley, Leanne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Hodgins, David C; Ronksley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Motivational interviewing is a client-centered therapeutic intervention that aims to resolve ambivalence toward change. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of motivational interviewing, compared to non-motivational interviewing controls, in the treatment of disordered gambling. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated change in gambling behavior using motivational interviewing in adult disordered gamblers. The primary outcomes were the weighted mean difference (WMD) for change in average days gambled per month and average dollars lost per month. The search strategy yielded 447 articles, of which 20 met criteria for full text review. Overall, 8 studies (N=730) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for systematic review and 5 (N=477) were included in the meta-analysis. Motivational interviewing was associated with significant reduction in gambling frequency up to a year after treatment delivery. For gambling expenditure, motivational interviewing yielded significant reductions in dollars spent gambling compared to non-motivational controls at post-treatment only (1-3 months). Overall, the results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing is an efficacious style of therapy for disordered gambling in the short term. Whether treatment effects are maintained over time remains unclear. PMID:25577724

  9. Genome-wide association and meta-analysis of bipolar disorder in individuals of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Scott, Laura J; Muglia, Pierandrea; Kong, Xiangyang Q; Guan, Weihua; Flickinger, Matthew; Upmanyu, Ruchi; Tozzi, Federica; Li, Jun Z; Burmeister, Margit; Absher, Devin; Thompson, Robert C; Francks, Clyde; Meng, Fan; Antoniades, Athos; Southwick, Audrey M; Schatzberg, Alan F; Bunney, William E; Barchas, Jack D; Jones, Edward G; Day, Richard; Matthews, Keith; McGuffin, Peter; Strauss, John S; Kennedy, James L; Middleton, Lefkos; Roses, Allen D; Watson, Stanley J; Vincent, John B; Myers, Richard M; Farmer, Ann E; Akil, Huda; Burns, Daniel K; Boehnke, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Bipolar disorder (BP) is a disabling and often life-threatening disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. To identify genetic variants that increase the risk of BP, we genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 Beadchip 2,076 bipolar cases and 1,676 controls of European ancestry from the National Institute of Mental Health Human Genetics Initiative Repository, and the Prechter Repository and samples collected in London, Toronto, and Dundee. We imputed SNP genotypes and tested for SNP-BP association in each sample and then performed meta-analysis across samples. The strongest association P value for this 2-study meta-analysis was 2.4 x 10(-6). We next imputed SNP genotypes and tested for SNP-BP association based on the publicly available Affymetrix 500K genotype data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium for 1,868 BP cases and a reference set of 12,831 individuals. A 3-study meta-analysis of 3,683 nonoverlapping cases and 14,507 extended controls on >2.3 M genotyped and imputed SNPs resulted in 3 chromosomal regions with association P approximately 10(-7): 1p31.1 (no known genes), 3p21 (>25 known genes), and 5q15 (MCTP1). The most strongly associated nonsynonymous SNP rs1042779 (OR = 1.19, P = 1.8 x 10(-7)) is in the ITIH1 gene on chromosome 3, with other strongly associated nonsynonymous SNPs in GNL3, NEK4, and ITIH3. Thus, these chromosomal regions harbor genes implicated in cell cycle, neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and neurosignaling. In addition, we replicated the reported ANK3 association results for SNP rs10994336 in the nonoverlapping GSK sample (OR = 1.37, P = 0.042). Although these results are promising, analysis of additional samples will be required to confirm that variant(s) in these regions influence BP risk. PMID:19416921

  10. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge ...

  11. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  12. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative symptoms and symptoms of an Eating Disorder. PMID:26417791

  13. Adding psychotherapy to antidepressant medication in depression and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials in which the effects of treatment with antidepressant medication were compared to the effects of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in adults with a diagnosed depressive or anxiety disorder. A total of 52 studies (with 3,623 patients) met inclusion criteria, 32 on depressive disorders and 21 on anxiety disorders (one on both depressive and anxiety disorders). The overall difference between pharmacotherapy and combined treatment was Hedges' g?=?0.43 (95% CI: 0.31-0.56), indicating a moderately large effect and clinically meaningful difference in favor of combined treatment, which corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 4.20. There was sufficient evidence that combined treatment is superior for major depression, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The effects of combined treatment compared with placebo only were about twice as large as those of pharmacotherapy compared with placebo only, underscoring the clinical advantage of combined treatment. The results also suggest that the effects of pharmacotherapy and those of psychotherapy are largely independent from each other, with both contributing about equally to the effects of combined treatment. We conclude that combined treatment appears to be more effective than treatment with antidepressant medication alone in major depression, panic disorder, and OCD. These effects remain strong and significant up to two years after treatment. Monotherapy with psychotropic medication may not constitute optimal care for common mental disorders. PMID:24497254

  14. Eating Disorder Continuum Not an Issue

    E-print Network

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Eating Disorder Continuum Not an Issue · I am not concerned about what others think regarding what Disordered · I am afraid to eat in front of others · I am terrified of eating fat. · I regularly stuff myself isolate myself from others. While most of us can identify with many of the symptoms of an eating disorder

  15. Hyperintense MRI lesions in bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis and review

    PubMed Central

    BEYER, JOHN L.; YOUNG, ROBERT; KUCHIBHATLA, MARAGATHA; KRISHNAN, K. RANGA R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cortical and subcortical hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are thought to represent areas of ischemic damage to brain tissue. Researchers have focused on the possible role these lesions may have in psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder. In 1997, the proposed ‘vascular mania’ diagnosis suggested utilizing not only the presence of strokes, but also confluent hyperintensities in its diagnostic criteria. This study was conducted to use meta-analytic techniques to investigate the association of hyperintensities and bipolar illness and to evaluate the current state of the literature. Methods Using the PubMed and MEDLINE databases, we conducted a systematic literature search of studies investigating hyperintensities in subjects with bipolar disorder and controls or other psychiatric illnesses. We identified 44 publications from which 35 studies were included for review and 27 were selected for meta-analysis. Summary statistics of the prevalence were estimated through odds-ratios and confidence interval. Heterogeneity of the results across studies was tested using Q-statistics. Results Meta-analysis identified an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% CI 1.9, 3.3) for hyperintensities in bipolar subjects compared to controls; however, there was significant heterogeneity among the studies (Q-statistics =32; p =0.04). This finding was most prominent for adolescents and children where the odds ratio was 5.7 (95% CI 2.3, 13.7). Deep white matter hyperintensities (odd ratio 3.2; 95% CI 2.2, 4.5) and subcortical grey matter hyperintensities (odds ratio 2.7; 95% CI 1.3, 2.9) were more strongly associated with bipolar subjects. There were no differences between bipolar subjects and controls for perivascular hyperintensities (odds ratio 1.3; 95% CI 0.8, 1.9). Though hyperintensities were numerically greater in bipolar subjects, meta-analysis did not demonstrate any significant differences between bipolar subjects and unipolar depression subjects (OR 1.6; 95% CI 0.9, 2.7) nor subjects with schizophrenia (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9, 2.7). Conclusions This meta-analysis continues to support the association of bipolar disorder and hyperintensities, especially in the deep white matter and subcortical grey matter. It also highlights the increased incidence in children and adolescence with bipolar disorder. However, hyperintensities are not specific to bipolar disorder, but appear at similar rates in unipolar depression and schizophrenia. Thus, the role of hyperintensities in the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and treatment of bipolar disorder remains unclear. Further studies are required that are large enough to decrease the heterogeneity of the samples and MRI techniques, assess size and location of hyperintensities, and the impact on treatment response. Coordination with newer imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be especially helpful in understanding the pathology of these lesions. PMID:20374153

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shiming; Wang, Ying; Gong, Xuan; Wang, Gaohua

    2015-01-01

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring up to 10 June 2015. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. 15 observational studies (6 cohort studies and 9 case-control studies), with 17,890 ASD cases and 1,810,258 participants were included for analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.13) comparing mothers who smoked during pregnancy with those who did not. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy is not associated with ASD risk in offspring. Further well-designed cohort studies are needed to confirm the present findings. PMID:26343689

  17. [Meta-analysis of candidate genes in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Wohl, M; Purper-Ouakil, D; Mouren, M C; Adès, J; Gorwood, P

    2005-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder observed during childhood, detected in 3% to 5% of school-age children. The disorder is characterised by marked inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. In most cases, symptoms can be treated by catecholamine-releasing drugs, such as methylphenidate. Children with ADHD are at higher risk for substance abuse and oppositional, conduct and mood disorders. Familial and adoption studies shed light on the genetic vulnerability of ADHD. Twin studies estimated the broad heritability to range between 40% and 90%. The mode of transmission is yet unknown, but is likely polygenic. Molecular genetic studies in ADHD should contribute to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder (genetics of the vulnerability), and could help to select a more rational type of treatment (pharmacogenetic). Family-based association studies already performed are reviewed in this manuscript. Association studies, using haplotype relative risk (HRR) or transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) have focused on candidate genes which code for proteins potentially involved in the etiopathogenesis of the disorder. Genes involved in dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenalin systems have thus been assessed for their role in core features of ADHD, such as motor overactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness. According to a meta-analysis, the DAT1 gene, an obvious candidate gene in ADHD vulnerability, does not appear to be involved (OR = 1.13, p = 0.21). On the other hand, DRD4 (OR = 1.26, p = 0.01) and DRD5 (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01) are significantly associated to ADHD according to the present meta-analysis, confirming previous ones. Recent studies showed a trend for an association between one allele of the 5-HTT (considering case-control studies) and DBH (OR = 1.27, p = 0.06) genes and ADHD, but these positive findings have to be replicated. ADHD is a complex disorder with potentially many different risk factors. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity could explain why some association studies are positive, whereas others are negative. For instance, different developmental pathways are likely to lead to similar clinical outcomes. More clear-cut phenotypes, such as ADHD with conduct disorder, or ADHD with bipolar disorder, could be more homogenous, the genes involved being therefore more easy to detect. These phenotypes are beginning to be specifically studied in molecular genetics. In addition, the development of pharmacogenetics could help to identify predictors of clinical response for a specific type of treatment, which would be clearly helpful in clinical practice. PMID:16389711

  18. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  19. Iowa gambling task performance in euthymic bipolar I disorder: A meta-analysis and empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Michael D.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Ng, Tommy; Carver, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been recommended as an index of reward sensitivity, which is elevated in bipolar disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of IGT performance in euthymic bipolar I disorder compared with control participants. Findings indicated that people with bipolar disorder make more risky choices than control participants, though the effect is small (g=0.35). It is not clear which of the many processes involved in IGT performance are involved in producing the observed group difference. Methods Fifty-five euthymic people with bipolar disorder and 39 control participants completed the IGT. The Expectancy Valence Model was used to examine differences in IGT. We also examined whether variation in IGT performance within the bipolar group was related to current mood, illness course, impulsivity, or demographics. Results Bipolar and control groups did not differ on the total number of risky choices, rate of learning, or any of the parameters of the Expectancy Valence Model. IGT performance in bipolar disorder was not related to any of the examined individual differences. Limitations It is possible that there are group differences that are too small to detect at our sample size or that are not amenable to study via the Expectancy Valence Model. Conclusions We were unable to identify group differences on the IGT or correlates of IGT performance within bipolar disorder. Though the IGT may serve as a useful model for decision-making, its structure may make it unsuitable for behavioral assessment of reward sensitivity independent of punishment sensitivity. PMID:23219060

  20. A quantitative meta-analysis of neurocognitive functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J. Cobb; Matt, Georg E.; Wrocklage, Kristen M.; Crnich, Cassandra; Jordan, Jessica; Southwick, Steven M.; Krystal, John H.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with regional alterations in brain structure and function that are hypothesized to contribute to symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. We present here the first systematic meta-analysis of neurocognitive outcomes associated with PTSD to examine a broad range of cognitive domains and describe the profile of cognitive deficits, as well as modifying clinical factors and study characteristics. This report is based on data from 60 studies totaling 4,108 participants, including 1,779with PTSD, 1,446 trauma-exposed comparison participants, and 895 healthy comparison participants without trauma exposure. Effect size estimates were calculated using a mixed-effects meta-analysis for nine cognitive domains: attention/working memory, executive functions, verbal learning, verbal memory, visual learning, visual memory, language, speed of information processing, and visuospatial abilities. Analyses revealed significant neurocognitive effects associated with PTSD, although these ranged widely in magnitude, with the largest effect sizes in verbal learning (d =?.62), speed of information processing (d =?.59), attention/working memory (d =?.50), and verbal memory (d =?.46). Effect size estimates were significantly larger in treatment-seeking than community samples and in studies that did not exclude participants with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and effect sizes were affected by between-group IQ discrepancies and the gender composition of the PTSD groups. Our findings indicate that consideration of neuropsychological functioning in attention, verbal memory, and speed of information processing may have important implications for the effective clinical management of persons with PTSD. Results are further discussed in the context of cognitive models of PTSD and the limitations of this literature. PMID:25365762

  1. [Current Care Guideline: Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Suokas, Jaana; Alenius, Heidi; Ebeling, Hanna; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Järvi, Leea; Koskinen, Minna; Laukkanen, Eila; Meskanen, Katarina; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Ryöppönen, Anita; Salonen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Päivi; Vuorela, Piia

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis with intervention is linked to better outcome. In primary care patients in risk for eating disorder should be screened and actively asked about eating disorder symptoms. Treatment is mainly out-patient care and should first be focused on gaining a normal nutritional status. It is important to involve the patient's family in the treatment. A confidential relationship between health care professionals and the patient is important. The patient's own motivation and readiness for recuperation are essential. Different therapeutic and psychosocial approaches are central in the treatment, as the disorders are psychiatric. Medical treatment may bring additional help in treating binge-eating disorder or bulimia nervosa, but it is seldom of help in treating anorexia nervosa. PMID:26245050

  2. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  3. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric…

  5. Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Subjective and Objective Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 16 subjective and objective sleep studies with a sample of 722 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus a control that numbers 638 shows that the children with ADHD are significantly more impaired in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures than their counterpart.

  6. The Effects of School-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis 1996-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Vilardo, Brigid

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis evaluating the effects of school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted by examining 60 outcome studies between 1996 and 2010 that yielded 85 effect sizes. Separate analyses were performed for studies employing between-subjects, within- subjects, and single-subject experimental…

  7. Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

  8. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits. PMID:26575979

  9. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Linkage Scans of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kaixin; Dempfle, Astrid; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Bakker, Steven C.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan; Castellanos, F.Xavier; Doyle, Alysa; Ebstein, Richard P.; Ekholm, Jenny; Forabosco, Paola; Franke, Barbara; Freitag, Christine; Friedel, Susann; Gill, Michael; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke; Jacob, Christian; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Loo, Sandra K.; Lopera, Francisco; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Meyer, Jobst; Mick, Eric; Miranda, Ana; Muenke, Maximilian; Mulas, Fernando; Nelson, Stanley F.; Nguyen, T.Trang; Oades, Robert D.; Ogdie, Matthew N.; Palacio, Juan David; Pineda, David; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Roeyers, Herbert; Romanos, Marcel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Schäfer, Helmut; Sergeant, Joseph; Sinke, Richard J.; Smalley, Susan L.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; van der Meulen, Emma; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Lewis, Cathryn M; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies, there has been limited replications between the various independent datasets. The current study gathered the results from all seven of the ADHD linkage scans and performed a Genome Scan Meta Analysis (GSMA) to identify the genomic region with most consistent linkage evidence across the studies. Genome-wide significant linkage (PSR=0.00034, POR=0.04) was identified on chromosome 16 between 64 and 83 Mb. In addition there are nine other genomic regions from the GSMA showing nominal or suggestive evidence of linkage. All these linkage results may be informative and focus the search for novel ADHD susceptibility genes. PMID:18988193

  10. Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…

  11. D-cycloserine augmentation in behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jing; Du, Yanqiu; Han, Jiyang; Liu, Guo; Wang, Xumei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS) augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2) to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global Impression–Severity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS. Conclusion Our result suggested that with the careful optimization of DCS-augmented ERP therapy by fine-tuning timing and dosing of DCS administration and number and frequency of ERP sessions, DCS may enhance the efficacy of ERP therapy in reducing the symptomatic severity of OCD patients, especially at early stage of the treatment; therefore, DCS augmentation could possibly reduce treatment cost, reduce treatment drop and refusal rate, and help to improve access to the limited number of experienced therapists. PMID:25960632

  12. Eating disorders in older women.

    PubMed

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. PMID:26261037

  13. Epidemiology of Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Korterink, Judith J.; Diederen, Kay; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to review the literature regarding epidemiology of functional abdominal pain disorders in children and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution including associated risk factors of developing functional abdominal pain. Methods The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases were systematically searched up to February 2014. Study selection criteria included: (1) studies of birth cohort, school based or general population samples (2) containing data concerning epidemiology, prevalence or incidence (3) of children aged 4-18 years (4) suffering from functional abdominal pain. Quality of studies was rated by a self-made assessment tool. A random-effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the prevalence of functional abdominal pain in childhood. Results A total of 58 articles, including 196,472 children were included. Worldwide pooled prevalence for functional abdominal pain disorders was 13.5% (95% CI 11.8-15.3), of which irritable bowel syndrome was reported most frequently (8.8%, 95% CI 6.2-11.9). The prevalence across studies ranged widely from 1.6% to 41.2%. Higher pooled prevalence rates were reported in South America (16.8%) and Asia (16.5%) compared to Europe (10.5%). And a higher pooled prevalence was reported when using the Rome III criteria (16.4%, 95% CI 13.5-19.4). Functional abdominal pain disorders are shown to occur significantly more in girls (15.9% vs. 11.5%, pooled OR 1.5) and is associated with the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders, stress and traumatic life events. Conclusion Functional abdominal pain disorders are a common problem worldwide with irritable bowel syndrome as most encountered abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. Female gender, psychological disorders, stress and traumatic life events affect prevalence. PMID:25992621

  14. Amygdala volume in Major Depressive Disorder: A meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. Paul; Siemer, Matthias; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder has been associated with volumetric abnormality in the amygdala. In this meta-analysis we examine results from magnetic resonance imaging volumetry studies of the amygdala in depression in order to assess both the nature of the relationship between depression and amygdala volume as well as the influence of extra-experimental factors that may account for significant variability in reported findings. We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for articles published from 1985 to 2008 that used the wildcard terms “Depress*” and “Amygdal*” in the title, keywords, or abstract. From the 13 studies that met inclusion criteria for our meta-analysis, we calculated aggregate effect size and heterogeneity estimates from amygdala volumetric data; we then used meta-regression to determine whether variability in specific extra-experimental factors accounted for variability in findings. The lack of a reliable difference in amygdala volume between depressed and never-depressed individuals was accounted for by a positive correlation between amygdala volume differences and the proportion of medicated depressed persons in study samples: whereas the aggregate effect size calculated from studies that included only medicated individuals indicated that amygdala volume was significantly increased in depressed relative to healthy persons, studies with only unmedicated depressed individuals showed a reliable decrease in amygdala volume in depression. These findings are consistent with a formulation in which an antidepressant-mediated increase in levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor promotes neurogenesis and protects against glucocorticoid toxicity in the amygdala in medicated but not in unmedicated depression. PMID:18504424

  15. Impact of Physical Exercise on Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongshi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yingying; Li, Rena; Zhou, Chenglin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine whether long-term physical exercise could be a potential effective treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Methods The PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, CNKI and China Info were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies in regards to the effects of physical exercise on SUD between the years 1990 and 2013. Four main outcome measures including abstinence rate, withdrawal symptoms, anxiety, and depression were evaluated. Results Twenty-two studies were integrated in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that physical exercise can effectively increase the abstinence rate (OR?=?1.69 (95% CI: 1.44, 1.99), z?=?6.33, p<0.001), ease withdrawal symptoms (SMD?=??1.24 (95% CI: ?2.46, ?0.02), z?=??2, p<0.05), and reduce anxiety (SMD?=??0.31 (95% CI: ?0.45, ?0.16), z ?=? ?4.12, p<0.001) and depression (SMD ?=? ?0.47 (95% CI: ?0.80, ?0.14), z?=??2.76, p<0.01). The physical exercise can more ease the depression symptoms on alcohol and illicit drug abusers than nicotine abusers, and more improve the abstinence rate on illicit drug abusers than the others. Similar treatment effects were found in three categories: exercise intensity, types of exercise, and follow-up periods. Conclusions The moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercises, designed according to the Guidelines of American College of Sports Medicine, and the mind-body exercises can be an effective and persistent treatment for those with SUD. PMID:25330437

  16. Treatment of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence

    2011-12-01

    The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire

  17. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients].

    PubMed

    Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed. PMID:19178853

  18. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Mentalizing Impairments in Adults With Schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yu Sun

    2014-01-01

    Mentalizing has been examined both in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) primarily by either cognitive-linguistic (referred to as verbal) or emotion recognition from eyes (referred to as visual) mentalizing tasks. Each type of task is thought to measure different aspects of mentalizing. Differences in clinical features and developmental courses of each disorder may predict distinct patterns of mentalizing performance across dis orders on each type of task. To test this, a meta-analysis was conducted using 37 studies that assessed mentalizing either verbally or visually in adults with SCZ or ASD. We found that the estimated effect sizes of impairments in verbal and visual mentalizing tasks for both clinical groups were statistically large and at a similar level (overall Hedges’ g = 0.73-1.05). For each disorder, adults with SCZ showed a trend towards larger impairments on verbal (overall Hedges’ g = 0.99) than on visual mentalizing task (overall Hedges’ g = 0.73; Qbet = 3.45, p =.06, df =1). Adults with ASD did not show different levels of impairment on the verbal versus visual tasks (Qbet = 0.08, p =.78, df =1). These results suggest that both clinical groups share, at least in part, some common cognitive processing deficits associated with mentalizing impairments. PMID:23686020

  20. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  1. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  2. Facial emotion recognition in alcohol and substance use disorders: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Filippo; Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Gamba, Giulia; Tremolada, Martina; Santambrogio, Jacopo; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    People with alcohol and substance use disorders (AUDs/SUDs) show worse facial emotion recognition (FER) than controls, though magnitude and potential moderators remain unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the association between AUDs, SUDs and FER impairment. Electronic databases were searched through April 2015. Pooled analyses were based on standardized mean differences between index and control groups with 95% confidence intervals, weighting each study with random effects inverse variance models. Risk of publication bias and role of potential moderators, including task type, were explored. Nineteen of 70 studies assessed for eligibility met the inclusion criteria, comprising 1352 individuals, of whom 714 (53%) had AUDs or SUDs. The association between substance related disorders and FER performance showed an effect size of -0.67 (-0.95, -0.39), and -0.65 (-0.93, -0.37) for AUDs and SUDs, respectively. There was no publication bias and subgroup and sensitivity analyses based on potential moderators confirmed core results. Future longitudinal research should confirm these findings, clarifying the role of specific clinical issues of AUDs and SUDs. PMID:26546735

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Autobiographical Memory Studies in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Berna, Fabrice; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Aouadi, Ismail; Ricarte, Jorge Javier; Allé, Mélissa C; Coutelle, Romain; Boyer, Laurent; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine Vanessa; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses and reviews on cognitive disorders in schizophrenia have shown that the most robust and common cognitive deficits are found in episodic memory and executive functions. More complex memory domains, such as autobiographical memory (AM), are also impaired in schizophrenia, but such impairments are reported less often despite their negative impact on patients' outcome. In contrast to episodic memory, assessed in laboratory tasks, memories of past personal events are much more complex and directly relate to the self. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, 571 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and 503 comparison subjects. It found moderate-to-large effect sizes with regard to the 3 parameters commonly used to assess AM: memory specificity (g = -0.97), richness of detail (g = -1.40), and conscious recollection (g = -0.62). These effect sizes were in the same range as those found in other memory domains in schizophrenia; for this reason, we propose that defective memories of personal past events should be regarded as a major cognitive impairment in this illness. PMID:26209548

  4. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  5. PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine NEWTON-WELLESLEY EATING DISORDERS & BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE (www.nwedbmed.com) seeks a Massachusetts licensed Psychologist disordered individuals, CBT for anxiety & affective disorders, chronic pain and behavioral medicine

  6. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Lock J, La Via MC; American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Committee on Quality Issues ( ...

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

  8. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  9. The Incidence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Floods: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims, between different flood intensities, and between different time points after a flood. A search of several electronic literature databases was conducted to collect data on the incidence of PTSD after a flood. Loney criteria for research quality were used to evaluate the quality of selected search results. The combined incidence of PTSD was estimated using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Subgroup analyses were conducted on different trauma intensities and different time points after a flood. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of research quality. Fourteen articles were included in this meta-analysis, including a total of 40 600 flood victims; 3862 victims were diagnosed with PTSD. The combined incidence of PTSD was 15.74%. The subgroup analyses showed that the incidence of PTSD in victims who experienced severe and moderate flood intensity was higher than that in victims who experienced mild flood intensity. The incidence of PTSD was lower at 6 or more months after a flood (11.45%) than within 6 months (16.01%) of a flood. In conclusion, the incidence of PTSD among floods of different trauma intensities was statistically significant. PMID:25857395

  10. Head circumference and brain size in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-11-30

    Macrocephaly and brain overgrowth have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and statistical significance for both head circumference and total brain volume in autism. Our literature search strategy identified 261 and 391 records, respectively; 27 studies defining percentages of macrocephalic patients and 44 structural brain imaging studies providing total brain volumes for patients and controls were included in our meta-analyses. Head circumference was significantly larger in autistic compared to control individuals, with 822/5225 (15.7%) autistic individuals displaying macrocephaly. Structural brain imaging studies measuring brain volume estimated effect size. The effect size is higher in low functioning autistics compared to high functioning and ASD individuals. Brain overgrowth was recorded in 142/1558 (9.1%) autistic patients. Finally, we found a significant interaction between age and total brain volume, resulting in larger head circumference and brain size during early childhood. Our results provide conclusive effect sizes and prevalence rates for macrocephaly and brain overgrowth in autism, confirm the variation of abnormal brain growth with age, and support the inclusion of this endophenotype in multi-biomarker diagnostic panels for clinical use. PMID:26456415

  11. Stereotactic surgery for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bomin; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a group of severely impaired eating behaviors, which include three subgroups: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future. PMID:23682343

  12. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  13. Mother-daughter coping and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. PMID:25645347

  14. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

  15. Eating disorders, serotonin transporter polymorphisms and potential treatment response.

    PubMed

    Gorwood, Philip

    2004-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder are eating disorders with common clinical and psychological features, potentially shared mechanisms, significant morbidity and, at least for anorexia nervosa, a high mortality rate. Among the numerous risk factors involved, the importance of a genetic vulnerability has been demonstrated, and the heritability, in the broad sense, has being estimated to be between 50 and 70%. Studies have thus focused on different candidate genes. Serotonin transmission and regulation has been extensively studied with regard to its role in core mechanisms such as feeding and fasting, but also in different clinical characteristics of eating disorders. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT), encoded by the SLC6A4 gene, may also have an important role in eating disorders, as its availability is decreased in patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. The promoter region contains a functional insertion/deletion polymorphism with two common alleles that have been designated the short (*S) and long (*L) alleles. The frequency of the SLC6A4*S allele has been assessed in four independent samples of patients with anorexia nervosa, but gave discrepant results. A meta-analysis was performed, which showed that the *S allele could represent a moderate but significant risk factor that increases the risk of anorexia nervosa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.72). Eating disorders are treated using different types of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with antidepressants; serotonin reuptake inhibitors being the most frequently prescribed. High doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are usually prescribed in eating disorders. The prevalence of non-responders (roughly one out of two), and the presence of a functional genetic polymorphism in the promotor region of SLC6A4, emphasizes the potential utility of psychopharmacogenetics in prescribing SSRIs in the treatment of patients with weight-restored anorexia nervosa. Information about genetic variations of cytochrome P450 could also facilitate pharmacotherapy by preventing the administration of high doses in poor metabolizers and identify rapid metabolizes who may require higher doses for efficacy. SLC6A4 genotyping would allow physicians to individualize selective serotonin reuptake therapy for their patients. PMID:14987118

  16. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  17. American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Juleen K.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered

  18. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  19. Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917

  20. [Involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mari Hotta

    2015-04-01

    This article gives an outline about involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa become common diseases in woman in Japan. Binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome are observed in men as well as women. Binge eating is characteristic of bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome. It should be noted that high energy availability observed in these diseases results in obesity and exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) can make patients to control symptoms and improve their QOL. Osteoporosis is one of chief complications and sequelae of anorexia nervosa. Low-birth weight babies born from emaciated patients with eating disorders are subject to metabolic syndrome in the future. PMID:25936153

  1. Unique contributions of individual eating disorder symptoms to eating disorder-related impairment.

    PubMed

    Hovrud, Lindsey; De Young, Kyle P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the unique contribution of individual eating disorder symptoms and related features to overall eating disorder-related impairment. Participants (N=113) from the community with eating disorders completed assessments including the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that 58.6% of variance in the CIA was accounted for by binge eating frequency, weight and shape concerns, and depression. These findings indicate that certain eating disorder symptoms uniquely account for impairment and that depression is a substantial contributor. It is possible that purging, restrictive eating, and body mass index did not significantly contribute to impairment because these features are consistent with many individuals' weight and shape goals. The results imply that eating disorder-related impairment may be more a result of cognitive features and binge eating rather than body weight and compensatory behaviors. PMID:26026614

  2. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders

  3. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  4. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    DeRamus, Thomas P; Kana, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal-temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations. PMID:25844306

  5. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeRamus, Thomas P.; Kana, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations. PMID:25844306

  6. Perplexities of treatment resistence in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed. Description The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the eating disorders. Conclusion Treatment resistance in eating disorders is usually predicted by the severity of the core eating disorder psychopathology which develops from an interaction between environmental risk factors with genetic traits and a vulnerable neurobiology. Future investigations of the biological features and neurocircuitry of the core eating disorders psychopathology and behaviors may provide information for more successful treatment interventions. PMID:24199597

  7. Alcohol use in adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Conason, Alexis H; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, in particular bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are associated with co-morbid alcohol and drug abuse. School-based studies have shown significant associations between bulimic behaviors and various measures of alcohol, cigarette and other drug use and abuse. Amongst bulimic adolescents, substance use is related to an increased likeliness of high risk behaviors such as attempted suicide, stealing and sexual intercourse. In contrast with bulimics and binge eaters, restricting anorexics have low rates of co-morbid substance abuse. It appears that restricting anorexics, binge eaters and bulimics represent distinct subgroups within the eating disordered population and binge eaters and bulimics are more prone to alcohol use. It is possible that individuals with eating disorders turn to alcohol use/abuse as a way of coping with the problems caused by their eating disorder. Researchers have proposed that an addictive personality is an underlying trait, which predisposes individuals to both eating disorders and alcohol abuse. Eating disorders are often conceptualized as an addictive disorder. Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may be useful in treating both eating and alcohol use disorders. There is also evidence that serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which are traditionally used to treat major depression, may be an effective treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been effective in treating alcohol use and eating disorders individually and may be an effective combined treatment for co-morbid eating disorders and alcohol use. Teaching healthy ways to cope with the stressful situations may also help decrease alcohol use and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:16639856

  8. Brain structure anomalies in autism spectrum disorder--a meta-analysis of VBM studies using anatomic likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Habel, Ute; Michel, Tanja Maria; Manning, Janessa; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Schneider, Frank; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive developmental disorders with characteristic core symptoms such as impairments in social interaction, deviance in communication, repetitive and stereotyped behavior, and impaired motor skills. Anomalies of brain structure have repeatedly been hypothesized to play a major role in the etiopathogenesis of the disorder. Our objective was to perform unbiased meta-analysis on brain structure changes as reported in the current ASD literature. We thus conducted a comprehensive search for morphometric studies by Pubmed query and literature review. We used a revised version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging results. Probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps were applied to compare the localization of the obtained significant effects to histological areas. Each of the significant ALE clusters was analyzed separately for age effects on gray and white matter density changes. We found six significant clusters of convergence indicating disturbances in the brain structure of ASD patients, including the lateral occipital lobe, the pericentral region, the medial temporal lobe, the basal ganglia, and proximate to the right parietal operculum. Our study provides the first quantitative summary of brain structure changes reported in literature on autism spectrum disorders. In contrast to the rather small sample sizes of the original studies, our meta-analysis encompasses data of 277 ASD patients and 303 healthy controls. This unbiased summary provided evidence for consistent structural abnormalities in spite of heterogeneous diagnostic criteria and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology, but also hinted at a dependency of VBM findings on the age of the patients. PMID:21692142

  9. Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable than Autistic Disorder? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondeau, Emelie; Klein, Leslie S.; Masse, Andre; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as…

  10. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  11. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  12. Bulimia: Growing Awareness of an Eating Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudkovitz, Elaine

    1983-01-01

    Describes bulimia, a disorder involving binge eating and purging increasingly prevalent in young women. Reviews the literature and describes symptoms, etiological factors, and treatment considerations and approaches for the disorder. (Author)

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Peer-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated interventions for promoting social interactions among children from birth to eight years of age diagnosed with ASD. Forty-five single-subject design studies were analyzed and the effect sizes were calculated by the regression model developed by Allison and Gorman (1993). The overall…

  14. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and ?(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. PMID:21896116

  15. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  16. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  17. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  18. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating in Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence, Screening, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hanlan, Margo E.; Griffith, Julie; Patel, Niral

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Recent research indicates higher prevalence rates of eating disorders among people with type 1 diabetes, as compared to their peers without diabetes. Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors – especially insulin omission – are associated with poorer glycemic control and serious risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin in pre-adolescence and continue through early adulthood, as many disordered eating behaviors begin during the transition to adolescence and may persist for years. Available screening tools and treatment options are reviewed. Given the complexity of diabetes management in combination with eating disorder treatment, it is imperative to screen early and often, in order to identify those most vulnerable and begin appropriate treatment in a timely manner. PMID:24022608

  19. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    PubMed Central

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships) were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established. PMID:22934173

  20. Eating disorders in Spanish female athletes.

    PubMed

    Toro, J; Galilea, B; Martinez-Mallén, E; Salamero, M; Capdevila, L; Mari, J; Mayolas, J; Toro, E

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and risk factors for their development in female athletes. Two hundred and eighty-three elite sportswomen, competing in 20 different sports, were administered the EAT, the CETCA (the Eating Disorders Assessment Questionnaire, based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria), and two other inventories which evaluated 1) the possible influence on eating disorders of exposure of the body in public and 2) pressure from coaches regarding eating habits, weight, physical appearance and performance. More than 11% of subjects had scores above the cut-off point (>30) on the EAT questionnaire, a proportion similar to that found in a general female population in Spain. On the basis of the CETCA score, AN was putatively diagnosed in 2.5% of the sample, and BN in 20.1%. Though some of these cases may have been EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specified), the proportion of athletes suffering from some kind of eating disorder was five times higher than in the general population (22.6% vs. 4.1%). No differences were found between the sportswomen and the general population in terms of specific risk behaviours and attitudes, but a substantial subgroup of athletes presented two or more of these risk behaviours. Exposure of the body in public seems to be a risk factor for eating disorders in general, and pressure from coaches seems to be a risk factor for bulimia. PMID:16158377

  1. The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    Review The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders Kent C circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain in obesity or in eating disorders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Obesity Eating Food

  2. A Lifetime Prevalence of Comorbidity Between Bipolar Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analysis of 52 Interview-based Studies of Psychiatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Behrouz; Mitchell, Alex J.; Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar affective disorder has a high rate of comorbidity with a multitude of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. Among all the potential comorbidities, co-existing anxiety disorders stand out due to their high prevalence. Aims To determine the lifetime prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in bipolar affective disorder under the care of psychiatric services through systematic review and meta-analysis. Method Random effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the lifetime prevalence of comorbid generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in bipolar affective disorder. Results 52 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The rate of lifetime comorbidity was as follows: panic disorder 16.8% (95% CI 13.7–20.1), generalised anxiety disorder 14.4% (95% CI 10.8–18.3), social anxiety disorder13.3% (95% CI 10.1–16.9), post-traumatic stress disorder 10.8% (95% CI 7.3–14.9), specific phobia 10.8% (95% CI 8.2–13.7), obsessive compulsive disorder 10.7% (95% CI 8.7–13.0) and agoraphobia 7.8% (95% CI 5.2–11.0). The lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder was 42.7%. Conclusions Our results suggest a high rate of lifetime concurrent anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder. The diagnostic issues at the interface are particularly difficult because of the substantial symptom overlap. The treatment of co-existing conditions has clinically remained challenging. PMID:26629535

  3. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

  4. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits

    PubMed Central

    Kas, Martien J. H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

  5. The efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depressive and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    Although psychotherapy and antidepressant medication are efficacious in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders, it is not known whether they are equally efficacious for all types of disorders, and whether all types of psychotherapy and antidepressants are equally efficacious for each disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies in which psychotherapy and antidepressant medication were directly compared in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Systematic searches in bibliographical databases resulted in 67 randomized trials, including 5,993 patients that met inclusion criteria, 40 studies focusing on depressive disorders and 27 focusing on anxiety disorders. The overall effect size indicating the difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy after treatment in all disorders was g=0.02 (95% CI: ?0.07 to 0.10), which was not statistically significant. Pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than psychotherapy in dysthymia (g=0.30), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (g=0.64). Furthermore, pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than non-directive counseling (g=0.33), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy with tricyclic antidepressants (g=0.21). These results remained significant when we controlled for other characteristics of the studies in multivariate meta-regression analysis, except for the differential effects in dysthymia, which were no longer statistically significant. PMID:23737423

  6. School Counselors' Knowledge of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joy A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Findings from 337 school counselors revealed 11 percent rated themselves as very competent in helping students with eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), 49 percent considered themselves moderately competent, 40 percent believed they were not very competent; 75 percent did not believe it was their role to treat students with eating

  7. Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

  8. Eating disorders, perceived control, assertiveness and hostility.

    PubMed

    Williams, G J; Chamove, A S; Millar, H R

    1990-09-01

    There are anecdotal claims that eating disorder patients perceive themselves as highly controlled by the family and by society, but that they do not show assertive behaviour towards controllers. Anorexic and bulimic females were compared with female psychiatric patients, dieters and non-dieting controls on measures of eating disorder symptomatology, locus of control, assertiveness, inwardly directed hostility, family control and family encouragement of independence. Eating disorder patients reported significantly more external control, more inwardly directed hostility, less self-assertion and less family encouragement of independence than dieters and non-dieting controls, but they did not differ from psychiatric controls. Most of the characteristics seen in eating disorder subjects were also reported by psychiatric controls. PMID:2252948

  9. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151

  10. Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating

    E-print Network

    Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating The most common time of life for an eating disorder to develop is between the ages of 17 - 20. This coincides with the college years. Research has shown that as many as a third of college-age women have disordered eating patterns

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Differences in IQ Profiles between Individuals with Asperger's Disorder and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y.; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did…

  12. Gender and Age Differences in the Core Triad of Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia J. M.; van Eeten, Evelien; Groen, Wouter B.; Van Deurzen, Patricia A.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2014-01-01

    Autism is an extensively studied disorder in which the gender disparity in prevalence has received much attention. In contrast, only a few studies examine gender differences in symptomatology. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 peer reviewed original publications examines gender differences in the core triad of impairments in autism.…

  13. Meta-Analysis of Social Skills Interventions of Single-Case Research for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Results from Three-Level HLM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 115 single-case studies with 343 participants that examined the effectiveness of social skills interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The average effect size of the included studies was 1.40 (SD = 0.43, 95% CL = 1.32-1.48, N = 115). In the further, several…

  14. Eating disorders in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Nitzburg, George

    2008-10-01

    Eating disorders are generally viewed as afflicting females during adolescence and early adulthood. However, in recent years there has been a growing recognition that these disorders may occur during midlife as well. When eating disorders have been observed in middle age, they have often been believed to be associated with depression. In an Internet survey, responses by middle-aged women (N = 290; aged 45-60 years) indicated that the factors significantly associated with eating pathology-body image dissatisfaction, sociocultural pressures to be thin, and perfectionism-closely parallel those reported for younger people. Furthermore, in the presence of these factors, depression and concerns about the effects of aging on appearance are not significantly related to eating pathology. PMID:18959229

  15. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

  16. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Developed the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire (AMDQ) to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/DE). Athletes from various sports completed the AMDQ, two other tests, and a structured diagnostic interview to determine which test screened most effectively. The AMDQ identified ED/DE more accurately than the…

  17. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  18. Implicit Family Process Rules in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.

    2009-01-01

    Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…

  19. Dose-response relationship in music therapy for people with serious mental disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gold, Christian; Solli, Hans Petter; Krüger, Viggo; Lie, Stein Atle

    2009-04-01

    Serious mental disorders have considerable individual and societal impact, and traditional treatments may show limited effects. Music therapy may be beneficial in psychosis and depression, including treatment-resistant cases. The aim of this review was to examine the benefits of music therapy for people with serious mental disorders. All existing prospective studies were combined using mixed-effects meta-analysis models, allowing to examine the influence of study design (RCT vs. CCT vs. pre-post study), type of disorder (psychotic vs. non-psychotic), and number of sessions. Results showed that music therapy, when added to standard care, has strong and significant effects on global state, general symptoms, negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, functioning, and musical engagement. Significant dose-effect relationships were identified for general, negative, and depressive symptoms, as well as functioning, with explained variance ranging from 73% to 78%. Small effect sizes for these outcomes are achieved after 3 to 10, large effects after 16 to 51 sessions. The findings suggest that music therapy is an effective treatment which helps people with psychotic and non-psychotic severe mental disorders to improve global state, symptoms, and functioning. Slight improvements can be seen with a few therapy sessions, but longer courses or more frequent sessions are needed to achieve more substantial benefits. PMID:19269725

  20. Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2003-01-01

    Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered

  1. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eating disorders,…

  2. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Treatment Outcome and Predictors of Response

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Pino; Cuadras, Daniel; Gabriëls, Loes; Denys, Damiaan; Goodman, Wayne; Greenberg, Ben D.; Jimenez-Ponce, Fiacro; Kuhn, Jens; Lenartz, Doris; Mallet, Luc; Nuttin, Bart; Real, Eva; Segalas, Cinto; Schuurman, Rick; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Menchon, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an alternative to ablative neurosurgery for severe treatment-resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), although with partially discrepant results probably related to differences in anatomical targetting and stimulation conditions. We sought to determine the efficacy and tolerability of DBS in OCD and the existence of clinical predictors of response using meta-analysis. Methods We searched the literature on DBS for OCD from 1999 through January 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We performed fixed and random-effect meta-analysis with score changes (pre-post DBS) on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) as the primary-outcome measure, and the number of responders to treatment, quality of life and acceptability as secondary measures. Findings Thirty-one studies involving 116 subjects were identified. Eighty-three subjects were implanted in striatal areas—anterior limb of the internal capsule, ventral capsule and ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens and ventral caudate—27 in the subthalamic nucleus and six in the inferior thalamic peduncle. Global percentage of Y-BOCS reduction was estimated at 45.1% and global percentage of responders at 60.0%. Better response was associated with older age at OCD onset and presence of sexual/religious obsessions and compulsions. No significant differences were detected in efficacy between targets. Five patients dropped out, but adverse effects were generally reported as mild, transient and reversible. Conclusions Our analysis confirms that DBS constitutes a valid alternative to lesional surgery for severe, therapy-refractory OCD patients. Well-controlled, randomized studies with larger samples are needed to establish the optimal targeting and stimulation conditions and to extend the analysis of clinical predictors of outcome. PMID:26208305

  3. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  4. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

  5. Self-help treatment of anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of effects and potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Haug, Thomas; Nordgreen, Tine; Öst, Lars Göran; Havik, Odd E

    2012-07-01

    Self-help treatments have the potential to increase the availability and affordability of evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders. Although promising, previous research results are heterogeneous, indicating a need to identify factors that moderate treatment outcome. The present article reviews the literature on self-help treatment for anxiety disorders among adults, with a total sample of 56 articles with 82 comparisons. When self-help treatment was compared to wait-list or placebo, a meta-analysis indicated a moderate to large effect size (g=0.78). When self-help treatment was compared to face-to-face treatment, results indicated a small effect that favored the latter (g=-0.20). When self-help was compared to wait-list or placebo, subgroup analyses indicated that self-help treatment format, primary anxiety diagnosis and procedures for recruitment of subjects were related to treatment outcome in bivariate analyses, but only recruitment procedures remained significant in a multiple meta-regression analysis. When self-help was compared to face-to-face treatment, a multiple meta-regression indicated that the type of comparison group, treatment format and gender were significantly related to outcome. We conclude that self-help is effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and should be offered as part of stepped care treatment models in community services. Implications of the results and future directions are discussed. PMID:22681915

  6. [Changes to the classification of Eating Disorders in DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Knoll, Susanne; Föcker, Manuel; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-09-01

    The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) resulted in substantial changes with regard to the classification of Eating Disorders. In DSM-5, Feeding and Eating Disorders are for the first time subsumed in a single category. The Binge Eating Disorder (BED) was established as the third classical eating disorder in addition to Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN). The criteria for AN changed remarkably, whereas there were only minor changes to the BN criteria. The criteria for BED differ only marginally from the DSM-IV research criteria. There are now subtypes of AN, BN, and BED in the new category "Other Specific Feeding and Eating Disorders." The rest category "Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified" has been renamed to "Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorders." The practicability of the DSM-5 criteria for Eating Disorders, and for AN in particular, for both clinical practice and research remains to be seen. PMID:25163998

  7. Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

  8. Eating Disorders Among College Women: Prevention, Education, and Treatment Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Bergholz, Kim; Dore, Terri; Salimi, Lamieh

    1998-01-01

    Discusses eating disorders in college females, recommending use of the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified framework to identify and target various eating concerns for intervention. The paper also suggests using a multiple-level, developmental-intervention model to conceptualize preventive, educational, and remedial responses to eating

  9. Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, Mary V

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

  10. Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2014-12-22

    Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

  11. Targeting the Noradrenergic System in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prazosin Trials.

    PubMed

    Berardis, Domenico De; Marini, Stefano; Serroni, Nicola; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; Bartolomeis, Andrea de; Mazza, Monica; Tempesta, Daniela; Valchera, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Pompili, Maurizio; Sepede, Gianna; Vellante, Federica; Orsolini, Laura; Martinotti, Giovanni; Giannantonio, Massimo Di

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that may develop after exposure to a life-threatening trauma. As veterans and armed forces may deal with diverse health problems compared with civilians, they have a greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including PTSD, than civilians, even if the disorder may be also frequent in the general population. PTSD is associated with significant comorbidity, especially with mood disorders and substance abuse. Moreover, the suicide risk is higher in PTSD patients than in the general population. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are commonly employed in the management of PTSD, but often these treatments fail or are discontinued due to adverse effects. It has been demonstrated that high noradrenergic activity may be associated with hyperarousal, trauma nightmares and sleep disturbances in PTSD subjects, probably through the stimulation of ? -1 adrenergic receptors in the brain prefrontal cortex. The ? -1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin decreases noradrenaline effects at brain ?-1 adrenoreceptors and may be a promising agent in the treatment of PTSD, as some studies have found it effective and well tolerated. Therefore, the present review is aimed to examine the role of noradrenergic system in the pathophysiology of PTSD. Moreover, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of prazosin in PTSD patients. Meta-analysis was used to combine data from multiple studies and better estimate the effect of prazosin on specific outcomes. We found prazosin to be significantly more efficacious than placebo in reducing distressing dreams in PTSD patients, even though our results should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies included in our quantitative synthesis. PMID:25944011

  12. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  13. Eating Disorders in Men: Underdiagnosed, Undertreated, and Misunderstood

    PubMed Central

    Strother, Eric; Lemberg, Raymond; Stanford, Stevie Chariese; Turberville, Dayton

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a survey of eating disorders in men, highlights the dramatic rise in eating disorders, identifies issues specific to males, and suggests areas for research and intervention. This survey concludes that men with eating disorders are currently under-diagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood by many clinicians who encounter them. Ongoing research addressing these issues is expected to result in assessment tools and treatment interventions that will advance positive outcomes for men with eating disorders. PMID:22985232

  14. Through Thick and Thin Supporting a Loved One with an Eating Disorder

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Through Thick and Thin Supporting a Loved One with an Eating Disorder Eating disorders believe eating disorders are the product of a society that idealizes thinness, the cause is unclear. We do an eating disorder. Understanding Eating Disorders Eating disorders are usually connected with strong

  15. Preventing a Continuum of Disordered Eating: Going beyond the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2007-01-01

    Efforts aimed at the prevention of eating disorders need to consider the context within which these disorders develop and aim to promote not only healthy eating and physical activity but also address mental health factors, such as body image. Exploring the relationship between body image and eating disorders will provide a foundation and further…

  16. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  17. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  18. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  19. Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating KELLY L. KLUMP1, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA ABSTRACT Objective. Eating disorders are more common of studies examined these effects by investigating relationships between eating disorder symptoms, prenatal

  20. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  1. Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder

  2. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided Self Help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and cost-effective than existing, efficacious BED specialty treatments which are limited in public health utility and impact given their time and expense demands. No existing BED GSH treatment has incorporated affect regulation models of binge eating, which appears warranted given research linking negative affect and binge eating. Integrative Response Therapy (IRT), a new group-based guided self-help treatment, based on the affect regulation model of binge eating, that has shown initial promise in a pilot sample of adults meeting DSM IV criteria for BED, is described. Fifty-four% and 67% of participants were abstinent at post-treatment and three month follow-up respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of binge days over the previous 28 days from baseline to post-treatment [14.44 (±7.16) to 3.15 (±5.70); t=7.71, p<.001; d=2.2] and from baseline to follow-up [14.44 (±7.16) to 1.50 (±2.88); t=5.64, p<.001; d=1.7]. All subscales from both the Eating Disorder Examination – Questionnaire and Emotional Eating Scale were significantly lower at post-treatment compared to baseline. 100% of IRT participants would recommend the program to a friend or family member in need. IRT’s longer-term efficacy and acceptability are presently being tested in a National Institute of Mental Health funded randomized controlled trial. PMID:24605043

  3. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper was designed to provide professional counselors with a comprehensive but concise method of accurately evaluting, interviewing, and planning for treatment of eating disorder clients. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section, Diagnosis, compares, contrasts, and offers clear explanations of the diagnostic criteria for…

  5. Psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Iacovino, Juliette M; Gredysa, Dana M; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E

    2012-08-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  6. Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  7. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

  8. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

  9. Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kristin L.

    Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

  10. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N?=?198; n?=?52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z?=??3.6, p?=?0.0003, r2?=?0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-naïve participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR?=?1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p?=?0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. PMID:26407790

  11. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N?=?198; n?=?52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z?=?-3.6, p?=?0.0003, r(2) ?=?0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-naïve participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR?=?1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p?=?0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. PMID:26407790

  12. Impact of Chronic Pain on Treatment Prognosis for Patients with Opioid Use Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Brittany B; Bawor, Monica; Naji, Leen; Chan, Carol K; Varenbut, Jaymie; Paul, James; Varenbut, Michael; Daiter, Jeff; Plater, Carolyn; Pare, Guillaume; Marsh, David C; Worster, Andrew; Desai, Dipika; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND While a number of pharmacological interventions exist for the treatment of opioid use disorder, evidence evaluating the effect of pain on substance use behavior, attrition rate, and physical or mental health among these therapies has not been well established. We aim to evaluate these effects using evidence gathered from a systematic review of studies evaluating chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) in patients with opioid use disorder. METHODS We searched the Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProQuest Dissertations and theses Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry databases to identify articles evaluating the impact of pain on addiction treatment outcomes for patients maintained on opioid agonist therapy. RESULTS Upon screening 3,540 articles, 14 studies with a combined sample of 3,128 patients fulfilled the review inclusion criteria. Results from the meta-analysis suggest that pain has no effect on illicit opioid consumption [pooled odds ratio (pOR): 0.70, 95%CI 0.41–1.17; I2 = 0.0] but a protective effect for reducing illicit non-opioid substance use (pOR: 0.57, 95%CI 0.41–0.79; I2 = 0.0). Studies evaluating illicit opioid consumption using other measures demonstrate pain to increase the risk for opioid abuse. Pain is significantly associated with the presence of psychiatric disorders (pOR: 2.18; 95%CI 1.6, 2.9; I2 = 0.0%). CONCLUSION CNCP may increase risk for continued opioid abuse and poor psychiatric functioning. Qualitative synthesis of the findings suggests that major methodological differences in the design and measurement of pain and treatment response outcomes are likely impacting the effect estimates. PMID:26417202

  13. World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  14. Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referral by student participants were found. PMID:24044598

  15. An investigation of Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Mario; Revah-Levy, Anne; Giquel, Ludovic; Loas, Gwenolé; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Jeammet, Philippe; Corcos, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how far Goodman's addictive disorder criteria were met by individuals with eating disorders according to subtypes. The study provided a cross-sectional comparison among three samples of eating disorders [restricting anorexia nervosa (R-AN), N?=?68; purging anorexia nervosa (P-AN), N?=?42; and bulimia nervosa (BN), N?=?66], a sample of substance-related disorders (SRDs, N?=?48) and a sample of matched controls (N?=?201). Diagnosis of addictive disorder was made following Goodman's criteria. Addictive personality traits were assessed with the Addiction Potential Scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 and with the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale. Results showed that individuals with BN met Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in the same proportion as drug-addicted individuals (65% vs 60%, p?=?NS). They both showed higher rates than R-AN individuals (35%; R-AN versus BN: F?=?11.9, p?disorders compared with P-AN, differences were not significant. Scores on the Sensation Seeking and on the Addictive Potential scales paralleled the distribution of addictive disorders, with individuals with BN and with P-AN showing higher levels than individuals with R-AN. Results showed that a subgroup of individuals with an eating disorder experiences their disorder as an addiction and may deserve specific therapeutic attention. PMID:21834026

  16. Stressful life events and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Degortes, Daniela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Veronese, Angela; Favaro, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Although there is evidence about the role played by stressful life events (SE) in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, few studies to date have explored this problem in binge eating disorder (BED). The aim of the present study was to examine SE preceding the onset of BED. A retrospective interview-based design was used to compare 107 patients with BED and 107 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), matched for duration of illness. Compared with patients with BN, those with BED reported a greater number of traumatic events in the 6 months preceding onset, revealing more often three types of events: bereavement, separation from a family member and accidents. The presence of SE before onset showed a dose-response relationship with the severity of psychopathology at the time of referral for treatment. Study of SE in patients with BED may be important for better understanding of the pathogenetic pathway to this disorder and to provide adequate treatment. PMID:25044613

  17. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  18. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  19. Effectiveness of psychotropic medications in the maintenance phase of bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard; Günther, Oliver; Locklear, Julie; Ekman, Mattias; Miltenburger, Carolin; Chatterton, Mary Lou; Åström, Mikael; Paulsson, Björn

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of maintenance treatments for bipolar disorder. Placebo-controlled or active comparator bipolar maintenance clinical trials of ?6 months' duration with at least 15 patients/treatment group were identified using Medline, EMBASE, clinicaltrials.gov, and Cochrane databases (1993 to July 2010). The main outcome measure was relative risk for relapse for patients in remission. Twenty trials (5,364 patients) were identified. Overall, lithium and quetiapine were the most studied agents (eight and five trials, respectively). The majority of studies included patients who had previously responded to treatment for an acute episode. All interventions, with the exception of perphenazine+mood stabilizer, showed a relative risk for manic/mixed or depressive relapse below 1.0, although there was variation in the statistical significance of the findings vs. placebo. No monotherapy was associated with a significantly reduced risk for both manic/mixed and depressed relapse. Of the combination treatments, only quetiapine+lithium/divalproex, was associated with a significantly reduced risk vs. comparator (placebo+lithium/valproate) for relapse at both the manic/mixed and depressed poles of bipolar illness. Limitations for the analysis include differences in study durations and definitions of relapse. In conclusion, available maintenance therapies show considerable variation in efficacy. The efficacy of lithium and divalproex has been confirmed, but newer therapies, such as a number of atypical antipsychotics were also shown to be effective in bipolar disorder. Efficacy of all maintenance interventions needs to be balanced against the safety and tolerability profiles of individual agents. PMID:21733231

  20. Relations among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Comorbid Major Depression, and HPA Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Compas, Bruce E.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic stress is associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) function. Research linking traumatic stress with HPA function in PTSD has been inconsistent, however, in part due to (a) the inclusion of trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD (TE) in control groups and (b) a failure to consider comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and moderating variables. This meta-analysis of 47 studies (123 effect sizes, N=6,008 individuals) revealed that daily cortisol output was lower for PTSD (d=?.36, SE=.15, p=.008) and PTSD+MDD (d=?.65, SE=.25, p=.008) groups relative to no trauma controls (NTC); TE and NTC groups did not differ significantly from each other. Afternoon/evening cortisol was lower in TE (d=?.25, SE=.09, p=.007) and PTSD (d=?.27, SE=.12, p=.021) groups and higher in PTSD+MDD groups (d=.49, SE=.24, p=.041) relative to NTC. Post-DST cortisol levels were lower in PTSD (d=?.40, SE=.12, p<.001), PTSD+MDD (d=?.65, SE=.14, p<.001), and TE groups (d=?.53, SE=.14, p<.001) relative to NTC. HPA effect sizes were moderated by age, sex, time since index event, and developmental timing of trauma exposure. These findings suggest that enhanced HPA feedback function may be a marker of trauma-exposure rather than a specific mechanism of vulnerability for PTSD, whereas lower daily cortisol output may be associated with PTSD in particular. PMID:22459791

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Newby, Jill M; McKinnon, Anna; Kuyken, Willem; Gilbody, Simon; Dalgleish, Tim

    2015-08-01

    A broad array of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders have been evaluated, but existing reviews of this literature are restricted to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocols. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating clinician-guided internet/computerised or face-to-face manualised transdiagnostic treatments, to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 50 studies showed that transdiagnostic treatments are efficacious, with large overall mean uncontrolled effects (pre- to post-treatment) for anxiety and depression (gs=.85 and .91 respectively), and medium for QOL (g=.69). Uncontrolled effect sizes were stable at follow-up. Results from 24 RCTs that met inclusion criteria showed that transdiagnostic treatments outperformed control conditions on all outcome measures (controlled ESs: gs=.65, .80, and .46 for anxiety, depression and QOL respectively), with the smallest differences found compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) control conditions. RCT quality was generally poor, and heterogeneity was high. Examination of the high heterogeneity revealed that CBT protocols were more effective than mindfulness/acceptance protocols for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: gs=.88 and .61 respectively), but not depression. Treatment delivery format influenced outcomes for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: group: g=.70, individual: g=.97, computer/internet: g=.96) and depression (uncontrolled ESs: group: g=.89, individual: g=.86, computer/internet: g=.96). Preliminary evidence from 4 comparisons with disorder-specific treatments suggests that transdiagnostic treatments are as effective for reducing anxiety, and may be superior for reducing depression. These findings show that transdiagnostic psychological treatments are efficacious, but higher quality research studies are needed to explore the sources of heterogeneity amongst treatment effects. PMID:26094079

  2. Antiepileptic Medications in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine,…

  3. Pharmacologic Treatments for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Howard Y.; Potter, Mona P.; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Yorks, Dayna M.; Petty, Carter R.; Wozniak, Janet R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of literature has documented pediatric bipolar disorder to be a severely impairing form of psychopathology. However, concerns remain as to the inadequacy of the extant literature on its pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, treatment studies have not been systematically reviewed for treatment effects on core and associated…

  4. Developmental Meta-Analysis of the Functional Neural Correlates of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Daniel P.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Seymour, Karen E.; Laird, Angela R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Barrett, Rowland P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a pressing need to elucidate the brain-behavior interactions underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the marked rise in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has begun to address this need, but few fMRI studies have evaluated age-related changes in ASD. Therefore, we conducted…

  5. The Neural Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An ALE Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Steven G.; Bannon, Katie; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and commonly studied forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Causal models of ADHD have long implicated dysfunction in fronto-striatal and frontal-parietal networks supporting executive function, a hypothesis that can now be examined…

  6. Child-Parent Interventions for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…

  7. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult posttraumatic stress disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Guiqing; Hu, Min; Liang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively common mental disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of ?5.7%. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most often studied and most effective psychotherapies for PTSD. However, evidence is inadequate to conclude which treatment is superior. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to confirm the effectiveness of EMDR compared to CBT for adult PTSD. We searched Medline, PubMed, Ebsco, Proquest, and Cochrane (1989-2013) to identify relevant randomized control trials comparing EMDR and CBT for PTSD. We included 11 studies (N = 424). Although all the studies had methodological limitations, meta-analyses for total PTSD scores revealed that EMDR was slightly superior to CBT. Cumulative meta-analysis confirmed this and a meta-analysis for subscale scores of PTSD symptoms indicated that EMDR was better for decreased intrusion and arousal severity compared to CBT. Avoidance was not significantly different between groups. EMDR may be more suitable than CBT for PTSD patients with prominent intrusion or arousal symptoms. However, the limited number and poor quality of the original studies included suggest caution when drawing final conclusions. PMID:25974059

  8. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  9. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

  10. Assessing blinding in trials of psychiatric disorders: A meta-analysis based on blinding index

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Brian; Assall, Oliver Paul; Panagiotakis, Gary; Bang, Heejung; Park, Jongbae J.; Moroz, Alex; Baethge, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of blinding in RCTs is rarely performed. Currently most studies that do report data on evaluation of blinding merely report percentages of correct guessing, not taking into account correct guessing by chance. Blinding assessment using the blinding index (BI) has never been performed in a systematic review on studies of major psychiatric disorders. This study is a systematic review of psychiatric randomized control trials using the BI as a chance-corrected measurement of blinding, a tool to analyze and understand the patterns of blinding across studies of major psychiatric disorders with available data. Of 2467 psychiatric RCTs from 2000 to 2010, 66 reported on blinding and 40 studies were found to have enough information on evaluation of blinding to be analyzed using the BI. The experimental treatment groups had an average BI value of 0.14 and the control groups had an average BI value of 0.00. The most common BI scenario was random–random, indicating ideal blinding. A positive correlation between effect size and more correct guesses was also found. Overall, based on BI values and the most common blinding scenario, the published articles on major psychiatric disorders from 2000 to 2010, which reported on blinding assessment for patients, were effectively blinded. PMID:24930582

  11. Eating Disorders and Therapist Emotional Responses.

    PubMed

    Colli, Antonello; Speranza, Anna Maria; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Gentile, Daniela; Nassisi, Valentina; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (a) patterns of clinicians' emotional responses to patients with eating disorders (ED); (b) patient, clinician, and treatment variables associated with therapist emotional responses; and (c) the influence of patient personality on therapist emotional responses. A random national sample of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapists (N = 149) was asked to examine one patient (>18 years old) with an ED. Clinicians completed the SWAP-200, the Therapist Response Questionnaire, and the Clinical Questionnaire-Eating Disorder Form to provide general information about themselves, patients, and therapies. Results suggested a therapist pattern of emotional response in relation to different ED diagnosis and indicated meaningful influence of therapist experience and patient variables (such as sexual abuse, dissociative symptoms, and self-harm) on therapist emotional reactions. Finally, regression analysis suggested that therapist responses are more related to patient personality than ED symptoms. This study confirms the importance of patient personality in evoking specific therapists' reactions. PMID:26461481

  12. Tonsillectomy versus Tonsillotomy for Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children: A Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Fu, Yangyang; Feng, Yanmei; Guan, Jian; Yin, Shankai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tonsillotomy has gained popular acceptance as an alternative to the traditional tonsillectomy in the management of sleep-disordered breathing in children. Many studies have evaluated the outcomes of the two techniques, but uncertainty remains with regard to the efficacy and complications of tonsillotomy versus a traditional tonsillectomy. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and complications of tonsillotomy versus tonsillectomy, in terms of the short- and long-term results. Methods We collected data from electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The following inclusion criteria were applied: English language, children, and prospective studies that directly compared tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy in the management of sleep disordered breathing. Subgroup analysis was then performed. Results In total, 10 eligible studies with 1029 participants were included. Tonsillotomy was shown to be advantageous over tonsillectomy in short-term measures, such as a lower hemorrhage rate, shorter operation time, and faster pain relief. In long-term follow-up, there was no significant difference in resolution of upper-airway obstructive symptoms, the quality of life, or postoperative immune function between the tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy groups. The risk ratio of SDB recurrence was 3.33 (95% confidence interval = 1.62 6.82, P = 0.001), favoring tonsillectomy at an average follow-up of 31 months. Conclusions Tonsillotomy may be advantageous over tonsillectomy in the short term measures and there are no significant difference of resolving obstructive symptoms, quality of life and postoperative immune function. For the long run, the dominance of tonsillotomy may be less than tonsillectomy with regard to the rate of sleep-disordered breathing recurrence. PMID:25807322

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Metabolic Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Alex J.; Vancampfort, Davy; Sweers, Kim; van Winkel, Ruud; Yu, Weiping; De Hert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have high levels of medical comorbidity and cardiovascular risk factors. The presence of 3 or more specific factors is indicative of metabolic syndrome, which is a significant influence upon future morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify the prevalence and predictors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults with schizophrenia and related disorders, accounting for subgroup differences. A PRISMA systematic search, appraisal, and meta-analysis were conducted of 126 analyses in 77 publications (n = 25?692). The overall rate of MetS was 32.5% (95% CI = 30.1%–35.0%), and there were only minor differences according to the different definitions of MetS, treatment setting (inpatient vs outpatient), by country of origin and no appreciable difference between males and females. Older age had a modest influence on the rate of MetS (adjusted R 2 = .20; P < .0001), but the strongest influence was of illness duration (adjusted R 2 = .35; P < .0001). At a study level, waist size was most useful in predicting high rate of MetS with a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 78.8%. Sensitivity and specificity of high blood pressure, high triglycerides, high glucose and low high-density lipoprotein, and age (>38 y) are shown in supplementary appendix 2 online. Regarding prescribed antipsychotic medication, highest rates were seen in those prescribed clozapine (51.9%) and lowest rates of MetS in those who were unmedicated (20.2%). Present findings strongly support the notion that patients with schizophrenia should be considered a high-risk group. Patients with schizophrenia should receive regular monitoring and adequate treatment of cardio-metabolic risk factors. PMID:22207632

  14. Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: a gradient of severity in cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Claire S; Nava, Caroline; Polge, Anne; Gauthier, Julie; Huguet, Guillaume; Lumbroso, Serge; Giuliano, Fabienne; Stordeur, Coline; Depienne, Christel; Mouzat, Kevin; Pinto, Dalila; Howe, Jennifer; Lemière, Nathalie; Durand, Christelle M; Guibert, Jessica; Ey, Elodie; Toro, Roberto; Peyre, Hugo; Mathieu, Alexandre; Amsellem, Frédérique; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, I Carina; Rappold, Gudrun A; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P; Maestrini, Elena; Galan, Pilar; Heron, Delphine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rastetter, Agnès; Brice, Alexis; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Laffargue, Fanny; Lespinasse, James; Chiesa, Jean; Rivier, François; Bonneau, Dominique; Regnault, Beatrice; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Edery, Patrick; Perrin, Laurence; Tabet, Anne Claude; Schmeisser, Michael J; Boeckers, Tobias M; Coleman, Mary; Sato, Daisuke; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W; Rouleau, Guy A; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Delorme, Richard; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ?1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice. PMID:25188300

  15. Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Gradient of Severity in Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Claire S.; Nava, Caroline; Polge, Anne; Gauthier, Julie; Huguet, Guillaume; Lumbroso, Serge; Giuliano, Fabienne; Stordeur, Coline; Depienne, Christel; Mouzat, Kevin; Pinto, Dalila; Howe, Jennifer; Lemière, Nathalie; Durand, Christelle M.; Guibert, Jessica; Ey, Elodie; Toro, Roberto; Peyre, Hugo; Mathieu, Alexandre; Amsellem, Frédérique; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, I. Carina; Rappold, Gudrun A.; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Maestrini, Elena; Galan, Pilar; Heron, Delphine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rastetter, Agnès; Brice, Alexis; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Laffargue, Fanny; Lespinasse, James; Chiesa, Jean; Rivier, François; Bonneau, Dominique; Regnault, Beatrice; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Edery, Patrick; Perrin, Laurence; Tabet, Anne Claude; Schmeisser, Michael J.; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Coleman, Mary; Sato, Daisuke; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ?1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability—more than 1 in 50—warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice. PMID:25188300

  16. Prevalence of REM sleep behavior disorder in multiple system atrophy: a multicenter study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Fernandez-Cordon, Clara; Coon, Elizabeth A.; Low, Phillip A.; Miglis, Mitchell G.; Jaradeh, Safwan; Bhaumik, Arijit K.; Dayalu, Praveen; Urrestarazu, Elena; Iriarte, Jorge; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Objectivey Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia frequently affecting patients with synucleinopathies but its exact prevalence in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is unclear. Whether questionnaires alone are sufficient to diagnose RBD is also unknown. Methods Cross-sectional study of patients with probable MSA from six academic centers in the US and Europe. RBD was ascertained clinically and with polysomnography; and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines for studies published before September 2014 that reported the prevalence of RBD in MSA. A random-effects model was constructed using weighted prevalence proportions. Only articles in English were included. Studies were classified into those that ascertained the presence of RBD in MSA clinically and with polysomnography. Case reports or case series (?5 patients) were not included. Results Forty-two patients completed questionnaires and underwent polysomnography. Of those, 32 (76.1%) had clinically-suspected RBD and 34 (81%) had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. Two patients reported no symptoms of RBD but had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The primary search strategy yielded 374 articles of which 12 met the inclusion criteria The summary prevalence of clinically suspected RBD was 73% (95% CI, 62%-84%) in a combined sample of 324 MSA patients. The summary prevalence of polysomnography-confirmed RBD was 88% (95% CI, 79%-94%) in a combined sample of 217 MSA patients. Interpretation Polysomnography-confirmed RBD is present in up to 88% of patients with MSA. RBD was present in some patients that reported no symptoms. More than half of MSA patients report symptoms of RBD before the onset of motor deficits. PMID:25739474

  17. [Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gallardo, Ma Teresa; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Barriguete-Meléndez, Jorge Armando

    2005-01-01

    Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children. PMID:16259293

  18. Significantly lower nerve growth factor levels in patients with major depressive disorder than in healthy subjects: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Tu, Kun-Yu; Cheng, Yu-Shian; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Tseng, Ping-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since its discovery several decades ago, nerve growth factor (NGF) has been found to play roles in different areas, such as neurology, endocrinology, and immunology. There is some evidence linking NGF and psychiatry, including the role of NGF in subjects’ response to stress, the alteration of NGF in different emotional states, and the penetration of NGF across the blood–brain barrier under specific conditions. There are many inconsistent findings regarding the differences in NGF in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) at the present time. The aim of our study was to clarify whether NGF levels are different in MDD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Methods We conducted a thorough literature search and compared peripheral NGF levels between MDD and HC through meta-analysis, and investigated possible confounding variables through meta-regression. Results Seven studies were brought into the current meta-analysis comparing peripheral NGF in MDD and HCs. The main result was that the NGF levels were significantly lower in MDD than in HCs and that this had an inverse correlation with mean age and disease severity. In addition, meta-analysis of four articles found that the peripheral NGF levels did not change significantly before and after treatment. Conclusion Our study highlights the significant differences in peripheral NGF levels in patients with MDD. However, further exploration of the dynamic changes in peripheral NGF along with the disease course, and specific studies investigating the correlation of NGF in the peripheral and CNS environments are still needed. PMID:25897228

  19. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Patel, Rupal; Rughooputh, Fabienne; Abrahams, Hannah; Watson, Andrew J.; Drummond, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population. PMID:26366407

  20. Melanocortin system and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Adan, Roger A H; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; De Rijke, Corine; Nijenhuis, Wouter; Vink, Tom; Garner, Keith M; Kas, Martien J H

    2003-06-01

    The melanocortin (MC) system is involved in the regulation of energy balance and in the development of obesity. Here we briefly review why we became interested in investigating whether the MC system - more particularly, the increased activity of the MC system - is also involved in disorders of negative energy balance. We provide evidence that suppression of increased MC receptor activity by treatment with the inverse agonist agouti-related peptide (AgRP) (83-132) rescues rats exposed to an animal model known as activity-based anorexia. Furthermore, we found a polymorphism, Ala67Thr AgRP, that was observed more frequently in anorexia nervosa. PMID:12851325

  1. Body image and health: eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Jasik, Carolyn Bradner

    2014-09-01

    Eating behavior in adolescents can be as high risk as other behaviors that arise during this period and can have serious health consequences. This article presents a framework for screening and treatment of abnormal adolescent eating behavior by the primary care provider. A review of the types of disordered eating is presented along with suggested ways to screen. Indications for subspecialty eating disorder referrals and key aspects of screening and intervention in adolescent obesity and eating disorders are also reviewed. Specific attention is paid to the aspects of care that can be provided in primary care and multidisciplinary care. PMID:25124204

  2. A meta-analysis of cognitive functions in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefanie; Müller, Carmen; Helmreich, Isabella; Huss, Michael; Tadi?, André

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in children and adolescents averages 9.5 %. The majority of adults with MDD suffer from significant cognitive deficits, but the available neuropsychological data on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents with MDD yielded mixed results. Meta-analytic methods were used to assess the severity of cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with MDD as compared to healthy children and adolescents. We identified 17 studies comparing the intelligence, executive functions, verbal memory and attention of 447 patients with DSM-IV MDD and 1,347 healthy children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with MDD performed 0.194-0.772 (p < 0.001) standard mean differences worse than healthy control subjects in neuropsychological test procedures. The most pronounced deficits of children and adolescents with MDD were seen in inhibition capacity (STD = 0.772; p = 0.002), phonemic verbal fluency (STD = 0.756; p = 0.0001), sustained attention (STD = 0.522; p = 0.000), verbal memory (STD = 0.516; p = 0.0009) and planning (STD = 0.513; p = 0.014). We revealed cognitive deficits of children and adolescents with MDD in various cognitive domains. Long-term studies should investigate how the cognitive deficits of depressed youth affect their academic and social functioning, and whether age, comorbidity and depression severity play a role in this process. PMID:24869711

  3. Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Xu, Xiaohui

    2014-11-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ?10, 2.5 ?m) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Contents, Global Health, and Cochrane were searched (last search: September, 2013). After a detailed screening of 270 studies, 10 studies were extracted. We conducted meta-analyses if a pollutant in a specific exposure window was reported by at least four studies. Using fixed- and random-effects models, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for each pollutant with specific increment of concentration. Increases in risks of HDP (OR per 10 ppb = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30) and preeclampsia (OR per 10 ppb = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17) were observed to be associated with exposure to NO2 during the entire pregnancy, and significant associations between HDP and exposure to CO (OR per 1 ppm = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45) and O3 (OR per 10 ppb = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.13) during the first trimester were also observed. Our review suggests an association between ambient air pollution and HDP risk. Although the ORs were relatively low, the population-attributable fractions were not negligible given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution.

  4. IS ANOREXIA NERVOSA AN EATING DISORDER? How neurobiology can help us understand

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    IS ANOREXIA NERVOSA AN EATING DISORDER? How neurobiology can help us understand the puzzling eating will focus on restricting-type AN. Eating disorder or brain disorder? Although we call AN an eating disorder. AN and personality traits Genes play a major role in causing eating disorders 3, 9, 10 , likely contributing

  5. The Common Traits of the ACC and PFC in Anxiety Disorders in the DSM-5: Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhengjia; Zhang, Tao; Du, Mingying; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (GA), and specific phobia (SP) are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. Methods A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. Results Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs) were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA), drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. Conclusion Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and fear, and the importance of the ventral anterior cingulate (ACC)/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating anxiety symptoms. PMID:24676455

  6. Effectiveness of programs for reducing the stigma associated with mental disorders. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Parsons, Alison; Reid, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The stigma associated with mental disorders is a global public health problem. Programs to combat it must be informed by the best available evidence. To this end, a meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of existing programs. A systematic search of PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases yielded 34 relevant papers, comprising 33 randomized controlled trials. Twenty-seven papers (26 trials) contained data that could be incorporated into a quantitative analysis. Of these trials, 19 targeted personal stigma or social distance (6,318 participants), six addressed perceived stigma (3,042 participants) and three self-stigma (238 participants). Interventions targeting personal stigma or social distance yielded small but significant reductions in stigma across all mental disorders combined (d=0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.39, p<0.001) as well as for depression (d=0.36, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60, p<0.01), psychosis (d=0.20, 95% CI: 0.06-0.34, p<0.01) and generic mental illness (d=0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.50, p<0.01). Educational interventions were effective in reducing personal stigma (d=0.33, 95% CI: 0.19-0.42, p<0.001) as were interventions incorporating consumer contact (d=0.47, 95% CI: 0.17-0.78, p<0.001), although there were insufficient studies to demonstrate an effect for consumer contact alone. Internet programs were at least as effective in reducing personal stigma as face-to-face delivery. There was no evidence that stigma interventions were effective in reducing perceived or self-stigma. In conclusion, there is an evidence base to inform the roll out of programs for improving personal stigma among members of the community. However, there is a need to investigate methods for improving the effectiveness of these programs and to develop interventions that are effective in reducing perceived and internalized stigma. PMID:24890069

  7. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  8. Eating Disorders in Childhood: Prevention and Treatment Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are chronic clinical mental disorders that are disruptive to the psychological and social development of children and adolescents. They can be difficult to prevent and treat and are considered among the most chronic and medically lethal of mental disorders. Research suggests that the incidence and prevalence of eating

  9. Modelling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyse Eating Regulation Disorders

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    Modelling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyse Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse1 , Martine, an executable model has been developed of the dynamics of eating regulation disorders. Based on this model, The Netherlands Abstract. To analyse the disorders of their patients, psychotherapists often have to get insight

  10. Sex Roles and Eating Disorders: Evidence for Two Independent Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Lauren

    Because such eating disorders as anorexia and bulimia have been found to be more common in women than in men, much recent research on these disorders has examined their relationship to gender roles. Some evidence exists supporting the existence of two types of eating disorders; one associated with stereotypically feminine concerns, the other…

  11. Self-recognition of eating-disordered behavior in college women: further evidence of poor eating disorders "mental health literacy"?

    PubMed

    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Mond, Jonathan; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Self-recognition of eating-disordered behavior was examined among female college students (n?=?94) with a high level of bulimic-type eating disorder symptoms. A vignette was presented describing a fictional young woman with bulimia nervosa. Participants were asked whether they might currently have a problem such as the one described, while also completing self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms, general psychological distress, and functional impairment. Less than half (47.9%) of participants believed that they currently had a problem with their eating. In both bivariate and multivariable analysis, the variables most strongly associated with self-recognition were overall levels of eating disorder psychopathology, prior treatment for an eating problem, and the use of self-induced vomiting as a means of controlling weight or shape. No other eating disorder behaviors were independently associated with self-recognition. The findings support the hypothesis that young women with eating disorder symptoms may be unlikely, or at least less likely, to recognize a problem with their eating behavior when that behavior does not entail self-induced vomiting. Health promotion and early intervention programs for eating disorders may need to address the perception that, among young women of normal or above-average body weight, only problems with eating that involve self-induced vomiting are pathological. PMID:23767672

  12. Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

    2009-01-01

    Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…

  13. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, Baoliang; XIANG, Yutao; CAO, Xiaolan; LI, Yan; ZHU, Junhong; CHIU, Helen F. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiction who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treating substance abuse problems. Aim Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. Methods We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R software. Results The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. The pooled lifetime prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30% (95%CI: 23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I2 =95%, p<0.001). Men had a higher prevalence than women (44% vs. 21%), and injection heroin users had higher prevalence than those who smoked heroin (44% vs. 27%). Studies that were methodologically stronger had higher reported prevalence of ASPD among heroin dependent individuals. Conclusions There are substantial methodological problems in the available literature about ASPD in Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence, but we estimate that about one-third of them meet criteria for ASPD. Further work is needed to increase clinicians’ awareness of this issue; to compare the pathogenesis, treatment responsiveness and recidivism of those with and without ASPD; and to develop and test targeted interventions for this difficult-to-treat subgroup of individuals with heroin dependence. PMID:25477719

  14. Sexual abuse in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Tice, L; Hall, R C; Beresford, T P; Quinones, J; Hall, A K

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of sexual abuse in eating disorder patients appears significant. Fifty percent of both our anorectic and bulimic patients reported a history of sexual abuse while only 28% of a non-anorexic, non-bulimic control population reported similar problems (p less than 0.01). Several patterns of behavior seemed related to previous sexual assault. In one, the eating disorder was used to change the body image of the patient and therefore to provide a defense to future abuse. Other behaviors which occurred more specifically in bulimic women dealt with a projection of repressed anger toward male authority figures. Forty six percent of the bulimic women seen in our study exhibited some promiscuous behavior, using sex either as a gauge of their own self worth or as a means of punishing men. It is essential that sexual issues be addressed early in the treatment of patients with eating disorders. Disclosure is often difficult particularly in outpatient situations where the patient lives at home with her family. It usually does not occur in such cases until the later stages of therapy, or until the patient is hospitalized. Rape is the exception since our data suggests that it is usually revealed early in the course of treatment (p less than 0.001). Once disclosure occurs, a dramatic change is usually seen in the patient and treatment becomes more effective. As the patient deals with the issues of sexual abuse, they no longer need to deny their sexuality or punish themselves or others. Issues of guilt, depression, repressed anger, low self-esteem, social isolation and inadequacy are important and need to be addressed during the course of therapy with sexually abused patients. PMID:2602570

  15. A Review of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating amongst Nutrition Students and Dietetic Professionals.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Heather Mciver; Lordly, Daphne

    2015-03-01

    The diet industry and media have a powerful influence over women, leading many to believe that they must modify their appearance for societal acceptance. Dietetics, as one of many predominantly female professions, may be particularly vulnerable to these pressures. An integrative review process was used to examine eating disorders and disordered eating within the dietetics profession with the aim to both synthesize existing data and develop questions for future research. Seventeen articles were reviewed using broad search terms and dates because of the dearth of available literature. Given nutrition programs and dietetic practice often involve significant exposure to food, ideas and opinions about food, weight, and its place in health and dietetic practice researchers were compelled to ask "why". Findings were organized under 3 categories including thinness ideology, implications of food and body associated with nutrition or dietetic education, and establishment of a continuum. This review serves as a platform to inspire future research in an understudied but important topic related to dietetic education and practice. Minimally as a profession, baseline data need to be collected to understand the prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders along the continuum of practice in Canada. PMID:26067246

  16. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders, and binge eating disorder. Genuine awareness will help you avoid judgmental or mistaken attitudes about food

  17. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders to be thin can quickly spin out of control and become a serious, life-threatening eating disorder. Just

  18. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders your physical body weight or shape. #12;© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission

  19. Regimented and Lifestyle Restraint in Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study tested the psychometric properties of two commonly used measures of dietary restraint, the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Method Restraint data from 512 overweight/obese participants with binge eating disorder (BED) were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results Factor analyses of the restraint variables indicated a two-factor solution, interpreted as “Regimented” and “Lifestyle” restraint. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that Regimented restraint was more predictive of eating pathology, whereas Lifestyle restraint appeared to be protective of eating problems. Neither type of restraint was related to binge eating. Cluster analysis of the restraint dimensions yielded three distinct subgroups of patients who differed significantly on several important eating- and weight-related features. Discussion Future research is needed to test the significance of these restraint constructs over time in both the development of obesity and binge eating problems as well as their treatment. PMID:19107829

  20. I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safely I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > ... Signs of Eating Disorders How to Help About Eating Disorders Every year, thousands of teens (and adults, too) ...

  1. Distinguishing Between Risk Factors for Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Purging Disorder.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-08-01

    Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model, this significant indirect effect was not moderated by eating disorder group. The results support a prospective model of risk that applies to bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. Common prevention approaches may be possible for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. PMID:25233874

  2. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

  3. Antipsychotic treatment for children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Pagsberg, A K; Tarp, S; Glintborg, D; Stenstrøm, A D; Fink-Jensen, A; Correll, C U; Christensen, R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotic treatment in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) lacks a rich evidence base, and efforts to rank different drugs concerning their efficacy have not proven any particular drug superior. In contrast to the literature regarding adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS), comparative effectiveness studies in children and adolescents are limited in number and size, and only a few meta-analyses based on conventional methodologies have been conducted. Methods and analyses We will conduct a network meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate antipsychotic therapies for EOS to determine which compounds are efficacious, and to determine the relative efficacy and safety of these treatments when compared in a network meta-analysis. Unlike a contrast-based (standard) meta-analysis approach, an arm-based network meta-analysis enables statistical inference from combining both direct and indirect comparisons within an empirical Bayes framework. We will acquire eligible studies through a systematic search of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Clinicaltrials.gov and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. Eligible studies should randomly allocate children and adolescents presenting with schizophrenia or a related non-affective psychotic condition to an intervention group or to a control group. Two reviewers will—independently and in duplicate—screen titles and abstracts, complete full text reviews to determine eligibility, and subsequently perform data abstraction and assess risk of bias of eligible trials. We will conduct meta-analyses to establish the effect of all reported therapies on patient-relevant efficacy and safety outcomes when possible. Ethics and dissemination No formal ethical procedures regarding informed consent are required as no primary data collection is undertaken. The review will help facilitate evidence-based management, identify key areas for future research, and provide a framework for conducting large systematic reviews combining direct and indirect comparisons. The study will be disseminated by peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42013006676. PMID:25304189

  4. Neurobiological features of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Balodis, Iris M; Grilo, Carlos M; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Biobehavioral features associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) have been investigated; however, few systematic reviews to date have described neuroimaging findings from studies of BED. Emerging functional and structural studies support BED as having unique and overlapping neural features as compared with other disorders. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence linking heightened responses to palatable food cues with prefrontal areas, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), with specific relationships to hunger and reward-sensitivity measures. While few studies to date have investigated non-food-cue responses; these suggest a generalized hypofunctioning in frontostriatal areas during reward and inhibitory control processes. Early studies applying neuroimaging to treatment efforts suggest that targeting neural function underlying motivational processes may prove important in the treatment of BED. PMID:26530404

  5. Advances from neuroimaging studies in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, brain imaging has helped to better define eating disorder-related brain circuitry. Brain research on gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes had been inconsistent, possibly due to the effects of acute starvation, exercise, medication, and comorbidity, but newer studies have controlled for such effects. Those studies suggest larger left medial orbitofrontal gyrus rectus volume in ill adult and adolescent anorexia nervosa after recovery from anorexia nervosa, and in adult bulimia nervosa. The orbitofrontal cortex is important in terminating food intake, and altered function could contribute to self-starvation. The right insula, which processes taste but also interoception, was enlarged in ill adult and adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as adults recovered from the illness. The fixed perception of being fat in anorexia nervosa could be related to altered insula function. A few studies investigated WM integrity, with the most consistent finding of reduced fornix integrity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa-a limbic pathway that is important in emotion but also food intake regulation. Functional brain imaging using basic sweet taste stimuli in eating disorders during the ill state or after recovery implicated repeatedly reward pathways, including insula and striatum. Brain imaging that targeted dopamine-related brain activity using taste-reward conditioning tasks suggested that this circuitry is hypersensitive in anorexia nervosa, but hyporesponsive in bulimia nervosa and obesity. Those results are in line with basic research and suggest adaptive reward system changes in the human brain in response to extremes of food intake-changes that could interfere with normalization of eating behavior. PMID:25902917

  6. Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The excessive influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation--referred to as overvaluation--is considered by some a central feature across eating disorders but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined shape/weight overvaluation in 399 consecutive patients with BED. Participants completed semistructured…

  7. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  8. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  9. A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.…

  10. Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.…

  11. Eating Disorders among Athletes: Theory, Issues, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R., Ed.

    Eating disorders among athletes has become an important topic both nationally and internationally. This volume of empirically focused articles presents theory, issues, and the latest research in a concise form for a variety of audiences. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Eating Disorders among Athletes: Current Perspective" (D. R. Black); (2) "College…

  12. Modeling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyze Eating Regulation Disorders

    E-print Network

    Bosse, Tibor

    ProofCopy Modeling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyze Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse Amsterdam, The Netherlands To analyze the disorders of their patients, psychotherapists often have to get- namics. Using this language, an executable model has been developed of the dynamics of eating regulation

  13. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  14. Acculturation and Eating Disorders in a Mexican American Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2006-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…

  15. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

  16. Antipsychotic augmentation of serotonergic antidepressants in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Skapinakis, Petros; Papatheodorou, Tzeni; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2007-01-15

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of antipsychotic augmentation of serotonergic antidepressants in the management of treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder by carrying out a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials. Studies selected through a literature search conducted in March 2006. Ten trials comparing antipsychotic drugs versus placebo met inclusion criteria (haloperidol [n=1], risperidone [n=3], olanzapine [n=2], quetiapine [n=4]). A total of 157 patients were randomized to study drug and 148 were randomized to placebo. Response occurred more often among patients randomized to antipsychotic drugs. The weighted combined response rate ratio by random effects meta-analysis was 3.31 (95% CI 1.40-7.84). Significant between studies heterogeneity was partly explained by the definition of refractoriness, the type and dose of the drug used and the inclusion or exclusion of patients with tic disorders. The study supports the use of antipsychotic drugs as an augmentation strategy but more and larger trials are needed. PMID:16904298

  17. Child feeding perceptions among mothers with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Feldman, Talya; Ram, Anca; Gur, Eitan; Zubery, Eynat; Steiner, Evelyne; Latzer, Yael; Lock, James D

    2015-12-01

    Feeding and eating difficulties are documented among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Understanding the perspective of mothers with eating disorders is likely essential to develop parent-based early prevention programs for children of these mothers. In the present study, twenty-nine mothers who were diagnosed with an eating disorder prior to becoming mothers and who currently had toddler age children participated in a semi-structured interview examining maternal functioning and child feeding. The maternal perceptions that emerged from the interviews were sorted into central themes and subcategories using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data indicate that mothers with eating disorders express preoccupation with their child's eating, shape and weight, and many dilemmas about child feeding. They also reported rarity of family meals and their toddlers' preliminary awareness of maternal symptoms. Maternal concerns regarding child nutrition, feeding and weight were reported as more intense in regards to daughters. These maternal perceptions illuminate the maternal psychological processes that underlie the feeding and eating problems of the children of mothers with lifetime eating disorders. Findings should be addressed in the evaluation, treatment, and research of adult and childhood eating disorders. PMID:26145278

  18. A Preliminary Examination of a Nonpurging Compensatory Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Heather A.; Holland, Lauren A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlates of a compensatory eating disorder (CED) characterized by recurrent nonpurging compensatory behaviors in the absence of objectively large binge episodes among normal weight individuals who endorse undue influence of weight/shape on self-evaluation as possible indicators of clinical significance and distinctiveness. Method Women with CED (n=20), women with bulimia nervosa (BN) (n=20), and controls (n=20) completed an interview and questionnaires assessing eating disorder and general psychopathology and weight history. Results Compared to controls, women with CED reported significantly greater body image disturbance and disordered eating, higher anxiety proneness, increased perfectionism, and greater weight suppression. Compared to BN, CED was associated with significantly less body image disturbance, disordered eating, weight suppression, and lower likelihood of being overweight in childhood. However, CED and BN did not differ on anxiety proneness or perfectionism. Discussion CED merits further examination to determine whether it is a clinically significant and distinct eating disorder. PMID:24105678

  19. Efficacy of Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Patients with Posttraumatic-Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ren; Chu, Hsin; Chung, Min-Huey; Chen, Su-Ru; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed the first meta-analysis of clinical studies by investigating the effects of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients treated during the past 2 decades. Methods We performed a quantitative meta-analysis on the findings of 26 randomized controlled trials of EMDR therapy for PTSD published between 1991 and 2013, which were identified through the ISI Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature electronic databases, among which 22, 20, 16, and 11 of the studies assessed the effects of EMDR on the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress, respectively, as the primary clinical outcome. Results The meta-analysis revealed that the EMDR treatments significantly reduced the symptoms of PTSD (g?=??0.662; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.887 to ?0.436), depression (g?=??0.643; 95% CI: ?0.864 to ?0.422), anxiety (g?=??0.640; 95% CI: ?0.890 to ?0.390), and subjective distress (g?=??0.956; 95% CI: ?1.388 to ?0.525) in PTSD patients. Conclusion This study confirmed that EMDR therapy significantly reduces the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients. The subgroup analysis indicated that a treatment duration of more than 60 min per session was a major contributing factor in the amelioration of anxiety and depression, and that a therapist with experience in conducting PTSD group therapy was a major contributing factor in the reduction of PTSD symptoms. PMID:25101684

  20. A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between Self-Reported Presence and Anxiety in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r?=?.28; 95% CI: 0.18–0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r?=?.50; 95% CI: 0.30–0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r?=?.001; 95% CI: ?0.19–0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors. PMID:24801324

  1. Recognizing alcohol and drug abuse in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Conason, A H; Brunstein Klomek, A; Sher, L

    2006-05-01

    Eating disorders and alcohol/drug abuse are frequently comorbid. Eating-disordered patients are already at an increased risk for morbidity and mortality, so alcohol and drug use pose additional dangers for these patients. Restricting anorexics, binge eaters, and bulimics appear to be distinct subgroups within the eating-disordered population, with binge eaters and bulimics more prone to alcohol and drug use. Personality traits such as impulsivity have been linked to both bulimia nervosa and substance abuse. Many researchers have proposed that an addictive personality is an underlying trait that predisposes individuals to both eating disorders and alcohol abuse. Interviewing is generally the most useful tool in diagnosing alcohol and substance abuse disorders in individuals with eating disorders. It is essential for the physician to be non-judgmental when assessing for substance abuse disorders in this population. We discuss interviewing techniques, screening instruments, physical examination, and biological tests that can be used in evaluating patients with comorbid eating disorders and substance abuse. More studies are needed to understand psychobiological mechanisms of this comorbidity, and to develop treatments for individuals with comorbid eating disorders and substance misuse. PMID:16497847

  2. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders to solve problems, establishing goals, and contributing to life. View exercise and balanced eating

  3. Couple-Based Interventions for Adults with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    KIRBY, JENNIFER S.; RUNFOLA, CRISTIN D.; FISCHER, MELANIE; BAUCOM, DONALD H.; BULIK, CYNTHIA M.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of adults with eating disorders fail to achieve relief from the disorder, with many dropping out from treatment or relapsing. Standard treatment remains individual therapy despite partners being negatively affected and typically wanting to help in an effective and loving way. We propose that couple-based interventions, which leverage the support of a partner and the relationship in treatment, may improve outcome and recovery rates for adults with eating disorders. In this paper, we survey the empirical literature supporting the treatment of adults in a couple context and describe our existing and emerging couple-based interventions for eating disorders. PMID:26010371

  4. Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours?

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of this body of research, most studies have weaknesses in their designs (e.g. observational design, no control groups, or small sample sizes). The basic tenets of yoga, anecdotal reports of its effectiveness, its high accessibility and low cost, and initial research findings suggest that yoga may offer promise for the field of eating disorders. Two options are suggested for prevention: (1) eating disorder prevention can be integrated into ongoing yoga classes and (2) yoga can be integrated into eating disorder prevention programmes. Regarding treatment, it is important to examine the effectiveness of different teaching styles and practices for different eating disorders. Potential harms of yoga should also be explored. Further research, using stronger study designs, such as randomised, controlled trials, is needed. PMID:24955291

  5. Perceived Expressed Emotion in Adolescents with Binge-Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ricarda; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-10-01

    A sizeable body of research has documented Expressed Emotion (EE) to predict clinical outcomes in various psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Patients' perceptions of relative's EE, however, were found to play an important role in the processing of EE. This study aimed to examine the level of perceived EE in adolescent binge-eating disorder (BED) and its impact on eating disorder psychopathology. Adolescents (12-20 years) seeking treatment for BED (n?=?40) were compared to adolescents without current or lifetime eating disorder (CG; n?=?40). Both groups were stratified according to age, sex, body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), and socio-economic status. The Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) and the Brief Dyadic Scale of EE were administered to assess patients' perceived maternal EE. Additionally, adolescents and mothers completed questionnaires on eating disorder and general psychopathology. On the FMSS, 37.5 % of patients with BED perceived their mothers as high EE (vs. 12.5 % in the CG). On the Brief Dyadic Scale of EE, patients with BED reported significantly higher levels of perceived maternal criticism, emotional overinvolvement, and lower levels of perceived warmth than controls. After controlling for the diagnosis of BED, perceived criticism and warmth, as assessed by questionnaire, significantly explained adolescents' global eating disorder psychopathology. Negative perceptions of maternal behavior and emotional atmosphere towards the child are characteristic of adolescent BED. As documented for other eating disorders, family factors are likely to have substantial implications for the maintenance and treatment of adolescent BED. PMID:25860811

  6. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between anxiety and cannabis use/cannabis use disorders in the general population. Methods A total of N?=?267 studies were identified from a systematic literature search (any time- March 2013) of Medline and PsycInfo databases, and a hand search. The results of 31 studies (with prospective cohort or cross-sectional designs using non-institutionalised cases) were analysed using a random-effects meta-analysis with the inverse variance weights. Lifetime or past 12-month cannabis use, anxiety symptoms, and cannabis use disorders (CUD; dependence and/or abuse/harmful use) were classified according to DSM/ICD criteria or scores on standardised scales. Results There was a small positive association between anxiety and either cannabis use (OR?=?1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p?=?.006; N?=?15 studies) or CUD (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.23-2.31, p?=?.001; N?=?13 studies), and between comorbid anxiety?+?depression and cannabis use (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40, p?=?.004; N?=?5 studies). The positive associations between anxiety and cannabis use (or CUD) were present in subgroups of studies with ORs adjusted for possible confounders (substance use, psychiatric illness, demographics) and in studies with clinical diagnoses of anxiety. Cannabis use at baseline was significantly associated with anxiety at follow-up in N?=?5 studies adjusted for confounders (OR?=?1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54, p?=?.01). The opposite relationship was investigated in only one study. There was little evidence for publication bias. Conclusion Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalised members of the general population of 10 countries. PMID:24884989

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of level 3 portable sleep tests versus level 1 polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    El Shayeb, Mohamed; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Stafinski, Tania; Pawluk, Lawrence; Menon, Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Greater awareness of sleep-disordered breathing and rising obesity rates have fueled demand for sleep studies. Sleep testing using level 3 portable devices may expedite diagnosis and reduce the costs associated with level 1 in-laboratory polysomnography. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of level 3 testing compared with level 1 testing and to identify the appropriate patient population for each test. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies of level 3 versus level 1 sleep tests in adults with suspected sleep-disordered breathing. We searched 3 research databases and grey literature sources for studies that reported on diagnostic accuracy parameters or disease management after diagnosis. Two reviewers screened the search results, selected potentially relevant studies and extracted data. We used a bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model to estimate summary diagnostic accuracy parameters. Results: We included 59 studies involving a total of 5026 evaluable patients (mostly patients suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea). Of these, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was high, ranging between 0.85 and 0.99 across different levels of disease severity. Summary sensitivity ranged between 0.79 and 0.97, and summary specificity ranged between 0.60 and 0.93 across different apnea–hypopnea cut-offs. We saw no significant difference in the clinical management parameters between patients who underwent either test to receive their diagnosis. Interpretation: Level 3 portable devices showed good diagnostic performance compared with level 1 sleep tests in adult patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and no unstable comorbidities. For patients suspected of having other types of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep disorders not related to breathing, level 1 testing remains the reference standard. PMID:24218531

  8. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for acute anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: study protocol for a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Zhou, Xinyu; James, Anthony C; Qin, Bin; Whittington, Craig J; Cuijpers, Pim; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Liu, Yiyun; Cohen, David; Weisz, John R; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Anxiety disorders are associated with significant public health burden in young individuals. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the most commonly used psychotherapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, but previous reviews were hindered by a limited number of trials with direct comparisons between different psychotherapies and their deliveries. Consequently, the main aim of this research was to investigate the comparative efficacy and acceptability of various types and deliveries of psychotherapies for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis We will systematically search PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and LiLACS for randomised controlled trials, regardless of whether participants received blinding or not, published from 1 January 1966 to 30 January 2015 (updated to 1 July 2015), that compared any psychotherapy with either a control condition or an active comparator with different types and/or different delivery formats for the acute treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Data extraction, risk of bias and quality assessments will be independently extracted by two reviewers. The primary outcome for efficacy will be mean overall change scores in anxiety symptoms (self-rated or assessor-rated) from baseline to post-treatment between two groups. The acceptability of treatment will be measured as the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment during the acute phase of treatment. We will assess efficacy, based on the standardised mean difference (SMD), and acceptability, based on the OR, using a random-effects network meta-analysis within a Bayesian framework. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be disseminated electronically and in print. The meta-analysis may be updated to inform and guide management of anxiety in children and adolescents. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015016283. PMID:26443658

  9. Some features of mothers of patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    García de Amusquibar, A M; De Simone, C J

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare some of the characteristics of 50 mothers of patients with an eating disorder (ED) with those of a control group of 30 mothers of non-consulting adolescents. In comparison with the control group, the patients' mothers had higher scores for the bulimic factor of the Eating Attitudes Test-26, more frequent binge eating episodes, more eating disorder symptoms, more depression episodes, a higher incidence of bottle-fed daughters, provoked abortions and poor mother-daughter relationships with their own mothers. We recommend one-to-one diagnostic interviews with patients' mothers at the beginning of consultations. PMID:14649787

  10. Current and Emerging Drug Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483

  11. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Flament, Martine F; Bissada, Hany; Spettigue, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to review scientific evidence for efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in adults or children with an eating disorder (ED). We conducted a computer search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1960 and May 2010 for treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED). For drugs for which no RCT was found, open trials or case reports were retrieved. Clinically relevant RCTs in the treatment of AN have used atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and zinc supplementation. Olanzapine demonstrated an adjunctive effect for in-patient treatment of underweight AN patients, and fluoxetine helped prevent relapse in weight-restored AN patients in 1/2 studies. For treatment of BN, controlled studies have used SSRIs, other antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. In 9/11 studies, pharmacotherapy yielded a statistically significant although moderate reduction in binge/purge frequency, and some additional benefits. For BED, RCTs have been conducted using SSRIs and one serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), mood stabilizers, and anti-obesity medications. In 11/12 studies, there was a statistically significant albeit limited effect of medication. Meta-analyses on efficacy of pharmacotherapy for BN and BED support moderate effect sizes for medication, but generally low recovery rates. Treatment resistance is an inherent feature of AN, where treatment should focus on renourishment plus psychotherapy. For BN and BED, combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy has been more effective than either alone. Data on the long-term efficacy of pharmacotherapy for EDs are scarce. Short- and long-term pharmacotherapy of EDs still remains a challenge for the clinician. PMID:21414249

  12. Eating disorders in men aged midlife and beyond.

    PubMed

    Reas, Deborah L; Stedal, Kristin

    2015-06-01

    Eating disorders are serious psychiatric illnesses which can occur across the lifespan. Men aged midlife and beyond are vulnerable to stigma, shame, and stereotypes portraying eating disorders as afflictions of youth and female gender. Historically, men have been neglected in the field of eating disorders owing to traditional and female-centric approaches to conceptualization and classification. In this literature review, we identified 16 case reports of eating disorders in males ranging from the age of 40 to 81 years. The majority of cases reported an earlier onset in life, followed by a variable course of illness with periods of relapse interspersed with remission. Diagnostic crossover or symptom fluctuation was common. High rates of comorbid depression were found, and several cases described a history of weight cycling and premorbid obesity. Precipitating factors included stressors which disproportionately occur in later life, including loss due to death or divorce, changes in financial or housing situation, and medical issues. Very little is known regarding the prevalence of eating disorders in older men, with initial population estimates ranging from 0.02% to 1.6%. Rates of subthreshold eating disordered behavior are higher and appear to be increasing among older individuals and males in the community. Recent revisions in the DSM-5 will likely increase the broader applicability of diagnostic criteria for eating disorders, stimulating improved recognition of diverse presentations occurring across the lifespan for both genders. Eating disorders should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained weight gain or weight loss irrespective of age or gender. Multi-site studies are needed for adequate sampling and to allow larger empirical investigations regarding how to improve clinical practices in screening and assessment, as well the provision of differential care for older men suffering from an eating disorder. PMID:25869901

  13. Physical activity in the treatment of Post-traumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Vancampfort, Davy; Steel, Zachary; Newby, Jill; Ward, Philip B; Stubbs, Brendon

    2015-12-15

    People with PTSD experience high levels of cardiovascular disease and comorbid mental health problems. Physical activity (PA) is an effective intervention in the general population. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of PA on PTSD. We searched major electronic databases from inception till 03/2015 for RCTs of PA interventions among people with PTSD. A random effects meta-analysis calculating hedges g was conducted. From a potential of 812 hits, four unique RCTs met the inclusion criteria (n=200, mean age of participants 34-52 years). The methodological quality of included trials was satisfactory, and no major adverse events were reported. PA was significantly more effective compared to control conditions at decreasing PTSD and depressive symptoms among people with PTSD. There was insufficient data to investigate the effect on anthropometric or cardiometabolic outcomes. Results suggest that PA may be a useful adjunct to usual care to improve the health of people with PTSD. Although there is a relative paucity of data, there is reason to be optimistic for including PA as an intervention for people with PTSD, particularly given the overwhelming evidence of the benefits of PA in the general population. Robust effectiveness and implementation studies are required. PMID:26500072

  14. Development and validation of the Stirling Eating Disorder Scales.

    PubMed

    Williams, G J; Power, K G; Miller, H R; Freeman, C P; Yellowlees, A; Dowds, T; Walker, M; Parry-Jones, W L

    1994-07-01

    The development and reliability/validity check of an 80-item, 8-scale measure for use with eating disorder patients is presented. The Stirling Eating Disorder Scales (SEDS) assess anorexic dietary behavior, anorexic dietary cognitions, bulimic dietary behavior, bulimic dietary cognitions, high perceived external control, low assertiveness, low self-esteem, and self-directed hostility. The SEDS were administered to 82 eating disorder patients and 85 controls. Results indicate that the SEDS are acceptable in terms of internal consistency, reliability, group validity, and concurrent validity. PMID:7920579

  15. Recognizing Disordered Eating in Primary Care Patients with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Sara A.; Chiodi, Sarah N.; Wee, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In clinical practice, behavioral approaches to obesity treatment focus heavily on diet and exercise recommendations. However, these approaches may not be effective for patients with disordered eating behaviors. Little is known about the prevalence of disordered eating behaviors in primary care patients with obesity or whether they affect difficulty making dietary changes. Methods We conducted a telephone interview of 337 primary care patients aged 18–65 years with BMI?35kg/m2 in Greater-Boston, 2009–2011 (58% response rate, 69% women). We administered the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire R-18 (Scores 0–100) and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-lite) (Scores 0–100). We measured difficulty making dietary changes using four questions regarding perceived difficulty changing diet (Scores 0–10). Results 50% of patients reported high emotional eating (score>50) and 28% reported high uncontrolled eating (score>50). Women were more likely to report emotional [OR=4.14 (2.90, 5.92)] and uncontrolled eating [OR=2.11 (1.44, 3.08)] than men. African Americans were less likely than Caucasians to report emotional [OR=0.29 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.44)] and uncontrolled eating [OR=0.11 (0.07, 0.19)]. For every 10-point reduction in QOL score (IWQOL-lite), emotional and uncontrolled eating scores rose significantly by 7.82 and 5.48, respectively. Furthermore, participants who reported emotional and uncontrolled eating reported greater difficulty making dietary changes. Conclusions Disordered eating behaviors are prevalent among obese primary care patients and disproportionately affect women, Caucasians, and patients with poor QOL. These eating behaviors may impair patients' ability to make clinically recommended dietary changes. Clinicians should consider screening for disordered eating behaviors and tailoring obesity treatment accordingly. PMID:25572624

  16. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory in Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normals. Only weak support was found for concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Recommends combination of…

  17. The Role of Loss of Control Eating in Purging Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forney, K. Jean; Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Purging Disorder (PD), an Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder,1 is characterized by recurrent purging in the absence of binge eating. Though objectively large binge episodes are not present, individuals with PD may experience a loss of control (LOC) while eating a normal or small amounts of food. The present study sought to examine the role of LOC eating in PD using archival data from 101 women with PD. Method Participants completed diagnostic interviews and self-report questionnaires. Analyses examined the relationship between LOC eating and eating disorder features, psychopathology, personality traits, and impairment, in bivariate models and then in multivariate models controlling for purging frequency, age, and body mass index. Results Across bivariate and multivariate models, LOC eating frequency was associated with greater disinhibition around food, hunger, depressive symptoms, negative urgency, and distress and impairment. Discussion LOC eating is a clinically significant feature of PD and should be considered in future definitions of PD. Future research should examine whether LOC eating better represents a dimension of severity in PD or a specifier that may impact treatment response or course. PMID:24185981

  18. What's eating the internet? Content and perceived harm of pro-eating disorder websites.

    PubMed

    Steakley-Freeman, Diana M; Jarvis-Creasey, Zachary L; Wesselmann, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The internet is a popular tool for information dissemination and community building, serving many purposes from social networking to support seeking. However, there may be a downside to using some online support communities. For individuals with eating disorders (EDs), it is possible that certain online communities may reinforce the negative social aspects that encourage these disorders, rather than positive aspects that would facilitate treatment and recovery. Previous research identified several linguistic themes present on pro-eating disorder websites in an attempt to better understand the web-based conversation in the pro-eating disorder movement. We hypothesized that differences in theme presentation may predict changes in perceived harm. The present study sought to understand the perceived harm, and presentation patterns of pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) website content. We replicated and extended previous research by having laypersons code these websites' content using previously identified linguistic themes and rate perceived harm. Our data replicate and extend the previous research by finding the same associations between co-occurring themes, and investigating associated perceived harm. We found that themes of Sacrifice, Control, Deceit, and Solidarity were associated with the highest perceived harm scores. In addition, we suggest an initial conceptualization of the "Eating Disorder Lifestyle", and its associations with the themes of Isolation, Success, and Solidarity. This research may provide clinicians with information to better understand the potential influence these sites have on eating disorders. PMID:26363674

  19. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  20. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  1. Night Eating in Obese Treatment-Seeking Hispanic Patients With and Without Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Morgan, Peter T.; White, Marney A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the frequency of night eating (NE) and its relation to binge eating disorder (BED), eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and metabolic variables in obese treatment-seeking obese Hispanic men and women. Method A consecutive series of 79 obese monolingual Spanish-speaking-only Hispanic patients with BED (N=40) and without BED (N=39) were reliably assessed by bilingual research-clinicians using Spanish-language versions of semi-structured interviews and measures. Results Overall, 38% (N=30) of the 79 patients reported regular NE (?4 days/month). NE and BED were significantly associated; 70% (21/30) of NE versus 18% (9/49) of non-NE had BED. Patients with NE reported greater frequency of binge-eating and higher levels of eating-disorder psychopathology and depression than non-NE patients; group differences in eating disorder psychopathology and depression levels persisted after controlling for BED status. The NE and non-NE groups did not differ significantly in BMI or metabolic variables. Discussion In obese treatment-seeking Hispanic patients, NE and BED were significantly associated and NE was associated with heightened eating-disorder psychopathology and depression even after controlling for BED status. PMID:22407481

  2. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N = 112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872

  3. Investigation of schema modes in the eating disordered population 

    E-print Network

    Jenkins, Gwenllian

    2009-01-01

    Many eating disordered patients fail to respond to traditional cognitive behaviour therapy. As a result it has been suggested that further research needs to be completed to determine the cognitive processes and ...

  4. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. PMID:25565909

  5. The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the ?-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors. PMID:22524510

  6. Assessing motivation to change in eating disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa are often ambivalent about their eating disorder symptoms. Therefore, a lack of motivation to change is a frequent problem in the treatment of eating disorders. This is of high relevance, as a low motivation to change is a predictor of an unfavourable treatment outcome and high treatment dropout rates. In order to quantify the degree of motivation to change, valid and reliable instruments are required in research and practice. The transtheoretical model of behaviour change (TTM) offers a framework for these measurements. Objective This paper reviews existing instruments assessing motivation to change in eating disorders. Method We screened N?=?119 studies from the databases Medline and Psycinfo found by combinations of the search keywords ‘eating disorder’, ‘anorexia nervosa’, ‘bulimia nervosa’, ‘motivation’, ‘readiness to change’, ‘assessment’, ‘measurement’, and ‘questionnaire’. Results Ultimately, n?=?15 studies investigating psychometric properties of different assessment tools of motivation to change in eating disorders were identified. Reviewed instruments can be divided into those assessing the stages of change according to the TTM (6 instruments) and those capturing decisional balance (3 instruments). Overall, the psychometric properties of these instruments are satisfactory to good. Discussion Advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of the reviewed assessment tools are discussed. So far, the TTM provides the only framework to assess motivation to change in eating disorders. PMID:24999416

  7. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Negative Affect, and Personality Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Brownstone, Lisa M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Printz, Katherine S.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study explored the clinical meaningfulness of distinguishing subjective (SBE) from objective binge eating (OBE) among individuals with threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). We examined relations between OBEs and SBEs and eating disorder symptoms, negative affect, and personality dimensions using both a group comparison and a continuous approach. Method Participants were 204 adult females meeting criteria for threshold/subthreshold BN who completed questionnaires related to disordered eating, affect, and personality. Results Group comparisons indicated that SBE and OBE groups did not significantly differ on eating disorder pathology or negative affect, but did differ on two personality dimensions (cognitive distortion and attentional impulsivity). Using the continuous approach, we found that frequencies of SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, diuretic use frequency, depressive symptoms, anxiety, social avoidance, insecure attachment, and cognitive distortion. Discussion SBEs in the context of BN may indicate broader areas of psychopathology. PMID:23109272

  8. Eating disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gravestock, S

    2000-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the nutrition of people with intellectual disability (ID), but less interest in the range of eating disorders (EDs) that they may exhibit and the bio-psycho-social impact of these conditions. Despite diagnostic and methodological difficulties, psychopathology and ED research studies suggest that 3-42% of institutionalized adults with ID and 1-19% of adults with ID in the community have diagnosable EDs. Weight surveys indicate that 2-35% of adults with ID are obese and 5-43% are significantly underweight, but the contribution of diagnosable EDs is unknown. Such data and case reports suggest that EDs are associated with considerable physical, behavioural, psychiatric and social comorbidity. Review papers have focused on the aetiology and treatment of pica, rumination, regurgitation, psychogenic vomiting and food faddiness/refusal. Emerging clinical issues are the development of appropriate diagnostic criteria, multimodal assessment and clinically effective treatment approaches. Key service issues include staff training to improve awareness, addressing comorbidity and access issues, and maintaining support for adults with ID and EDs, and their carers. Research should confirm the multifaceted aetiology and comorbidity of EDs. Then multicomponent assessment and treatment models for EDs can be developed and evaluated. PMID:11115017

  9. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction complicated by an eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Azzoulai, C; Djeddi, J; Chapoy, V; Boudailliez, B; Bovin, E; Pripis, C; Buisson, P; Guilé, J-M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a rare and serious chronic disease starting in childhood, which can affect the entire digestive tract. It is caused by a peristalsis intestinal disorder that leads to occlusions without any obvious obstruction. Few studies have been carried out regarding the prognosis of this illness. This disease is often diagnosed by a process of elimination, but some histological anomalies have been present in the digestive wall of certain patients. This clinical case concerns a 17-year-old girl affected by CIPO and eating disorders. It seems difficult to discriminate between digestive disorders and eating disorders. What psychological effects can this severe pathology have? Are eating disorders induced by CIPO? These questions are raised in this article through the example of this patient's somatopsychic complexity and the ensuing difficulties in her overall care. PMID:26385649

  10. Integrating messages from the eating disorders field into obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    Weight-related problems, including unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating, overweight and obesity, and eating disorders, are prevalent in youth. Furthermore, many young people exhibit more than one of these problems. Therefore, it is essential to consider how to simultaneously work toward the prevention of a broad range of weight-related problems in youth. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, weight talk, and weight-related teasing are commonly addressed risk factors within eating disorder prevention interventions, whereas low levels of physical activity and high intakes of foods high in fat and sugar are commonly addressed within interventions aimed at obesity prevention. Empirical data to be presented in this article demonstrate why risk factors such as dieting and body dissatisfaction, which are typically addressed within the eating disorder field, need to also be addressed within the obesity field. Although dieting and body dissatisfaction strongly predict weight gain over time, these findings are not always taken into account in the design of obesity interventions for youth. Possible reasons as to why risk factors such as dieting, body dissatisfaction, and weight stigmatization may be not adequately addressed within interventions addressing obesity are discussed. Suggestions for how physicians and other nonphysician clinicians might link messages from the fields of both eating disorders and obesity into their work with youth are provided. Finally, the potential for work on mindfulness and yoga to decrease risk factors for both eating disorders and obesity are explored. PMID:23437686

  11. 'Healthy anorexia': The complexity of care in disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Connie; Warin, Megan; Wade, Tracey; Gilchrist, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how contemporary understandings of 'health' and 'care' are engaged with and practiced by women with disordered eating. Based on findings from an Australian study investigating why people with disordered eating are reluctant to engage with treatment services (March 2012 to March 2015), we demonstrate how young women use elements of a 'health habitus' and 'care' to rationalise and justify their practices. Moving beyond Foucauldian theories of self-discipline and individual responsibility we argue that Bourdieu's concept of habitus and ethnographic concepts of care provide a deeper understanding of the ways in which people with disordered eating embody health practices as a form of care and distinction. We demonstrate how eating and bodily practices that entail 'natural', medical and ethical concerns (in particular, the new food regime known as orthorexia) are successfully incorporated into participants' eating disorder repertoires and embodied as a logic of care. Understanding how categories of health and care are tinkered with and practiced by people with disordered eating has important implications for health professionals, family members and peers engaging with and identifying people at all stages of help-seeking. PMID:26150064

  12. Personality and affectivity characteristics associated with eating disorders: a comparison of eating disordered, weight-preoccupied, and normal samples.

    PubMed

    Podar, I; Hannus, A; Allik, J

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of personality and emotional experience to self-reported eating attitudes in a group of patients with clinically diagnosed eating disorders, a weight-reduction training group (Weight Watchers), and a control group without body weight problems. Participants in this study (N = 114) completed Estonian versions of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2; Garner, 1991), NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1989), and Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, Expanded Form (Watson & Clark, 1994). Data demonstrated validity of the Estonian version of EDI-2 in its ability to identify problems on a continuum of disordered eating behavior. Among the Big Five personality dimensions, Neuroticism made the largest contribution to EDI-2 subscales. Two other dimensions, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, also predispose individuals to eating problems. Personality traits made a larger contribution to the self-reported eating pathology than the self-rated effects experienced during the last few weeks. It was argued that personality dispositions have a larger relevancy in the etiology of eating disorders than emotional state. PMID:10497805

  13. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Pajak, Andrzej; Marventano, Stefano; Castellano, Sabrina; Galvano, Fabio; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Caraci, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation in depressed patients have been suggested to improve depressive symptomatology, previous findings are not univocal. Objectives To conduct an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of omega-3 PUFA treatment of depressive disorders, taking into account the clinical differences among patients included in the studies. Methods A search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Database of RCTs using omega-3 PUFA on patients with depressive symptoms published up to August 2013 was performed. Standardized mean difference in clinical measure of depression severity was primary outcome. Type of omega-3 used (particularly eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-3 as mono- or adjuvant therapy was also examined. Meta-regression analyses assessed the effects of study size, baseline depression severity, trial duration, dose of omega-3, and age of patients. Results Meta-analysis of 11 and 8 trials conducted respectively on patients with a DSM-defined diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and patients with depressive symptomatology but no diagnosis of MDD demonstrated significant clinical benefit of omega-3 PUFA treatment compared to placebo (standardized difference in random-effects model 0.56 SD [95% CI: 0.20, 0.92] and 0.22 SD [95% CI: 0.01, 0.43], respectively; pooled analysis was 0.38 SD [95% CI: 0.18, 0.59]). Use of mainly EPA within the preparation, rather than DHA, influenced final clinical efficacy. Significant clinical efficacy had the use of omega-3 PUFA as adjuvant rather than mono-therapy. No relation between efficacy and study size, baseline depression severity, trial duration, age of patients, and study quality was found. Omega-3 PUFA resulted effective in RCTs on patients with bipolar disorder, whereas no evidence was found for those exploring their efficacy on depressive symptoms in young populations, perinatal depression, primary disease other than depression and healthy subjects. Conclusions The use of omega-3 PUFA is effective in patients with diagnosis of MDD and on depressive patients without diagnosis of MDD. PMID:24805797

  14. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed with a Current Episode of an Anxiety or Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Clara; Cavanagh, Kate; Oliver, Annie; Pettman, Danelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can reduce risk of depressive relapse for people with a history of recurrent depression who are currently well. However, the cognitive, affective and motivational features of depression and anxiety might render MBIs ineffective for people experiencing current symptoms. This paper presents a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of MBIs where participants met diagnostic criteria for a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder. Method Post-intervention between-group Hedges g effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model. Moderator analyses of primary diagnosis, intervention type and control condition were conducted and publication bias was assessed. Results Twelve studies met inclusion criteria (n?=?578). There were significant post-intervention between-group benefits of MBIs relative to control conditions on primary symptom severity (Hedges g?=??0.59, 95% CI?=??0.12 to ?1.06). Effects were demonstrated for depressive symptom severity (Hedges g?=??0.73, 95% CI?=??0.09 to ?1.36), but not for anxiety symptom severity (Hedges g?=??0.55, 95% CI?=?0.09 to ?1.18), for RCTs with an inactive control (Hedges g?=??1.03, 95% CI?=??0.40 to ?1.66), but not where there was an active control (Hedges g?=?0.03, 95% CI?=?0.54 to ?0.48) and effects were found for MBCT (Hedges g?=??0.39, 95% CI?=??0.15 to ?0.63) but not for MBSR (Hedges g?=??0.75, 95% CI?=?0.31 to ?1.81). Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis of RCTs of MBIs where all studies included only participants who were diagnosed with a current episode of a depressive or anxiety disorder. Effects of MBIs on primary symptom severity were found for people with a current depressive disorder and it is recommended that MBIs might be considered as an intervention for this population. PMID:24763812

  15. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    PubMed Central

    Loas, Gwenole

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care. PMID:25485152

  16. Adolescent Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia. Publication 352-004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Alan E.; Baker, Daniel H.

    This document presents an overview of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents. A brief review of the historical background of these eating disorders is included. Causes of anorexia and bulimia are discussed and physical, behavioral, emotional, and perceptual characteristics of the disorders are listed in a section on symptoms. The need for a…

  17. Eating Disorders: National Institute of Mental Health's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Mark; Insel, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of…

  18. Understanding and Managing Eating Disorders in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Bridie; Bowles, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Children and adolescents suffering from an eating disorder will typically experience the adverse impact of such a disorder upon their education. These sufferers are often forced to defer their education whilst seeking treatment. However, there are a number of signs educators and school psychologists can look for to identify a student who may be…

  19. Current and Emerging Directions in the Treatment of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are a significant source of psychiatric morbidity in young women and demonstrate high comorbidity with mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Thus, clinicians may encounter eating disorders in the context of treating other conditions. This review summarizes the efficacy of current and emerging treatments for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Treatment trials were identified using electronic and manual searches and by reviewing abstracts from conference proceedings. Family based therapy has demonstrated superiority for adolescents with AN but no treatment has established superiority for adults. For BN, both 60 mg fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have well-established efficacy. For BED, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, CBT, and interpersonal psychotherapy have demonstrated efficacy. Emerging directions for AN include investigation of the antipsychotic olanzapine and several novel psychosocial treatments. Future directions for BN and BED include increasing CBT disseminability, targeting affect regulation, and individualized stepped-care approaches. PMID:22879753

  20. [The treatment of binge eating disorder - a review].

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildikó; Szumska, Irena; Túry, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The binge eating disorder is a relatively new type of eating disorders, which was first described in 1992, and became a distinct nosological entity in the system of DSM-5 in 2013. Its central symptom is the binge, which is not followed by compensatory behaviours as in bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the patients are generally obese. The prevalence of the disorder is 1-3% in the general population, but much higher in help-seeking obese subjects. The two main goals of the therapy is body weight reduction, and the cessation of binges. In the pharmacotherapy of binge eating disorder the antidepressants are recommended mainly in the case of unsuccessful psychotherapy, and in treating comorbid depression. In the field of psychotherapy data are available mainly on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectic behaviour therapy, behavioural weight loss, and interpersonal therapy. Effectivity studies on new therapeutic methods and treatment combinations are needed as well as long term follow-up studies. PMID:26471029

  1. Gating of attention towards food stimuli in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Biehl, Stefanie; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive models of eating disorders propose that attentional biases for disorder-relevant stimuli contribute to eating disorder pathology. Empirical evidence of a contribution of attentional biases for binge eating disorder (BED) is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess attention engagement towards, and disengagement from, food stimuli in overweight females with BED (n = 25) and a group of overweight and obese women without BED (OW; n = 30). Participants completed a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm with food and neutral words as target stimuli. This task can be used to decompose an attentional bias for food stimuli into its stimulus engagement and stimulus disengagement components. Findings indicate that facilitated stimulus engagement for food stimuli over neutral stimuli was more pronounced in the BED group compared to the OW group. Conversely, there were no substantial disengagement effects in either group. Thereby, results support the idea that early attentional processes are biased in BED. PMID:26212270

  2. Psychiatric Co-morbidity in Women Presenting across the Continuum of Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Aspen, Vandana; Weisman, Hannah; Vannucci, Anna; Nafiz, Najia; Gredysa, Dana; Kass, Andrea; Trockel, Mickey; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric co-morbidity across a large sample of college women without an eating disorder, those at high risk for an eating disorder and women diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria for an eating disorder. Participants 549 college age women aged 18–25. Methods Data from the Eating Disorder Examination, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and self-report questionnaires were analyzed using logistic regression for categorical data and ANCOVA for continuous measures. Results Eating disordered symptomatology was strongly associated with anxiety disorders, mood disorders and insomnia. These co-morbidities (type and severity) tend to increase with eating disorder symptom severity. Conclusions Prevention and treatment programs for eating disorders need to address the high levels of mood, anxiety and sleep problems in this population. The findings on insomnia are novel and suggest that sleep disturbance may play an integral role in eating-related difficulties. PMID:25462028

  3. Guided Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per; Riper, Heleen; Hedman, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials, but to a lesser extent directly compared to face-to-face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared to face-to-face CBT. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all criteria and were included in the review. There were three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, two on depressive symptoms, two on body dissatisfaction, one on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, and one on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size (Hedges' g) at post-treatment of ?0.01 (95% CI: ?0.13 to 0.12), indicating that guided ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many conditions for which guided ICBT has not been compared to face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats. PMID:25273302

  4. A primer on binge eating disorder diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 2.6% among U.S. adults, yet often goes unrecognized. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), BED is defined by recurrent episodes of binge eating (eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food larger than most people would eat in a similar amount of time under similar circumstances and a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode), occurring on average at least once a week for 3 months, and associated with marked distress. It can affect both men and women, regardless if they are at normal weight, overweight, or obese, and regardless of their ethnic or racial group. Psychiatric comorbidities are very common, with 79% of adults with BED also experiencing anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, or substance use disorders; almost 50% of persons with BED have ?3 psychiatric comorbidities. Multiple neurobiological explanations have been proffered for BED, including dysregulation in reward center and impulse control circuitry, with potentially related disturbances in dopamine neurotransmission and endogenous ?-opioid signaling. Additionally, there is interplay between genetic influences and environmental stressors. Psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral interventions have been recommended as first line and are supported by meta-analytic reviews. Unfortunately, routine medication treatments for anxiety and depression do not necessarily ameliorate the symptoms of BED; however, at present, there is one approved agent for the treatment of moderate to severe BED-lisdexamfetamine, a stimulant that was originally approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26683528

  5. Prevention of Obesity and Eating Disorders: A Consideration of Shared Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    In response to the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among youth, researchers in both the obesity and eating disorders fields have proposed using an integrated approach to prevention that addresses the spectrum of weight-related disorders within interventions. The identification of risk factors that are…

  6. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  7. Does Liposuction Improve Body Image and Symptoms of Eating Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Asko M.; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unpleasant attention to unfavorable fat may have harmful psychological effects in terms of body dissatisfaction. As a consequence, this may cause abnormal eating regulation. It has been noted that women interested in liposuction self-report more eating problems. As far as we know, there are no prospective studies with standardized instruments providing sufficient data regarding the effects of aesthetic liposuction on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, publications on the effects of eating habits are lacking. Methods: Sixty-one consecutive women underwent aesthetic liposuction. Three outcome measures were applied at baseline and at follow-up: the eating disorder inventory, Raitasalo's modification of the Beck depression inventory, and the 15-dimensional general quality of life questionnaire. Results: The mean age at baseline was 44 years, and the mean body mass index was 26.0. Thirty-six (59%) women completed all outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 7 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's body satisfaction, and their overall risk for developing an eating disorder decreased significantly. Conclusion: Aesthetic liposuction results in a significantly reduced overall risk for an eating disorder in combination with improved body satisfaction. PMID:26301150

  8. The Prevalence of Comorbid Personality Disorders in Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Nicki A; Cowlishaw, S; Jackson, A C; Merkouris, S S; Francis, K L; Christensen, D R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of comorbid personality disorders among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Almost one half (47.9%) of problem gamblers displayed comorbid personality disorders. They were most likely to display Cluster B disorders (17.6%), with smaller proportions reporting Cluster C disorders (12.6%) and Cluster A disorders (6.1%). The most prevalent personality disorders were narcissistic (16.6%), antisocial (14.0%), avoidant (13.4%), obsessive-compulsive (13.4%), and borderline (13.1%) personality disorders. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these prevalence estimates were robust to the inclusion of clinical trials and self-selected samples. Although there was significant variability in reported rates, subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in estimates of antisocial personality disorder according to problem gambling severity, measure of comorbidity employed, and study jurisdiction. The findings highlight the need for gambling treatment services to conduct routine screening and assessment of co-occurring personality disorders and to provide treatment approaches that adequately address these comorbid conditions. PMID:25248010

  9. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  10. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. PMID:26315665

  11. Eating disorder in a young active duty male.

    PubMed

    Staten, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Eating disorders can have atypical presentations, be challenging to diagnose, and often result in treatment delay, as illustrated here. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors, and is ten times more common in females. Studies show increased prevalence over the past decade, with similar prevalence in young military members and civilians. Risk factors include dieting, gender preference, life-altering events, and history of a psychiatric condition. Relatively little research has focused on eating disorders among military males, but factors unique to this group include rigid weight standards, mandatory semiannual personal fitness assessments, and extended deployments. Bulimia and other eating disorders can have subtle or atypical presentations and are often overlooked in males. Other diagnostic obstacles include career concerns and stigma avoidance, along with provider time constraints, inexperience, or discomfort with the issue. Serious medical complications of bulimia are uncommon, but delayed diagnosis can lead to hospitalization and significant morbidity. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough history and wide differential when faced with an unusual presentation. Recognizing risk factors and incorporating simple screening tools can aid the timely identification and treatment of service members with disordered eating before unit and mission effectiveness are compromised. PMID:23820372

  12. Brain Signature of Chronic Orofacial Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Neuroimaging Research of Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain and Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-shu

    2014-01-01

    Brain neuroimaging has been widely used to investigate the bran signature of chronic orofacial pain, including trigeminal neuropathic pain (TNP) and pain related to temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). We here systematically reviewed the neuroimaging literature regarding the functional and structural changes in the brain of TNP and TMD pain patients, using a computerized search of journal articles via PubMed. Ten TNP studies and 14 TMD studies were reviewed. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed based on the criteria of patient selection, the history of medication, the use of standardized pain/psychological assessments, and the model and statistics of imaging analyses. Qualitative meta-analysis was performed by examining the brain regions which showed significant changes in either brain functions (including the blood-oxygen-level dependent signal, cerebral blood flow and the magnetic resonance spectroscopy signal) or brain structure (including gray matter and white matter anatomy). We hypothesized that the neuroimaging findings would display a common pattern as well as distinct patterns of brain signature in the disorders. This major hypothesis was supported by the following findings: (1) TNP and TMD patients showed consistent functional/structural changes in the thalamus and the primary somatosensory cortex, indicating the thalamocortical pathway as the major site of plasticity. (2) The TNP patients showed more alterations at the thalamocortical pathway, and the two disorders showed distinct patterns of thalamic and insular connectivity. Additionally, functional and structural changes were frequently reported in the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia, suggesting the role of cognitive modulation and reward processing in chronic orofacial pain. The findings highlight the potential for brain neuroimaging as an investigating tool for understanding chronic orofacial pain. PMID:24759798

  13. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  14. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  15. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ginkgo biloba in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Ancient Tradition to Modern-Day Medicine

    PubMed Central

    De Silvestri, Annalisa; Lanati, Niccolò; Thiemann, Pia; Verna, Anna; Emanuele, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Gb) has demonstrated antioxidant and vasoactive properties as well as clinical benefits in several conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy, and peripheral nerve damage. Additionally, Gb is supposed to act as potential cognitive enhancer in dementia. So far, several trials have been conducted to investigate the potential effectiveness of Gb in neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of three randomised controlled trials in patients with schizophrenia and eight randomised controlled trials in patients with dementia. Gb treatment reduced positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and improved cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. No effect of Gb on negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients was found. The general lack of evidence prevents drawing conclusions regarding Gb effectiveness in other neuropsychiatric conditions (i.e., autism, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction). Our data support the use of Gb in patients with dementia and as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenic patients. PMID:23781271

  16. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Jessica J; Calhoun, Patrick S; Wagner, H Ryan; Schry, Amie R; Hair, Lauren P; Feeling, Nicole; Elbogen, Eric; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-04-01

    Literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence among Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans report estimates ranging from 1.4% to 60%. A more precise estimate is necessary for projecting healthcare needs and informing public policy. This meta-analysis examined 33 studies published between 2007 and 2013 involving 4,945,897 OEF/OIF veterans, and PTSD prevalence was estimated at 23%. Publication year and percentage of Caucasian participants and formerly active duty participants explained significant variability in prevalence across studies. PTSD remains a concern for a substantial percentage of OEF/OIF veterans. To date, most studies have estimated prevalence among OEF/OIF veterans using VA medical chart review. Thus, results generalize primarily to the prevalence of PTSD in medical records of OEF/OIF veterans who use VA services. Additional research is needed with randomly selected, representative samples administered diagnostic interviews. Significant financial and mental health resources are needed to promote recovery from PTSD. PMID:25768399

  17. Kleptomania, compulsive buying, and binge-eating disorder.

    PubMed

    McElroy, S L; Keck, P E; Phillips, K A

    1995-01-01

    Although recognized since at least the early 19th century, kleptomania, compulsive buying, and binge-eating disorder are poorly understood conditions that have received little systematic study. In this article, we review the available studies of these three conditions, which suggest that they are more common than realized, occur more frequently in women than in men, cause significant morbidity, are related to other psychiatric disorders (especially to one another, impulse control disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and mood disorders), and often respond to available psychopharmacologic and psychological treatments. We hypothesize that these three conditions might best be viewed as impulse control disorders that belong to an extended family of compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorders. The compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorders may, in turn, belong to the larger family of affective spectrum disorder. PMID:7713861

  18. The Effect of Eating Disorder Memoirs in Individuals With Self-Identified Eating Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Laura-Kate; Homewood, Judi

    2015-08-01

    As part of a larger, mixed-methods study, we posted an invitation to participate in a study on the effects of reading eating disorder memoirs on the website of an organization that provides support for people with eating disorders. Twenty-four women completed the questionnaire. Qualitative analysis of their responses indicated a recovery continuum, whereby the direction of memoir influence seemed to depend on an individual's recovery stage and motivation to recover. Individuals who reported that they were exposed to memoirs before, or during, their illness reported experiencing negative consequences including making unfavorable social comparisons, along with emulation and triggering of disordered behaviors, whereas those who reported being exposed when in recovery reported more positive outcomes including hope, validation, and social support. Findings have implications for the use of personal accounts as a means of facilitating patient recovery in eating disorder treatment settings. Future research should test the influence of memoirs using a larger eating disorder sample, and across different recovery stages. PMID:26230647

  19. ESPECTRA: Searching the Bipolar Spectrum in Eating Disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating Disorder Patients) is a single-site cross-sectional study involving a comparison group, designed to evaluate the prevalence of bipolar spectrum in an eating disorder sample. Women aged 18-45 years will be evaluated using the SCID-P and Zurich criteria for diagnosis and the HAM-D, YOUNG, SCI-MOODS, HCL-32, BIS-11, BSQ, WHOQoL and EAS instruments for rating symptoms and measuring clinical correlates. Discussion The classificatory systems in psychiatry are based on categorical models that have been criticized for simplifying the diagnosis and leading to an increase in comorbidities. Some dimensional approaches have been proposed aimed at improving the validity and reliability of psychiatric disorder assessments, especially in conditions with high rates of comorbidity such as BD and Eating Disorder (ED). The Bipolar Spectrum (BS) remains under-recognized in clinical practice and its definition is not well established in current diagnostic guidelines. Broader evaluation of psychiatric disorders combining categorical and dimensional views could contribute to a more realistic understanding of comorbidities and help toward establishing a prognosis. PMID:21489298

  20. Vortioxetine: a meta-analysis of 12 short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials for the treatment of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Chi-Un; Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Masand, Praksh S.; Serretti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Vortioxetine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 2013 for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). Thus far, a number of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of vortioxetine have been conducted in patients with MDD. We performed a meta-analysis to increase the statistical power of these studies and enhance our current understanding of the role of vortioxetine in the treatment of MDD. Methods We performed an extensive search of databases and the clinical trial registry. The mean change in total scores on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) from the baseline were the primary outcome measures. The secondary efficacy measures were the response and remission rates, as defined by a 50% or greater reduction in HAM-D/MADRS total scores and as a score of 10 or less in the MADRS and 7 or less in the HAM-D total scores at the end of treatment. Results We included 7 published and 5 unpublished short-term (6–12 wk) RCTs in our meta-analysis. Vortioxetine was significantly more effective than placebo, with an effect size (standardized mean difference [SMD]) of ?0.217 (95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.313 to ?0.122) and with odds ratios (ORs) for response and remission of 1.652 (95% CI 1.321 to 2.067) and 1.399 (95% CI 1.104 to 1.773), respectively. Those treated with vortioxetine did not differ significantly from those treated with selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors/agomelatine with regard to the SMD of the primary outcome measure (0.081, ?0.062 to 0.223) or for response (OR 0.815, 95% CI 0.585 to 1.135) and remission (OR 0.843, 95% CI 0.575 to 1.238) rates. Discontinuation owing to lack of efficacy (OR 0.541, 95% CI 0.308 to 0.950) was significantly less common among those treated with vortioxetine than among those who received placebo, whereas discontinuation owing to adverse events (AEs; OR 1.530, 95% CI 1.144 to 2.047) was significantly more common among those treated with vortioxetine than among those receiving placebo. There was no significant difference in discontinuation rates between vortioxetine and comparators owing to inefficacy (OR 0.983, 95% CI 0.585 to 1.650), whereas discontinuation owing to AEs was significantly less common in the vortioxetine than in the comparator group (OR 0.728, 95% CI 0.554 to 0.957). Limitations Studies examining the role of vortioxetine in the treatment of MDD are limited. Conclusion Although our results suggest that vortioxetine may be an effective treatment option for MDD, they should be interpreted and translated into clinical practice with caution, as the meta-analysis was based on a limited number of heterogeneous RCTs. PMID:25350320

  1. A clinical approach to the assessment and management of co-morbid eating disorders and substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that eating disorder (ED) patients who abuse substances demonstrate worse ED symptomatology and poorer outcomes than those with EDs alone, including increased general medical complications and psychopathology, longer recovery times, poorer functional outcomes and higher relapse rates. This article provides a broad overview of the prevalence, aetiology, assessment and management of co-morbid EDs and substance use disorders (SUDs). Review The co-occurrence of EDs and SUDs is high. The functional relationship between EDs and SUDs vary within and across ED subtypes, depends on the class of substance, and needs to be carefully assessed for each patient. Substances such as caffeine, tobacco, insulin, thyroid medications, stimulants or over the counter medications (laxatives, diuretics) may be used to aid weight loss and/or provide energy, and alcohol or psychoactive substances could be used for emotional regulation or as part of a pattern of impulsive behaviour. A key message conveyed in the current literature is the importance of screening and assessment for co-morbid SUDs and EDs in patients presenting with either disorder. There is a paucity of treatment studies on the management of co-occurring EDs and SUDs. Overall, the literature indicates that the ED and SUD should be addressed simultaneously using a multi-disciplinary approach. The need for medical stabilization, hospitalization or inpatient treatment needs to be assessed based on general medical and psychiatric considerations. Common features across therapeutic interventions include psycho-education about the aetiological commonalities, risks and sequelae of concurrent ED behaviours and substance abuse, dietary education and planning, cognitive challenging of eating disordered attitudes and beliefs, building of skills and coping mechanisms, addressing obstacles to improvement and the prevention of relapse. Emphasis should be placed on building a collaborative therapeutic relationship and avoiding power struggles. Cognitive behavioural therapy has been frequently used in the treatment of co-morbid EDs and SUDs, however there are no randomized controlled trials. More recently evidence has been found for the efficacy of dialectical behavioural therapy in reducing both ED and substance use behaviours. Conclusion Future research would benefit from a meta-analysis of the current research in order to better understand the relationships between these two commonly co-occurring disorders. PMID:24200300

  2. A Comparative Genomic Study in Schizophrenic and in Bipolar Disorder Patients, Based on Microarray Expression Profiling Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Logotheti, Marianthi; Papadodima, Olga; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%–5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets. PMID:23554570

  3. Orthorexia nervosa: a frequent eating disordered behavior in athletes.

    PubMed

    Segura-García, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nisticò, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L

    2012-12-01

    Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes. PMID:22361450

  4. The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.; Ho, Chao-Yi; Richard, Jocelyn M.; DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G.

    2010-01-01

    What we eat, when and how much, all are influenced by brain reward mechanisms that generate ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for foods. As a corollary, dysfunction in reward circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain mechanisms known to generate ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for foods, and evaluate their interaction with regulatory mechanisms of hunger and satiety, relevant to clinical issues. ‘Liking’ mechanisms include hedonic circuits that connect together cubic-millimeter hotspots in forebrain limbic structures such as nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum (where opioid/endocannabinoid/orexin signals can amplify sensory pleasure). ‘Wanting’ mechanisms include larger opioid networks in nucleus accumbens, striatum, and amygdala that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots, as well as mesolimbic dopamine systems, and corticolimbic glutamate signals that interact with those systems. We focus on ways in which these brain reward circuits might participate in obesity or in eating disorders. PMID:20388498

  5. The epidemiology and genetics of binge eating disorder (BED).

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    This narrative review provides an overview of the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED), highlighting the medical history of this disorder and its entry as an independent condition in the Feeding and Eating Disorders section of the recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Estimates of prevalence are provided, as well as recognition that the female to male ratio is lower in BED than in other eating disorders. Evidence is also provided of the most common comorbidities of BED, including mood and anxiety disorders and a range of addiction disorders. In addition, discussion of the viewpoint that BED itself may be an addiction - at least in severe cases - is presented. Although the genetic study of BED is still in its infancy, current research is reviewed with a focus on certain neurotransmitter genes that regulate brain reward mechanisms. To date, a focal point of this research has been on the dopamine and the ?-opioid receptor genes. Preliminary evidence suggests that a predisposing risk factor for BED may be a heightened sensitivity to reward, which could manifest as a strong dopamine signal in the brain's striatal region. Caution is encouraged, however, in the interpretation of current findings, since samples are relatively small in much of the research. To date, no genome-wide association studies have focused exclusively on BED. PMID:26258270

  6. Weight-Related Sports Involvement in Girls: Who Is at Risk for Disordered Eating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Beuhring, Trish; Resnick, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight-related sport involvement, disordered eating, health behavior, and psycho-social factors in female adolescents. Survey data indicated that girls in weight-related sports were at increased risk for disordered eating, though the majority did not report disordered eating. This group was also at decreased risk…

  7. The Continuum Versus Categorical Debate on Eating Disorders: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda M.; Perosa, Sandra L.

    2004-01-01

    The authors summarize a study by D. A. Williamson et al. (2002) in which clinical groups with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified, and binge eating disorder were contrasted with nonclinical groups of participants (i.e., obese and normal weight). The eating disorder groups were qualitatively different. Also,…

  8. Testing Mediators of a Couple-based Eating Disorder Prevention Program 

    E-print Network

    Ramirez, Ana Lorena

    2012-10-19

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are more prevalent in today’s society than ever, making the prevention of eating disorders and its symptoms crucial for women’s health. A couple-based eating disorder prevention program was developed...

  9. U.Va. Coalition on Eating Disorders Exercise Concerns Membership List, 2014-2015

    E-print Network

    Huang, Wei

    U.Va. Coalition on Eating Disorders Exercise Concerns Membership List, 2014-2015 Name Department Email Amy Chestnutt Eating Disorders Education Initiative Coordinator, Women's Center aek4k Eating Disorders Education Initiative intern) krh6zf@virginia.edu Katie Travieso Pearl Residence Life kt2

  10. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  11. Assessment and Diagnosis of Eating Disorders: A Guide for Professional Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kelly C.; Peterson, Carol B.; Frazier, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of and risk associated with disordered eating, there are few guidelines for counselors on how to conduct an eating disorder assessment. Given the importance of the clinical interview, the purpose of this article is to provide recommendations for the assessment and diagnosis of eating disorders that (a) specifically focus on…

  12. Enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Single Treatment for All Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Sharon; Watson, Hunna; La Puma, Michelle; Allen, Karina; Byrne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses affecting a significant proportion of women and a smaller number of men. Approximately half of those with an eating disorder (ED) will not meet the criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and will be diagnosed with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Until recently, there were no…

  13. Neurocircuity of Eating Disorders Walter H. Kaye, Angela Wagner, Julie L. Fudge, and Martin Paulus

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Neurocircuity of Eating Disorders Walter H. Kaye, Angela Wagner, Julie L. Fudge, and Martin Paulus.), Behavioral Neurobiology of Eating Disorders, Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 6, DOI 10 that may contribute to the pathophysiology of eating disorders (EDs). Summary of recent findings: Recent

  14. `Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C. Berridge

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    `Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C Food Ingestive behavior Pleasure Anorexia Bulimia Eating disorders Nucleus accumbens Ventral pallidum `wanting' and hedonic `liking' for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders

  15. The Concurrence of Eating Disorders with Histories of Child Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between eating disorders and history of physical abuse, incest, and extrafamilial sexual abuse. Results of a survey of adolescents (n=6,224) indicate that eating disorders are correlated with all 3 types of abuse. Presence of an eating disorder also correlates with presence of other addictive behaviors, family history of…

  16. Eating Disorders among Athletes: Public Policy To Promote Social and Individual Behavioral Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Eating disorders are a complex physiological, psychological, and social illness. Since teachers and coaches should know the signs of eating disorders, some of the ways in which educators can recognize or prevent eating disorders are presented in this paper. Emphasis is placed on teachers and coaches familiarizing themselves with the five "Ps"…

  17. Computer Therapy for the Anxiety and Depressive Disorders Is Effective, Acceptable and Practical Health Care: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Gavin; Cuijpers, Pim; Craske, Michelle G.; McEvoy, Peter; Titov, Nickolai

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety disorders are common and treatable with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), but access to this therapy is limited. Objective Review evidence that computerized CBT for the anxiety and depressive disorders is acceptable to patients and effective in the short and longer term. Method Systematic reviews and data bases were searched for randomized controlled trials of computerized cognitive behavior therapy versus a treatment or control condition in people who met diagnostic criteria for major depression, panic disorder, social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder. Number randomized, superiority of treatment versus control (Hedges g) on primary outcome measure, risk of bias, length of follow up, patient adherence and satisfaction were extracted. Principal Findings 22 studies of comparisons with a control group were identified. The mean effect size superiority was 0.88 (NNT 2.13), and the benefit was evident across all four disorders. Improvement from computerized CBT was maintained for a median of 26 weeks follow-up. Acceptability, as indicated by adherence and satisfaction, was good. Research probity was good and bias risk low. Effect sizes were non-significantly higher in comparisons with waitlist than with active treatment control conditions. Five studies comparing computerized CBT with traditional face-to-face CBT were identified, and both modes of treatment appeared equally beneficial. Conclusions Computerized CBT for anxiety and depressive disorders, especially via the internet, has the capacity to provide effective acceptable and practical health care for those who might otherwise remain untreated. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000030077 PMID:20967242

  18. Disordered Eating in College Students: Links with Childhood Abuse and Maternal Eating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feilke, Kim; Chambliss, Catherine

    The prevalence of sexual conflicts in many patients with eating disorders has been well documented. A parallel has been found between psychological problems experienced by victims of childhood sexual abuse and patients with anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia. Past studies have used inpatient clinical samples; however, this study extended this area of…

  19. Healthy Eating in Schools, Overweight and "Eating Disorders": Are They Connected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixey, Rachael

    1998-01-01

    A review of literature on nutrition education and eating disorders suggests that some school health promotion practices may influence children's obsession with body weight and food. Health education should include a broader perspective of the psychological aspects of body image and self-concept. (SK)

  20. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in Spain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood, but the frequency of the condition is not well established in many countries. The aim of the present study was to quantify the overall prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in Spain by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods PubMed/MEDLINE, IME, IBECS and TESEO were comprehensively searched. Original reports were selected if they provided data on prevalence estimates of ADHD among people under 18 years old in Spain and were cross-sectional, observational epidemiological studies. Information from included studies was systematically extracted and evaluated. Overall pooled-prevalence estimates of ADHD were calculated using random-effects models. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by means sub-groups analyses and univariate meta-regressions. Results Fourteen epidemiological studies (13,026 subjects) were selected. The overall pooled-prevalence of ADHD was estimated at 6.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.9 – 8.8%] representing 361,580 (95% CI 260,550 – 467,927) children and adolescents in the community. There was significant heterogeneity (P < 0.001), which was incompletely explained by subgroup analyses and meta-regressions. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in Spain is consistent with previous studies conducted in other countries and regions. This study represents a first step in estimating the national burden of ADHD that will be essential to building evidence-based programs and services. PMID:23057832

  1. Bipolar disorder with comorbid binge eating history: A genome-wide association study implicates APOB

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Stacey J.; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B.; McElroy, Susan L.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Crow, Scott; Colby, Colin L.; Choi, Doo-Sup; Chauhan, Mohit; Frye, Mark A.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable disease. While genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified several genetic risk factors for BD, few of these studies have investigated the genetic etiology of specific disease subtypes. In particular, BD is positively associated with eating dysregulation traits such as binge eating behavior (BE), yet the genetic risk factors underlying BD with comorbid BE have not been investigated. Methods Utilizing data from the Genetic Association Information Network study of BD, which included 729,454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 1001 European American bipolar cases and 1034 controls, we performed GWA analyses of bipolar subtypes defined by the presence or absence of BE history, and performed a case-only analysis comparing BD subjects with and without BE history. Association signals were refined using imputation, and network analysis was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Based on these results, candidate SNPs were selected for replication in an independent sample of 855 cases and 857 controls. Results Top ranking SNPs in the discovery set included rs6006893 in PRR5, rs17045162 in ANK2, rs13233490 near PER4, rs4665788 and rs10198175 downstream of APOB, rs2367911 in CACNA2D1, and rs7249968 near ZNF536. Rs10198175 in APOB also demonstrated evidence of association in the replication sample and a meta-analysis of the two samples. Limitations Without information of BE history in controls, it is not possible to determine whether the observed association with APOB reflects a risk factor for BE behavior in general or a risk factor for a subtype of BD with BE. Further longitudinal and functional studies are needed to determine the causal pathways underlying the observed associations. Conclusions This study identified new potential BD-susceptibility genes, highlighting the advantages of phenotypic sub-classification in genetic research and clinical practice. PMID:24882193

  2. Eating disorders and personality: a methodological and empirical review.

    PubMed

    Lilenfeld, Lisa R R; Wonderlich, Stephen; Riso, Lawrence P; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James

    2006-05-01

    Methodological approaches utilized to evaluate models of the relationship between personality and eating disorders, as well as empirical support for each model, are reviewed. Limited prospective research suggests that negative emotionality, perfectionism, drive for thinness, poor interoceptive awareness, ineffectiveness, and obsessive-compulsive personality traits are likely predisposing factors. Limited family study research suggests that obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and anorexia nervosa share a common familial liability. Potential pathoplastic personality factors include Cluster B personality disorders and OCPD, which predict a poorer course and/or outcome, and histrionic personality traits and self-directedness, which predict a more favorable course and/or outcome. Future research should focus upon sophisticated prospective and family study research in order to best evaluate competing models of the eating disorder-personality relationship. PMID:16330138

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adult Anxiety Disorders in Clinical Practice: A Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Rebecca E.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in adults is well established. In the present study, the authors examined whether CBT tested under well-controlled conditions generalizes to less-controlled, real-world circumstances. Fifty-six effectiveness studies of CBT for adult anxiety disorders were located and synthesized.…

  4. Sex differences in outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment for opioid use disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B.; Bhalerao, Anuja; Plater, Carolyn; Worster, Andrew; Varenbut, Michael; Daiter, Jeff; Marsh, David C.; Desai, Dipika; Steiner, Meir; Anglin, Rebecca; Pare, Guillaume; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opioid use disorder is a serious international concern with limited treatment success. Men and women differ in their susceptibility to opioid use disorder and response to methadone treatment and can therefore benefit from sex-specific treatment. We performed a systematic review of the literature on outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment for opioid use disorder in men and women related to drug use, health status and social functioning. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL for observational or randomized controlled studies involving adults 18 years of age or older undergoing methadone treatment for opioid use disorder. Studies were included if they investigated sex differences in methadone treatment outcomes. Two authors independently reviewed and extracted data. Meta-analyses were performed when possible; risk of bias and quality of evidence were also assessed. Results: Twenty studies with 9732 participants were included, of which 18 were observational and 2 were randomized controlled trials. Men and women differed significantly in alcohol use (odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31 to 0.86), amphetamine use (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.94), legal involvement (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.84) and employment during treatment (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.73). Opioid use patterns were similar among men and women. Risk of bias was moderate, and quality of evidence was generally low. Interpretation: Sex differences were evident in polysubstance use, legal involvement and employment status among men and women receiving methadone treatment for opioid use disorders. Although the quality of evidence was low, our review highlights the need for improved implementation of sex-specific treatment strategies. PMID:26457294

  5. The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Dawnella M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…

  6. Recognizing and Preventing Adolescent Eating Disorders and Muscularity Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolak, Linda; Levine, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    It is important for adults who work with youth to know how to address the issues of eating disorders and steroid use. This article provides signs and symptoms for both, and then gives practical suggestions for talking with youth about a potential problem. It ends with prevention strategies for adults who work with youth. (Contains 3 tables.)

  7. Depressive Symptoms, Coping Strategies, and Disordered Eating among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBoven, Amy M.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    In a 2-phase study with a total of 392 participants, depressive symptoms mediated the association between disordered eating and lower problem-solving confidence and an avoidance problem-solving style. Depressive symptoms did not mediate the association between the ability to generate competent solutions to hypothetical stressful situations and…

  8. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  9. Eating Disorder Prevention: Current Evidence-Base and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Becker, Carolyn Black; Yokum, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Objective This narrative review sought to (a) characterize prevention programs that have produced reliable, reproducible, and clinically meaningful effects in efficacy trials, (b) discuss effectiveness trials that have tested whether prevention programs produce intervention effects under ecologically valid real-world conditions, (c) discuss dissemination efforts and research on dissemination, and (d) offer suggestions regarding directions for future research in this field. Conclusion A literature revealed that 6 prevention programs have produced significant reductions in eating disorder symptoms through at least 6-month follow-up and that 2 have significantly reduced future eating disorder onset. Effectiveness trials indicate that 2 prevention programs have produced effects under ecologically valid conditions that are only slightly attenuated. Although there have been few dissemination efforts, evidence suggests that a community participatory approach is most effective. Lastly, it would be useful to develop programs that produce larger and more persistent reductions in eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder onset, focus more on effectiveness trials that confirm that prevention programs produce clinically meaningful effects under real-world conditions, conduct meditational, mechanisms of action, and moderator research that provides stronger support for the intervention theory of prevention programs, and investigate the optimal methods of disseminating and implementing evidence-based prevention programs. PMID:23658095

  10. Gender, General Strain Theory, Negative Emotions, and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R.; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal--especially violent--activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally…

  11. Predicting Eating Disorder Continuum Groups: Hardiness and College Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Boyd, Gail D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    This study examined relationships between hardiness, college adjustment (academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, institutional attachment) and eating disorder (ED) continuum categories in 122 female and 20 male college students. Students who exhibited a higher level of personal-emotional adjustment (PEA) to college…

  12. Adolescent Eating Disorders: Who's at Risk and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovinsky, Diane M.

    1993-01-01

    In a culture glorifying thinness and beauty, most females (especially adolescents) carry some risk of developing eating disorders. A recent survey of 280 South Carolina middle school students disclosed significant female/male differences. About 70% of the girls felt fat; many used various weight-loss techniques, including dieting, fasting,…

  13. Peer Sexual Harassment and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…

  14. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  15. Hiding in Plain Sight: The Sibling Connection in Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blessing, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author argues that sibling relationships are a missing piece of the eating disorder puzzle. She notes that disturbing relationships with siblings have been present all along in the literature, but have not been included as a separate area of study. They have thus been hiding in plain sight, present but not accounted for in our…

  16. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  17. Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Benjamin

    Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

  18. Assessing Readiness for Change in Adolescents with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Josie; Brown, Krista E.; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Menna, Rosanne; Bates, Mollie E.; Dunn, Erin C.

    2008-01-01

    The Readiness and Motivation Interview (RMI) is a semistructured interview measure of readiness and motivation to change that can be used for all eating disorder diagnoses. The RMI has demonstrated excellent psychometric properties and has both clinical and predictive utility in adult samples. This study examined the psychometric properties of the…

  19. Objectification Theory: Of Relevance for Eating Disorder Researchers and Clinicians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a large and expanding body of research on Objectification Theory. Central to the theory is the proposition that self-objectification results in shame and anxiety surrounding the body, and as a consequence, the development of eating disorders. However, the theory and research have been developed and reported in the gender and…

  20. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  1. An Evaluation of the Reliability and Construct Validity of Eating Disorder Measures in White and Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Lydecker, Janet A.; Bair, Carrie E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Most measures of eating disorder symptoms and risk factors were developed in predominantly White female samples. Yet eating disorders affect individuals of all racial and ethnic backgrounds. Black women appear more vulnerable to certain forms of eating pathology, such as binge eating, and less susceptible to other eating disorder symptoms and risk…

  2. Neuroimaging of cognitive brain function in paediatric obsessive compulsive disorder: a review of literature and preliminary meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brem, Silvia; Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Brandeis, Daniel; Drechsler, Renate; Walitza, Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent psychiatric disorder with a prevalence of 1-3 %, and it places an enormous burden on patients and their relatives. Up to 50 % of all cases suffer from onset in childhood or adolescence, and the disorder often takes a chronic course with a poor long-term prognosis. Paediatric OCD, with its high familiality, is often referred to as a distinct OCD subtype that coincides with a developmental period in which the prefrontal cortex exhibits extensive structural and functional maturation. In the present review, we included all studies examining cognitive brain activation in children and/or adolescents with OCD. We conducted extensive literature searches for relevant articles (Pubmed, ScienceDirect) and summarize, tabulate, and discuss their results. For the eight activation studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also performed preliminary meta-analyses to assess the most consistent hypo- and hyperactivation in paediatric OCD patients during cognitive task performance. The review of literature as well as our preliminary meta-analyses of paediatric studies indicated altered functional activation in the same brain regions of affective and cognitive cortico-striatal-thalamic (CST) circuits as for adult OCD patients despite some variations in the direction of activation difference. The still small number of studies that examined brain activation in paediatric OCD patients thereby largely converged with previous findings in adult patients and with the established neurobiological models of CST circuit dysfunction in OCD. PMID:22678698

  3. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF), specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods. Patients and methods The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men). After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q). Results Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001), Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT) (P < 0.0001), and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD) (P < 0.0001). The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001). With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI. Conclusion The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life. PMID:23055772

  4. Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although score reliability is a sample-dependent characteristic, researchers often only report reliability estimates from previous studies as justification for employing particular questionnaires in their research. The present study followed reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory and its most commonly employed subscales (Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction) and the Eating Attitudes Test as a way to better identify those characteristics that might impact score reliability. Methods Published studies that used these measures were coded based on their reporting of reliability information and additional study characteristics that might influence score reliability. Results Score reliability estimates were included in 26.15% of studies using the EDI and 36.28% of studies using the EAT. Mean Cronbach’s alphas for the EDI (total score?=?.91; subscales?=?.75 to .89), EAT-40 (total score?=?.81) and EAT-26 (total score?=?.86; subscales?=?.56 to .80) suggested variability in estimated internal consistency. Whereas some EDI subscales exhibited higher score reliability in clinical eating disorder samples than in nonclinical samples, other subscales did not exhibit these differences. Score reliability information for the EAT was primarily reported for nonclinical samples, making it difficult to characterize the effect of type of sample on these measures. However, there was a tendency for mean score reliability to be higher in the adult (vs. adolescent) samples and in female (vs. male) samples. Conclusions Overall, this study highlights the importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency during every test administration because reliability is affected by characteristics of the participants being examined. PMID:24764530

  5. Maternal autoimmune diseases and the risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Wei; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Jiang, Li-Na; Zheng, Xue-Yan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ma, Shu-Juan; Qiu, Min; Huo, Shu-Ting; Ge, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Although inherited and immune disorder factors are known to be involved in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), controversy still exists as to whether maternal autoimmune disease is an independent risk of ASD in offspring. We aimed to quantitatively summarize the risk of ASD in offspring in relation to maternal autoimmune diseases. A literature search in Pubmed, Web of science, Embase, and China national knowledge internet was conducted to identify relevant studies. Pooled odd ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed by STATA version 12.0. Nine case-control studies and one cohort studies comprising 9775 cases and 952,211 controls were included in this study. A positive association between maternal autoimmune diseases and the risk of ASD in offspring was identified assuming a fixed effect model (pooled OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.23-1.46; I(2), 27.9%). There were statistically significant associations between maternal autoimmune diseases developed during pregnancy or maternal thyroid disease and the risk of ASD in offspring (pooled OR, 1.30, 1.29, respectively). Maternal autoimmune disease is likely to be an independent risk factor of ASD in offspring. PMID:26327239

  6. Order and disorder: Temporal organization of eating

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Neil E.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behavior is described from an evolutionary perspective, and implications for modern neurobiological studies are suggested. In particular, it is argued that meals may have evolved more for sociocultural reasons than physiological imperatives, and that biological approaches to the study of feeding episodes should adopt a more flexible model that is founded in economic or cost-benefit considerations. Specific examples of flexibility in mouse feeding behavior are given. It is further argued that the modern human food environment is so immoderate that physiological manipulations designed to restrain eating have little hope of achieving this goal. PMID:22138508

  7. Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Susan G.; Morrow, Emma; van Vreeswijk, Michiel; Reid, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) in a case series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential, and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioral change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropped-out at mid-treatment. Eating disorder severity, global schema severity, shame, and anxiety levels were reduced between pre- and post-therapy, with a large effect size at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in eating severity was found in four out of six completers. Group completers showed a mean reduction in schema severity of 43% at post-treatment, and 59% at follow-up. By follow-up, all completers had achieved over 60% improvement in schema severity. Self-report feedback suggests that group factors may catalyze the change process in schema therapy by increasing perceptions of support and encouragement to take risks and try out new behaviors, whilst providing a de-stigmatizing and de-shaming therapeutic experience. PMID:21833243

  8. Controversies about a common etiology for eating and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Clara; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that interact with each other. In this review, we sought to summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a common etiology for eating and mood disorders, with a particular emphasis on signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of energy balance and mood stability, among which orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, metabolic factors, stress responsive hormones, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. PMID:25386150

  9. The atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pae, Chi-Un; Lim, Hyn-Kook; Peindl, Kathleen; Ajwani, Neena; Serretti, Alessandro; Patkar, Ashwin A; Lee, Chul

    2008-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and disabling mental illness. Small studies found atypical antipsychotics (AAs) to be beneficial in the treatment of patients with PTSD regardless of psychotic symptoms who are unresponsive to conventional pharmacological treatments such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors. This study reports the results of a meta-analysis of existing randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of AAs as a monotherapy or augmentation therapy for the treatment of patients with PTSD. Seven RCTs were identified through extensive scans of databases, which included PubMed, MedLine, the National PTSD Center Pilots database, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Abstracts Library of the American Psychiatric Association with predefined inclusion criteria. Dichotomous and continuous measures were performed using a fixed effects model, heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses were done. Data from seven RCTs involving a total of 192 PTSD patients (102 randomized to AAs and 90 randomized to placebo) were analyzed. The results show that AAs may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of PTSD, as indicated by the changes from baseline in Clinician Administered PTSD Scale total scores [standardized mean difference (SMD)=-0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.75, -0.14), P=0.004]. In addition, the overall SMD of the mean changes in the three Clinician Administered PTSD Scale subscores was statistically significant (P=0.007) between AAs and placebo groups, favoring AAs over placebo (SMD=-0.27, 95% CI=-0.47, -0.07). In particular, the symptom of 'intrusion' was mainly responsible for this significance. Clinical significance of the results, however, should be carefully interpreted and translated into clinical practice, given that the quality and availability of currently existing RCTs included in the analysis. PMID:18090502

  10. Interventions for common perinatal mental disorders in women in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jane; Bower, Peter; Luchters, Stanley; Tran, Thach; Yasamy, M Taghi; Saxena, Shekhar; Waheed, Waquas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the mental health of women in the perinatal period and to evaluate any effect on the health, growth and development of their offspring, in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Methods Seven electronic bibliographic databases were systematically searched for papers published up to May 2012 describing controlled trials of interventions designed to improve mental health outcomes in women who were pregnant or had recently given birth. The main outcomes of interest were rates of common perinatal mental disorders (CPMDs), primarily postpartum depression or anxiety; measures of the quality of the mother–infant relationship; and measures of infant or child health, growth and cognitive development. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain a summary measure of the clinical effectiveness of the interventions. Findings Thirteen trials representing 20?092 participants were identified. In all studies, supervised, non-specialist health and community workers delivered the interventions, which proved more beneficial than routine care for both mothers and children. The pooled effect size for maternal depression was ?0.38 (95% confidence interval: ?0.56 to ?0.21; I2?=?79.9%). Where assessed, benefits to the child included improved mother–infant interaction, better cognitive development and growth, reduced diarrhoeal episodes and increased immunization rates. Conclusion In LAMI countries, the burden of CPMDs can be reduced through mental health interventions delivered by supervised non-specialists. Such interventions benefit both women and their children, but further studies are needed to understand how they can be scaled up in the highly diverse settings that exist in LAMI countries. PMID:23940407

  11. Cumulative meta-analysis of interleukins 6 and 1?, tumour necrosis factor ? and C-reactive protein in patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Haapakoski, Rita; Mathieu, Julia; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative meta-analyses are used to evaluate the extent to which further studies are needed to confirm or refute a hypothesis. We used this approach to assess observational evidence on systemic inflammation in individuals with major depressive disorder. We identified 58 studies of four common inflammatory markers in a literature search of PubMed, Embase and PsychInfo databases in May 2014. Pooled data from the earliest eight studies already showed an association between interleukin-6 concentrations and major depression; 23 more recent studies confirmed this finding (d = 0.54, p < 0.0001). A significant association between C-reactive protein levels and major depression was noted after 14 studies and this did not change after addition of six more studies (d = 0.47, p < 0.0001). For these two inflammatory markers, there was moderate heterogeneity in study-specific estimates, subgroup differences were small, and publication bias appeared to be an unlikely explanation for the findings. Sensitivity analyses including only high-quality studies and subjects free of antidepressant medication further verified the associations. While there was a link between tumour necrosis factor-? levels and major depression (d = 0.40, p = 0.002), the cumulative effect remained uncertain due to the extensive heterogeneity in study-specific estimates and inconsistencies between subgroups. No evidence was found for the association between interleukin-1? levels and major depression (d = ?0.05, p = 0.86). In conclusion, this cumulative meta-analysis confirmed higher mean levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with major depression compared to non-depressed controls. No consistent association between tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1? and major depression was observed. Future studies should clarify the specific immune mechanisms involved as well as continue testing anti-inflammatory therapies in patients suffering from major depression. PMID:26065825

  12. Brief Screening Tool for Disordered Eating in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Jessica T.; Butler, Deborah A.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Antisdel, Jeanne E.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To update and validate a diabetes-specific screening tool for disordered eating (the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey [DEPS]) in contemporary youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 112 youth with type 1 diabetes, ages 13–19 years, completed the DEPS. Higher scores on the DEPS indicate more disordered eating behaviors. Youth and their parents also completed additional surveys to examine diabetes-specific family conflict, negative affect related to blood glucose monitoring, youth quality of life, and diabetes burden. Clinicians provided data on height, weight, A1C, and insulin dosing. The DEPS was revised into a shorter, updated measure and validated. RESULTS The revised 16-item DEPS (DEPS-R) displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0.86). Construct validity was demonstrated by positive correlations with zBMI (P = 0.01), A1C (P = 0.001), diabetes-specific family conflict (P < 0.005), youth negative affect around blood glucose monitoring (P = 0.001), parental diabetes-specific burden (P = 0.0005), and negative correlations with frequency of blood glucose monitoring (P = 0.03) and quality of life (P ? 0.002). External validity was confirmed against clinician report of insulin restriction. CONCLUSIONS The DEPS-R is a 16-item diabetes-specific self-report measure of disordered eating that can be completed in <10 min. It demonstrated excellent internal consistency, construct validity, and external validity in this contemporary sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. Future studies should focus on using the DEPS-R to identify high-risk populations for prevention of and early intervention for disordered eating behaviors. PMID:20032278

  13. A review of eating disorders research in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Unikel, Claudia; Bojorquez, Ietza

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize research findings on eating disorders and the current state of the field in Mexico. Papers published in indexed journals and graduate dissertations were retrieved, using "eating disorders," "anorexia nervosa," "bulimia nervosa," "body image," "binge eating," "restrained eating," "weight and shape concern," and "dieting" as keywords. These were combined with the Boolean operator "AND" with "Mexico" and "Latin America." Findings are presented for epidemiology, the validity of assessment instruments, comorbidity, and risk factors. A national representative survey found a prevalence of 1.8% for bulimia nervosa, and no cases of anorexia nervosa. However, the lack of studies with confirmatory clinical interview and other national or regional representative samples makes it difficult to reach conclusions about the actual prevalence. A number of instruments for the detection of eating disorders and disordered eating have been validated for the Mexican population. The comorbidity of eating disorders in Mexico includes drug and alcohol abuse, obesity, and borderline personality disorder. Risk factors found included body weight and cultural pressure to be thin. Future lines of research should include epidemiological studies with representative samples and diagnosis confirmation, longitudinal studies, and the exploration of protective and risk factors specific to this population. We want to acknowledge Dr Richard A. Gordon's encouragement to write this manuscript and his accurate comments on its preliminary and final versions. We also want to thank the participants of the seminar on publications held at the Office of Epidemiological and Psychosocial Studies of the National Institute of Psychiatry for the comments they made to this article. El objetivo de este trabajo es el de resumir los hallazgos de investigación sobre los trastornos alimentarios y el estado actual del campo en México. Se recuperó la obra publicada en revistas indizadas y tesis de grado, mediante los descriptores "trastorno alimentario," anorexia nervosa," bulimia nervosa," "imagen corporal," "atracones," "restricción alimentaria," "preocupación por el peso y la figura," y "conducta de dieta." Éstos se combinaron con el operador Booleano "AND" con "México" y "América Latina." Se presentan los hallazgos para la epidemiología, la validez de los instrumentos de medición, comorbilidad, y factores de riesgo. Una encuesta nacional representativa encontró una prevalencia de 1.8% para la bulimia nervosa, y ningún caso de anorexia nervosa. No obstante, la carencia de estudios con una entrevista clínica confirmatoria y de otras muestras nacionales o regionales dificulta el arribo a conclusiones acerca de la prevalencia real. Varios instrumentos para la detección de los trastornos alimentarios y de la alimentación desordenada se han validado en población mexicana. La comorbilidad de los trastornos alimentarios en México incluye el uso y abuso de alcohol, la obesidad y el trastorno de personalidad limítrofe. Los factores de riesgo referidos incluyen el peso corporal y la presión cultural para estar delgado. Las líneas de investigación futuras deberán incluir estudios epidemiológicos con muestras representativas y la confirmación del diagnóstico, estudios longitudinales, y la exploración de factores de riesgo y protectores específicos a esta población. L'objectif de cet article est de résumer les résultats de recherche et l'état actuel des connaissances sur les troubles alimentaires au Mexique. Les articles publiés dans des revues indexées et les thèses de doctorat ont été recensés en utilisant les mots-clés « eating disorders », « anorexia nervosa », « bulimia nervosa », « body image », « binge eating », « restrained eating », « weight and shape concern » et « dieting ». Ceu

  14. The role of the opioid system in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Chiara; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating disorder is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable consumption of palatable food within brief periods of time. Excessive intake of palatable food is thought to be driven by hedonic, rather than energy homeostatic, mechanisms. However, reward processing does not only comprise consummatory actions; a key component is represented by the anticipatory phase directed at procuring the reward. This phase is highly influenced by environmental food-associated stimuli, which can robustly enhance the desire to eat even in the absence of physiological needs. The opioid system (endogenous peptides and their receptors) has been strongly linked to the rewarding aspects of palatable food intake, and perhaps represents the key system involved in hedonic overeating. Here we review evidence suggesting that the opioid system can also be regarded as one of the systems that regulates the anticipatory incentive processes preceding binge eating hedonic episodes. PMID:26499083

  15. The prefrontal dysfunction in individuals with Internet gaming disorder: a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yajing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Huiyao; Guo, Wanjun; Li, Tao

    2015-07-01

    With the advancement in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology and automated analysis, studies on functional MRI (fMRI) made it possible to identify the functional activity of brain in vivo in individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and to explore the underpinning neuroscience basis of IGD. Yet, no available literature has systemically reviewed the fMRI studies of IGD using meta-analyses. This study reviewed 61 candidate articles and finally selected 10 qualified voxel-wise whole-brain analysis studies for performing a comprehensive series of meta-analyses employing effect size signed differential mapping approach. Compared with healthy controls, subjects with IGD showed a significant activation in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus (MFG) and the left cingulate gyrus, as well as the left medial temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus. Furthermore, the on-line time of IGD subjects was positively correlated with activations in the left MFG and the right cingulated gyrus. These findings implicate the important role of dysfunctional prefrontal lobe in the neuropathological mechanism of IGD. Considering the overlapped role of prefrontal lobe in the reward and self-regulatory system, our results provided supportive evidence for the reclassification of IGD as a behavioural addiction. PMID:24889021

  16. Sociotropic cognition and eating disordered attitudes and behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedlow, C Teal; Niemeier, Heather M

    2013-04-01

    Sociotropic cognition is a mindset characterized by a strong need for social approval and fear of interpersonal rejection. Sociotropic cognition has been associated with depression and health risk behavior in women, but few studies have specifically addressed eating disordered attitudes and behaviors, and studies including men are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of sociotropic cognition on eating-related attitudes and behaviors in men and women. Participants were N=362 undergraduate students (51% female; mean age=19.2±1.43) who completed measures of sociotropic cognition, depressed mood, eating disordered attitudes and behaviors, body shape satisfaction, and physical activity. Using hierarchical regression, the results demonstrated that sociotropic cognition was associated with greater dietary restraint, body shape, eating, and weight concerns, emotional eating, and global eating disordered score. Body shape dissatisfaction and emotional eating were found to mediate the relationship between sociotropic cognition and eating disordered behaviors. Sociotropic cognition appears to be an important predictor of body shape dissatisfaction and eating disordered behaviors in a non-clinical sample. Individuals high in sociotropic cognition may engage in eating disordered behavior in response to fears of social evaluation. These findings have implications for prevention and treatment of eating disorders. Cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies are suggested to reduce sociotropic cognition and its influence on eating disordered behavior. PMID:23557802

  17. Analysis of Adaptive Dynamical Systems for Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    Analysis of Adaptive Dynamical Systems for Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse 1 , Martine F, in particular for the first phase of eating regulation disorders; e.g., (Beument et al., 1987; Garner and Garfinkel, 1985). In Delfos (2002), an adaptive dynamical model that describes normal functioning of eating

  18. The eating disorders as addiction: a psychobiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Davis, C; Claridge, G

    1998-01-01

    A number of theories have been proposed to explain the substantial comorbidity between the eating disorders and the substance-related disorders. Among them is the claim that self-starvation--exacerbated by excessive exercising--is itself an addiction to the body's endogenous opioids. While efforts have also been made to identify an "addictive personality," attempts to establish whether eating-disordered patients share these characteristics have met with mixed success. The present study was designed to determine the degree to which anorexic and bulimic patients display addictive personality characteristics, and whether these traits are useful in predicting the severity of the patient's weight preoccupation and their degree of excessive exercising. Results confirmed that both anorexic and bulimic patients had high scores on the Addiction Scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and that addictiveness and obsessive-compulsiveness were related simultaneously to weight preoccupation and excessive exercising in both patient groups. Findings are discussed within the framework of the auto-addiction opioid theory, and they highlight the similarities and differences in the personality structure of the eating-disorder subtypes. PMID:9698975

  19. From pharmacological promises to controlled clinical trials to meta-analysis and back: the case of nimodipine in cerebrovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Di Mascio, R; Marchioli, R; Tognoni, G

    1994-04-01

    On the basis of their promising experimental evidence, calcium channel blockers are today largely used in clinical practice for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. We propose a meta-analytical evaluation of published clinical trials on nimodipine, a dihydropiridin calcium antagonist, in subarachnoid hemorrhage and in ischemic stroke. In seven trials of subarachnoid hemorrhage, 112 deaths occurred among 682 patients randomized to active treatment compared with 154 deaths among 689 control patients (odds ratio of 0.68, 95% confidence interval of 0.52 to 0.90). Poor outcome due to delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage was also lower in the group allocated to receive nimodipine (odds ratio of 0.47, 95% confidence interval of 0.36 to 0.62). In 12 trials of ischemic stroke, 382 deaths occurred among 2056 patients allocated to receive nimodipine compared to 288 deaths among 1462 control patients (odds ratio of 0.98, 95% confidence interval of 0.82 to 1.18). Pooled results strongly suggest a protective effect of nimodipine in delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage and no effect in ischemic stroke, but the direction and the significance of these results are due to the contribution of a single large trial on subarachnoid hemorrhage and of two trials on ischemic stroke, which account respectively for 40% and 65% of randomized patients. The dissociated effect of nimodipine on these similar conditions could be related to its preventive role in ischemic damage, resembling animal models of ischemic stroke where a beneficial effect of calcium antagonists was clearly shown only when treatment was started before experimental cerebral artery occlusion. In this view, the negative results obtained from the clinical setting of ischemic stroke seem to indicate nimodipine as an aspecific neuroprotective agent without a curative effect. PMID:10150186

  20. Cognitive Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Clinical and Neuropsychological Outcomes From Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Samuele; Ferrin, Maite; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan; Daley, David; Dittmann, Ralf W.; Holtmann, Martin; Santosh, Paramala; Stevenson, Jim; Stringaris, Argyris; Zuddas, Alessandro; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The authors performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials to examine the effects of cognitive training on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, neuropsychological deficits, and academic skills in children/adolescents with ADHD. Method The authors searched Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, ERIC, and CINAHAL databases through May 18, 2014. Data were aggregated using random-effects models. Studies were evaluated with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Sixteen of 695 nonduplicate records were analyzed (759 children with ADHD). When all types of training were considered together, there were significant effects on total ADHD (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.09–0.66) and inattentive symptoms (SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.14–0.80) for reports by raters most proximal to the treatment setting (i.e., typically unblinded). These figures decreased substantially when the outcomes were provided by probably blinded raters (ADHD total: SMD = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01–0.40; inattention: SMD = 0.32, 95% CI = ?0.01 to 0.66). Effects on hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were not significant. There were significant effects on laboratory tests of working memory (verbal: SMD = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.24–0.80; visual: SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23–0.70) and parent ratings of executive function (SMD = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.08–0.61). Effects on academic performance were not statistically significant. There were no effects of working memory training, specifically on ADHD symptoms. Interventions targeting multiple neuropsychological deficits had large effects on ADHD symptoms rated by most proximal assessors (SMD = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.46–1.12). Conclusion Despite improving working memory performance, cognitive training had limited effects on ADHD symptoms according to assessments based on blinded measures. Approaches targeting multiple neuropsychological processes may optimize the transfer of effects from cognitive deficits to clinical symptoms. PMID:25721181

  1. Overview of the treatment of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Munoz, Maura R; Keck, Paul E

    2015-12-01

    We performed a qualitative review of treatment studies of binge eating disorder (BED), focusing on randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Limited effectiveness has been demonstrated for self-help strategies, and substantial effectiveness has been shown for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT). CBT and IPT may each be more effective than behavior weight loss therapy (BWLT) for reducing binge eating over the long term. The stimulant pro-drug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is the only drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of BED in adults based on 2 pivotal RCTs. Topiramate also decreases binge eating behavior, but its use is limited by its adverse event profile. Antidepressants may be modestly effective over the short term for reducing binge eating behavior and comorbid depressive symptoms, but are not associated with clinically significant weight loss. A RCT presented in abstract form suggests that intranasal naloxone may decrease time spent binge eating. There is no RCT of obesity surgery in BED, but many patients with BED seek and receive such surgery. While some studies suggest patients with BED and obesity do just as well as patients with obesity alone, other studies suggest that patients with BED have more post-operative complications, less weight loss, and more weight regain. This evidence suggests that patients with BED would benefit from receiving highly individualized treatment. PMID:26594849

  2. Substance use in female adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stock, Suzanne L; Goldberg, Eudice; Corbett, Shannon; Katzman, Debra K

    2002-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of substance use in adolescents with eating disorders, compare the results with a data set of Ontario high school students, and explore why adolescents with eating disorders do, or do not, use various substances. From January 1999 to March 2000, 101 female adolescents who met the DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder were followed up in a tertiary care pediatric treatment center. They were asked to participate in a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire assessing substance use and investigating reasons for use and nonuse; 95 agreed to participate and 77 completed the questionnaire (mean age, 15.2 years). The patients were divided into two groups: 63 with restrictive symptoms only, 17 with purging symptoms. The rates of drug use between subjects and their comparison groups were compared by z-scores, with the level of significance set at.05. During the preceding year, restrictors used significantly less tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis than grade- and sex-matched comparison populations, and purgers used these substances at rates similar to those of comparison subjects. Other drugs seen frequently in the purgers included hallucinogens, tranquilizers, stimulants, LSD, PCP, cocaine, and "ecstasy." Both groups used caffeine and laxatives, but few used diet pills. Restrictors said they did not use substances because they were bad for their health, tasted unpleasant, were contrary to their beliefs, and were too expensive. Purgers generally used substances to relax, relieve anger, avoid eating, and "get away" from problems. Female adolescents with eating disorders who have restrictive symptoms use substances less frequently than the general adolescent population but do not abstain from their use. Those with purging symptoms use substances with a similar frequency to that found in the general adolescent population. Because the sample size for the purging group was small, firm conclusions cannot be drawn from our analysis. Health care providers who treat adolescents with eating disorders are in a good position to identify those who use substances and may be at risk for substance abuse. PMID:12127388

  3. Vegetarian Students in Their First Year of College: Are They at Risk for Restrictive or Disordered Eating Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautmann, Julianne; Rau, Stephanie I.; Wilson, Mardell A.; Walters, Connor

    2008-01-01

    This study compared restrictive and disordered eating behaviors in vegetarian versus non-vegetarian first-year college students. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the abbreviated Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used to assess eating behaviors (n=330). The mean restrictive DEBQ and the EAT-26 scores of vegetarians were…

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

  5. Identity, Body-Image, and the Global Epidemiology of Eating Disorders

    E-print Network

    Gahman, Levi

    2008-07-29

    Eating disorders have been explained as syndromes with foundations in Western ideals and values. These disturbances in eating patterns may be more widespread within varied ethnic groups than formerly acknowledged, due to shifting standards...

  6. The rise of eating disorders in Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Pike, Kathleen M; Dunne, Patricia E

    2015-01-01

    Once concentrated among adolescent Caucasian females in high-income Western countries, today, eating disorders (EDs) are truly global. Building upon previous work describing the rise of EDs among cultures in transition, we contextualize the emergence of EDs in Asia by locating this development within the broader discourse about the processes of change that have radically transformed Asian societies over the last three decades. By identifying where EDs are emerging in the region, and by examining their particular expression, our aim is to explicate a fuller story of the relationship between culture and eating disorders. Much of the discussion of EDs in non-Western societies is predicated upon the assumption that an increase in EDs is the by-product of "Westernization", the term used to describe the process by which increased cultural contact with the West results in the transmission of so-called 'Western' ideas and cultural norms to a non-Western culture. While the Westernization literature represents a historical anchor in our understanding of EDs in Asia, we propose that this analysis is incomplete in that societal change in the form of industrialization and urbanization occurring independently from, or in tandem with, "Western" influence are critical factors contributing to the rise of EDs in Asia. Further, our review of eating disorders in Asia suggests that an understanding of the diversity and distinctiveness of the individual countries and cultures that comprise 'Asia' is crucial to understanding the emergence and rise of EDs across this vast region, suggesting that eating disorders are not culture-bound or culture-specific, but rather culture-reactive. Taking into account both the historical influence of Western culture and the more contemporary effects of Asian industrialization and urbanization, key distinctions among respective Asian cultures expands our understanding of the development and expression of EDs globally. PMID:26388993

  7. Considerations on self-psychology and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Di Luzio, GianCarlo

    2015-12-01

    In this narrative review article, some considerations are reported on the psychoanalytic point of view of self-psychology on eating disorders in a multidisciplinary team approach, a theoretic and clinical perspective in which the Author recognizes himself. Some author's clinical ideas and concepts as "negative self", "eclipse of the self", "rebound syndrome", "bluff syndrome", "deficit of subjective attribution", related to the topic of the deficit of the Self, are exposed along with technical aspects, clinical material and references to the comparison of psychoanalysis with the EBM literature on psychotherapy of EDs and its contemporary role in an integrated multi-disciplinary treatment of these disorders. PMID:26376997

  8. Common biological pathways in eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, M; Poston, W S; Foreyt, J P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize briefly potential biological pathways that are common among anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. We conclude that data on serotonergic and beta-endorphin regulatory systems provide the most promising leads for potential trait-based etiological theories. We then discuss the contribution of current data to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders. Finally, we comment on how the exploration for common biological mechanisms highlights problems in nosological diagnosis (i.e., the lack of symptom specificity among disorders) and obscures the etiological significance of social stressors and cultural factors. PMID:8904939

  9. Implicit memory bias for eating- and body appearance-related sentences in eating disorders: an application of Jacoby's white noise task.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Linda; Ghaderi, Ata; Hällgren, Mathias; Andersson, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Jacoby's white noise task and an explicit recognition task were used to investigate whether individuals with eating disorders demonstrate implicit memory bias and explicit memory bias, respectively, for information related to eating and body appearance. Included were 33 women with eating disorders (seven with anorexia nervosa and 26 with bulimia nervosa), 29 with nonclinical eating disorder-related concerns, and 36 healthy controls. Results showed partial support for implicit memory bias but no support for explicit memory bias. These findings suggest that eating disorders may be characterized by relative initial automatic bias for eating disorder-relevant information but not by bias at later stages of information processing. However, previous studies have demonstrated explicit memory bias in eating disorders, which is inconsistent with this interpretation. Future research is required to clarify the precise cognitive biases associated with eating disorders. PMID:18608315

  10. The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Takakazu; Ueda, Hirotaka; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Inui, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders. PMID:23016127

  11. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder in Midlife and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Benyamini, Yael; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We examined eating disorders in midlife and beyond by comparing frequency of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED) among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals and younger controls. We also compared demographic and eating disorder-related characteristics across diagnoses and age groups. Participants included 2,118 treatment-seeking adults who self-reported their eating-related symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Results showed that percent of patients with BN was significantly lower whereas percent of patients with BED and OSFED was significantly higher among midlife relative to younger patients. Percent of patients with AN did not differ between midlife and younger patients. Additionally, midlife and younger patients with BED and OSFED differed on several demographic (e.g., marital status) and eating disorder-related characteristics (e.g., BMI, compulsive exercising). This study suggests that BN is less common whereas BED and OSFED are more common among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals relative to younger controls. In addition, AN and BN present fairly similarly whereas BED and OSFED present fairly differently among midlife patients relative to younger controls. Attention to these differences and similarities is necessary to understand eating disorders in midlife. PMID:26164423

  12. [Comorbodity of kleptomania and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Bryukhin, A E; Sologub, M B; Abdraeva, N K

    2015-01-01

    A case of comorbid anorexia nervosa and kleptomania is reported in a female patient aged 31 years old. Personality pathology and kleptomanic behavior developed since childhood together with dysmorphophobia related to the congenital chest defect. Later on, the distinct association between the severity of dysmorphophobia, affective disorder and appearances of pathological drives was identified. The patient received several ICD-10 diagnoses (F61.0, F50.0, F62.3, F33.1). The patient's condition was improved after pharmacotherapy in the combination with psychotherapy. PMID:25909797

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Eating Disorder Examination and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kelly C.; Peterson, Carol B.; Frazier, Patricia; Crow, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to systematically review the reliability of scores on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and to examine the validity of their use as measures of eating disorder symptoms. Method Articles describing the psychometric properties of the EDE and EDE-Q were identified in a systematic search of major computer databases and a review of reference lists. Articles were selected based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results Fifteen studies were identified that examined the psychometrics of the EDE, whereas 10 studies were found that examined the psychometrics of the EDE-Q. Discussion Both instruments demonstrated reliability of scores. There is evidence that scores on the EDE and EDE-Q correlate with scores on measures of similar constructs and support for using the instruments to distinguish between cases and non-cases. Additional research is needed to broaden the generalizability of the findings. PMID:21744375

  14. Recent Advances in Developmental and Risk Factor Research on Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bakalar, Jennifer L; Shank, Lisa M; Vannucci, Anna; Radin, Rachel M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2015-06-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e., DSM-5) currently recognizes three primary eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. The origins of eating disorders are complex and remain poorly understood. However, emerging research highlights a dimensional approach to understanding the multifactorial etiology of eating disorders as a means to inform assessment, prevention, and treatment efforts. Guided by research published since 2011, this review summarizes recent findings elucidating risk factors for the development of eating disorders across the lifespan in three primary domains: (1) genetic/biological, (2) psychological, and (3) socio-environmental. Prospective empirical research in clinical samples with full-syndrome eating disorders is emphasized with added support from cross-sectional studies, where relevant. The developmental stages of puberty and the transition from adolescence to young adulthood are discussed as crucial periods for the identification and prevention of eating disorders. The importance of continuing to elucidate the mechanisms underlying gene by environmental interactions in eating disorder risk is also discussed. Finally, controversial topics in the field of eating disorder research and the clinical implications of this research are summarized. PMID:25894358

  15. Behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Beals, K A; Manore, M M

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below ( approximately 5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders. PMID:10861334

  16. Etiology of eating disorders explored as patience for a cure thins Headlines about skeletal supermodels have

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    N E W S Etiology of eating disorders explored as patience for a cure thins Headlines about skeletal supermodels have fueled the perception that eating disorders are caused by cultural pressure to be thin. In tandem, treatments for such disorders have long centered on psychotherapy, often focused on improving

  17. How Schools Can Help Combat Student Eating Disorders. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael P.

    This book presents a comprehensive review of anorexia nervosa and bulimia and the roles that schools can have in preventing, identifying, and treating these disorders. Chapter 1 provides an overview of student eating disorders and presents a case study of a high school student with an eating disorder. Chapter 2 discusses the nature of anorexia…

  18. Exploration Linking Self-Reported Disordered Eating and Wellness in Undergraduate Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    University campus environments are conducive to the development of disordered eating in students. Busy schedules, easy access to fast food, and the transition from high school to college contribute to the development of disordered eating in university students. This researcher explored whether a relationship exists between self-reported disordered

  19. Nutritional Intervention in Young Women with Eating Disorders: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…

  20. Mediational Significance of PTSD in the Relationship of Sexual Trauma and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Sarah R.; Uppala, Saritha; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Simonich, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the mediational significance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the development of eating disorder symptomatology following sexually traumatic experiences. Method: Seventy-one victims of sexual trauma and 25 control subjects completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating disorder psychopathology and…

  1. Sports Participation and Disordered Eating Behaviors and Beliefs of Middle School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie; Burak, Lydia J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the disordered eating behaviors and beliefs of female middle school athletes, investigating the relationship between number and type of sports played and disordered eating. Student surveys indicated that girls participated in a mean of 4.6 sports and reported an average of 2.1 weight dissatisfied beliefs and restrictive or disordered

  2. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating) differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating. PMID:22992241

  3. Body checking in the eating disorders: association with narcissistic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Sines, Jennie; Meyer, Caroline; Mountford, Victoria

    2008-04-01

    There is substantial evidence that body image is a clinically important element of eating pathology, and that patients' body checking cognitions and behaviours are key elements in the maintenance of that body image. However, there is little understanding of individual differences in body checking. This study considered the potential role of narcissism and narcissistic defences in driving body checking cognitions and behaviours. 68 eating-disordered and 70 non-clinical women completed well-validated measures of body checking and narcissism. There were specific patterns of association between different elements of narcissism and different aspects of body checking. These patterns are compatible with a model where body checking serves the defensive function of maintaining self-esteem, rather than promoting positive levels of narcissistic self-esteem. PMID:18329594

  4. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

  5. Male body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptomatology: moderating variables among men.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Zanetti, Assunta M; Riva, Giuseppe; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Volpato, Chiara; Madeddu, Fabio; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction is recognized as a robust risk factor for eating disorders. Despite over 80% of college men being body dissatisfied, not all men report several levels of eating disorder symptoms. In this study, we examined poor impulse control, social anxiety and internalization of media ideals as potential moderators. Data collected from 405 college-aged men were analysed, using latent variable structural equation modelling approach. All variables investigated have been found to moderate the body dissatisfaction-eating disorder symptomatology, such that male body dissatisfaction was strongly related to men's eating disorder symptomatology when each moderator was at its highest level. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:23988683

  6. [Mealtime support for patients with eating disorders: a survey on the clinical practice in German eating disorders centers].

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Jäger, Burkard; Schwab, Michael; Herzog, Wolfgang; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-03-01

    Mealtime support is a cornerstone of eating disorders (ED) inpatient and day-care treatment but has received only little attention in research so far and no valid recommendations are available for this type of intervention. Thus, the aim of the present study was to gather a comprehensive picture of how mealtime support is currently practiced in Germany. In a nationwide survey, 97 staff members from 66 ED centers across Germany completed a survey-form that covered 4 broad topics: (a) setting, (b) general conditions, (c) specific interventions, and (d) treatment providers' perspective. For the most part, mealtime support is delivered by nurses. Two thirds of the centers provide at least one therapeutically supported meal per day. Most centers offer their patients a kitchen and/or a guided cooking group. Patient eating behavior and amount of food eaten is documented by three quarters of staff members. Most staff members offer some kind of role modeling by eating their own meals at the same table. Food exposure is provided by a minority. Whereas two thirds use sanctions when patients did not achieve their eating goals, only one third use positive reinforcement when patients achieved their goals. Less than one half offer some kind of post-meal support. The results provide important insights into the current practice of mealtime support and will thus inform future studies that examine the efficacy of different types and interventions of mealtime support. PMID:25401216

  7. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pharmacological Treatment of the Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit behaviors and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to determine the relative efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD by identifying all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of…

  8. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Interventions Relevant for Young Offenders with Mood Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, or Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Ellen; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Sargeant, Sally; Vostanis, Panos; Hawton, Keith; Stocker, Olivia; Sithole, Jabulani

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mood and anxiety disorders, and problems with self-harm are significant and serious issues that are common in young people in the Criminal Justice System. Aims: To examine whether interventions relevant to young offenders with mood or anxiety disorders, or problems with self-harm are effective. Method: Systematic review and…

  9. Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. Methods An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organizations specializing in eating disorders to examine their support for 23 potential policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigma. Participants also rated policy actions according to their potential for positive impact and feasible implementation. Results Support for the majority of health and social policies was high in both samples. For example, strategies to 1) improve school-based health curriculum to include content aimed at preventing eating disorders, 2) require training for educators and health providers on the prevention and early identification of eating disorders, and 3) implement school-based anti-bullying policies that that protect students from being bullied about their weight, were supported by over two-thirds of participants. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both health and social policy actions will be important in broader policy initiatives to address eating disorders and weight stigma. PMID:24884645

  10. Earlier predictors of eating disorder symptoms in 9-year-old children. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine predictors of eating disorder symptoms in a population based sample at the earliest age at which they can be measured using the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Data were collected from the longitudinal Gateshead Millennium Study cohort; 609 children participated in the 7 year data sweep (and their mothers and teachers), and 589 children participated in the 9 year data sweep. Eating disorder symptoms at 9 years were higher in boys, and in children from more deprived families. Higher eating disorder symptoms were associated with more body dissatisfaction at 9 years. Higher symptoms were predicted by higher levels of dietary restraint and of emotional symptoms, but not greater body dissatisfaction, 2 years earlier. The study showed that some correlates of high eating disorder symptoms found in adolescents and adults are also found in children, before the rise in diagnosable eating disorders over the pubertal period. PMID:22465837

  11. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of these non-invasive neuromodulation strategies to study basic mechanisms underlying eating behavior and to treat its disorders. Both of these approaches will be compared in light of recent work in this field, while addressing technical and practical questions. The third part of this review will be dedicated to invasive neuromodulation strategies, such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with neuroimaging approaches, these techniques are promising experimental tools to unravel the intricate relationships between homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits. Their potential as additional therapeutic tools to combat pharmacorefractory morbid obesity or acute eating disorders will be discussed, in terms of technical challenges, applicability and ethics. In a general discussion, we will put the brain at the core of fundamental research, prevention and therapy in the context of obesity and eating disorders. First, we will discuss the possibility to identify new biological markers of brain functions. Second, we will highlight the potential of neuroimaging and neuromodulation in individualized medicine. Third, we will introduce the ethical questions that are concomitant to the emergence of new neuromodulation therapies. PMID:26110109

  12. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of these non-invasive neuromodulation strategies to study basic mechanisms underlying eating behavior and to treat its disorders. Both of these approaches will be compared in light of recent work in this field, while addressing technical and practical questions. The third part of this review will be dedicated to invasive neuromodulation strategies, such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with neuroimaging approaches, these techniques are promising experimental tools to unravel the intricate relationships between homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits. Their potential as additional therapeutic tools to combat pharmacorefractory morbid obesity or acute eating disorders will be discussed, in terms of technical challenges, applicability and ethics. In a general discussion, we will put the brain at the core of fundamental research, prevention and therapy in the context of obesity and eating disorders. First, we will discuss the possibility to identify new biological markers of brain functions. Second, we will highlight the potential of neuroimaging and neuromodulation in individualized medicine. Third, we will introduce the ethical questions that are concomitant to the emergence of new neuromodulation therapies. PMID:26110109

  13. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  14. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  15. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  16. Any Personality Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  18. Three new treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa are being used in specialist eating disorders services

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    Three new treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa are being used in specialist eating disorders and eating. `We have carried out a lot of research that has shown that people with anorexia tend and cons of thinking styles. CRT and CR T are now an integral part of the treatment package on the eating

  19. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479

  20. Persecutors or victims? The moral logic at the heart of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Simona

    2003-09-01

    Eating Disorders, particularly anorexia and bulimia, are of immense contemporary importance and interest. News stories depicting the tragic effects of eating disorders command wide attention. Almost everybody in society has been touched by eating disorders in one way or another, and contemporary obsession with body image and diet fuels fascination with this problem. It is unclear why people develop eating disorders. Clinical and sociological studies have provided important information relating to the relational systems in which eating disorders are mainly found. This paper shows that their explanations are not conclusive and points out that the reasons why people develop eating disorders should not be found in the dysfunctional interactions occurring in both familial and social systems, but in the moral beliefs that underlie these interactions. Eating disorders are impossible to understand or explain, unless they are viewed in the light of these beliefs. A moral logic, that is a way of thinking of interpersonal relations in moral terms, gives shape to and justifies the clinical condition, and finds consistent expression in abnormal eating behaviour. The analysis offered here is not mainstream either in philosophy (eating disorders are in fact seldom the subject of philosophical investigation) or in clinical psychology (the methods of philosophical analysis are in fact seldom utilised in clinical psychology). However, this paper offers a important contribution to the understanding of such a dramatic and widespread condition, bringing to light the deepest reasons, which are moral in nature, that contribute to the explanation of this complex phenomenon. PMID:14708934

  1. Weight-related abuse: Perceived emotional impact and the effect on disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Bannon, Sarah M; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate theories that (1) weight-related abuse (WRA) plays a unique role in the development of disordered eating, above and beyond general childhood verbal abuse and weight-related teasing, and (2) the perceived emotional impact of WRA mediates the relationship between WRA and current disordered eating. Self-report questionnaires on childhood trauma, weight-related teasing, WRA, and current eating behaviors were administered to a total of 383 undergraduate students. In initial regressions, WRA significantly predicted binge eating, emotional eating, night eating, and unhealthy weight control. WRA continued to significantly predict all 4 forms of disordered eating following the introduction of measures of weight-related teasing and childhood verbal abuse into the regression. Latent variable analysis confirmed that perceived emotional impact of WRA mediated the relationship between WRA and disordered eating, and tests for indirect effects yielded a significant indirect effect of WRA on disordered eating through perceived emotional impact. In sum, WRA is a unique construct and the content of childhood or adolescent maltreatment is important in determining eventual psychopathology outcomes. These findings support the necessity of incorporating information on developmental history and cognitive factors into assessment and treatment of individuals with disordered eating. PMID:25636523

  2. Using the mood disorder questionnaire and bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale to detect bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder among eating disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Methods Participants were 78 consecutive female patients who were referred for evaluation of an eating disorder. All participants completed the mood and eating disorder sections of the SCID-I/P and the borderline personality disorder section of the SCID-II, in addition to the MDQ and BSDS. Predictive validity of the MDQ and BSDS was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis of the Area Under the Curve (AUC). Results Fifteen (19%) and twelve (15%) patients fulfilled criteria for bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, respectively. The AUCs for bipolar II disorder were 0.78 (MDQ) and 0.78 (BDSD), and the AUCs for borderline personality disorder were 0.75 (MDQ) and 0.79 (BSDS). Conclusions Among patients being evaluated for eating disorders, the MDQ and BSDS show promise as screening questionnaires for both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. PMID:23443034

  3. The Effectiveness of Conservative Management for Acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, Sayeed; Madi, Mohammad; Rushton, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of conservative management (except drug therapy) for acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) using a pre-defined protocol. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, decided eligibility of studies, and assessed risk of bias (RoB) of included trials. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the other. A third reviewer mediated any disagreements throughout. Qualitative trial and RoB data were summarised descriptively. Quantitative syntheses were conducted across trials for comparable interventions, outcome measures and assessment points. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes with random effects, using STATA version 12. Data Sources PEDro, Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library with manual searching in key journals, reference lists, British National Bibliography for Report Literature, Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange, and National Technical Information Service were searched from inception to 15th April 2015. Active researchers in the field were contacted to determine relevant studies. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies RCTs evaluating acute (<4 weeks) WADII, any conservative intervention, with outcome measures important to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health. Results Fifteen RCTs all assessed as high RoB (n=1676 participants) across 9 countries were included. Meta-analyses enabled 4 intervention comparisons: conservative versus standard/control, active versus passive, behavioural versus standard/control, and early versus late. Conservative intervention was more effective for pain reduction at 6 months (95%CI: -20.14 to -3.38) and 1-3 years (-25.44 to -3.19), and improvement in cervical mobility in the horizontal plane at <3 months (0.43 to 5.60) compared with standard/control intervention. Active intervention was effective for pain alleviation at 6 months (-17.19 to -3.23) and 1-3 years (-26.39 to -10.08) compared with passive intervention. Behavioural intervention was more effective than standard/control intervention for pain reduction at 6 months (-15.37 to -1.55), and improvement in cervical movement in the coronal (0.93 to 4.38) and horizontal planes at 3-6 months (0.43 to 5.46). For early (<4 days) versus late (>10 days) interventions, there were no statistically significant differences in all outcome measures between interventions at any time. Conclusions Conservative and active interventions may be useful for pain reduction in patients with acute WADII. Additionally, cervical horizontal mobility could be improved by conservative intervention. The employment of a behavioural intervention (e.g. act-as-usual, education and self-care including regularly exercise) could have benefits for pain reduction and improvement in cervical movement in the coronal and horizontal planes. The evidence was evaluated as low/very low level according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. PMID:26196127

  4. Disordered Eating and Disordered Schooling: What Schools Do to Middle Class Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Rich, Emma; Holroyd, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses upon relationships barely explored in the sociology of education either in the UK or elsewhere that lie between the practices and processes of formal education and the aetiology (the 'causations') and development of eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa (AN) in young women and girls. In so doing, it also touches on…

  5. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ? 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude.

  6. Relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: mediating role of self-esteem and depression.

    PubMed

    Brechan, Inge; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating. PMID:25574864

  7. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-12-15

    To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents. PMID:26455761

  8. 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek'--an eating disorder and obesity service in Malta.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Francesca Falzon; Grech, Anton; Zerafa, Darleen; Agius, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2015-09-01

    This paper will describe the incidence of eating disorders, with particular focus on obesity and binge eating, within the Island of Malta. The development of and 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek', the first centre for eating disorders in Malta will then be recounted, and the effective therapeutic interventions provided in it will be described. One important function of this unit is the treatment of excessive obesity. Some epidemiological data on the Obese Patients in DKS, relating to the incidence of Binge Eating Disorder in the DKS patient group will be given. This data was collected during a collaboritive research project between the Psychiatry Department of Cambridge University and 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek'. PMID:26417831

  9. Eating Disorders among Adolescents and How Educators Can Recognize Symptoms with Possible Strategies for Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kristina; Pohren, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders are a problem that receives too little attention. These disorders have a great impact on student relationships, self-esteem, health, and achievement. Administrators and teacher leaders must take the initiative to think proactively and intervene.

  10. Constructing identities in cyberspace: the case of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Giles, David

    2006-09-01

    This paper consists of a discourse analysis of data collected from websites that have been created by and for people who wish to share experiences of eating disorders in a positive and supportive environment. These sites have earned the broad description 'pro-ana' (where 'ana' is short for 'anorexia'). Site users have come to see themselves as a broad on-line community of like-minded individuals, but within this community there are many subgroups, and the boundaries between these subgroups are fiercely contested. In addition, frequent attacks on such websites in the media (charged with 'promoting eating disorders'), and by occasional hostile site visitors, have often forced the community into a defensive mode. The result is a rich tapestry of identity work. The analysis examines several 'pro-ana' sites and explores the way in which the identity is used to police the boundaries of the community, and ultimately, what it means 'to be ana' rather than 'mia' (bulimic), 'a normal', 'a faker', or even 'a hater'. PMID:16984715

  11. The relationship between eating disorders and sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Madowitz, Jennifer; Matheson, Brittany E; Liang, June

    2015-09-01

    Research aimed at understanding the causes and comorbidities of eating disorders (ED) identifies sexual trauma as one potential pathway to the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Based on current literature, there are two main etiological pathways between sexual trauma and ED-body perceptions and psychological difficulties. However, previously published reviews on this topic are outdated and have not yielded consistent findings. Therefore, authors completed a literature review covering years 2004-2014 to examine the relationship between sexual trauma and ED according to both proposed pathway models. Authors utilized PubMed, GoogleScholar, and PsychINFO as search engines. Search terms included "sexual assault", "sexual abuse", "sexual trauma", and "rape" in conjunction with relevant ED terminology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Current data indicate an increased prevalence of sexual trauma for individuals with ED. Although limited, recent evidence suggests that sexual trauma precedes and contributes to the development of ED. Existing literature indicates that the body perceptions pathway may impact ED through body dissatisfaction, shame, sexual dysfunction, and fear of future sexual trauma. The psychological difficulties pathway indicates a link between ED and the desire to cope with the failure of the average expected environment, psychological diagnoses, the need for control, and the regulation of emotions. However, further research is needed to assess the potential causal role that sexual trauma may play in the etiology of ED. PMID:25976911

  12. Facial expression of positive emotions in individuals with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Dapelo, Marcela M; Hart, Sharon; Hale, Christiane; Morris, Robin; Lynch, Thomas R; Tchanturia, Kate

    2015-11-30

    A large body of research has associated Eating Disorders with difficulties in socio-emotional functioning and it has been argued that they may serve to maintain the illness. This study aimed to explore facial expressions of positive emotions in individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) compared to healthy controls (HC), through an examination of the Duchenne smile (DS), which has been associated with feelings of enjoyment, amusement and happiness (Ekman et al., 1990). Sixty participants (AN=20; BN=20; HC=20) were videotaped while watching a humorous film clip. The duration and intensity of DS were subsequently analyzed using the facial action coding system (FACS) (Ekman and Friesen, 2003). Participants with AN displayed DS for shorter durations than BN and HC participants, and their DS had lower intensity. In the clinical groups, lower duration and intensity of DS were associated with lower BMI, and use of psychotropic medication. The study is the first to explore DS in people with eating disorders, providing further evidence of difficulties in the socio-emotional domain in people with AN. PMID:26323166

  13. Media images, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Andrist, Linda C

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the literature related to the media, body image, and diet/weight issues in children and young women. The media holds an awesome power to influence young women, bombarding them with images of abnormally thin models who seem to represent the ideal. When the majority of adolescents inevitably fail to achieve the extremely thin image they crave, body dissatisfaction results, and disordered eating can begin. Emerging research in the pediatric and adolescent literature demonstrates that children as young as 5 are already anxious about their bodies, and want to be thinner. This obsessive interest in body weight is only fueled by a dramatic increase in the number of Internet Web sites devoted to disordered eating. Unfortunately many of the Web sites are "pro-ana" (pro anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro bulimia); these Web sites encourage young people at risk to begin starving themselves, or to begin binge-purging. As nurses know, each of these scenarios can lead to serious illness, and sometimes to death. PMID:12629318

  14. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966–2013), Sciencedirect (1970–2013), Psychindex (1980–2013), and Pubmed (1980–2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition. PMID:26321974

  15. Role of Sexual Orientation and Gender-Related Traits in Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakkis, Jacqueline; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Williams, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the role of sexual orientation and gender-related personality traits in disordered eating attitudes and behavior in Australia. Self-report measures of homosexual and heterosexual males and females indicated that both sexual orientation and gender traits affected disordered eating in men and women. For both genders, irrespective of sexual…

  16. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  17. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  18. Disordered Eating Cognitions as Predictors of Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Keri B.; Masuda, Akihiko; Cohen, Lindsey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether young adults' disordered eating cognitions predicted attitudes toward seeking professional psychological services. Two hundred and eighty three 18- to 24-year-old undergraduate students completed a survey package that included measures of disordered eating cognitions and help-seeking attitudes. Hierarchical…

  19. Puberty as a Critical Risk Period for Eating Disorders: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  20. A Biopsychosocial Model of Disordered Eating and the Pursuit of Muscularity in Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2004-01-01

    This review provides an evaluation of the correlates and/or risk factors associated with disordered eating and the pursuit of muscularity among adolescent boys. One of the main conclusions is that similar factors and processes are associated with both behavioral problems. Several factors found to be consistently associated with disordered eating

  1. Eating disorders and multi-level models of emotion: an integrated model.

    PubMed

    Fox, John R E; Power, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between emotions, depression and eating disorders. Initially, a review is undertaken of the current state of the research and clinical literature with regard to emotional factors in eating disorders. This literature is then integrated within a version of the multi-level model of emotion proposed by Power and Dalgleish. The aim of this paper is to incorporate a basic emotions, multi-modal perspective into developing a new emotions-based model that offers a theoretical understanding of psychological mechanisms in eating disorders. Within the new Schematic Propositional Analogical Associative Representation System model applied to eating disorders, it is argued that the emotions of anger and disgust are of importance in eating disorders and that the eating disorder itself operates as an inhibitor of emotions within the self. It is hoped that the development of a multi-levelled model of eating disorders will allow for the construction of number of specific testable hypotheses that are relevant to future research into the psychological treatment and understanding of eating disorders. PMID:19639647

  2. A Qualitative Investigation of the Relationship between Consumption, Physical Activity, Eating Disorders, and Weight Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Barry, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and disordered eating, alcohol consumption and physical activity, and physical activity and disordered eating. However, there is a paucity of published research examining the interrelatedness of all 3 behaviors together. Purpose: This study examines…

  3. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  4. Feeding and Eating Disorders: Ingestive Problems of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Berkowitz, Robert I.

    1996-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recognizes that feeding problems of infants and children are not typically the same as eating problems of adolescents, thus the addition of a broad diagnostic category, "Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood." Subtypes are proposed for anorexia…

  5. The Incidence, Detection and Treatment of Eating Disorders among Athletes and Fitness Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Following a review of research literature on eating disorders and the fitness image, the report finds that five socio-cultural influences have been associated with the increase and prevalence of eating disorders: the pressure to be thin; glorification of youth; the changing role of females; media image and marketing of the super woman; and the…

  6. Reciprocal Influence of Alliance to the Group and Outcome in Day Treatment for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, Giorgio A.; Lampard, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the alliance-outcome relationship is still emerging. This study examined the reciprocal influence of change in alliance to the group and change in urge to restrict in eating-disordered individuals attending a group-based day treatment. Participants (N = 238) were a transdiagnostic or mixed diagnostic sample of eating-disordered

  7. Conflicting Gender Role Prescriptions and Disordered Eating in Single-Sex and Coeducational School Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensinger, Janell

    2001-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that adolescent girls attending single-sex schools would exhibit greater body dissatisfaction and disordered eating than their coeducational counterparts, reanalyzing data from relevant subscales of an eating disorder inventory (drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction) and a figure rating scale from an earlier…

  8. A Disordered Eating Response Team's Effect on Nutrition Practices in College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Janine T.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The University of Cincinnati's Disordered Eating Response Team supports health and athletic performance for all athletes, particularly those with eating disorders. The protocol for assessment and intervention for athletes at risk includes education for coaches, trainers, athletes, and dining service personnel. Evaluations indicate the program is…

  9. Socio-Cultural Influences in Eating Disorders: Focus on Sports/Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    This report notes that eating disorders are frequently described as a diet and fitness program gone wild. It outlines and describes five sociocultural influences which have been identified for eating disorders: (1) emphasis on thinness; (2) glorification of youth; (3) changing roles of women; (4) emphasis on fitness and sport programs; and (5) the…

  10. Sexual orientation and disordered eating behaviors among self-identified male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Zullig, Keith J; Ward, Rose Marie

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the risk of a) clinically diagnosed eating disorders, and b) disordered eating behaviors, separately among three groups of United States college students, controlling for known covariates. These groups included college students self-identifying as: 1) gay/lesbian; 2) bisexual; and, 3) unsure, with self-identified heterosexuals as the reference. Data from the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II (2008-2009) were utilized (N=110,412). Adjusted logistic regression analyses, stratified by self-reported gender, examined the effect of self-identified sexual identity on clinical eating disorder diagnosis and disordered eating behaviors. Covariates included self-reported binge drinking (past 2 weeks), stress (last 12 months), smoking (past 30 days), depression (past 12 months), fraternity/sorority membership, college athletics participations, and race. Additional logistic regression sub-analyses examined sexual minorities only, with gay/lesbian as the referent. Gay, unsure, or bisexual men were at significantly increased odds to report both clinical eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors when compared to heterosexual men in both the unadjusted and adjusted models (p<.002). All sexual minority men and women were significantly more likely to report dieting to lose weight compared to heterosexual men and women (p<.002). Targeted disordered eating and eating disorder prevention efforts are needed for those who are sexual minorities, particularly for sexual minority men. PMID:25064296

  11. Disordered Eating-Related Cognition and Psychological Flexibility as Predictors of Psychological Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…

  12. The BASC-2 Profiles of Female Adolescents At-Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowitz, Annie L.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…

  13. A Relational Cultural Approach to Working with Clients with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepal, Heather C.; Boie, Ioana; Kress, Victoria E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine eating disorders through the conceptual framework of relational cultural theory (RCT). Taking into account the importance of relationships and connection, it is suggested that RCT may be a useful lens for conceptualizing and working with people who are experiencing eating disorders. Ways that RCT can be applied to enhance…

  14. Fostering a Healthy Body Image: Prevention and Intervention with Adolescent Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Michelle; Hass, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders are among the most frequently seen chronic illnesses found in adolescent females. In this paper, we discuss school-based prevention and intervention efforts that seek to reduce the impact of this serious illness. School counselors play a key role in the prevention of eating disorders and can provide support even when not directly…

  15. Cultural Factors in Collegiate Eating Disorder Pathology: When Family Culture Clashes with Individual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…

  16. Eating Disorders Training and Counselor Preparation: A Survey of Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Dana Heller

    2006-01-01

    The author surveyed counselor education programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs regarding the importance placed on eating disorders in counselor preparation and how they may be addressed. Most respondents valued the topic, and most did include or would consider including eating disorders

  17. Differential Social Comparison Processes in Women with and without Eating Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corning, Alexandra F.; Krumm, Angela J.; Smitham, Lora A.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of predictions from social comparison theory (L. Festinger, 1954) and informed by findings from the social comparison and eating disorder literatures, hypotheses were tested regarding the social comparison behaviors of women with eating disorder symptoms and their asymptomatic peers. Results indicated differentiating social-cognitive…

  18. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  19. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness in Eating Disorders Prevention: The Sorority Body Image Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Ciao, Anna C.; Smith, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Although eating disorders prevention research has begun to produce programs with demonstrated efficacy, many such programs simply target individuals as opposed to engaging broader social systems (e.g., schools, sororities, athletic teams) as participant collaborators in eating disorders prevention. Yet, social systems ultimately will be…

  20. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders in a Community Sample of Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…

  1. Implicit Cognitions and Eating Disorders: Their Application in Research and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartanian, Lenny R.; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C. Peter

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive theory has had a prominent role in understanding and treating eating disorders in recent years. The increasing emphasis on implicit cognitions in many areas of psychology raises the question of whether research on implicit cognitions could contribute to our understanding and treatment of eating disorders. In the present article, we…

  2. Conquering Eating Disorders at Home and in School: Lessons That Save Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natenshon, Abigail H.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of families and schools in preventing eating disorders in children and adolescents, explaining that eating disorders are not just about food, but rather a misuse of food to resolve emotional problems; describing various primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention methods; and offering strategies for educators (activism and…

  3. A Review of Eating Disorders in Athletes: Recommendations for Secondary School Prevention and Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The current review aims to evaluate the literature on eating disorders and athletes with the purpose of making recommendations for sport psychologists and other relevant personnel on how to proceed in identifying, managing, and preventing eating disorders in school settings. Whereas the intention of this review is to make recommendations for…

  4. The effects of maternal modeling and parenting style on the development of eating disorder risk factors in adolescent daughters 

    E-print Network

    Maddox, Lori Ann

    2001-01-01

    The effect of different variables on the development of eating disorder risk factors has been widely studied. Much data exist on maternal influences on adolescent daughters' risk of developing eating disorders, though much is conflicting...

  5. Medical providers' self perceived knowledge and skills for working with eating disorders: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Linville, Deanna; Brown, Tiffany; O'Neil, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that individuals suffering from an eating disorder (ED) consult their general practitioners more frequently than those without an eating disorder (Mond, Myers, Crosby, Hay, & Mitchell, 2010). However, little is known about medical providers' existing knowledge of and training in ED detection, intervention, and treatment. This study aimed to examine national medical providers' self-perceived knowledge, skills, and needs around eating disorder screening and intervention strategies. Utilizing survey design, a randomized sample of national medical providers responded to a 23-question survey. Sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated that they did not think to screen for an eating disorder because it was not the presenting concern and nearly 59% of providers did not feel like they had the skills necessary to intervene with eating disorders. Training implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:22188056

  6. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of first-generation and newer-generation antidepressant medications for depressive disorders in children and adolescents: study protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyu; Qin, Bin; Whittington, Craig; Cohen, David; Liu, Yiyun; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Michael, Kurt D; Zhang, Yuqing; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Depressive disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, and have adverse effects on their psychosocial functioning. Questions concerning the efficacy and safety of antidepressant medications in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents, led us to integrate the direct and indirect evidence using network meta-analysis to create hierarchies of these drugs. Methods and analysis Seven databases with PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, LiLACS and PsycINFO will be searched from 1966 to December 2013 (updated to May, 2015). There are no restrictions on language or type of publication. Randomised clinical trials assessing first-generation and newer-generation antidepressant medications against active comparator or placebo as acute treatment for depressive disorders in children and adolescents (under 18?years of age) will be included. The primary outcome for efficacy will be mean improvement in depressive symptoms, as measured by the mean change score of a depression rating scale from baseline to post-treatment. The tolerability of treatment will be defined as side effect discontinuation, as defined by the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to adverse events during the trial. We will also assess the secondary outcome for efficacy (response rate), acceptability (all-cause discontinuation) and suicide-related outcomes. We will perform the Bayesian network meta-analyses for all relative outcome measures. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Dissemination The network meta-analysis will provide useful information on antidepressant treatment for child and adolescent depression. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication or conference presentations. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015016023. PMID:26353868

  7. Quality of Life in Autism across the Lifespan: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Heijst, Barbara F. C.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with a known impact on quality of life. Yet the developmental trajectory of quality of life is not well understood. First, the effect of age on quality of life was studied with a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 10 studies (published between 2004 and 2012) with a combined sample size of…

  8. Should we screen for misophonia in patients with eating disorders? A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kluckow, Hannah; Telfer, James; Abraham, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    In this case report, the authors describe three cases of misophonia in people with eating disorders. Misophonia is a condition where a specific trigger sound provokes an intense emotional reaction in an individual. Case 1 is a 29-year-old with childhood eating issues, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa whose trigger was a high-pitched female voice. Case 2 is a 15-year-old diagnosed with anorexia nervosa after misophonia onset. Her trigger was people chewing and eating noisily. Case 3 is a 24-year-old woman who presented with anorexia nervosa prior to misophonia onset. Her trigger was the clinking and chewing of her mother and aunt eating cereal. All three cases identified an eating-related trigger sound with a violent aversive reaction and coping mechanisms involving eating avoidance or having a full mouth. Misophonia may be associated with presentations of eating disorders. This case report adds to the literature about the presentation of misophonia. PMID:24431300

  9. The inter-relationships between vegetarianism and eating disorders among females.

    PubMed

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Maldonado, Christine R; Lawson, Melissa A; Smith, Roma; Robinson, D Paul

    2012-08-01

    When individuals with a suspected or diagnosed eating disorder adopt a vegetarian diet, health care professionals might worry that this choice could function as a socially acceptable way to legitimize food avoidance. Yet only limited research has examined vegetarianism in relation to eating disorders. Our study objectives were to compare individuals with and without an eating disorder history and individuals at different stages of eating disorder recovery on past and current vegetarianism and motivations for and age at becoming vegetarian. Participants were females seen at some point for an eating disorder (n=93) and controls who never had an eating disorder (n=67). Recruitment and data collection for this cross-sectional study occurred in 2007-2008. ?(2) analyses and analyses of variance and covariance were used to examine the research questions. Compared with controls, individuals with an eating disorder history were considerably more likely to ever have been vegetarian (52% vs 12%; P<0.001), to be currently vegetarian (24% vs 6%; P<0.01), and to be primarily motivated by weight-related reasons (42% vs 0%; P<0.05). The three recovery status groups (fully recovered, partially recovered, and active eating disorder) did not differ significantly in percentiles endorsing a history of vegetarianism or weight-related reasons as primary, but they differed significantly in current vegetarianism (33% of active cases, 13% of partially recovered, 5% of fully recovered; P<0.05). Most perceived that their vegetarianism was related to their eating disorder (68%) and emerged after its onset. Results shed light on the vegetarianism-eating disorders relation and suggest intervention considerations for clinicians (eg, investigating motives for vegetarianism). PMID:22818732

  10. The Use of the BASC-2 for the Identification of Female Adolescents at Risk for Developing an Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowitz, Annie L.; Choi, Hee-Sook; Schweinle, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social--emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in…

  11. Anorexia nervosa (AN), a disorder of unknown aetiol-ogy, is characterized by restricted eating and a relent-

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a disorder of unknown aetiol- ogy, is characterized by restricted eating and lack insight regarding the seriousness of the medical consequences of the disorder. Two types of eating. Although AN is characterized as an eating disorder, it remains unknown whether there is a primary dis

  12. Examining the Stability of "DSM-IV" and Empirically Derived Eating Disorder Classification: Implications for "DSM-5"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.; Agras, W. Stewart; Halmi, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to derive an empirical classification of eating disorder symptoms in a heterogeneous eating disorder sample using latent class analysis (LCA) and to examine the longitudinal stability of these latent classes (LCs) and the stability of DSM-IV eating disorder (ED) diagnoses. Method: A total of 429…

  13. Parent Association Grant Impact Statement The UNL Eating Disorders Treatment is incredibly grateful for the grant we received from the

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Parent Association Grant Impact Statement The UNL Eating Disorders Treatment is incredibly grateful 4 and 6 session professional groups on body image and eating disorder prevention and 2 and 4 session receive training on a dissonance based body image and eating disorder prevention program. Following

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP OF EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA AND DISORDERED EATING BEHAVIORS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA AND DISORDERED EATING BEHAVIORS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW and eating disordered behavior. Methods: In order to conduct this review, two databases in the fields's body image and self-esteem. However, the research explains that eating disorders are complex in nature

  15. Body image disturbance in body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders. Obsessions or delusions?

    PubMed

    Phillips, K A; Kim, J M; Hudson, J I

    1995-06-01

    At this time, the question posed by this article's title--body image disturbance in body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders: obsessions or delusions?--is probably best answered "both." Both disorders appear to be characterized by obsessional and delusional thinking. In addition, it is likely that their nondelusional and delusional variants constitute a single disorder encompassing a spectrum of insight, with the entire spectrum characterized by obsessional thinking. This view represents a considerable departure from DSM-III-R, in which the psychotic disorders were encapsulated in a separate section of the manual and considered different disorders from their nonpsychotic variants. The one exception was the mood disorders, which were acknowledged to have psychotic variants that were classified in the manual's "nonpsychotic" section. In DSM-IV, on the basis of emerging empirical evidence about the dimensional nature of the psychotic/nonpsychotic boundary, the dichotomy between delusional and nondelusional disorders is less clear. The double coding allowed for BDD acknowledges that BDD and its delusional disorder variant may constitute a single disorder; that allowed for OCD acknowledges that OCD may be delusional. With regard to eating disorders, however, DSM-IV is surprisingly silent, perhaps because delusional preoccupations are less common than in BDD. These issues also may apply to other disorders. Like BDD, hypochondriasis is classified as a somatoform disorder, with its delusional variant a type of delusional disorder, somatic type. Do the delusional and nondelusional variants of hypochondriasis constitute the same disorder? Do other types of somatic delusional disorder, such as parasitosis and olfactory reference syndrome (the belief that one emits a foul body odor) have nondelusional variants? It is likely that a number of disorders span a spectrum from delusional to nondelusional thinking, with unlimited shades of gray in between. Future research may indicate that obsessional disorders such as BDD, anorexia, OCD, and hypochondriasis, as well as other disorders such as major depression, should have qualifiers or subtypes--for example, "with good insight," "with poor insight," and "with delusional (or psychotic) thinking"--with an implied continuum of insight embraced by a single disorder. Such an approach, which scatters psychosis throughout the nomenclature, ultimately may be shown to be a more valid and clinically useful classification approach. Answers to these questions will not only improve our classification system but also may have important treatment implications. For example, the preliminary finding that delusional BDD responds preferentially to SRIs but not to neuroleptic agents contradicts conventional wisdom about the treatment of psychosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7659601

  16. Behavioral and Physiological Factors Associated With Selective Eating in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Kelly; Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    Selective eating is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine a new definition of selective eating, compare behavioral measures between children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating, and determine relationships among behavioral measures and measures of selective eating. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of number of foods eaten compared with a population-based sample. Results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance indicated no overall effect of group for challenging behaviors, sensory reactivity, or repetitive behaviors. Between-participant tests indicated that scores for compulsive behaviors were significantly lower (p = .036) for the selective eating group. Correlations were moderately strong among variables relating to food intake and behavioral variables, but were not significant between selective eating and behavioral variables. Further research is needed to validate the definition of selective eating and to identify targets for intervention. PMID:26565096

  17. Behavioral and Physiological Factors Associated With Selective Eating in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    Selective eating is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine a new definition of selective eating, compare behavioral measures between children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating, and determine relationships among behavioral measures and measures of selective eating. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of number of foods eaten compared with a population-based sample. Results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance indicated no overall effect of group for challenging behaviors, sensory reactivity, or repetitive behaviors. Between-participant tests indicated that scores for compulsive behaviors were significantly lower (p = .036) for the selective eating group. Correlations were moderately strong among variables relating to food intake and behavioral variables, but were not significant between selective eating and behavioral variables. Further research is needed to validate the definition of selective eating and to identify targets for intervention. PMID:26565096

  18. Personality characteristics of eating-disordered outpatients as measured by the Hand Test.

    PubMed

    Lenihan, G O; Kirk, W G

    1990-01-01

    The Hand Test was administered to 34 eating-disordered and 26 noneating-disordered college-age women to determine discriminating projective personality features. Eating-disordered women scored higher on response time, overall pathology, and passivity. Anorexics present more tension, aggression, and acting out potential whereas bulimics demonstrate significantly more passive responses. The more severely affected women scored higher on crippled, passive, and withdrawal variables. Similarities as well as differences between the groups may have important implications for the diagnosis of subgroups of eating-disordered women and for treatment planning. PMID:2231254

  19. Body Image, Anthropometric Measures, and Eating-Disorder Prevalence in Auxiliary Unit Members

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Green, James M; Leeper, James D; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Richardson, Mark; Bishop, Phillip A

    2009-01-01

    Context: Medical professionals have recognized eating disorders and related problems in competitive athletes. Auxiliary members (color guard, dance, majorettes) experience the same appearance-related pressures observed in sports commonly associated with eating disorders. Objective: To estimate eating-disorder prevalence based on associated eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors in female auxiliary members and to compare perceived and ideal body images and anthropometric measurements between at-risk and not–at-risk participants for eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Three universities in the southeastern United States. Patients or Other Participants: Participants (n ?=? 101, mean age ?=? 19.2 ± 1.2 years) represented 3 auxiliary units, including color guard (n ?=? 35), dance line (n ?=? 47), and majorettes (n ?=? 19). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants self-reported menstrual history, height, and weight. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body fat percentage, and waist and hip circumferences. We screened for eating-disorder risk behavior with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26 and for body dissatisfaction with the Figural Stimuli Survey. Results: Based on the EAT-26, we estimated eating-disorder prevalence among members to measure 29.7% (95% confidence interval ?=? 20.8%, 38.6%). The EAT-26 results revealed that 21% of participants used purgatives and 14% vomited to control weight or shape. The at-risk group had higher scores on the EAT-26 total (P ? .01) and on the dieting (P ? .01), oral control (P ?=? .02), and bulimia (P ?=? .01) subscales. Hip circumference (P ?=? .01), self-reported weight (P ?=? .03), measured weight (P ?=? .04), difference between measured and preferred weights (P ?=? .02), and calculated target weight (P ?=? .02) were different between the at-risk and not–at-risk groups. Conclusions: Collegiate auxiliary unit members may have an unacceptable prevalence of eating disorders. Our results validate concerns that auxiliary members may exhibit an unacceptable eating-disorder risk, highlighting the need to examine and address unhealthy weight-management behaviors independent of eating-disorder status. PMID:19593425

  20. Early life loss and trauma: eating disorder onset in a middle-aged male--a case study.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lynne; Lewis, Vivienne; Wells, Jonathan R

    2014-03-01

    The onset of an eating disorder in middle-age men is poorly researched as are eating disorders in men generally. Therefore, life events that influence eating disorders in men, including delayed onset of an eating disorder remains unknown. Given the limited understanding of males with eating disorders and limited access to large samples of men with eating disorders, an in-depth analysis of a single case of a male in middle age with an eating disorder was chosen to gain insight and understanding into this phenomenon. A Life History approach explored the case of Joseph (pseudonym), who was diagnosed at age 44 years with an Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Data were collected through (a) life course open-ended questioning through interviews, (b) written statements, and (c) comments on transcripts. Three themes emerged, loss and unworthiness, becoming bigger, and wanting to change reflecting eating behaviors associated with attachment disruption, loss and trauma, body dissatisfaction, and negative affect. Later in life, an emotional "tipping point" precipitated an eating disorder. Results indicate traumatic loss leading to early attachment disruption as influential in Joseph's delayed onset of an eating disorder. The value of thorough narrative life histories during therapy when eating disorders occur late in life is discussed as well as the significance for men. PMID:23884788

  1. Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among Adolescents in the Northwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rauof, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malek, Ayyoub; Babapour Kheiroddin, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Adolescents face special problems that are less common during childhood. Several studies indicate that the prevalence of eating disorders has been increased among adolescents. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) among adolescents in two cities of Iran, Urmia and Tabriz. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey in which 1990 adolescent boys and girls were selected through multistage random sampling. The study was based on self-report questionnaires including eating attitudes test (EAT-26) and DSM-IV criteria for the presence of eating disorders. To analyze the obtained data we calculated measures of central tendency and dispersion, linear and logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. Results: According to diagnostic criteria of EAT-26, 492 students (24.2%) were at risk of ED and scored above the recommended cut-off point on EAT-26. Among 1990 students, a total of 51 cases (0.25%) of eating disorder (14 anorexia nervosa, 18 bulimia nervosa, and 19 eating disorder not otherwise specified) were diagnosed. Conclusions: The obtained prevalence of ED in our study was higher than previous studies in Iran. We found high numbers of boys with ED. Overweight adolescents were shown to be more susceptible to strict dieting than normal-weight adolescents. These results suggest that it is necessary to provide screening and treatment services for Iranian adolescents. Further research is needed to develop intervention programs to control eating disorders among Iranian adolescents. PMID:26568851

  2. Nutrient Intakes of Men and Women Collegiate Athletes with Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Pamela S.; Beck, Niels C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the macro- and micronutrient intakes of men and women collegiate athletes with disordered eating behaviors and to compare the nutrient intakes of athletes with restrictive- versus binge-eating behaviors. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I University athletes (n = 232) were administered an anonymous, written questionnaire to compare nutrient intakes, desired weight change, and weight control behaviors in athletes with restrictive- (R) and binge- (B) eating behaviors to those in asymptomatic (A) athletes. T-tests, ?2 statistic, and ANOVA were used to test for differences among disordered eating groups within genders (p < 0.05). Data are means ± standard error of the mean. Among men athletes, those with disordered eating consumed a smaller percentage of energy from carbohydrate compared to controls (R = 49.7 ± 1.5; B = 48.7 ± 2.3; A = 53.4 ± 0.7%). Among female athletes, those with disordered eating wanted to lose a greater percentage of their current body weight than did asymptomatic athletes (B = -6.1 ± 1.4; R = -6.7 ± 1.1; A = -3.7 ± 0.4%). Women who were classified with binge eating consumed significantly more alcohol than did controls (B = 6.8 ± 1.3; A = 3.9 ± 0.4 g alcohol per day). Athletes with disordered eating were more likely to report restricting their intake of carbohydrate and fat and using supplements to control their weight than asymptomatic athletes. Disordered eating was not associated with greater frequencies of inadequate micronutrient intake in either gender. Athletes with disordered eating may be at significantly greater risk for nutritional inadequacies than athletes who are asymptomatic due to macronutrient restriction and greater alcohol consumption. Key Points Athletes with disordered eating were more likely to report restricting their intake of carbohydrate and fat and using supplements to control their weight than asymptomatic athletes Among female athletes, those with disordered eating wanted to lose a greater percentage of their current body weight than did asymptomatic athletes Disordered eating was not associated with greater frequencies of inadequate micronutrient intake in either gender Athletes with disordered eating may be at significantly greater risk for nutritional inadequacies than athletes who are asymptomatic due to macronutrient restriction and greater alcohol consumption. PMID:24453529

  3. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  4. Nutritional Impact of Dietary Plasma Proteins in Animals Undergoing Experimental Challenge and Implications for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disorders: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuchibhatla, Ramana; Petschow, Bryon W; Odle, Jack; Weaver, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Studies administering plasma protein isolates (PPIs) to experimentally challenged animals have reported improvements in growth, food intake, and overall condition when compared with animals fed control diets, due in part to improvements in gut barrier function, normalization of cytokine signals, and support of enteric immune function. These and early clinical studies suggest that nutritional therapy with PPIs may similarly assist in restoring homeostasis to gut barrier function in humans experiencing mild or more acute enteropathic symptomatology such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. This meta-analysis evaluated the ability of PPIs to promote weight gain and food intake in weanling animals, primarily piglets, after oral challenge with various enteric pathogens or bacterial toxins. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched from 1980 through August 2012 for specified terms and keywords. Twenty-nine articles retrieved through this process were evaluated; 11 studies including 13 experiments were selected for inclusion in the analysis. The meta-analysis included descriptive analyses and methods for combining P values for the primary endpoint, average daily growth (ADG) at week 1, and secondary endpoints including ADG, average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) at weeks 1 and 2 and at the end of study. Primary and secondary endpoint analyses of growth (ADG, ADFI, and G:F) were significant (P < 0.01). The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL) 1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? were significantly lower in animals fed dietary PPIs. Additional research in patients experiencing symptoms of enteropathy will further characterize the benefits of PPIs in clinical populations. PMID:26374176

  5. The incidence of eating disorders in a Danish register study: Associations with suicide risk and mortality.

    PubMed

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-06-01

    Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 were included (N = 966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Suicide attempts and deaths were captured in the NPR, the PCRR, and the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). In females, AN had a peak hazard at approximately age 15 years, BN at 22 years, and EDNOS had an extended peak that spanned 18 years-22 years. Eating disorder diagnoses predicted a significantly higher hazard for death and suicide attempt compared with the referent of individuals with no eating disorders. In males, peak hazard for diagnosis was earlier than in females. The present study represents one of the largest and longest studies of eating disorder incidence and suicide attempts and death in both females and males. Eating disorders are accompanied by increased hazard of suicide attempts and death even in young adults. PMID:25958083

  6. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ? 18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  7. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ?18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  8. Eating disorders in young adults with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, C G; Peveler, R C; Davies, B; Mann, J I; Mayou, R A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of clinical eating disorders and lesser degrees of disturbed eating in young adults with insulin dependent diabetes and a matched sample of non-diabetic female controls. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey of eating habits and attitudes in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. SETTING--Outpatient clinic catering for young adults with diabetes; community sample of non-diabetic women drawn from the lists of two general practices. SUBJECTS--100 patients with insulin dependent diabetes (54 women and 46 men) aged 17-25 and 67 non-diabetic women of the same age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Eating habits and eating disorder psychopathology were assessed by standardised research interview adapted for the assessment of patients with diabetes (eating disorder examination). Glycaemic control was assessed by glycated haemoglobin assay. RESULTS--In both non-diabetic and diabetic women disturbed eating was common, and in diabetic women the degree of disturbance was related to control of glycaemia. Twenty of the diabetic women (37%) had omitted or underused insulin to influence their weight. This behaviour was not restricted to those with a clinical eating disorder. None of the men showed any features of eating disorders, and none had misused insulin to influence their weight. CONCLUSIONS--There was no evidence that clinical eating disorders are more prevalent in young women with diabetes than in non-diabetic women. Nevertheless, disturbed eating is common and is associated with poor control of glycaemia, and the misuse of insulin to influence body weight is also common in young women with diabetes. PMID:1781827

  9. Visuo-Spatial Performance in Autism: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Anne; Hönekopp, Johannes; Falter, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Visuo-spatial skills are believed to be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This meta-analysis tests the current state of evidence for Figure Disembedding, Block Design, Mental Rotation and Navon tasks in ASD and neurotypicals. Block Design (d = 0.32) and Figure Disembedding (d = 0.26) showed superior performance for ASD with large…

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy in a man with comorbid severe obesity, binge eating disorder, and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Del Casale, Antonio; Serata, Daniele; Caccia, Federica; Di Pietro, Simone; Scatena, Paola; Carbonetti, Paolo; Fensore, Claudio; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    A 41-year-old man with comorbid binge-eating disorder, severe obesity, and bipolar disorder since the age of 20 years, resistant to drug and psychotherapy combinations, worsened progressively. Relentless weight gain forced him to immobility and dependence on others. He was hospitalized for a mixed-mood episode with anxiety, mystical delusions, and auditory hallucinations. To overcome treatment resistance, we suggested electroconvulsive therapy. After 1 electroconvulsive therapy cycle, psychological symptoms promptly improved. He received clozapine and lithium. After 2 years, he reached normal weight and fair psychopathological compensation. PMID:23377749

  11. Integrated circuits and molecular components for stress and feeding: implications for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hardaway, J A; Crowley, N A; Bulik, C M; Kash, T L

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex brain disorders that afflict millions of individuals worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is not fully understood, but a growing body of literature suggests that stress and anxiety may play a critical role in their development. As our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to disease in clinical populations like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder continue to grow, neuroscientists are using animal models to understand the neurobiology of stress and feeding. We hypothesize that eating disorder clinical phenotypes may result from stress-induced maladaptive alterations in neural circuits that regulate feeding, and that these circuits can be neurochemically isolated using animal model of eating disorders. PMID:25366309

  12. Integrated circuits and molecular components for stress and feeding: implications for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, J. A.; Crowley, N. A.; Bulik, C. M.; Kash, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex brain disorders that afflict millions of individuals worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is not fully understood, but a growing body of literature suggests that stress and anxiety may play a critical role in their development. As our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to disease in clinical populations like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder continue to grow, neuroscientists are using animal models to understand the neurobiology of stress and feeding. We hypothesize that eating disorder clinical phenotypes may result from stress-induced maladaptive alterations in neural circuits that regulate feeding, and that these circuits can be neurochemically isolated using animal model of eating disorders. PMID:25366309

  13. [Should we use new media in the treatment of eating disorders?].

    PubMed

    de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies ("e-mental health") has been suggested for the prevention and treatment of eating disorders as an addition to conventional treatment approaches. Guided internet-based self-help programs can be viewed as evidence-based treatment options for bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) based on existing controlled studies. They represent an option within a stepped-care treatment approach and as relapse prevention after inpatient treatment. Additional fields of application for e-mental health in eating disorders are prevention and early intervention as well as carers' support. PMID:25594274

  14. Enhancing quality of life in people with disordered eating using an online self-help programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that have a significant effect on afflicted individuals’ quality of life. Evidence has shown that they can be improved with treatment. Internet-based interventions are useful in engaging individuals with eating disorders in self-management and treatment. This study aimed primarily to identify the change in quality of life of individuals with disordered eating after participating in an open trial of an Internet-based self-help programme, and compared their quality of life at assessment with that of healthy controls. Factors affecting their quality of life were examined. Secondary outcomes related to symptom improvement were also reported. Methods This study included 194 individuals with disordered eating and 50 healthy controls. The former group was recruited from eating disorder outpatient clinics and treatment units, as well as via information disseminated through various Internet websites, while the healthy controls were recruited from university student newspapers and university campuses. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Survey (SF-36v2) was used to assess participants’ quality of life. Other measures were used to assess their symptoms and motivational stages of change to recover from an eating disorder. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test and one-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to identify the change in quality of life of individuals with disordered eating from baseline to 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The Mann–Whitney U test was employed to compare the difference in quality of life between participants with disordered eating and the healthy controls. Spearman rank order correlations were performed to examine the factors associated with quality of life. Results The participants with disordered eating had significantly poorer quality of life than the healthy controls in both physical and psychological domains. The factors associated with their poor quality of life included dieting behaviour, use of laxatives, severe eating disorder psychopathology, depression and anxiety. Over a six-month follow-up period, a significant number of participants engaged in self-help behaviours using the Internet-based programme. They experienced improvements in their quality of life, eating disorder psychopathology, depression severity, anxiety level and motivational stages of change. Conclusions Internet-based self-help programmes have the potential to enhance quality of life in individuals with disordered eating and could be useful adjuncts to professional treatment. PMID:24999391

  15. [Significance of brief interventions in the healthcare supply chain of eating disorders: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    Rossi, Maddalena Elisa; Neubauer, Karolin; Weigel, Angelika; Wendt, Hanna; von Rad, Kathrin; Romer, Georg; Löwe, Bernd; Gumz, Antje

    2015-02-01

    So far there is no comprehensive overview on brief outpatient interventions in eating disorders. The specific relevance of psychotherapeutic brief interventions for Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder is presented against the background of current healthcare supply chains. This review is based on a literature search that evaluated relevant publications in applicable literature databases. The articles were excerpted and are presented in a narrative overview. In summary, the literature shows a marginal expansion of healthcare provision towards personnel-efficient and cost economic therapeutic solutions for Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder, while the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa is currently determined by more in- and extensive approaches. PMID:24838437

  16. An Effectiveness Trial of a Selected Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Female High School Students: Long-Term Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Efficacy trials found that a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program in which female high school and college students with body image concerns critique the thin ideal reduced eating disorder risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset. The present effectiveness trial tested whether this program…

  17. An Update on Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lock, James

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescents. However, there are few controlled psychosocial intervention studies with this younger population. This review updates a previous Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology review published in 2008. The recommendations in this review were developed after searching the literature including PubMed/Medline and employing the relevant medical subject headings. In addition, the bibliographies of book chapters and treatment guideline articles were reviewed; last, colleagues were asked for suggested additional source materials. Psychosocial treatments examined include family therapy, individual therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive training, and dialectical behavior therapy. Using the most recent Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology methodological review criteria, family treatment-behavior (FT-B) is the only well-established treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Family treatment-systemic and insight oriented individual psychotherapy are probably efficacious treatments for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. There are no well-established treatments for adolescents with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or avoidant restrictive food intake disorder. Possibly efficacious psychosocial treatments for adolescent bulimia nervosa include FT-B and supportive individual therapy. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy is a possibly efficacious treatment for binge eating disorder. Experimental treatments for adolescent eating disorders include enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive training, and interpersonal psychotherapy. FT-B is the only well-established treatment for adolescent eating disorders. Additional research examining treatment for eating disorders in youth is warranted. PMID:25580937

  18. A preliminary examination of Loss of Control Eating Disorder (LOC-ED) in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Matherne, Camden E; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Altschul, Anne M; Shank, Lisa M; Schvey, Natasha A; Brady, Sheila M; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew P; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Loss of Control Eating Disorder (LOC-ED) has been proposed as a diagnostic category for children 6-12years with binge-type eating. However, characteristics of youth with LOC-ED have not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that the proposed criteria for LOC-ED would identify children with greater adiposity, more disordered eating attitudes, and greater mood disturbance than those without LOC-ED. Participants were 251 youth (10.29years±1.54, 53.8% female, 57.8% White, 35.5% Black, 2.0% Asian, 4.8% Hispanic, 53.0% overweight). Youth were interviewed regarding eating attitudes and behaviors, completed questionnaires to assess general psychopathology, and underwent measurements of body fat mass. Using previously proposed criteria for LOC-ED, children were classified as LOC-ED (n=19), LOC in the absence of the full disorder (subLOC, n=33), and youth not reporting LOC (noLOC, n=199). LOC-ED youth had higher BMIz (p=0.001) and adiposity (p=0.003) and reported greater disordered eating concerns (p<0.001) compared to noLOC youth. Compared to subLOC youth, LOC-ED youth had non-significantly higher BMIz (p=0.11), and significantly higher adiposity (p=0.04) and disordered eating attitudes (p=0.02). SubLOC youth had greater disordered eating concerns (p<0.001) and BMIz (p=0.03) but did not differ in adiposity (p=0.33) compared to noLOC youth. These preliminary data suggest that LOC-ED youth are elevated on disordered eating cognitions and anthropometric measures compared to youth without LOC-ED. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if those with LOC-ED are at particularly increased risk for progression of disordered eating and excess weight gain. PMID:25913008

  19. Disordered eating among young Jewish American women: exploring religion's role 

    E-print Network

    Tartakovsky, Margarita

    2009-05-15

    There has been little scientific work exploring eating pathology among Jewish women in the United States, even though research has suggested that body image and eating behavior may be especially problematic within this group. Research has also...

  20. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Exploratory Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind and Sham-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Berlim, Marcelo T; Van den Eynde, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Objective Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has yielded promising results as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, to date, no quantitative review of its clinical utility has been published. Method: We searched for randomized and sham-controlled trials from 1995 to March 2013 using MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and SCOPUS. We then performed an exploratory random effects meta-analysis. Results: Studies on rTMS applied to the right DLPFC included 64 adults with PTSD. The pooled Hedges g effect size for pre and post changes in clinician-rated and self-reported PTSD symptoms were, respectively, 1.65 (P < 0.001) and 1.91 (P < 0.001), indicating significant and large-sized differences in outcome favouring active rTMS. Also, there were significant pre and post decreases with active rTMS in overall anxiety (Hedges g = 1.24; P = 0.02) and depressive (Hedges g = 0.85; P < 0.001) symptoms. Dropout rates at study end did not differ between active and sham rTMS groups. Regarding rTMS applied to the left DLPFC, there is only one study published to date (using a high frequency protocol), and its results showed that active rTMS seems to be superior overall to sham rTMS. Conclusions: Our exploratory meta-analysis shows that active rTMS applied to the DLPFC seems to be effective and acceptable for treating PTSD. However, the small number of subjects included in the analyses limits the generalizability of these findings. Future studies should include larger samples and deliver optimized stimulation parameters. PMID:25565694