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Eatingdisorder prevention programs have yielded mixed results and are somewhat controversial, primarily because of claims they may produce iatrogenic effects. We used meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of eatingdisorder prevention programs and investigate moderators of intervention effects. Overall, prevention programs had large effects on improving knowledge and small net effects on reducing maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Studies
Michelle Cororve Fingeret; Cortney S. Warren; Antonio Cepeda-Benito; David H. Gleaves
Meta-analysis of studies examining the dependency–eating-disorders relationship revealed that (1) there is a positive association between interpersonal dependency levels and eatingdisorder symptoms\\/diagnoses (r = .25); (2) this relationship is comparable in anorexic and bulimic participants; (3) although dependent personality disorder symptoms are elevated in eating-disordered participants, so are the symptoms of several other personality disorders; and (4) when eating
Summary This metaanalysis involved 41 studies published between January of 1985 and May of 2006, which examined the co-occurrence\\u000a of eatingdisorders (ED) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) in women. Studies were reviewed and a quantitative synthesis of their\\u000a results was carried out via the calculation of standardised effect sizes. Direction and strength of the relationships between\\u000a AUD and specific
Eatingdisorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eatingdisorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eatingdisorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search identified 125
Jennifer J. Thomas; Lenny R. Vartanian; Kelly D. Brownell
This study evaluated available controlled treatment studies to determine utility of pharmacotherapy for binge-eatingdisorder (BED). The authors identified randomized placebo-controlled trials testing pharmacotherapy-only treatments and controlled trials testing pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy treatments. Meta-analysis was performed on placebo-controlled trials with data for attrition, remission, and weight loss. Qualitative review was performed on remaining controlled treatment literature. A total of 33
Eatingdisorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eatingdisorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),…
Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.
|Eatingdisorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eatingdisorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),…
Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.
ABSTRACT Background. The aim was to critically appraise and synthesize the literature relating to set-shifting ability in eatingdisorders. PsycINFO, Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched to December,2005. Hand searching of eating-disorder journals and relevant reference sections was also undertaken. Method. The 15 selected studies contained both eatingdisorder and healthy control groups, and
MARION E. ROBERTS; KATE TCHANTURIA; DANIEL STAHL; LAURA SOUTHGATE; JANET TREASURE
Eatingdisorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eatingdisorder (ED) diagnosis. This meta-analysis aimed to inform DSM revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS to that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eatingdisorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search identified 125 eligible studies (published and unpublished) appearing in the literature from 1987 to 2007. Random effects analyses indicated that while EDNOS did not differ significantly from AN and BED on eating pathology or general psychopathology, BN exhibited greater eating and general psychopathology than EDNOS. Moderator analyses indicated that EDNOS groups who met all diagnostic criteria for AN except for amenorrhea did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Similarly, EDNOS groups who met all criteria for BN or BED except for binge frequency did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Results suggest that EDNOS represents a set of disorders associated with substantial psychological and physiological morbidity. While certain EDNOS subtypes could be incorporated into existing DSM-IV categories, others such as purging disorder and non-fat-phobic AN—may be best conceptualized as distinct syndromes.
Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.
AimMaladaptive cognitions about food, weight and shape bias attention, memory and judgment and may be linked to disorderedeating behaviour. This paper reviews information processing of food stimuli (words, pictures) in people with eatingdisorders (ED).
Samantha Brooks; Alexis Prince; Daniel Stahl; Iain C. Campbell; Janet Treasure
... Submit Home > Body Image > Eatingdisorders Body Image Eatingdisorders About eatingdisorders Over-exercising More information on eatingdisorders About eatingdisorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...
What are EatingDisorders? An eatingdisorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely ... recruiting participants with eatingdisorders . Science News About EatingDisorders Biology, Not Just Society, May Increase Risk of ...
What are eatingdisorders? An eatingdisorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely ... population. 5 What are the different types of eatingdisorders? Anorexia nervosa Anorexia nervosa is characterized by: Extreme ...
... normal weight or can be overweight. Continue Binge EatingDisorder This eatingdisorder is similar to anorexia and ... and celebrations involving food Back Continue What Causes EatingDisorders? No one is really sure what causes eating ...
Eatingdisorders are illnesses in which the victims suffer severe disturbances in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Those suffering from eatingdisorders typically become obsessed with food and their body ...
An eatingdisorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eatingdisorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...
Eatingdisorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eatingdisorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...
... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Eatingdisorders By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/eating-disorders/DS00294 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications Preparing ...
This chapter focuses on the eatingdisorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eatingdisorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eatingdisorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).
HEALTH ISSUE: Eatingdisorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eatingdisorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.
Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behaviour.\\u000a Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eatingdisorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures\\u000a where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eatingdisorders are rare in countries\\u000a like India. As Western socioculturel ideals become
\\u000a Eatingdisorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eatingdisorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eatingdisorders\\u000a as one of the nine
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eatingdisorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eatingdisorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eatingdisorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eatingdisorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725
We developed a survey to characterize dietitians’ involvement in the treatment of eatingdisorders and to determine the appropriateness of current training. The survey was mailed to 601 Florida Registered Dietitians. Completed surveys were returned by 170 dietitians. Respondents were asked to place themselves in one of three categories: Category A: participates in the identification\\/diagnosis of eatingdisorders (n=l 10);
A. P. Wittkowsky; R. E. Turner; L. B. Bobroff; G. D. Evans
Eatingdisorders are common problems affecting 5–10% of young people. The bulimic forms of eatingdisorders became dominant in the last half of the twentieth century and are caused in part by the tensions between the easy availability of high-palatability food and a culture that idealizes thinness. Genetic factors, high anxiety and environment stress also contribute. Anorexia nervosa is associated
Eatingdisorders and obesity are problems that dramatically impact psychological and medical well-being. These disorders carry some of the highest mortality rates in psychiatry. At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to 1. Describe the medical approach to a patient presenting with an eatingdisorder 2. Compare the epidemiology, pathophysiology, DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, clinical course, treatment,
Eatingdisorders are among the most common psychiatric problems in the United States. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa\\u000a in particular are associated with significant medical and psychiatric morbidity, with a mortality rate of 10%, the highest\\u000a of all psychiatric disorders. Although primary care providers are often the first to identify patients with eatingdisorders,\\u000a more than half of all cases
\\u000a Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eatingdisorder (BED) all involve observable eating, and often purging, behaviors.\\u000a However, to develop a complete conceptual picture of each disorder, additional sociocultural, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional\\u000a processes must be considered. To complicate matters, altered physiological functioning may result from as well as cause emotional\\u000a and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, whereas interviewers will want to
Eatingdisorders are common chronic conditions in adolescent women. The causes remain uncertain, but probably arise as a consequence of psychosocial stress in those with an innate vulnerability (e.g. compulsive personality traits in anorexia nervosa, robust appetite in bulimia nervosa). A culture that both fosters obesity and stigmatizes it predisposes to bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa carries the highest mortality of
\\u000a Eatingdisorders cause substantial morbidity and mortality in children, adolescents, and adults.\\u000a \\u000a Individuals with AN refuse to keep a minimally normal body weight. They fear gaining weight and have a severely disturbed\\u000a perception of their body shape or size. Postmenarcheal females with AN are amenorrheic. Persons with the disorder maintain\\u000a a body weight that is below minimally normal standards for
The current study reviewed relationships between gender roles and (a) eating pathology, (b) body dissatisfaction, and (c) muscle dissatisfaction among men via meta-analysis. Moderators of sexual orientation and type of gender role measure were also investigated. Results revealed the relationship between femininity and eating and body-related variables did not significantly differ from zero. Sexual orientation moderated the relationship between femininity
Background Eatingdisorders (EDs) are an important public health problem in developed countries. Despite the amount of epidemiological\\u000a studies and causal theories, there is a great disparity of estimates and many questions remain still unclear. The aim of this\\u000a study was to estimate the prevalence of the population at risk of developing EDs and describe the risk profiles among adolescents\\u000a and
Agustín Tomás Vega Alonso; María Ángeles Rasillo Rodríguez; José Eugenio Lozano Alonso; Gloria Rodríguez Carretero; Manuel Franco Martín
Objective Research was conducted to obtain a profile of nutrition therapy currently in practice for patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia\\/bulimia (mixed diagnosis) and to identify the areas of dietetics education and research regarding eatingdisorders that need more attention.Design A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted by mailing a questionnaire composed of open- and closed-ended questions to US
ome athletes spend hours of intense training for their sport while practicing dangerous eating pat- terns in an attempt to lose weight. This practice often leads to eatingdisorders among athletes. This fact sheet will give signs and symptoms of eatingdisorders. Parents, coaches, and trainers need to recognize ath- letes with disorderedeating patterns and refer them to appropriate
This article examines the link between loneliness and eatingdisorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eatingdisorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eatingdisorders—including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eatingdisorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eatingdisorder—are challenging health issues. Each
Background: The present study compared the efficacy of psychotherapy for childhood anxiety disorders (excluding trials solely treating post-traumatic stress disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder). Methods: The meta-analysis included studies that met the basic CONSORT (consolidated standards of reporting trials) criteria. Several outcome variables (e.g. effect sizes, percentage of recovery) were analyzed using completer and intent-to-treat analyses during post-treatment and follow-up assessment.
... Special Issues / Pregnancy and EatingDisorders Pregnancy and EatingDisorders Pregnancy and motherhood require a great deal of ... required for a healthy pregnancy, for women with eatingdisorders, having to gain this amount can be very ...
... here Home / Contributing Factors & Prevention / EatingDisorder Prevention EatingDisorder Prevention Prevention is any systematic attempt to change ... that promote, initiate, sustain, or intensify problems like eatingdisorders. This may involve reducing negative risk factors (such ...
... withdrawing from social activities Back Continue What Causes EatingDisorders? There really is no single cause for an ... own appearance or body. Can Somebody Catch an EatingDisorder? You can't catch an eatingdisorder from ...
... files require the free Adobe Acrobat Reader Binge EatingDisorder How common is binge eatingdisorder? How do ... how to get help. How common is binge eatingdisorder? What is obesity? Obesity is usually defined as ...
Personality traits have been implicated in the onset, symptomatic expression, and maintenance of eatingdisorders (EDs). The present article reviews literature examining the link between personality and EDs published within the past decade, and presents a meta-analysis evaluating the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eatingdisorder (BED) as assessed by self-report
|Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.|
Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.
This article examines the link between loneliness and eatingdisorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eatingdisorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eatingdisorders-including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eatingdisorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eatingdisorder-are challenging health issues. Each of these diagnoses specifically relates to loneliness. This negative emotion contributes to and fuels eatingdisorder symptoms. Negative interpersonal relationships, both real experiences and individuals' skewed perceptions, exacerbate eatingdisorders and feelings of loneliness. Characteristics that have been associated with loneliness clearly relate to eatingdisorders. Understanding this relationship is vital, so that we can appreciate our patients' struggles and work to target these intense emotions within the treatment setting. We need to be aware of the power of loneliness as it applies to individuals in general and specifically to those struggling with disorderedeating. PMID:22303623
Numerous candidate gene association studies of bipolar disorder (BP) have been carried out, but the results have been inconsistent. Individual studies are typically underpowered to detect associations with genes of small effect sizes. We conducted a meta-analysis of published candidate gene studies to evaluate the cumulative evidence. We systematically searched for all published candidate gene association studies of BP. We then carried out a random-effects meta-analysis on all polymorphisms that were reported on by three or more case-control studies. The results from meta-analyses of these genes were compared with the findings from a recent mega-analysis of eleven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in BP performed by the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC). A total of 487 articles were included in our review. Among these, 33 polymorphisms in 18 genes were reported on by three or more case-control studies and included in the random-effects meta-analysis. Polymorphisms in BDNF, DRD4, DAOA, and TPH1, were found to be nominally significant with a P-value?0.05. However, none of the findings were significant after correction for multiple testing. Moreover, none of these polymorphisms were nominally significant in the PGC-BP GWAS. A number of plausible candidate genes have been previously associated with BP. However, the lack of robust findings in our review of these candidate genes highlights the need for more atheoretical approaches to study the genetics of BP afforded by GWAS. The results of this meta-analysis and from other on-going genomic experiments in BP are available online at Metamoodics (http://metamoodics.igm.jhmi.edu). PMID:22573399
Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela Belmonte; Judy, Jennifer; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Jancic, Dubravka; Taylor, Jacob; Goes, Fernando S; Potash, James B; Zandi, Peter P
This meta-analysis of eatingdisorder prevention programs found that intervention effects ranged from an absence of any effects to reductions in current and future eating pathology. Certain effects persisted as long as 2 years and were superior to minimal-intervention control conditions. Larger effects occurred for selected (vs. universal), interactive (vs. didactic), and multisession (vs. single session) programs; for programs offered
Eatingdisorders during pregnancy, once thought to be rare, occur in a significant number of women. The incidences of the major eatingdisorders-anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa-are increasing because of cultural pressures on the drive for thinness. Because the age range for these major eatingdisorders overlaps with the age range for reproductive function, it is not unusual for a clinician to encounter a pregnant patient with a major eatingdisorder. Eatingdisorders attributable to the pregnant state include pregnancy sickness, pica, and ptyalism. The diagnostic criteria, etiology, nutritional behavioral influences, evolutionary psychological considerations where elucidated, and treatment of these disorders will be presented. Target Audience: Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to review how the major eatingdisorders impact pregnancy, to diagnose eatingdisorders during pregnancy using the diagnostic criteria, and to treat eatingdisorders during pregnancy. PMID:23943041
Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eatingdisorder (BED) are psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviors that often result in dramatic physical consequences for the patients. The etiology of eatingdisorders (EDs) is currently unknown; however, a strong genetic contribution is likely involved. In the last 10 years, several polymorphic variants of genes coding substances involved in the
The outcome in eatingdisorders remains poor and commonly used methods of treatment have little, if any effect. It is suggested that this situation has emerged because of the failure to realize that the symptoms of eatingdisorder patients are epiphenomena to starvation and the associated disorderedeating. Humans have evolved to cope with the challenge of starvation and the
The clinical eatingdisorders are only the most extreme form of pathological eating attitudes and behaviors. Many people engage\\u000a in pathological weight-control behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa and\\u000a may be regarded as having subclinical eatingdisorders. As described by Fairburn and Beglin (1), a broad spectrum of eatingdisorders appears to exist in
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...
... Dental Complications of EatingDisorders Dental Complications of EatingDisorders Dietary habits can and do play a role ... associated with dental complications that causes individuals with eatingdisorders to seek treatment. Signs & Symptoms Loss of tissue ...
Objectives of review. The goal of this review is to highlight advances in research on the psychobiology of eatingdisorders during the period 2005- 2006. Summary of recent findings. Studies on the function of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in eatingdisorders have demonstrated the presence of state- and trait-related alterations and their associations with behavioral and comorbid characteristics.
Angela Favaro; Palmiero Monteleone; Paolo Santonastaso; Mario Maj
ObjectiveSmoking has been reported as an appetite and weight control method in eatingdisorders; however, few studies have explored patterns of smoking across subtypes of eatingdisorders. The aim of this paper was to explore the patterns and prevalence of smoking behavior in 1524 women from two of the multisite Price Foundation Genetic studies.
Doris Anzengruber; Kelly L. Klump; Laura Thornton; Harry Brandt; Steve Crawford; Manfred M. Fichter; Katherine A. Halmi; Craig Johnson; Allan S. Kaplan; Maria LaVia; James Mitchell; Michael Strober; D. Blake Woodside; Alessandro Rotondo; Wade H. Berrettini; Walter H. Kaye; Cynthia M. Bulik
|Although commonly associated with girls and women, eatingdisorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eatingdisorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…
Although commonly associated with girls and women, eatingdisorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eatingdisorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…
Eatingdisorders have become extremely common in today's society. The individuals most commonly affected by eatingdisorders have been women. This is often the result of societal demands, and can be greatly influenced by the relationships a woman has with her parents. The purpose of this study was to focus specifically on the father-daughter relationship of college women diagnosed with
|Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eatingdisorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eatingdisorders among athletes. (CB)|
The purpose of this study is to examine conformity to traditional feminine norms as a predictor of eatingdisorder (ED) symptomatology. Eight subscales of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI) were examined as predictors of ED symptomatology as assessed by the EatingDisorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Findings indicate the Thinness subscale of the CFNI predicted significant portions of the variance
Melinda A. Green; Christopher M. Davids; Anna K. Skaggs; Cori M. Riopel; Jada J. Hallengren
Objectives of review. This chapter reviews research findings from 2005 and 2006 regarding dimensional personality traits, categorical personality disorders and dimensional personality pathology, and categorical person- ality subtypes in eatingdisorders. Summary of recent findings. Approaches linking specific personality traits to eating pathology have demonstrated the predictive validity of perfec- tionism and impulsiveness. Impulsive behaviors are associated with com- pulsivity
Many publications have been produced recently from centres across the world dealing with the prevalence of eatingdisorders in their cultures. This type of research suggests that eatingdisorders are no longer limited to the western culture and have now assumed a worldwide dimension. A number of global cultural forces have been implicated in this spread including the power of
The cultivation of the body ideal and promotion of thinness values in fashion, media and the diet industry have been repeatedly shown to account for the increased prevalence of eatingdisorders. It is evident in women in certain sub-cultures where the demand for thinness for career advancement is endemic. There is also a correlation between eatingdisorders and the level
Background Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eatingdisorders, and psychoses). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048). Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013), hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis. Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.6). Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eatingdisorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality. Conclusions High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly associated with having experienced domestic violence. High-quality evidence is now needed on how maternity and mental health services should address domestic violence and improve health outcomes for women and their infants in the perinatal period. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Howard, Louise M.; Oram, Sian; Galley, Helen; Trevillion, Kylee; Feder, Gene
Although commonly associated with girls and women, eatingdisorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eatingdisorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a growing boy's risk of developing an eatingdisorder. Issues of body image and sexual development can complicate and can distort previously normal eating habits. Students may use powerful and dangerous drugs readily available via the Internet, including growth hormone, creatine, testosterone, and aminophylline, to build muscle and to eliminate fat, potentially causing serious health consequences. School nurses can partner with health and physical education teachers, coaches, school staff, parents, and students to identify and to support boys with eatingdisorders PMID:16419341
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether implementation intentions are an effective tool to help people put their intentions to eat a healthy diet into practice. Additionally, it was investigated whether the quality of the outcome measures and the quality of the control conditions that are used in these studies influence implementation intentions’ effectiveness. Methods: Twenty three empirical studies
Marieke A. Adriaanse; Charlotte D. W. Vinkers; Denise T. D. De Ridder; Joop J. Hox; John B. F. De Wit
A review of 2,647 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) yielded 476 potential candidates for a meta-analysis of predictors of PTSD or of its symptoms. From these, 68 studies met criteria for inclusion in a meta-analysis of 7 predictors: (a) prior trauma, (b) prior psychological adjustment, (c) family history of psychopathology, (d) perceived life threat during the trauma, (e) posttrauma
Emily J. Ozer; Suzanne R. Best; Tami L. Lipsey; Daniel S. Weiss
In the beginning of 2014 a new service (residential and non residential) for eatingdisorders is being planned to open in Malta. A telephone based survey was conducted between 30 May and 11 June 2012. A randomized sample of 6000 of the population between 15 and 50 years old was chosen. 2.9 per cent of respondents have suffered from an eatingdisorder at some point in time. 2.0 percent of these had suffered from an eatingdisorder in the past, while the remaining (0.9 per cent) were suffering from an eatingdisorder at the time of study. Out of these 2,008 individuals participated in the study. Binge Eating was the most common eatingdisorder, with 55.8 per cent of respondents having this condition, followed by Anorexia (34.3 per cent) and Bulimia (13.3 per cent). These results were comparable to those of other European countries. Awareness of these conditions in the general population was generally good, higher in females and in those with a higher educational level. PMID:23995188
Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eatingdisorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to
G. Terence Wilson; Nancy A. Perrin; Francine Rosselli; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Lynn L. DeBar; Helena C. Kraemer
Objectives of review. This review summarizes twin and genetic studies of eatingdisorders (EDs) published in 2005 and 2006. Summary of recent findings. Twin studies highlight important gender differences in genetic liability to ED symptoms and possible shared genetic transmission between EDs and anxiety disorders. Association and linkage analyses have suggested the presence of distinct genetic risk factors for anorexia
Kristen M Culbert; Jennifer D Slane; Kelly L Klump
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eatingdisorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
|Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eatingdisorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
|This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…
... to EatingDisorders Factors That May Contribute to EatingDisordersEatingdisorders are complex conditions that arise from a combination ... issues that can contribute to the development of eatingdisorders. NEDA acknowledges that there may be a difference ...
Background: Obesity is emerging as the most significant health concern of the 21st century. Although this is attributable in part to changes in our environment—including the increased prevalence of energy-dense food—it also appears that several lifestyle factors may increase our vulnerability to this calorie-rich landscape. Epidemiologic studies have begun to show links between adiposity and behaviors such as television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation. However, these studies leave unclear the direction of this association. In addition, studies that investigated the acute impact of these factors on food intake have reported a wide variety of effect sizes, from highly positive to slightly negative. Objective: The purpose of this article was to provide a meta-analysis of the relation between lifestyle choices and increases in acute food intake. Design: An initial search was performed on PubMed to collect articles relating television watching, sleep deprivation, and alcohol consumption to food intake. Only articles published before February 2012 were considered. Studies that took place in a controlled, laboratory setting with healthy individuals were included. Studies were analyzed by using 3 meta-analyses with random-effects models. In addition, a 1-factor ANOVA was run to discover any main effect of lifestyle. Results: The 3 most prominent lifestyle factors—television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation—had significant short-term effects on food intake, with alcohol being more significant (Cohen's d = 1.03) than sleep deprivation (Cohen's d = 0.49) and television watching (Cohen's d = 0.2). Conclusions: Our results suggest that television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation are not merely correlated with obesity but likely contribute to it by encouraging excessive eating. Because these behaviors are all known to affect cognitive functions involved in reward saliency and inhibitory control, it may be that they represent common mechanisms through which this eating is facilitated.
... Treatment Treatment Treatment is available. Recovery is possible. Eatingdisorders are serious health conditions that can be both physically and emotionally destructive. People with eatingdisorders need to seek professional help. Early diagnosis and ...
Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eatingdisorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eatingdisorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eatingdisorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eatingdisorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images).
|Research indicates that the primary onset of eatingdisorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eatingdisorders. This article describes the eatingdisorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…
Research indicates that the primary onset of eatingdisorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eatingdisorders. This article describes the eatingdisorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…
As central nervous system serotonergic dysregulation has been postulated to exist in both eating and aggression disorders, we hypothesized that anger attacks would be more common among patients with eatingdisorders than among control subjects. In addition, we wanted to examine possible relationships between the presence of anger attacks and the type or severity of the eatingdisorder. Subjects were
Maurizio Fava; Sandra M. Rappe; Jennifer West; David B. Herzog
Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eatingdisorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eatingdisorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eatingdisorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with receptors may be persistent after respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 recovering from an eatingdisorder.
... better in any other skill, sometimes you need the support of a coach, trainer, or family member to get you where you need to ... Do? EatingDisorders Our Friend Might Have Anorexia. How Can We Help? What Can I Do About ...
|The authors compared eating patterns, disorderedeating, features of eatingdisorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eatingdisorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…
Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.
The authors compared eating patterns, disorderedeating, features of eatingdisorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eatingdisorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several established measures. Depressive symptoms were greater in the
Kelly C. Allison; Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; Albert J. Stunkard
Objective The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of eatingdisorders (ED) in a representative school population of\\u000a early adolescents of both sexes and to evaluate persistence and incidence after two years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method An initial sample of 1336 (mean age = 11.37) was assessed in a two-phase design. The Children Eating Attitudes Test was used\\u000a to select 258 participants (T1) from
The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the num- ber of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome. Re- sults showed that pharmacotherapy with serotonergic
Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Stephen P. Whiteside; Brett J. Deacon
Many programs designed for children and youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) include a social skill training component. Using quantitative methods of meta-analysis, the findings from 35 studies investigating the effects of social skill interventions for students with EBD were synthesized. The pooled mean effect size (ES) was 0.199, from which the average student with EBD would be expected
Mary Magee Quinn; Kenneth A. Kavale; Sarup R. Mathur; Robert B. Rutherford; Steven R. Forness
|It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…
|Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis on randomized, controlled treatment trials of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Studies were included if they employed randomized, controlled methodology and treated young people (19 years or under) with OCD. A comprehensive literature search identified 13 RCTs containing 10…
It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…
|This meta-analysis synthesizes the available data on the strength of association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between hostility and PTSD, covering 39 studies with trauma-exposed adults. Effect sizes did not differ for anger and hostility, which could therefore be combined; effect sizes for anger expression variables…
|Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of…
There is now a substantial literature investigating virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) as a viable treatment option for anxiety disorders. In this meta-analysis we provide effect size estimates for virtual reality treatment in comparison to in vivo exposure and control conditions (waitlist, attention control, etc.). A comprehensive search of the literature identified 13 studies (n=397) that were included in the
|Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online…
Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim
The neuropsychological profile of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unclear. Past investigations have produced seemingly inconsistent results concerning precisely what neuropsychological deficits characterize the patient with BPD. A meta-analysis of 10 studies was conducted comparing BPD and healthy comparison groups on selected neuropsychological measures comprising six domains of functioning: attention, cognitive flexibility, learning and memory, planning, speeded processing, and visuospatial
IntroductionAtypical antipsychotic agents are widely used psychopharmacological interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among the atypical antipsychotic agents, risperidone has demonstrated considerable benefits in reducing several behavioral symptoms associated with ASDs. This meta-analysis examined research regarding the effectiveness of risperidone use among children with ASD using articles published since the year 2000.
|Objective: Many patients drop out of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); some clinicians believe that trauma-focused treatments increase dropout. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of dropout among active treatments in clinical trials for PTSD (42 studies; 17 direct comparisons). Results: The average dropout rate was 18%, but…
Imel, Zac E.; Laska, Kevin; Jakupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L.
|Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…
Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.
\\u000a The eatingdisorders anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eatingdisorder and allied diagnoses such as eating\\u000a disorder not otherwise specified are common, complex psychiatric disorders with a significant genetic component. Aetiology\\u000a is unknown, but both phenotypic characteristics and genetic factors appear to be shared across these disorders, and indeed\\u000a patients often change between diagnostic categories. Molecular studies have
Twin studies indicate that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is strongly influenced by additive genetic factors. Yet, molecular genetic association studies have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of differences across studies in statistical power. Meta-analysis can yield greater power. This study reports the first comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between OCD and all previously examined polymorphisms for which there was sufficient information in the source studies to compute odds ratios (ORs). A total of 230 polymorphisms from 113 genetic association studies were identified. A full meta-analysis was conducted for 20 polymorphisms that were examined in 5 or more data sets, and a secondary meta-analysis (limited to the computation of mean effect sizes) was conducted for 210 polymorphisms that were examined in fewer than 5 data sets. In the main meta-analysis, OCD was associated with serotonin-related polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and HTR2A) and, in males only, with polymorphisms involved in catecholamine modulation (COMT and MAOA). Nonsignificant trends were identified for two dopamine-related polymorphisms (DAT1 and DRD3) and a glutamate-related polymorphism (rs3087879). The secondary meta-analysis identified another 18 polymorphisms with significant ORs that merit further investigation. This study demonstrates that OCD is associated with multiple genes, with most having a modest association with OCD. This suggests a polygenic model of OCD, consistent with twin studies, in which multiple genes make small, incremental contributions to the risk of developing the disorder. Future studies, with sufficient power to detect small effects, are needed to investigate the genetic basis of OCD subtypes, such as early vs late onset OCD. PMID:22665263
To investigate the relationship between eating problems and dissociation, 142 college women completed the EatingDisorders Inventory, the Bulimia Test, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Perceptual Alteration Scale, and a demographic information worksheet. The two eating-disorder inventories were strongly correlated (rs = .71). The two dissociation scales, however, were only moderately correlated (rs = .32), suggesting they are measuring different underlying experiences. The pattern of the correlations of the subscales of the dissociation scales with the eatingdisorder scales suggested that cognitive distortions were not as important in the relationship with eatingdisorders (all correlations were less than .21) as were dissociation of feelings and loss of control (the correlations for eating related subscales ranged as high as .51). These results were interpreted to suggest that dissociation of feelings might underlie eating problems. These results indicate the value of the use of hypnotherapy in working with eating-disordered clients. PMID:8203354
|In the past 10 years, eatingdisorders among adolescent females have become of increasing concern. To assess the prevalence of eatingdisorders, unusual eating-related behaviors and attitudes, and psychological states among college women, 677 women, from three private northeastern United States colleges, completed a questionnaire assessing…
The association between the eatingdisorders of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and substance use disorder (SUD) has been widely investigated, however, our understanding of the relationship between the disorders remains unclear. Explanatory models have tended to focus on behaviors, yet, little is currently known about the patterns of association among disorderedeating and substance use behaviors. In
BACKGROUND: The authors sought to map gray matter changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using a novel technique incorporating neuro-imaging and genetic meta-analysis methods. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging studies of patients with ADHD (or with related disorders) in relation to comparison groups. The authors carried out meta-analyses of the co-ordinates of
Ian Ellison-Wright; Zoë Ellison-Wright; Ed Bullmore
Bulimia, an eatingdisorder, recently has emerged as a major mental health problem, especially among adolescent females. The bulimic experiences periods of compulsive binge eating followed by purges to rid the body of unwanted calories. Binges are triggered by intense emotional experiences, such as loneliness, anger, rejection, or stress. Associated features of bulimia are secretiveness, depression, drug abuse, preoccupation with body image and sexual attractiveness, and an awareness that the behavior is abnormal. The physical side effects include dental problems, inflamed esophagus, EEG abnormalities, abdominal or urinary disturbances, and changes in blood sugar level. Cognitive disturbances related to binging and purging are perfectionistic, egocentric, and distorted thinking, misconceptions about nutritional requirements, unreasonable goals and expectations, and disturbed affect. Bulimics resist treatment; however, such methods as cognitive, group, family, behavior, and drug therapy, and hospitalization appear promising. PMID:3461693
Coping skills are a subject that college students face everyday. These coping skills may be healthy or unhealthy. Eatingdisorders may be classified as both a coping skill and a disease. The prevalence of eatingdisorders is disproportionate among men and women attending college, and there is a wide continuum that includes the commonly recognized disorders, such as anorexia and
The authors review research on risk factors for eatingdisorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances in understanding the etiology of eatingdisorders require
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is applicable to all eatingdisorders but has been most intensively studied in the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN). CBT is designed to alter abnormal attitudes about body shape and weight, replace dysfunctional dieting with normal eating habits, and develop coping skills for resisting binge eating and purging. CBT is effective in reducing all core features of
\\u000a \\u000a Objectives: This chapter reviews brain imaging findings in anorexia and bulimia nervosa which characterize brain circuitry that may\\u000a contribute to the pathophysiology of eatingdisorders (EDs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of recent findings: Recent imaging studies provide evidence of disturbed gustatory processing in EDs which involve the anterior insula as well\\u000a as striatal regions. These results raise the possibility that individuals with anorexia
Walter H. Kaye; Angela Wagner; Julie L. Fudge; Martin Paulus
OBJECTIVE: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of existing studies to boost statistical power. METHOD: We used data from four projects: a)
Benjamin M. Neale; Sarah E. Medland; Stephan Ripke; Philip Asherson; Barbara Franke; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Stephen V. Faraone; Thuy Trang Nguyen; Helmut Schäfer; Peter Holmans; Mark Daly; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Christine Freitag; Andreas Reif; Tobias J. Renner; Marcel Romanos; Jasmin Romanos; Susanne Walitza; Andreas Warnke; Jobst Meyer; Haukur Palmason; Jan Buitelaar; Alejandro Arias Vasquez; Nanda Lambregts-Rommelse; Michael Gill; Richard J. L. Anney; Kate Langely; Michael O'Donovan; Nigel Williams; Michael Owen; Anita Thapar; Lindsey Kent; Joseph Sergeant; Herbert Roeyers; Eric Mick; Joseph Biederman; Alysa Doyle; Susan Smalley; Sandra Loo; Hakon Hakonarson; Josephine Elia; Alexandre Todorov; Ana Miranda; Fernando Mulas; Richard P. Ebstein; Aribert Rothenberger; Tobias Banaschewski; Robert D. Oades; Edmund Sonuga-Barke; James McGough; Laura Nisenbaum; Frank Middleton; Xiaolan Hu; Stan Nelson
Although psychological and pharmacological treatment approaches for Body Dysmorphic Disorder have been evaluated, the relative effectiveness of these two types of interventions has not been examined. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and case series studies involving psychological (i.e., behavioural, cognitive-behavioural, cognitive) or medication therapies. Our findings support the effectiveness of both types of therapy, but suggest that
Jaime Williams; Thomas Hadjistavropoulos; Donald Sharpe
Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, PsychSpider, Medline). We excluded studies in which patients with diagnoses other than BPD
There is currently controversy regarding the need for and the effectiveness of behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) despite years of study and multiple investigations reporting beneficial effects of the intervention. A meta-analysis was conducted by identifying relevant behavioral treatment studies in the literature. One-hundred seventy-four studies of behavioral treatment were identified from 114 individual papers that
Gregory A. Fabiano; William E. Pelham Jr.; Erika K. Coles; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Andrea Chronis-Tuscano; Briannon C. O'Connor
The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produced 36 EMA studies with N = 968 participants (89% Caucasian women). Meta-analyses examined changes in affect before and after binge eating using within-subjects standardized mean gain effect sizes (ES). Results supported greater NA preceding binge eating relative to average affect (ES = .63) and affect before regular eating (ES = .68). However, NA increased further following binge episodes (ES = .50). Preliminary findings suggested that NA decreased following purging in Bulimia Nervosa (ES = ?.46). Moderators included diagnosis (with significantly greater elevations of NA prior to bingeing in Binge EatingDisorder compared to Bulimia Nervosa) and binge definition (with significantly smaller elevations of NA before binge versus regular eating episodes for the DSM definition compared to lay definitions of binge eating). Overall, results fail to support the affect regulation model of binge eating and challenge reductions in NA as a maintenance factor for binge eating. However, limitations of this literature include unidimensional analyses of NA and inadequate examination of affect during binge eating as binge eating may regulate only specific facets of affect or may reduce NA only during the episode.
In two recent studies 10 copy number variants (CNV) were found to be overrepresented either among patients suffering from affective disorders in an Amish family or in the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium study. Here, we investigate if these variants are associated with affective disorders in a combined analysis of three case-control samples from Denmark, Norway and Iceland. A total of 1897 cases (n=1223 unipolar and n=463 bipolar) and 11 231 controls were analyzed for CNVs at the 10 genomic loci, but we found no combined association between these CNVs and affective disorders. PMID:21451435
Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Djurovic, Srdjan; Haastrup, Eva; Albrecthsen, Anders; Hoeffding, Louise K E; Secher, Anna; Gustafsson, Omar; Jakobsen, Klaus D; Nielsen, Finn C; Ullum, Henrik; Morken, Gunnar; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid; Gether, Ulrik; Andreassen, Ole A; Werge, Thomas
A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.
|A study to examine the kind of eatingdisorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eatingdisorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eatingdisorders.|
Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel
A study to examine the kind of eatingdisorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eatingdisorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eatingdisorders.
Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel
Binge eatingdisorder (BED) is a new proposed eatingdisorder in the DSM-IV. BED is not a formal diagnosis within the DSM-IV, but in day-to-day clinical practice the diagnosis seems to be generally accepted. People with the BED-syndrome have binge eating episodes as do subjects with bulimia nervosa, but unlike the latter they do not engage in compensatory behaviours. Although
Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eatingdisorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eatingdisorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…
Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eatingdisorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eatingdisorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…
Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.
Summary The role of socio-cultural factors in the pathogenesis of eatingdisorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia has been the object of recent interest. The phenomena, mainly described in the West, were partly attributed to the idealisation of thinness in Western culture. The paper reviews published epidemiological research from non-western countries in the area of eatingdisorders to elucidate the difference
Adolescent athletes are especially vulnerable to developing disorderedeating behaviors. Risk factors include participation in sports where weight and lean body type are important, high-intensity training, pressure from coaches, and training and dieting beginning at an early age. Medical complications associated with these unhealthy dietary and weight-control practices and eatingdisorders can be potentially dangerous. Prevention strategies include minimizing the
Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus; Helen D. Pratt; Elaine L. Phillips
To better understand how dental practitioners identify, counsel, and refer patients with eatingdisorders. A questionnaire was mailed to 625 dental practitioners, 54 (19%) of the dentists and 69 (20%) of the dental hygienists responded. Most dental practitioners were aware of eatingdisorder patients in their practices and most discussed their findings with their patients or parents. However, one of
MELISSA BURGARD; AMY CANEVELLO; JAMES MITCHELL; MARTINA DE ZWAAN; ROSS CROSBY; STEVE WONDERLICH; JAMES ROERIG; NANCY ADDY
|This article focuses on the complex nature of eatingdisorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eatingdisorders are utilized by clients with varying…
|Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eatingdisorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eatingdisorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family…
Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.
This article focuses on the complex nature of eatingdisorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eatingdisorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eatingdisorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eatingdisorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than
Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean
Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eatingdisorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses.Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eatingdisorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded.Results: Although simple
Objectives of review. This chapter reviews articles published in 2005 and 2006 on the influence of culture, ethnicity and gender on eatingdisorders. Specific social environmental factors, including media portrayals of body ideals and peer and family environment, are also reviewed. Summary of recent findings. Certain non-Western values may increase the risk of eatingdisorders. Ethnicity and gender may moderate
Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eatingdisorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eatingdisorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Important challenges remain. Even the
G. Terence Wilson; Carlos M. Grilo; Kelly M. Vitousek
It has been hypothesized that abnormalities in the molecular clock underlie the development of mood disorders, in the direction of higher prevalence in individuals with a reduced flexibility to adapt to important regulations of mood in response to changes in seasons, stress levels, sleep schedules, and time zones. In particular, a T/C change (rs1801260) at the 3111 position of the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene has been explored in psychiatry disorders. This meta-analysis has been undertaken to investigate the association between rs1801260 and both mood disorders and depression severity, shedding light on previous controversial results and providing better power to detect smaller effect sizes. PubMed and ISI databases were searched for studies focused on the association between rs1801260 and mood disorders spectrum. Quality of studies was assessed. We found no association between CLOCK genotypes and mood disorders, even when we separately investigated ethnical homogeneous or unipolar disorder studies. No association was found regarding severity of depression either. The methodological quality of the studies has been found to be medium-high. Our meta-analysis shows no association between rs1801260 and mood disorders (as a complete phenotype) or depression severity and points out the necessity of further research in order to better understand the underlying biological machinery of circadian dysfunction in subjects affected by mood disorders. PMID:20560707
|Used metanalysis to compare effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for panic disorder. Percentage of agoraphobic subjects in sample and duration of illness were unrelated to effect size (ES). Psychological coping strategies involving relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, and exposure yielded most consistent ESs;…
The eatingdisorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disorderedeating and highlights additional areas for future research.
During the last 50 years, eatingdisorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eatingdisorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eatingdisorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eatingdisorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eatingdisorders. PMID:21971198
There is currently controversy regarding the need for and the effectiveness of behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) despite years of study and multiple investigations reporting beneficial effects of the intervention. A meta-analysis was conducted by identifying relevant behavioral treatment studies in the literature. One-hundred seventy-four studies of behavioral treatment were identified from 114 individual papers that were appropriate for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes varied by study design but not generally by other study characteristics, such as the demographic variables of the participants in the studies. Overall unweighted effect sizes in between group studies (.83), pre-post studies (.70), within group studies (2.64), and single subject studies (3.78) indicated that behavioral treatments are highly effective. Based on these results, there is strong and consistent evidence that behavioral treatments are effective for treating ADHD. PMID:19131150
Fabiano, Gregory A; Pelham, William E; Coles, Erika K; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Connor, Briannon C
The authors explore the extent to which eatingdisorders, specifically anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), represent culture-bound syndromes and discuss implications for conceptualizing the role genes play in their etiology. The examination is divided into 3 sections: a quantitative meta-analysis of changes in incidence rates since the formal recognition of AN and BN, a qualitative summary of historical
Binge eatingdisorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are putative eatingdisorders frequently seen in obese individuals. Data suggest that BED fulfills criteria for a mental disorder. Criteria for NES are evolving but at present do not require distress or functional impairment. It remains unclear whether BED and NES, as they are currently defined, are optimally useful for characterizing
Israel presents a unique opportunity to study the role of socio-cultural parameters in the development of mental disturbances because of the exceptional diversity of the Israeli society. In the present review, we aimed to analyse the current state of disorderedeating in Israel by means of an extensive literature review. The following are the main findings of our review: The frequency of maladaptive eating among female and male Israeli Jewish adolescents is higher in comparison to many other Westernized countries. Among different Jewish sub-populations, Kibbutz women have been found until recently to show higher rates of disorderedeating in comparison to other Israeli samples. Recent studies show no such difference between Kibbutz members and the general Israeli population. No clear-cut findings emerge with respect to the influence of immigration and degree of Jewish religious affiliation on the occurrence of disorderedeating. In contrast, disorderedeating is less prevalent in Israeli-Arabs compared with Israeli-Jews. Moreover, diverse Israeli-Arab groups show different rates of disorderedeating. We discuss the high rate of disorderedeating in Israeli youth in light of Israel being a culture in transition that is constantly exposed to the risk of terrorism. The changes in the rates of disorderedeating in the Kibbutzim are discussed in light of the dramatic societal changes occurring in these communities within a relatively brief period of time. The low rates of disorderedeating in Israeli-Arabs reflect the traditional non-Westernized characteristics of their society, whereas the differences between diverse Arab sub-populations depend upon the degree of exposure to Westernized influences and the presence of conflicts between modern and traditional values. PMID:18613253
The aim of our study was to assess the association between FKBP5 gene polymorphisms and treatment response in patients with mood disorders using a meta-analysis. Eight separate studies that included data from 2199 subjects were identified. Meta-analysis was performed for three FKBP5 gene polymorphisms (rs1360780, rs3800373, and rs4713916). A significant association of FKBP5 gene rs4713916 polymorphism and response rate was
Yan-Feng Zou; Fang Wang; Xiao-Liang Feng; Wen-Fei Li; Jin-Hui Tao; Fa-Ming Pan; Fen Huang; Hong Su
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine are currently considered as first-line agents for patients with panic disorder (PD). However, a systematic comparison of newer antidepressants for the treatment of PD is lacking thus far. Eligible studies focusing on PD patients treated with newer antidepressants were entered in the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager. Our primary outcome measure was the mean change in panic symptoms from the baseline to the endpoint in patients treated with antidepressants as compared with those treated with placebo. Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in the overall anxiety scores and dropout rates. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Fifty studies focusing on 5236 patients were included. The following antidepressants were significantly superior to placebo for PD patients with the following increasing order of effectiveness: citalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, fluoxetine, and venlafaxine for panic symptoms and paroxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine for overall anxiety symptoms. Aside from reboxetine and fluvoxamine, all drugs were associated with significantly lower dropout rates as compared with placebo. Several clinical variables moderated clinical outcomes. However, because of some inconsistencies across the studies and limited evidence for some drugs under investigation, further head-to-head comparisons are required. PMID:23111544
A number of theories have been proposed to explain the substantial comorbidity between the eatingdisorders and the substance-related disorders. Among them is the claim that self-starvation—exacerbated by excessive exercising—is itself an addiction to the body’s endogenous opioids. While efforts have also been made to identify an “addictive personality,” attempts to establish whether eating-disordered patients share these characteristics have met
Eatingdisorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eatingdisorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eatingdisorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eatingdisorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eatingdisorders, some findings (eg, long-term eatingdisorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eatingdisorder patients.
Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation.
Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eatingdisorder diagnoses consist of anorexia nervosa (restricting type and binge-eating\\/purging type); bulimia nervosa (purging\\u000a and nonpurging types); and eatingdisorder, not otherwise specified (including binge-eatingdisorder, night eating syndrome,\\u000a and purging disorder).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Physical complications of anorexia nervosa affect most major systems in the body and are caused by starvation and the effects\\u000a of purging. Most physical complications
This paper describes a meta-analysis of 33 studies that examined the relationship between the Five-Factor Model and symptoms of clinical disorders. The typical pattern found associated with clinical disorders or measures of clinical disorders was high Neuroticism, low Conscientiousness, low Agreeableness, and low Extraversion. Comparisons of diagnostic groups and norm groups showed higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of
John M. Malouff; Einar B. Thorsteinsson; Nicola S. Schutte
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eatingdisorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eatingdisorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eatingdisorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eatingdisorder symptoms. The findings
The purpose of this study was to document disorderedeating patterns and prevalence rates to assess the current extent of the problem among college students. The Undergraduate Student Health Risk Appraisal Survey, with a DisorderedEating Subscale, generated such information. A randomized stratified study (n=320) of students at a major university ascertained disorderedeating patterns, documented diagnosed eatingdisorders, and
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are disorders of eating and weight-related behavior that together afflict some 1–3% of women in the United States. One of the remarkable features about each of the eatingdisorders is how persistent the disorderedeating behavior becomes once it has begun. Substantial psychological, social, and physiological disturbances are associated with eatingdisorders, and
Eatingdisorders and chronic pain are among the most vexing problems encountered by the clinician.When both problems occur\\u000a concurrently in a patient, adequate assessment and implementation of an effective treatment program become most complex.
Ching King Chieng; Ronald J. Kulich; Scott Streusels
|The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eatingdisorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)|
Reviews research on eatingdisorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)
Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.
|Reviews research on eatingdisorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)|
Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.
\\u000a Experts agree that the most effective treatment of children with eatingdisorders is multisystem based and combines the expertise\\u000a of several disciplines. Specialists in pediatrics, internal medicine, endocrinology, psychology, psychiatry, and nutrition,\\u000a for example, may collaborate with one another at various relevant points in the course of treatment. Eatingdisorders, unique\\u000a among mental\\/emotional conditions, influence a child’s development in broad,
Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating as measured by the Eating Attitude Test (EAT26) among mothers of girls diagnosed with various types of eatingdisorders, in comparison with mothers of depressive girls and their relationship with daughters’ results 14 years after the beginning of the Polish political and cultural transformation of 1989. Material/Methods The data of 68 mothers and their daughters were used in statistical analysis (anorexia nervosa restrictive type: 18, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type: 12, bulimia: 14, depression: 24). The mean age in the group of mothers was 43.5 (SD 5.3), daughters: 16.7 (SD 1.4). Results In the group of mothers, the results of EAT26 test were lower than results of the general population of Polish females or patients’ mothers obtained in a different cultural context. Results from girls with an eatingdisorder diagnosis considerably exceed the mean result of Polish population studies of teenagers. There were no statistically significant differences between the EAT26 results of mothers of girls with various types of eatingdisorders and mothers of depressive girls. Sociocultural variables such as education and place of residence of mothers also did not differentiate the studied groups and did not have a significant influence on attitudes towards weight and body shape presented by the studied mothers. Conclusions The obtained results may suggest that in the studied population, the social background of mothers and disturbances of their own mothers’ attitudes towards weight and body shape were not an important and specific risk factor in the development of their daughters’ eatingdisorders.
Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Jozefik, Barbara; Salapa, Kinga
Bipolar disorder (BP) is a disabling and often life-threatening disorder that affects ?1% of the population worldwide. To identify genetic variants that increase the risk of BP, we genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 Beadchip 2,076 bipolar cases and 1,676 controls of European ancestry from the National Institute of Mental Health Human Genetics Initiative Repository, and the Prechter Repository and samples collected in London, Toronto, and Dundee. We imputed SNP genotypes and tested for SNP-BP association in each sample and then performed meta-analysis across samples. The strongest association P value for this 2-study meta-analysis was 2.4 × 10?6. We next imputed SNP genotypes and tested for SNP-BP association based on the publicly available Affymetrix 500K genotype data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium for 1,868 BP cases and a reference set of 12,831 individuals. A 3-study meta-analysis of 3,683 nonoverlapping cases and 14,507 extended controls on >2.3 M genotyped and imputed SNPs resulted in 3 chromosomal regions with association P ? 10?7: 1p31.1 (no known genes), 3p21 (>25 known genes), and 5q15 (MCTP1). The most strongly associated nonsynonymous SNP rs1042779 (OR = 1.19, P = 1.8 × 10?7) is in the ITIH1 gene on chromosome 3, with other strongly associated nonsynonymous SNPs in GNL3, NEK4, and ITIH3. Thus, these chromosomal regions harbor genes implicated in cell cycle, neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and neurosignaling. In addition, we replicated the reported ANK3 association results for SNP rs10994336 in the nonoverlapping GSK sample (OR = 1.37, P = 0.042). Although these results are promising, analysis of additional samples will be required to confirm that variant(s) in these regions influence BP risk.
Scott, Laura J.; Muglia, Pierandrea; Kong, Xiangyang Q.; Guan, Weihua; Flickinger, Matthew; Upmanyu, Ruchi; Tozzi, Federica; Li, Jun Z.; Burmeister, Margit; Absher, Devin; Thompson, Robert C.; Francks, Clyde; Meng, Fan; Antoniades, Athos; Southwick, Audrey M.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Bunney, William E.; Barchas, Jack D.; Jones, Edward G.; Day, Richard; Matthews, Keith; McGuffin, Peter; Strauss, John S.; Kennedy, James L.; Middleton, Lefkos; Roses, Allen D.; Watson, Stanley J.; Vincent, John B.; Myers, Richard M.; Farmer, Ann E.; Akil, Huda; Burns, Daniel K.; Boehnke, Michael
Eatingdisorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eatingdisorder not otherwise specified, are psychiatric disorders with physical complications. Several factors may contribute to the onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, including a familial predisposition to these disorders as well as individual personality characteristics. Dissatisfaction with body shape and an overwhelming desire to be thin are considered as risk factors for the development of eatingdisorders. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugolike body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrheic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, and acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions to drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eatingdisorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eatingdisorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:23245978
Background There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for a wide range of psychological disorders. There is a continued controversy about whether challenging maladaptive thoughts rather than use of behavioural interventions alone is associated with the greatest efficacy. However little is known about the relative efficacy of various components of CBT. This review aims to compare the relative efficacy of Cognitive Therapy (CT) versus Exposure (E) for a range of anxiety disorders using the most clinically relevant outcome measures and estimating the summary relative efficacy by combining the studies in a meta-analysis. Methods Psych INFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the first available year to May 2010. All randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of exposure with cognitive therapy were included. Odds ratios (OR) or standardised means' differences (Hedges' g) for the most clinically relevant primary outcomes were calculated. Outcomes of the studies were grouped according to specific disorders and were combined in meta-analyses exploring short-term and long-term outcomes. Results 20 Randomised Controlled Trials with (n = 1,308) directly comparing the efficacy of CT and E in anxiety disorders were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference in the relative efficacy of CT and E was revealed in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and in Panic Disorder (PD). There was a statistically significant difference favouring CT versus E in Social Phobia both in the short-term (Z = 3.72, p = 0.0002) and the long-term (Z = 3.28, p = 0.001) outcomes. Conclusions On the basis of extant literature, there appears to be no evidence of differential efficacy between cognitive therapy and exposure in PD, PTSD and OCD and strong evidence of superior efficacy of cognitive therapy in social phobia
This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eatingdisorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eatingdisorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for eatingdisorders. In general, hypotheses derived from cognitive-behavioral theories have been
Donald A. Williamson; Marney A. White; Emily York-Crowe; Tiffany M. Stewart
Background We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available clinical trials concerning the usefulness of aripiprazole in the treatment of the psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder. Methods A systematic MEDLINE and repository search concerning clinical trials for aripiprazole in bipolar disorder was conducted. Results The meta-analysis of four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on acute mania suggests that the effect size of aripiprazole versus placebo was equal to 0.14 but a more reliable and accurate estimation is 0.18 for the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score. The effect was higher for the PANSS-positive subscale (0.28), PANSS-hostility subscale (0.24) and PANSS-cognitive subscale (0.20), and lower for the PANSS-negative subscale (0.12). No data on the depressive phase of bipolar illness exist, while there are some data in favour of aripiprazole concerning the maintenance phase, where at week 26 all except the total PANSS score showed a significant superiority of aripiprazole over placebo (d = 0.28 for positive, d = 0.38 for the cognitive and d = 0.71 for the hostility subscales) and at week 100 the results were similar (d = 0.42, 0.63 and 0.48, respectively). Conclusion The data analysed for the current study support the usefulness of aripiprazole against psychotic symptoms during the acute manic and maintenance phases of bipolar illness.
This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis for a single investigator examining the effectiveness of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) for clients with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders (COD). The flexibility and utility of meta-analytic tools are described, although their application in this context is atypical. The analysis includes 4 comparisons from 3 studies (retrieved N = 569) for various groups of clients with COD (homeless persons, offenders, and outpatients) in substance abuse treatment, comparing clients assigned either to an MTC or a control condition of standard services. An additional study is included in a series of sensitivity tests. The overall findings increase the research base of support for the MTC program for clients with COD, as results of the meta-analysis indicate significant MTC treatment effects for 5 of the 6 outcome domains across the 4 comparisons. Limitations of the approach are discussed. Independent replications, clinical trials, multiple outcome domains, and additional meta-analyses should be emphasized in future research. Given the need for research-based approaches, program and policy planners should consider the MTC when designing programs for co-occurring disorders. PMID:20687003
Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Sacks, JoAnn Y; Cleland, Charles M
The links between sleep and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been a topic for intense ongoing research and clinical interest. Previous narrative literature reviews conveyed a consensus that parents of children with ADHD are more likely to report sleep problems in their children in comparison to parents of control children. However, when objective measures are considered the results appear to be more complex and inconsistent. This review is based on a meta-analysis of relevant polysomnographic studies. We assessed measures related to sleep architecture, breathing disorders, and periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), and the role of potential moderators such as age, gender, and other methodological factors. The meta-analysis revealed only one significant combined effect that indicates that children with ADHD are more likely than controls to suffer from PLMS. Factors such as age, gender, inclusion of adaptation night, and comorbidity appear to play a moderating role in the associations between sleep characteristics and ADHD. To provide new insight regarding the links between sleep and ADHD research in this field should adopt new strict guidelines and consider the role of multiple pertinent moderating factors. PMID:16846743
The results suggest that linear eaters, who eat at a constant rate, are unable to adjust their intake when challenged to eat at a rate that differs from their baseline rate. This is referred to as disinhibition, which is shown by those at risk for both eatingdisorders (too little food when eating slowly) and obesity (too much food when
Explains the Tomatis Method, a program of auditory stimulation and counseling used to assist children, adolescents, and adults with learning and communication disorders. Presents a meta-analysis of data from five research studies evaluating the efficacy of this method in assisting children with such disorders. Suggests that effect sizes favoring…
Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. Results From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114?009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Conclusions Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental studies are required to confirm a potentially beneficial effect of chocolate consumption.
A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eatingdisorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge EatingDisorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the 2010 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, reviews objective information about the nature of the disturbances of eating behavior in eatingdisorders. These data suggest that more detailed knowledge of eating behavior is an essential component of a full understanding of eatingdisorders and may provide a foundation for studies of pathophysiology and for the development of new treatment methods.
Objective To determine the efficacy of D-cycloserine augmentation of behavioral therapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Data Sources and Study Selection We searched PubMED, PsycINFO and Scopus for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of D-cycloserine augmentation of behavioral therapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders were defined as any disorder categorized as such in DSM-IV-TR. Data Extraction We used a random effects model to calculate the standardized mean difference of change in anxiety rating scales of D-cycloserine augmentation compared to placebo, which was our primary outcome measure. We used subgroup analysis and meta-regression to examine the effects of D-cycloserine timing and dosage, diagnostic indication, number of therapy sessions and trial methodological quality on D-cycloserine efficacy. Results Meta-analysis of nine trials involving 273 subjects demonstrated a significant benefit from D-cycloserine augmentation (SMD=0.46 (95% CI: 0.15–0.77), z=2.89, p=0.004). There was no evidence of publication bias but a moderate, non-significant degree of heterogeneity between trials (I2=36%, Q=12.6, df=8, p=0.12). Secondary analyses yielded no significant findings. Conclusions D-cycloserine appears to be an effective augmentation agent that enhances the effects of behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In contrast to a previous meta-analysis that examined D-cycloserine’s effects in both animals and humans, we found no evidence of an effect of dose number, dose timing and dosage of D-cycloserine on reported efficacy in the ranges studied.
Bontempo, Allyson; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Bloch, Michael H.
|The authors review research on risk factors for eatingdisorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major…
Eatingdisorders (EDs) are representative of the relationship between psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders and have complex interactions in the body, mind, and brain. The psychosomatic issues of EDs emerge in the alterations of the body and its functioning, in personality traits, in the difficulty of recognizing and coping with emotions, and in the management of anger and impulsiveness. The Diagnostic
Forty-third monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Eatingdisorders often begin in adolescence and can last a lifetime. They are psychiatric disorders and their treatment is very difficult. New clinical experience points to a crucial component - family.
To assess sexuality, personality, and eating pathology in women with eatingdisorders (EDs), we asked a random sample of 234 clinicians to describe an ED patient (age 16–65). Restricting AN patients tended to be childlike and prim\\/proper, while BN patients tended to be flirtatious and promiscuous. A constricted\\/overcontrolled personality predicted a childlike sexuality independent of AN diagnosis, and an undercontrolled,
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eatingdisorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eatingdisorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eatingdisorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eatingdisorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eatingdisorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eatingdisorders. PMID:19932143
Background Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is widely used for preventing bone loss in early breast cancer patients. However, the adverse effects caused by ZOL itself should not be neglected. Musculoskeletal disorders were common after ZOL administration and distressing to the patients. Up to now, no precise estimation of musculoskeletal disorders has been made. Methods Relevant randomized clinical trials were selected by searching the electronic database PubMed, and a meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four trials reported musculoskeletal disorders of ZOL treatment versus no ZOL, including 2684 patients treated with ZOL and 2712 patients without ZOL treatment. Compared to patients without ZOL treatment, patients treated with ZOL had a significantly higher risk of arthralgia (risk ratio (RR): 1.162, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.096-1.232, P = 0.466 for heterogeneity) and bone pain (RR: 1.257, 95% CI: 1.149-1.376, P = 0.193 for heterogeneity). Three clinical trials reported the complications of upfront versus delayed ZOL treatment, including 1091 patients with upfront ZOL and 1110 patients with delayed ZOL. The rate of bone pain in upfront group (119/824) was significantly higher than that in delayed group (74/836) (RR: 1.284, 95% CI: 1.135-1.453, P = 0.460 for heterogeneity). Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggested that treatment with ZOL was significantly associated to the occurrence of arthralgia and bone pain. Moreover, higher rate of bone pain was observed in patients treated with upfront ZOL compared with delayed ZOL treatment. More attentions should be paid to patients treated with ZOL, especially for immediate ZOL. For patients with low risk of osteoporosis, immediate ZOL may be not needed due to additional musculoskeletal disorders and little benefit. Or it can be stopped after the occurrence of these adverse events.
Since the discovery that clomipramine was effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), trials of several different medications for OCD have been published. The question of which agent, if any, is the medication of choice in OCD is of real clinical concern. Published clinical trials were collected using computerized search on MedLine and PsychLit. Trials that met predetermined criteria were included in a meta-analysis. Analyses of variance were used to compare the specific effect sizes of different medications in OCD. In placebo-controlled trials, serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) type had a significant effect on medication effect size, with clomipramine more effective than fluoxetine. Although this finding did not alter when trials were restricted to those with large numbers of subjects (n > 50), the analysis was based on a very limited number of studies. The fact that so few placebo-controlled studies have been done in OCD compromises the findings of this meta-analysis. It would be premature to extrapolate the results to clinical practice, where clomipramine and certain selective SRIs are currently and justifiably used as first-line agents. Nevertheless, the current study supports previous work suggesting that increased serotonergic specificity is not necessarily correlated with greater efficacy in the treatment of OCD. Further head-to-head comparison studies are necessary to confirm or refute this preliminary impression. PMID:7622800
Decisions about the classification of eatingdisorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eatingdisorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM–IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in empirical studies and do not capture the disorders of eating experienced by
Stephen A. Wonderlich; Thomas E. Joiner; Pamela K. Keel; Donald A. Williamson; Ross D. Crosby
This meta-analysis evaluates alterations of neurometabolites in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PubMed was searched to find controlled studies evaluating N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho) and Creatine (Cr) assessed with 1H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder up to September 2010. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate pooled standardized mean differences. I2 statistic was used to quantify inconsistencies. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore potential explanations for inconsistencies. 146 studies with 5643 participants were included in the systematic review. NAA levels were affected in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Decreased levels in the basal ganglia and frontal lobe were the most consistent findings in schizophrenia, decreased levels in the basal ganglia were the most consistent findings in bipolar disorder. Cho and Cr levels were not altered in either disorder. Findings for Cr were most consistent in the thalamus, frontal lobe and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and the basal ganglia and frontal lobe in bipolar disorder. Findings for Cho were most consistent in the thalamus, frontal lobe and anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and basal ganglia in bipolar disorder. Large, carefully designed studies are needed to better estimate the extent of alterations in neurometabolites.
Kraguljac, Nina Vanessa; Reid, Meredith; White, David; Jones, Rebecca; den Hollander, Jan; Lowman, Deborah; Lahti, Adrienne Carol
An eatingdisorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eatingdisorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...
Numerous empirical studies indicate a higher frequency of eatingdisorders such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa in young female diabetic patients compared to the normal population. The comorbidity of the two syndromes usually leads to a continuous metabolic disorder bearing high risks of acute metabolic failure or early microangiopathic lesions. In addition to "restraint eating" as an essential element of diabetic therapy a premorbid neurotic malformation and/or poor coping strategies are further predisposing aspects for the development of an eatingdisorder. The inpatient treatment of a 22 year old patient suffering from both diabetes mellitus and bulimia nervosa demonstrates the association of neurotic malformation, poor coping style and the directive function of diabetic therapy. PMID:8560950
Eatingdisorders are rare in the black population, particularly in black men. A case of an atypical eatingdisorder in a black male adolescent is described. The clinical characteristics of this case are compared with others in the literature.
Lawlor, Brian A.; Burket, Roger C.; Hodgin, Jon A.
Eatingdisorders Basics In-Depth Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Eatingdisorder treatment: Know your options By Mayo Clinic staff ...
|Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of…
|A meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training for children and adolescents with externalizing behaviors and disruptive behavior disorders was conducted with 79 outcome studies conducted between 1966 and 2001. Separate analyses were conducted for studies employing between-subjects, within-subjects, and single-subject…
|A meta-analysis of 16 subjective and objective sleep studies with a sample of 722 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus a control that numbers 638 shows that the children with ADHD are significantly more impaired in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures than their counterpart.|
Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel
|A meta-analysis evaluating the effects of school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted by examining 60 outcome studies between 1996 and 2010 that yielded 85 effect sizes. Separate analyses were performed for studies employing between-subjects, within- subjects, and single-subject experimental…
DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Vilardo, Brigid
Stimulant medication has, for many years, been the pharmacological treatment of choice for children and adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have shown Adderall , to be efficacious for measures of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggression, disruptive behavior, and academic productivity. Although these studies provide useful information for clinicians treating ADHD children and adults, the variability in efficacy among the different types of measures used within each study has not been comprehensively examined. Thus, to provide a clearer picture of what conclusions can be drawn from these studies, we performed a meta-analysis. Data from the six available studies of standard release Adderall show it to be efficacious for symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and aggression, as well as global ratings. Its efficacy was significant for clinician, parent, and teacher ratings, and for both fixed- and best-dose designs. PMID:12142863
Integrated treatment of co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders is defined by the concurrent delivery of treatment for both disorders by a team of providers. This approach is designed to increase effectiveness by minimizing obstacles experienced by individuals who are seeking care for co-occurring disorders. This meta-analysis analyzed the results of several studies conducted in the United States to
Clifton M. Chow; Dow Wieman; Ben Cichocki; Helena Qvicklund; Dorothy Hiersteiner
The objectives of this study were to systematically review and meta-analyze the research literature on the association of\\u000a common neurological disorders and violence. Keywords relating to neurological disorders and violence were searched between\\u000a 1966 and August 2008. Case–control and cohort studies were selected. Odds ratios of violence risk in particular disorders\\u000a compared with controls were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis with
Seena Fazel; Johanna Philipson; Lisa Gardiner; Rowena Merritt; Martin Grann
The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eatingdisorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eatingdisorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eatingdisorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and EatingDisorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eatingdisorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eatingdisorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire
Debate exists in the eatingdisorders field about the fitness to practise of counsellors with eatingdisorder histories (Johnston, Smethurst & Gowers, 2005). Yet despite widespread acknowledgement of the demanding nature of eatingdisorder counselling in general (Zerbe, 2008), almost no research exists about the actual experiences of recovered eatingdisorder counsellors in particular. Using semi-structured interviews this study aimed
Nicola M. Rance; Naomi P. Moller; Barbara A. Douglas
Background In recent years, neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played a significant role in elucidating the neural underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, a detailed understanding of the neural regions implicated in the disorder remains incomplete because of considerable variability in findings across studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify consistent patterns of neural activity across neuroimaging study designs in PTSD to improve understanding of the neurocircuitry of PTSD. Methods We conducted a literature search for PET and fMRI studies of PTSD that were published before February 2011. The article search resulted in 79 functional neuroimaging PTSD studies. Data from 26 PTSD peer-reviewed neuroimaging articles reporting results from 342 adult patients and 342 adult controls were included. Peak activation coordinates from selected articles were used to generate activation likelihood estimate maps separately for symptom provocation and cognitive-emotional studies of PTSD. A separate meta-analysis examined the coupling between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala activity in patients. Results Results demonstrated that the regions most consistently hyperactivated in PTSD patients included mid- and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and when ROI studies were included, bilateral amygdala. By contrast, widespread hypoactivity was observed in PTSD including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, decreased ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity was associated with increased amygdala activity. Conclusions These results provide evidence for a neurocircuitry model of PTSD that emphasizes alteration in neural networks important for salience detection and emotion regulation.
Eatingdisorders, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eatingdisorder, affect approximately 14 million people in the U.S., three-fourths of whom are female. Contrary to popular belief, eatingdisorders affect people of all ages. Women's health nurses can play a vital role in identifying adolescents and women who may be suffering from an eatingdisorder and referring them for specialized treatment. PMID:23957797
Medical history, eating habits, weight, current symptomatology and EDI (EatingDisorders Inventory)-scores of 41 bulimic female patients with and without past training in dancing, who came for treatment to an outpatient clinic, were compared. It was found that both groups of patients were not different for age, age at beginning of bulimia, actual as well as minimal and maximal BMI (Body mass index), length and severity of symptomatology, frequency of bulimic behaviors, and scores on the subscales of the EDI, but it should be noted that these similarities might be in relationship with some methodological shortcomings. Considering the prevalence of bulimia nervosa in women and the high frequency of ballet and sports training in teenagers, some hypotheses about the possible influence of strenuous physical exercise in childhood on the symptomatology and some psychological traits in adults with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eatingdisorder are presented. Further studies, including standardized scales and larger samples, are necessary. PMID:7526458
Archinard, M; Scherer, U; Reverdin, N; Rouget, P; Allaz, A F
In the past 20 to 25 years, a significant amount of research has been directed toward diabetes and eatingdisorders. Evidence from the literature suggests that subclinical eatingdisorders and bulimia nervosa are prevalent in patients with type 1 diabetes, while subclinical and clinical binge eatingdisorders are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Although the determination of
|The majority of our knowledge about eatingdisorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disorderedeating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eatingdisorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…
Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali
|Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eatingdisorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disorderedeating among adolescents. Lists resources for eatingdisorders awareness and prevention. (SR)|
There has recently been more recognition of the deficiencies of the diagnostic systems for eatingdisorders and the importance of the residual category of ‘eatingdisorder not otherwise specified' (EDNOS). When strictly applied, formal diagnostic criteria, such as those of ICD-10 or DSM-IV, exclude many people who are clearly suffering from clinically significant eatingdisorders. Such people are described as
Objective: To examine the efficacy of yoga therapy as a complementary treatment for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data Sources: Eligible trials were identified by a literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Control Trials Register, Google Scholar, and EBSCO on the basis of criteria of acceptable quality and relevance. The search was performed using the following terms: yoga for schizophrenia, yoga for depression, yoga for anxiety, yoga for PTSD, yoga therapy, yoga for psychiatric disorders, complementary treatment, and efficacy of yoga therapy. Trials both unpublished and published with no limitation placed on year of publication were included; however, the oldest article included in the final meta-analysis was published in 2000. Study Selection: All available randomized, controlled trials of yoga for the treatment of mental illness were reviewed, and 10 studies were eligible for inclusion. As very few randomized, controlled studies have examined yoga for mental illness, this meta-analysis includes studies with participants who were diagnosed with mental illness, as well as studies with participants who were not diagnosed with mental illness but reported symptoms of mental illness. Trials were excluded due to the following: (1) insufficient information, (2) inadequate statistical analysis, (3) yoga was not the central component of the intervention, (4) subjects were not diagnosed with or did not report experiencing symptoms of one of the psychiatric disorders of interest (ie, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and PTSD), (5) study was not reported in English, and (6) study did not include a control group. Data Extraction: Data were extracted on participant diagnosis, inclusion criteria, treatment and control groups, duration of intervention, and results (pre-post mean and standard deviations, t values, and f values). Number, age, and sex ratio of participants were also obtained when available. Data Synthesis: The combined analysis of all 10 studies provided a pooled effect size of ?3.25 (95% CI, ?5.36 to ?1.14; P = .002), indicating that yoga-based interventions have a statistically significant effect as an adjunct treatment for major psychiatric disorders. Findings in support of alternative and complementary interventions may especially be an aid in the treatment of disorders for which current treatments are found to be inadequate or to carry severe liabilities. Conclusions: As current psychopharmacologic interventions for severe mental illness are associated with increased risk of weight gain as well as other metabolic side effects that increase patients’ risk for cardiovascular disease, yoga may be an effective, far less toxic adjunct treatment option for severe mental illness.
Obsessions, compulsions, and personality traits such as perfectionism and inflexibility are commonly described in eatingdisorder patients. A lack of precise clarification has existed in defining the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in the various eatingdisorder subtypes. Research clarifying these definitions and the components of perfectionism as it pertains to eatingdisorders is reviewed in this
The objective of this study was to develop first aid guidelines, based on expert consensus, that provide members of the community with information on how to assist someone who is thought to be developing or experiencing an eatingdisorder. An online Delphi study was carried out with expert panels consisting of 36 clinicians, 27 care-givers and 22 consumers. The panel
Laura M. Hart; Anthony F. Jorm; Susan J. Paxton; Claire M. Kelly; Betty A. Kitchener
Behavioral conceptualizations of anorexia nervosa and bulimia emphasize the notion that the symptoms of these disorders are acquired through processes of conditioning or learning. Behavioral therapy interventions have largely focused on reduction of the phobic-like anxiety associated with eating and weight gain, along with \\
Two national survey from the early 1960s indicate that the prevalence of obesity is directly related to the amount of time spent in viewing television in young people aged 6 to 17 years. The author discusses the mechanisms by which television affects obesity and other eatingdisorders. PMID:10356231
School prevention programs for teenage eatingdisorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…
Objectives: This study attempts to understand the clinical impact of marital status on the psychopathology and symptomatology of anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. Method: Eatingdisorder (ED) patients (n=332, 198 BN and 134 AN) consecutively admitted to our unit participated in the study. All subjects met DSM-IV criteria for those pathologies and were female. Our sample was divided
Debora Bussolotti; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Raquel Solano; Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Vicente Turón; Julio Vallejo
|Examines anorexia nervosa, an eatingdisorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…
Examines anorexia nervosa, an eatingdisorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…
Research evidence and clinical experience both indicate an increase in the incidence of eatingdisorders, particularly in younger children, including males under 14 years of age. Current health education material promotes diets low in fat and cholesterol as generally beneficial but generally does not report research evidence suggesting tentative links between such diets and increased aggression, depression and suicide. Animal
Background Little is known about the extent to which being a victim of domestic violence is associated with different mental disorders in men and women. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of being a victim of domestic violence by diagnostic category and sex. Methods Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources: Eighteen biomedical and social sciences databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO); journal hand searches; scrutiny of references and citation tracking of included articles; expert recommendations, and an update of a systematic review on victimisation and mental disorder. Inclusion criteria: observational and intervention studies reporting prevalence or odds of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women (aged ?16 years), using validated diagnostic measures of mental disorder. Procedure: Data were extracted and study quality independently appraised by two reviewers. Analysis: Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool estimates of prevalence and odds. Results Forty-one studies were included. There is a higher risk of experiencing adult lifetime partner violence among women with depressive disorders (OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.96–3.92), anxiety disorders (OR 4.08 (95% CI 2.39–6.97), and PTSD (OR 7.34 95% CI 4.50–11.98), compared to women without mental disorders. Insufficient data were available to calculate pooled odds for other mental disorders, family violence (i.e. violence perpetrated by a non-partner), or violence experienced by men. Individual studies reported increased odds for women and men for all diagnostic categories, including psychoses, with a higher prevalence reported for women. Few longitudinal studies were found so the direction of causality could not be investigated. Conclusions There is a high prevalence and increased likelihood of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women across all diagnostic categories, compared to people without disorders. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify pathways to being a victim of domestic violence to optimise healthcare responses.
Trevillion, Kylee; Oram, Sian; Feder, Gene; Howard, Louise M.
Serious mental disorders have considerable individual and societal impact, and traditional treatments may show limited effects. Music therapy may be beneficial in psychosis and depression, including treatment-resistant cases. The aim of this review was to examine the benefits of music therapy for people with serious mental disorders. All existing prospective studies were combined using mixed-effects meta-analysis models, allowing to examine
Christian Gold; Hans Petter Solli; Viggo Krüger; Stein Atle Lie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex disorder with a partly genetic etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study of the MDD2000+ sample (2431 cases, 3673 screened controls and >1 M imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance either in the MDD2000+ study, or in meta-analysis with two other studies totaling 5763 cases and 6901 controls. These
N R Wray; M L Pergadia; D H R Blackwood; B W J H Penninx; S D Gordon; D R Nyholt; S Ripke; D J MacIntyre; K A McGhee; A W Maclean; J H Smit; J J Hottenga; G Willemsen; C M Middeldorp; E J C de Geus; C M Lewis; P McGuffin; I B Hickie; E J C G van den Oord; J Z Liu; S Macgregor; B P McEvoy; E M Byrne; S E Medland; D J Statham; A K Henders; A C Heath; G W Montgomery; N G Martin; D I Boomsma; P A F Madden; P F Sullivan
An addiction model of both eatingdisorders and obesity has received increasing attention in the popular and scientific literature. The addiction is viewed as a brain disease that must be directly targeted if treatment is to succeed. Evidence from laboratory feeding studies, epidemiology, genetic and familial research, psychopathological mechanisms, and treatment outcome research on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is inconsistent with the clinical validity or utility of the addiction model of eatingdisorders. Neurobiological research has shown commonalities in brain reward processes between obesity and substance abuse disorders. Yet emphasis on apparent similarities overlooks important differences between obesity and drug addiction. Interest in obesity as a brain disease should not detract from a public health focus on the 'toxic food environment' that is arguably responsible for the obesity epidemic and related nutrition-based chronic disease. PMID:20821736
|Eatingdisorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eatingdisorders. Eatingdisorders frequently co-occur with…
The current study sought to better characterize eating behavior, binge-eating behavior, and other potentially problematic, distracting behaviors while driving in patients with eatingdisorders. Forty patients with eatingdisorders who reported eating in their car at least once per week were included. Thirty subjects with eatingdisorders reported binge-eating while driving. A surprisingly high number of subjects reported engaging in
John Glass; James E Mitchell; Martina de Zwaan; Steve Wonderlich; Ross D Crosby; James Roerig; Melissa Burgard; Kathryn Lancaster; Janeen Voxland
The objective of this systematic review was to compare the results of studies of Internet-based eatingdisorder prevention programs. Eight electronic bibliographic databases, three key journals, and study reference lists were searched. This method yielded five published studies: four experimental and one quasi-experimental. A meta-analysis of the study results indicated no statistical significance for pooled study outcome data. No robust
This pamphlet presents facts about eatingdisorders such as: binge-eatingdisorder; anorexia nervosa; and bulimia nervosa - and the search for solutions to these disorders. It also discusses treatments and research directions.
The purpose of the following study was to examine the relationship between participation in athletic and exercise activities and eatingdisordered behavior among a college student population. A sample of 853 undergraduate students completed the EAT-26 and indicated participation in athletic activities to determine eatingdisorder-related dieting and exercise attitudes and behaviors. Results demonstrate that participation in recreational activities correlates
This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eatingdisorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eatingdisorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…
Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.
Objective: To describe menstrual dis- turbance in eatingdisorders (ED). Method: We describe menstrual history in 1,705 women and compare eating, weight, and psychopathological traits across menstrual groups. Results: Menstrual dysfunction occurred across all eatingdisorder subtypes. Indi- viduals with normal menstrual history and primary amenorrhea reported the highest and lowest lifetime body mass index (BMI), respectively. Normal men- struation
Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro; Laura M. Thornton; Katherine H. Plotonicov; Federica Tozzi; Kelly L. Klump; Wade H. Berrettini; Harry Brandt; Steven Crawford; Scott Crow; Manfred M. Fichter; David Goldman; Katherine A. Halmi; Craig Johnson; Allan S. Kaplan; Pamela Keel; Maria LaVia; James Mitchell; Alessandro Rotondo; Michael Strober; Janet Treasure; D. Blake Woodside; Ann Von Holle; Robert Hamer; Walter H. Kaye; Cynthia M. Bulik
|This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eatingdisorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eatingdisorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…
Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.
|Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eatingdisorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eatingdisorders. (SLD)|
Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eatingdisorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eatingdisorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eatingdisorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eatingdisorders. PMID:22930387
Mindfulness- based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a meditation program based on an integration of Cognitive behavioural therapy and Mindfulness-based stress reduction. The aim of the present work is to review and conduct a meta-analysis of the current findings about the efficacy of MBCT for psychiatric patients. A literature search was undertaken using five electronic databases and references of retrieved articles. Main findings included the following: 1) MBCT in adjunct to usual care was significantly better than usual care alone for reducing major depression (MD) relapses in patients with three or more prior depressive episodes (4 studies), 2) MBCT plus gradual discontinuation of maintenance ADs was associated to similar relapse rates at 1year as compared with continuation of maintenance antidepressants (1 study), 3) the augmentation of MBCT could be useful for reducing residual depressive symptoms in patients with MD (2 studies) and for reducing anxiety symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder in remission (1 study) and in patients with some anxiety disorders (2 studies). However, several methodological shortcomings including small sample sizes, non-randomized design of some studies and the absence of studies comparing MBCT to control groups designed to distinguish specific from non-specific effects of such practice underscore the necessity for further research. PMID:20846726
A recent genome-wide association study in patients with panic disorder (PD) identified a risk haplotype consisting of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7309727 and rs11060369) located in intron 3 of TMEM132D to be associated with PD in three independent samples. Now we report a subsequent confirmation study using five additional PD case–control samples (n=1670 cases and n=2266 controls) assembled as part of the Panic Disorder International Consortium (PanIC) study for a total of 2678 cases and 3262 controls in the analysis. In the new independent samples of European ancestry (EA), the association of rs7309727 and the risk haplotype rs7309727–rs11060369 was, indeed, replicated, with the strongest signal coming from patients with primary PD, that is, patients without major psychiatric comorbidities (n=1038 cases and n=2411 controls). This finding was paralleled by the results of the meta-analysis across all samples, in which the risk haplotype and rs7309727 reached P-levels of P=1.4e?8 and P=1.1e?8, respectively, when restricting the samples to individuals of EA with primary PD. In the Japanese sample no associations with PD could be found. The present results support the initial finding that TMEM132D gene contributes to genetic susceptibility for PD in individuals of EA. Our results also indicate that patient ascertainment and genetic background could be important sources of heterogeneity modifying this association signal in different populations.
Erhardt, A; Akula, N; Schumacher, J; Czamara, D; Karbalai, N; Muller-Myhsok, B; Mors, O; Borglum, A; Kristensen, A S; Woldbye, D P D; Koefoed, P; Eriksson, E; Maron, E; Metspalu, A; Nurnberger, J; Philibert, R A; Kennedy, J; Domschke, K; Reif, A; Deckert, J; Otowa, T; Kawamura, Y; Kaiya, H; Okazaki, Y; Tanii, H; Tokunaga, K; Sasaki, T; Ioannidis, J P A; McMahon, F J; Binder, E B
Because methylphenidate is currently the most widely prescribed medication for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, several studies have used it as the active comparator medication for evaluating the efficacy of a newer stimulant, Adderall. These prior studies show Adderall to be superior to placebo and suggest it is at least as effective as the standard-release form of methylphenidate and has a longer duration of action. Although these initial studies provide useful information for clinicians treating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, they are difficult to interpret because findings vary among studies and among the different types of measures used within each study. To provide a clearer picture of what conclusions can be drawn from these studies, we performed a meta-analysis. Data from the four available studies suggest that Adderall has a small but statistically significant advantage over the standard-release form of methylphenidate. This advantage was observed for both symptom measures and global ratings but was strongest for global ratings. The effect of Adderall was significant for clinician and parent ratings but not for teacher ratings and was significant for both fixed-dose and best-dose designs. PMID:12352269
Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph; Roe, Christine
OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the evidence for an association between sexual abuse and a lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search (from January 1980-December 2008, all age groups, any language, any population) of 9 databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents, PsycINFO, ACP Journal Club, CCTR, CDSR, and DARE. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords was used to define the concept areas of sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders and was limited to epidemiological studies. Six independent reviewers extracted descriptive, quality, and outcome data from eligible longitudinal studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled across studies by using the random-effects model. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: The search yielded 37 eligible studies, 17 case-control and 20 cohort, with 3,162,318 participants. There was a statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a lifetime diagnosis of anxiety disorder (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 2.43-3.94), depression (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 2.14-3.30), eatingdisorders (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 2.04-3.63), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.59-3.43), sleep disorders (OR, 16.17; 95% CI, 2.06-126.76), and suicide attempts (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.98-5.76). Associations persisted regardless of the victim's sex or the age at which abuse occurred. There was no statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a diagnosis of schizophrenia or somatoform disorders. No longitudinal studies that assessed bipolar disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder were found. Associations between sexual abuse and depression, eatingdisorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder were strengthened by a history of rape. CONCLUSION: A history of sexual abuse is associated with an increased risk of a lifetime diagnosis of multiple psychiatric disorders.
Chen, Laura P.; Murad, M. Hassan; Paras, Molly L.; Colbenson, Kristina M.; Sattler, Amelia L.; Goranson, Erin N.; Elamin, Mohamed B.; Seime, Richard J.; Shinozaki, Gen; Prokop, Larry J.; Zirakzadeh, Ali
Eatingdisorders (EDs) are a group of severely impaired eating behaviors, which include three subgroups: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future.
The nosology of mental disorders inevitably dithers between the wish to delineate useful categories and the hope of discovering natural kinds. It would be good to achieve both but each aspiration alone is elusive enough. Indeed, some would reckon the second hope to be forlorn and there has been a tendency to emphasise the pragmatic and the descriptive. The current
... all the symptoms of anorexia or bulimia, that person may be diagnosed with eatingdisorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The following section lists examples of how an individual may have a profound eating problem and not have anorexia nervosa ...
This study aimed to explore experiences of men currently using eatingdisorder services. Eight men from two eatingdisorder services were interviewed about their experiences of seeking and receiving treatment. Two superordinate themes emerged from Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: (1) difficulty seeing self as having an eatingdisorder; and (2) experiences of treatment: how important is gender? The underlying themes varied in their specificity to men, with some echoing findings from the female eatingdisorder literature. Difficulty admitting the eatingdisorder may link with eatingdisorder psychopathology as well as gender-specific issues. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:22453166
Robinson, Kate J; Mountford, Victoria A; Sperlinger, David J
The aim of the present study was to determine the factors controlling leptin secretion and to clarify the role of leptin in eatingdisorders. The subjects were 152 eating-disordered women with different fat mass, eating behavior, and endocrine abnormalities and 24 age-matched control subjects. The body fat mass, eating behavior score, and plasma leptin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),
Anorexia and bulimia are eatingdisorders affecting a significant number of adolescent and young adult women. The core symptoms of both disorders are similar and include a fear of obesity, body image disturbance, erratic eating patterns, and purging. These symptoms produce significant physical and psychologic complications. Both anorexia and bulimia appear to have a common origin in a fear of obesity and dieting. Anorectics, being "successful" dieters, lose a significant amount of weight; whereas bulimics alternate between binges and purges. Treatment for the eatingdisorders is gradually evolving as clinical research experience accumulates. For anorexia, hospitalization is indicated when weight falls below 15% of ideal, and most investigators agree that therapy for the core symptoms cannot be undertaken until weight is restored. During the impatient stay, a behavior modification program can effectively organize medical, nutritional, and psychologic support, and offers the quickest and most direct route to weight restoration. The nasogastric tube and total parenteral nutrition are used primarily for those who are severely emaciated or who actively resist standard modes of therapy. Inpatient treatment is most effectively and efficiently rendered in a specialized eatingdisorder unit. Once weight restoration is progressing, behavior therapy for core symptoms is commenced and continued on an outpatient basis. A variety of behavioral techniques are employed, and they are designed primarily to influence anorectic assumptions and beliefs. Although there may be a brief inpatient stay for initiation of treatment, the bulk of therapy for bulimia occurs on an outpatient basis. The available literature indicates that behavioral techniques and antidepressant medication are effective for the symptoms of bulimia. Early identification of core symptoms of both disorders can lead to an initiation of treatment before the core symptoms become ingrained. A potentially more effective intervention lies in efforts to influence the media. As noted, standards for feminine beauty as portrayed in the media have changed significantly over the past 20 years. An attempt at the primary prevention of eatingdisorders would include efforts to convince the media to change their standards of femininity from cosmetic slimness to a focus on health and physical fitness. These efforts could stem from professional and lay organizations who have the interest and capability to influence policy. PMID:3863731
The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of breastfeeding in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eatingdisorder and eatingdisorders not otherwise specified - purging subtype, with mothers with no eatingdisorders during the first 6 months after birth. The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Questionnaire-based information on eatingdisorder diagnoses and breastfeeding in 39?355 women was used to estimate the risk of cessation of breastfeeding with Cox proportional hazards regression. Almost all women (98%) initially breastfeed their infants, with no statistically significant difference between the eatingdisorders subgroups and women with no eatingdisorders. However, the risk of early cessation before 6 months post-partum increased for all subgroups of mothers with eatingdisorders, compared with mothers with no eatingdisorders. After adjusting for maternal body mass index, age, education, birthweight and pre-term birth, only mothers with anorexia nervosa [hazard ratios (HR), 2.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-4.53] and eatingdisorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype (HR, 1.95; 95% CI 1.08-3.53) had increased risk for cessation of breastfeeding There were no differences in the risk of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. These results show that some eatingdisorders may influence mothers' early feeding practices and indicate that additional support may be necessary to assist women with anorexia nervosa in maintaining breastfeeding. PMID:20929496
Torgersen, Leila; Ystrom, Eivind; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Von Holle, Ann; Berg, Cecilie Knoph; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eatingdisorders not otherwise specified have a significant impact on the health care and childbearing outcomes of the female population. Primary care contact for gynecologic care, childbearing, or infertility can serve as a critical entry point for the initial recognition of potentially devastating disorders that may result in permanent impairment and/or chronic debilitation. This review addresses the nature and prevalence of eatingdisorders and the management of pregnancy complicated by an active eatingdisorder or a history of an eatingdisorder. Genetic influences and intergenerational transmission of eatingdisorders are discussed. Finally, the increased risk for postpartum depression among women with a current or past eatingdisorder is examined. Factors critical to improving pregnancy outcome and reducing the risk for exacerbation or relapse in the postpartum period are identified. PMID:16647671
It has been hypothesized that college women are particularly susceptible to the development and maintenance of disturbed eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of disorderedeating attitudes and eatingdisorders in a sample of Turkish female college students. The Eating Attitudes Test was administered to a sample of 414 female college students. The subjects
This Web site is the online companion to the PBS documentary of the same name, which aired February 24, 2003, as part of EatingDisorders Awareness Week. With this "hidden epidemic" affecting millions of people in the US alone, especially young women, this site provides a valuable resource for those wishing to learn more about three common eatingdisorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eatingdisorder. In addition to presenting detailed information for each disorder -- including symptoms, health consequences, and prevention -- the Web site supplies information for seeking help, and other resources such as personal stories from eatingdisorder sufferers and survivors.
Social skills deficits are a central feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis of 55 single-subject design studies examined the effectiveness of school-based social skills interventions for children and adolescents with ASD. Interven- tion, maintenance, and generalization effects were measured by computing the percentage of non-overlapping data points. The results suggest that social skills interventions have been minimally effective
SCOTT BELLINI; JESSICA K. PETERS; LAUREN BENNER; ANDREA HOPF
There have been conflicting reports on the association between the Val158\\/108Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore we would like to perform a meta-analysis of previous studies to assess the overall magnitude and significance of the association. Family-based and case–control studies of the association between the COMT gene polymorphism and ADHD were searched
Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the most investigated biological risk marker in functional somatic disorders (FSDs), such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aim was to assess whether there is an association between basal hypocortisolism and FSD and to identify potential moderators of this association. Meta-analysis on 85 studies revealed that
Lineke M. Tak; Anthony J. Cleare; Johan Ormel; Andiappan Manoharan; Iris C. Kok; Simon Wessely; Judith G. M. Rosmalen
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant impairment and lowered quality of life. The emotional Stroop task (EST) has been one means of elucidating some of the core deficits in PTSD, but this literature has remained inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of EST studies in PTSD populations in order to synthesize this body of research. Twenty-six studies were included with 538 PTSD participants, 254 non-trauma exposed control participants (NTC), and 276 trauma exposed control participants (TC). PTSD-relevant words impaired EST performance more among PTSD groups and TC groups compared to NTC groups. PTSD groups and TC groups did not differ. When examining within-subject effect sizes, PTSD-relevant words and generally threatening words impaired EST performance relative to neutral words among PTSD groups, and only PTSD-relevant words impaired performance among the TC groups. These patterns were not found among the NTC groups. Moderator analyses suggested that these effects were significantly greater in blocked designs compared to randomized designs, towards unmasked compared to masked stimuli, and among samples exposed to assaultive traumas compared to samples exposed to non-assaultive traumas. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
Cisler, Josh M.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Adams, Thomas G.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Badour, Christal L.; Willems, Jeffrey L.
Context Impaired social cognition is a cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). However, the functional neuroanatomy of social cognition in either disorder remains unclear due to variability in primary literature. Additionally, it is not known whether deficits in ASD and SZ arise from similar or disease-specific disruption of the social cognition network. Objective To identify regions most robustly implicated in social cognition processing in SZ and ASD. Data Sources Systematic review of English language articles using MEDLINE (1995–2010) and reference lists. Study Selection Studies were required to use fMRI to compare ASD or SZ subjects to a matched healthy control group, provide coordinates in standard stereotactic space, and employ standardized facial emotion recognition (FER) or theory of mind (TOM) paradigms. Data Extraction Activation foci from studies meeting inclusion criteria (n?=?33) were subjected to a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation, and encompassed 146 subjects with ASD, 336 SZ patients and 492 healthy controls. Results Both SZ and ASD showed medial prefrontal hypoactivation, which was more pronounced in ASD, while ventrolateral prefrontal dysfunction was associated mostly with SZ. Amygdala hypoactivation was observed in SZ patients during FER and in ASD during more complex ToM tasks. Both disorders were associated with hypoactivation within the Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) during ToM tasks, but activation in these regions was increased in ASD during affect processing. Disease-specific differences were noted in somatosensory engagement, which was increased in SZ and decreased in ASD. Reduced thalamic activation was uniquely seen in SZ. Conclusions Reduced frontolimbic and STS engagement emerged as a shared feature of social cognition deficits in SZ and ASD. However, there were disease- and stimulus-specific differences. These findings may aid future studies on SZ and ASD and facilitate the formulation of new hypotheses regarding their pathophysiology.
Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eatingdisorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eatingdisorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eatingdisorders…
Athletes risk injuries and make personal sacrifices in their education, careers, and personal relationships in pursuit of excellence. Well-prepared athletes and their support teams take steps to minimize these risks. Since the 1980s, it has been apparent that development of an eatingdisorder is a risk associated with considerable morbidity and significant mortality, and with shorter careers characterized by inconsistency and recurrent injury. How likely is it that an athlete will develop an eatingdisorder? Who is at risk? Can eatingdisorders be prevented? How can eatingdisorders be identified? What are the consequences of developing an eatingdisorder? What can be done to help an athlete who has an eatingdisorder? This article attempts to answer these questions. PMID:16169451
|School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disorderedeating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disorderedeating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered…
|Decisions about the classification of eatingdisorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eatingdisorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…
Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.
Two types of eatingdisorders, bulimia nervosa in normal-weight bulimic (NWB) women and restricting-type anorexia nervosa (RAN), may provide insights into permissive or protective factors contributing to psychoactive substance use disorders (PSUD) in humans. These two eatingdisorders, while often grouped together, are at opposite extremes for rate of PSUD. Substance abuse is common in NWB patients and their family
School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disorderedeating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disorderedeating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered…
Decisions about the classification of eatingdisorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eatingdisorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…
Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.
Eatingdisorders are a prevalent and serious health problem in the United States. Eatingdisorders are generally associated with young women. However, people are less aware of eatingdisorders among male; thus, there are fewer studies done on this issue and fewer eatingdisorder prevention programs for males. This study investigates men's attitudes regarding awareness and knowledge of eatingdisorders
Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eatingdisorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eatingdisorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eatingdisorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa,
Eatingdisorders are most often diagnosed during the childbearing years. Pregnancy and postpartum issues for women with eating\\u000a disorders are discussed with regard to symptoms, complications, course of pregnancy, delivery, breast-feeding, and postpartum\\u000a depression (PPD). Research findings indicate that women with eatingdisorders during pregnancy may be at risk for a variety\\u000a of pregnancy and obstetric complications. Moreover, there appears
Problem dietary patterns in adolescent girls could lead to poor nutrient intake and subsequent adverse health effects. Little is known about actual food intake patterns of those with subclinical eatingdisorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships between food intake patterns of adolescent girls and indicators of problem eating behaviors. Nine hundred eighty adolescent girls (X
M. K. Hoy; I. Contento; J. Books-Gunn; J. Graber; M. P. Warren
The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eatingdisorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes
Obsessions, compulsions, and personality traits such as perfectionism and inflexibility are commonly described in eatingdisorder patients. A lack of precise clarification has existed in defining the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in the various eatingdisorder subtypes. Research clarifying these definitions and the components of perfectionism as it pertains to eatingdisorders is reviewed in this article. PMID:16864333
Objective: This study examines potential overlaps between psychiatric comorbidity (Axis I and II) and scores on the subscales of the EatingDisorder Inventory (EDI) in women with eatingdisorders (EDs). Method: In a sample of 248 women (72 with anorexia nervosa, 140 with bulimia nervosa, and 36 with eatingdisorders not otherwise specified), we determined psychiatric comorbidity using the Structured
|Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…
Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael
Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…
Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael
Objective Research has consistently shown that anxiety disorders are common among individuals with eatingdisorders. Although social phobia has been found to be highly associated with eatingdisorders, less is known about social anxiety in individuals with binge eatingdisorder (BED). The present study examined associations between social anxiety and self-consciousness with BMI and eating-disorder psychopathology in BED. Methods Participants were 113 overweight or obese treatment seeking men and women with BED. Participants were administered semi-structural diagnostic clinical interviews and completed a battery of self-report measures. Results Social anxiety was positively and significantly correlated with shape- and weight-concerns, and binge eating frequency. After accounting for depressive levels, social anxiety and self-consciousness accounted for significant variance in eating-, shape-, and weight-concerns and overall eating-disorder global severity scores (EatingDisorder Examination). Social anxiety also accounted for significant variance in binge eating frequency after co-varying for depressive levels. Social anxiety and self-consciousness were not significantly associated with BMI or dietary restraint. Discussion Our findings suggest that greater social anxiety and heightened self-consciousness are associated with greater eatingdisorder psychopathology, most notably with greater shape- and weight-concerns and binge eating frequency in patients with BED. Social anxiety and self-consciousness do not appear to be merely functions of excess weight, and future research should examine whether they contribute to the maintenance of binge eating and associated eating-disorder psychopathology.
Sawaoka, Takuya; Barnes, Rachel D.; Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.
We compared symptom patterns, severity of illness, and comorbidity in individuals with eatingdisorders with and without impulse control disorders (ICD), and documented the temporal pattern of illness onset. Lifetime ICD were present in 16.6% of 709 women with a history of eatingdisorders. The most common syndromes were compulsive buying disorder and kleptomania. ICD occurred more in individuals with
Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro; Laura M. Thornton; Wade H. Berrettini; Scott Crow; Manfred M. Fichter; Katherine A. Halmi; Allan S. Kaplan; Pamela Keel; James Mitchell; Alessandro Rotondo; Michael Strober; D. Blake Woodside; Walter H. Kaye; Cynthia M. Bulik
|Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eatingdisorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eatingdisorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating…
Eatingdisorders commonly develop during adolescence. In order to devise a prevention\\/education program, it is necessary to assess the presence of eatingdisordered behaviors in this population. The Kids’ EatingDisorders Survey (KEDS) was used to gather data on body dissatisfaction, exercise and eating habits and restricting\\/purging behaviors. School and health professionals administered the self-report questionnaire to eighth grade students
Summary The present study examined the prevalence of eatingdisorders in a male representative random sample in Tyrol. The data\\u000a were collected by telephone. Of the 1000 men, 8 (0.8%) met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for binge eatingdisorder. An additional\\u000a 42 subjects (4.2%) exhibited a partial binge eating syndrome. These two otherwise widely identical groups of binge eaters\\u000a were
J. F. Kinzl; C. Traweger; E. Trefalt; B. Mangweth; W. Biebl
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extremely obese binge eatingdisorder (BED) subjects (BED defined by the EatingDisorder Examination) differ from their extremely obese non-BED counterparts in terms of their eating disturbances, psychiatric morbidity and health status.DESIGN: Prospective clinical comparison of BED and non-BED subjects undergoing gastric bypass surgery (GBP).SUBJECTS: Thirty seven extremely obese (defined as BMI ?40 kg\\/m2) subjects (31
LKG Hsu; B Mulliken; B McDonagh; S Krupa Das; W Rand; CG Fairburn; B Rolls; MA McCrory; E Saltzman; S Shikora; J Dwyer; S Roberts
Although co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with greater distress, impairment, and health care utilization than PTSD alone, the magnitude of this problem is uncertain. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the mean prevalence of current MDD co-occurrence among individuals with PTSD and examine potential moderating variables (U.S. nationality, gender, trauma type, military service, referral type) that may influence the rate of PTSD and MDD co-occurrence. Meta-analytic findings (k = 57 studies; N = 6,670 participants) revealed that 52%, 95% confidence interval [48, 56], of individuals with current PTSD had co-occurring MDD. When outliers were removed, military samples and interpersonal traumas demonstrated higher rates of MDD among individuals with PTSD than civilian samples and natural disasters, respectively. U.S. nationality, gender, and referral type did not significantly account for differences in co-occurrence rates. This high co-occurrence rate accentuates the importance of routinely assessing MDD among individuals with PTSD and continuing research into the association between these disorders. PMID:23696449
Rytwinski, Nina K; Scur, Michael D; Feeny, Norah C; Youngstrom, Eric A
Medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been well researched, but comparisons among agents are hindered by the absence of head-to-head clinical trials. By using meta-analysis, we sought to compare the efficacy of these medications for the symptoms of ADHD. We analyzed published literature on the pharmacotherapy of ADHD to describe the variability of drug–placebo effect sizes and conducted a literature search to identify double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of youths with ADHD that were published after 1979. Meta-analysis regression was used to assess the influence of the medication type on drug effects. We also assessed for publication bias. Thirty-two trials met our criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. These trials involved 16 drugs using 20 different outcome measures of ADHD behaviors. The effect sizes for immediate-release stimulants and long-acting stimulants were similar and were greater than the effect sizes for non-stimulants. There was no evidence of publication bias. Although nearly all of the ADHD medications had significant effects, we found substantial variability. When translated into the costs of treating large numbers of patients, these effect sizes have implications for formulary medication choices.
Eatingdisorders, particularly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are significant causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. Eat- ing disorders are associated with devastating medical and psychologic consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Prompt diag- nosis is linked to better outcomes. A good medical history is the most powerful tool. Simple screening questions,
The most common eatingdisorder in the elderly in both community and hospital settings is food refusal. This may lead to weight loss and malnutrition with all the adverse consequences on independence and function. The management of disorders of eating in the elderly is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, requiring the combined skills of the medical and nursing staff. The
|Binge eatingdisorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eatingdisorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…
|Objective: Eatingdisorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disorderedeating. The…
Although various factors associated with eatingdisorders have been studied, no comprehensive source of research findings was identified in this review. The purpose of this study was to identify and synthesize research findings of factors associated with eatingdisorders in women published from 1992-2008. These findings may be useful to nurses, other professionals, families, and the public to facilitate the
Categorical models dominate the eatingdisorder field, but the tandem use of categorical and dimensional models has been proposed. A transdiagnostic dimensional model, number of lifetime eatingdisorder behaviors (LEDB), was examined with respect to (1) its relationship to a variety of indicators of the individual's func- tioning, (2) the degree to which it was influenced by genetic and environmental
Tracey D. Wade; Jacqueline L. Bergin; Nicholas G. Martin; Nathan A. Gillespie; Christopher G. Fairburn
The current review aims to evaluate the literature on eatingdisorders and athletes with the purpose of making recommendations for sport psychologists and other relevant personnel on how to proceed in identifying, managing, and preventing eatingdisorders in school settings. Whereas the intention of this review is to make recommendations for secondary educational settings, research on other populations such as
Objective: Eatingdisorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disorderedeating. The…
This study evaluated the use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) adapted for binge eatingdisorder (BED). Women with BED (N = 44) were randomly assigned to group DBT or to a wait-list control condition and were administered the EatingDisorder Examination in addition to measures of weight, mood, and affect regulation at baseline and posttreatment. Treated women evidenced significant improvement
Christy F. Telch; W. Stewart Agras; Marsha M. Linehan
Fashion models are thought to be at an elevated risk for eatingdisorders, but few methodologically rigorous studies have explored this assumption. We have investigated the prevalence of eatingdisorders in a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia, Italy, comparing them with a group of 110 girls of the same age and of comparable social and cultural backgrounds.
Antonio Preti; Ambra Usai; Paola Miotto; Donatella Rita Petretto; Carmelo Masala
|Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…
Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eatingdisorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exacerbates risk for developing eatingdisorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a battery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disorderedeating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implications for designing early interventions for disorderedeating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disorderedeating who also report high levels of perfectionism. PMID:23121786
Brown, Amanda Joelle; Parman, Kortney M; Rudat, Deirdre A; Craighead, Linda W
Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eatingdisorders and disorderedeating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,…
There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk\\u000a of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this\\u000a population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature\\u000a identified 31 studies involving
Francisca J. A. van Steensel; Susan M. Bögels; Sean Perrin
Mindfulness- based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a meditation program based on an integration of Cognitive behavioural therapy and Mindfulness-based stress reduction. The aim of the present work is to review and conduct a meta-analysis of the current findings about the efficacy of MBCT for psychiatric patients. A literature search was undertaken using five electronic databases and references of retrieved articles.
|A meta-analysis of single-subject research was conducted, examining the use of Social Stories[TM] and the role of a comprehensive set of moderator variables (intervention and participant characteristics) on intervention outcomes. While Social Stories had low to questionable overall effectiveness, they were more effective when addressing…
|This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated interventions for promoting social interactions among children from birth to eight years of age diagnosed with ASD. Forty-five single-subject design studies were analyzed and the effect sizes were calculated by the regression model developed by Allison and Gorman (1993). The overall…
Male athletes have been hypothesized to be at increased risk for disorderedeating attitudes and behaviors due to unique pressures in the sport environment. In this study, 203 male collegiate athletes from three universities completed the Questionnaire for EatingDisorder Diagnosis (QEDD; Mintz, O'Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997) as well as provided information on binge eating and pathogenic weight control
Trent A. Petrie; Christy Greenleaf; Justine Reel; Jennifer Carter
Position It is the position of the Academy for Eating Disor- ders (AED) that family factors can play a role in the genesis and maintenance of eatingdisorders; cur- rent knowledge refutes the idea that they are either the exclusive or even the primary mechanisms that underlie risk. Thus, the AED stands firmly against any etiologic model of eatingdisorders
Daniel Le Grange; James Lock; Katharine Loeb; Dasha Nicholls
|We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as…
Disorderedeating behaviors are typically seen as a problem in females and there are little data assessing their prevalence in males. The objective of the present cross-sectional investigation was to identify subclinical disorderedeating patterns and dietary characteristics among competitive male cyclists. A nutritional questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and Survey of EatingDisorders Among Cyclists, were completed by
Shaun K. Riebl; Andrew W. Subudhi; Jeffery P. Broker; Kim Schenck; Jacqueline R. Berning
|Investigated prevalence of adolescent eatingdisorders across gender, cultural groupings, and socioeconomic status. Administered Eating Attitudes Test, Binge-Eating Questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire to 1,261 high school students. Results indicated high rate of eatingdisorders in nonclinical adolescent population. Eatingdisorders…
Investigated prevalence of adolescent eatingdisorders across gender, cultural groupings, and socioeconomic status. Administered Eating Attitudes Test, Binge-Eating Questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire to 1,261 high school students. Results indicated high rate of eatingdisorders in nonclinical adolescent population. Eatingdisorders…
The EatingDisorder Examination (EDE, Cooper and Fairburn 1987) is the most widely used instrument for the diagnosis of eatingdisorders. The EDE relies on retrospective self-report to obtain eating behavior information. However, there is growing evidence...
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disorderedeating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disorderedeating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a “Feeding or EatingDisorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed.
We compared symptom patterns, severity of illness, and comorbidity in individuals with eatingdisorders with and without impulse control disorders (ICD), and documented the temporal pattern of illness onset. Lifetime ICD were present in 16.6% of 709 women with a history of eatingdisorders. The most common syndromes were compulsive buying disorder and kleptomania. ICD occurred more in individuals with binge eating subtypes, and were associated with significantly greater use of laxatives, diuretics, appetite suppressants and fasting, and with greater body image disturbance, higher harm avoidance, neuroticism, cognitive impulsivity, and lower self-directedness. In addition, individuals with ICD were more likely to have obsessive-compulsive disorder, any anxiety disorder, specific phobia, depression, cluster B personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and to use psychoactive substances. Among those with ICD, 62% reported the ICD predated the eatingdisorder and 45% reported the onset of both disorders within the same 3-year window. The presence of a lifetime ICD appears to be limited to eatingdisorders marked by binge eating and to be associated with worse eating-related psychopathology, more pathological personality traits, and more frequent comorbid Axis I and II conditions. Untreated ICD may complicate recovery from eatingdisorders. PMID:17961717
Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Pinheiro, Andréa Poyastro; Thornton, Laura M; Berrettini, Wade H; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M
The authors explore the extent to which eatingdisorders, specifically anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), represent culture-bound syndromes and discuss implications for conceptualizing the role genes play in their etiology. The examination is divided into 3 sections: a quantitative meta-analysis of changes in incidence rates since the formal recognition of AN and BN, a qualitative summary of historical evidence of eatingdisorders before their formal recognition, and an evaluation of the presence of these disorders in non-Western cultures. Findings suggest that BN is a culture-bound syndrome and AN is not. Thus, heritability estimates for BN may show greater variability cross-culturally than heritability estimates for AN, and the genetic bases of these disorders may be associated with differential pathoplasticity. PMID:12956542
Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships) were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established.
Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.
Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships) were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established. PMID:22934173
Dunst, Carl J; Trivette, Carol M; Hamby, Deborah W
We assessed the relation between season of birth and eatingdisorder symptoms and personality characteristics in a sample of 880 women with eatingdisorders and 580 controls from two Price Foundation Studies. Eatingdisorder symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview of Anorexic and Bulimic Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Date of birth was obtained from a sociodemographic questionnaire. No significant differences were observed 1) in season of birth across eatingdisorder subtypes and controls; nor 2) for any clinical or personality variables and season of birth. We found no evidence of season of birth variation in eatingdisorders symptoms or personality traits. Contributing to previous conflicting findings, the present results do not support a season of birth hypothesis for eatingdisorders. PMID:21150253
Shuman, N K; Krug, I; Maxwell, M; Pinheiro, A Poyastro; Brewerton, T; Thornton, L M; Berrettini, W H; Brandt, H; Crawford, S; Crow, S; Fichter, M M; Halmi, K A; Johnson, C; Kaplan, A S; Keel, P; Lavia, M; Mitchell, J; Rotondo, A; Strober, M; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, W H; Bulik, C M
Introduction The aims of this study are to (1) conduct a systematic review of the intervention literature in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including types of interventions that are tested and the classification of outcome measures used and (2) to undertake a meta-analysis of the studies, allowing for the first time the comparison of different approaches to intervention using comparative outcomes. There are a number of alternative modalities of intervention for preschool children with ASD in use with different theoretical background and orientation, each of which tend to use different trial designs and outcome measures. There is at this time an urgent need for comprehensive systematic review and meta-analyses of intervention studies for preschool children with ASD, covering studies of adequate quality across different intervention types and measurement methods, with a view to identifying the best current evidence for preschool interventions in the disorder. Methods and analysis The authors will perform a systematic review of randomised controlled trials for preschool children with ASD aged 0–6?years, along with a meta-analysis of qualifying studies across intervention modality. The authors will classify the interventions for preschool children with ASD under three models: behaviour, multimodal developmental and communication focused. First, the authors will perform a systematic review. Then, the authors will conduct a meta-analysis by comparing the three models with various outcomes using an inverse variance method in a random effect model. The authors will synthesise each outcome of the studies for the three models using standardised mean differences. Dissemination and ethics This study will identify each intervention's strengths and weaknesses. This study may also suggest what kinds of elements future intervention programmes for children with ASD should have. The authors strongly believe those findings will be able to translated into the clinical practices and patients and their family benefits. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD42011001349.
Objectives The postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zone occludens-1 (PDZ) domain and LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1, and Mec-3) domain 5 (PDLIM5) gene has been analyzed as a candidate gene for both schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) in Japanese samples. We performed a family-based association study to test the hypothesis that variants in PDLIM5 increase susceptibility to BP in European Americans and a meta-analysis to clarify whether there is a single marker consistently contributing to risk for BP. Methods Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PDLIM5 gene were genotyped in 290 European American BP families. Programs Sibling-Transmission/Disequilibrium Test (sib_tdt) and PDTPHASE were used for allelic and haplotypic association, respectively. We carried out a meta-analysis combing our family-based data and case-control data from two Japanese sample sets and from two genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Results Our association analysis showed no single SNP associated with BP. A rare haplotype consisted of rs10008257 and rs2433320 had nominal association (p = 0.045), which failed to survive correction for multiple tests. The meta-analysis identified a significant allelic association at rs2433320 in all combined samples (excluding overlapped samples in GWA: overall OR = 0.897, 95% CI: 0.838-0.961, adjusted p = 0.012) and in all Caucasian samples (excluding overlapped samples in GWA: overall OR = 0.905, 95% CI: 0.843-0.971, adjusted p = 0.032), but not in the Japanese samples. Conclusion PDLIM5 may play a minor effect on susceptibility to bipolar disorder in Caucasians. The findings in Japanese need further confirmation in larger independent samples.
A substantial literature focuses on the subgroup of obese individuals who have persistent and frequent problems with binge\\u000a eating (1–3). Initially, research evidence suggested that binge eating was associated with attrition and poorer outcome in obesity treatment\\u000a programs (3,4), although subsequent investigations have disproved the notion that obesity treatment is contraindicated for patients with\\u000a binge-eatingdisorder (BED) (5–10). Nonetheless, questions
A meta-analysis of single-subject research was conducted, examining the use of Social Stories™ and the role of a comprehensive\\u000a set of moderator variables (intervention and participant characteristics) on intervention outcomes. While Social Stories had\\u000a low to questionable overall effectiveness, they were more effective when addressing inappropriate behaviors than when teaching\\u000a social skills. Social Stories also seemed to be associated with
Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eatingdisorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eatingdisorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eatingdisorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eatingdisorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders.
Kas, Martien J. H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Binge eatingdisorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of uncontrollable eating, even when not hungry, until uncomfortably full, occurring at least twice a week for a 6-month period. This is differentiated from bulimia nervosa (BN) by the lack of compensatory mechanisms such as purging\\/laxative abuse. There are significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptoms in patients with BED as compared
|Findings from 337 school counselors revealed 11 percent rated themselves as very competent in helping students with eatingdisorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), 49 percent considered themselves moderately competent, 40 percent believed they were not very competent; 75 percent did not believe it was their role to treat students with eating…
Introduction: Appetite and eating behavior are frequently altered in psychiatric patients. The newly discovered gut-derived neuropeptide ghrelin simulates hunger and weight gain. Therefore, it might be involved in appetite regulation during psychiatric disorders. Methods: In 83 depressed, 42 schizophrenic patients and 46 healthy controls plasma ghrelin levels were measured, and the psychometric scores on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) were
A. Schanze; U. Reulbach; M. Scheuchenzuber; M. Gröschl; J. Kornhuber; T. Kraus
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify psychopathological, social and family variables that, measured at the age of 13, might predict the development of eatingdisorders 2 years later, using a standardized interview and controlling the effect of initially abnormal eating behavior. Method: At age 13 and 15, 1076 adolescents completed questionnaires for the screening of psychiatric morbidity,
Luis Beato-Fernández; Teresa Rodríguez-Cano; Antonia Belmonte-Llario; Cristóbal Martínez-Delgado
Findings from 337 school counselors revealed 11 percent rated themselves as very competent in helping students with eatingdisorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), 49 percent considered themselves moderately competent, 40 percent believed they were not very competent; 75 percent did not believe it was their role to treat students with eating…
The goals of the study were to compare anger expressions in individuals with eatingdisorders and healthy controls, and to explore the relation among eatingdisorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, personality traits, and impulsive behaviours. Participants comprised 135 eatingdisorder patients consecutively admitted to our unit and 103 healthy controls. Assessment measures included the EatingDisorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), Bulimic Investigatory
Isabel Krug; Cynthia M. Bulik; Olga Nebot Vall-Llovera; Roser Granero; Zaida Agüera; Cynthia Villarejo; Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Eatingdisorders are often conceptualized as “culture-bound problems;” however, the processes by which culture contributes to eatingdisorders have yet to be elucidated by researchers. This manuscript moves beyond research's current emphasis on evaluating the prevalence rates of eatingdisorders among ethnic groups, and presents a tripartite model to aid in understanding how cultural processes influence eatingdisorders. Cultural influences
New high-throughput, population-based methods and next-generation sequencing capabilities hold great promise in the quest for common and rare variant discovery and in the search for ”missing heritability.” However, the optimal analytic strategies for approaching such data are still actively debated, representing the latest rate-limiting step in genetic progress. Since it is likely a majority of common variants of modest effect have been identified through the application of tagSNP-based microarray platforms (i.e., GWAS), alternative approaches robust to detection of low-frequency (1–5% MAF) and rare (<1%) variants are of great importance. Of direct relevance, we have available an accumulated wealth of linkage data collected through traditional genetic methods over several decades, the full value of which has not been exhausted. To that end, we compare results from two different linkage meta-analysis methods—GSMA and MSP—applied to the same set of 13 bipolar disorder and 16 schizophrenia GWLS datasets. Interestingly, we find that the two methods implicate distinct, largely non-overlapping, genomic regions. Furthermore, based on the statistical methods themselves and our contextualization of these results within the larger genetic literatures, our findings suggest, for each disorder, distinct genetic architectures may reside within disparate genomic regions. Thus, comparative linkage meta-analysis (CLMA) may be used to optimize low-frequency and rare variant discovery in the modern genomic era.
Tang, Brady; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Askland, Kathleen D.
Background Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been used effectively to treat a variety of physical and psychological disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. Recently, several lines of research have explored the potential for mindfulness-therapy in treating somatization disorders, including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Thirteen studies were identified as fulfilling the present criteria of employing randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of any form of MBT in treating somatization disorders. A meta-analysis of the effects of mindfulness-based therapy on pain, symptom severity, quality of life, depression, and anxiety was performed to determine the potential of this form of treatment. Findings While limited in power, the meta-analysis indicated a small to moderate positive effect of MBT (compared to wait-list or support group controls) in reducing pain (SMD ?=??0.21, 95% CI: ?0.37, ?0.03; p<0.05), symptom severity (SMD ?=??0.40, 95% CI: ?0.54, ?0.26; p<0.001), depression (SMD ?=??0.23, 95% CI: ?0.40, ?0.07, p<0.01), and anxiety (SMD ?=??0.20, 95% CI: ?0.42, 0.02, p?=?0.07) associated with somatization disorders, and improving quality of life (SMD ?=?0.39, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.59; p<0.001) in patients with this disorder. Subgroup analyses indicated that the efficacy of MBT was most consistent for irritable bowel syndrome (p<0.001 for pain, symptom severity, and quality of life), and that mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MCBT) were more effective than eclectic/unspecified MBT. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that MBT may be effective in treating at least some aspects of somatization disorders. Further research is warranted.
Objective: To develop and evaluate a physiologic screening test specifically designed for collegiate female athletes engaged in athletic competition or highly athletic performances in order to detect eatingdisorders/disorderedeating. No such physiologically based test currently exists. Methods: Subjects included 148 (84.5%) of 175 volunteer, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (n = 92), club (n = 15), and dance team (n = 41) athletes 18 to 25 years old who attended a large, Midwestern university. Participants completed 4 tests: 2 normed for the general population (EatingDisorders Inventory-2 and Bulimia Test-Revised); a new physiologic test, developed and pilot tested by the investigators, called the Physiologic Screening Test; and the EatingDisorder Exam 12.0D, a structured, validated, diagnostic interview used for criterion validity. Results: The 18-item Physiologic Screening Test produced the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (78%) and was superior to the EatingDisorders Inventory-2 (sensitivity = 62%, specificity = 74%) and Bulimia Test-Revised (sensitivity = 27%, specificity = 99%). A substantial number (n = 51, 35%) of athletes were classified as eatingdisordered/disorderedeating. Conclusions: The Physiologic Screening Test should be considered for screening athletes for eatingdisorders/disorderedeating. The Physiologic Screening Test seems to be a viable alternative to existing tests because it is specifically designed for female athletes, it is brief (4 measurements and 14 items), and validity is enhanced and response bias is lessened because the purpose is less obvious, especially when included as part of a mandatory preparticipation examination.
Larkin, Laurie J.S.; Coster, Daniel C.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Abood, Doris A.
OBJECTIVE. Pro- eatingdisorder Web sites are communities of individuals who engage in disorderedeating and use the Internet to discuss their activities. Pro-recovery sites, which are less numerous, express a recovery-oriented perspective. This pilot study investigated the awareness and usage of pro- eatingdisorder Web sites among adolescents with eatingdisorders and their parents and explored associa- tions with
Jenny L. Wilson; Rebecka Peebles; Kristina K. Hardy; Iris F. Litt
Background. Aetiological studies of eatingdisorders would benefit from a solution to the problem of instability of eatingdisorder symptoms. We present an approach to defining an eatingdisorders phenotype based on the retro- spective assessment of lifetime eatingdisorders symptoms to define a lifetime pattern of illness. We further validate this approach by testing the most common lifetime categories
M. Anderluh; K. Tchanturia; S. Rabe-Hesketh; D. Collier; J. Treasure
The objective of this study was to elicit advice from female collegiate athletes who achieved recovery from an eatingdisorder for coaches, parents, and other athletes with eatingdisorders. Participants were 16 female collegiate athletes who had experienced eatingdisorders. Data was obtained through structured interview questions. Advice for coaches included confronting athletes with a suspected eatingdisorder and receiving
Recent research in genomics, attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), and cognitive processing deficits has advanced our understanding of the relevance of personality, neurodevelopment, and binge eating to the ‘eatingdisorder spectrum’. Causal relations between eatingdisorders and personality disorders remain unclear. Family studies suggest an increase in ‘cluster B’ personality disorders in bulimia nervosa. Treatment models for
SummaryBinge EatingDisorder (BED) and ObesityIn 1997, binge eatingdisorder (BED) was included into the DSM-IV as a provisional diagnostic category requiring further study. About 30% of the participants in weight loss programs meet criteria for BED. The prevalence of BED in the general population is 2%; BED is 1.5 times more common in women than men. In treating obese
Due to the oral\\/systemic nature of eatingdisorders, this serious health issue requires comprehensive patient assessment and coordinated health treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the breadth and depth of eatingdisorder and compre- hensive care within the dental and dental hygiene curriculum. Survey data were collected from deans of U.S. dental programs (n=24) and dental hygiene
Rita D. DeBate; Deanne Shuman; Lisa A. Tedesco; Bruce B. Downs
: We describe a patient with an eatingdisorder and hyperamylasemia originating from the salivary glands, who developed pancreatitis\\u000a with a huge pancreatic pseudocyst. A 40-year-old woman was referred for the treatment of an eatingdisorder that had persisted\\u000a for 9 years. She was admitted with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea. She had bilateral parotid enlargement with marked\\u000a elevation of
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are complex disorders characterized by disorderedeating behaviour. Attitudes towards weight and shape as well as the perception of body shape are disturbed. A substantial genetic influence on these disorders has been suggested by formal genetic studies. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour, perfectionism and anxious personality traits seem to occur premorbidly in several patients. Disturbances of neurotransmitter, neuropeptide
Anke Hinney; Helmut Remschmidt; Johannes Hebebrand
The aim of the study was to show whether there was a connection between drug use and EatingDisorders, as well as to identify the type of drugs most widely used and to ascertain whether they are used to suppress appetite. An "ad hoc" scale was developed using the items of the EatingDisorder Diagnostic Scale, whose aim is to detect cases at risk of certain types of eatingdisorder, and items for assessing drug use. This scale was applied to samples of teenagers (n=446) aged 13-18 from various secondary schools in the Valencia Region (Comunidad Valenciana) in Spain. An association was found between teenagers that use drugs, and particularly between the variable "use of some kind of drug as an appetite suppressant", and being at risk of having an eatingdisorder. Tobacco was the drug most commonly used (accounting for 66% of those within the risk threshold of the EatingDisorder Diagnostic Scale). We conclude that those teenagers from the sample who fall within any of the risk thresholds consume more drugs than those who do not fall within the risk threshold of the EatingDisorder Diagnostic Scale. Stimulant-type drugs are those most widely used by these teenagers with the aim of suppressing appetite. PMID:22508012
Bisetto Pons, David; Botella Guijarro, Álvaro; Sancho Muñoz, Alberto
OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eatingdisorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eatingdisorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eatingdisorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disorderedeating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disorderedeating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eatingdisorders.
This systematic review summarizes pharmacogenetic studies on antidepressant response and side effects. Out of the 17 genes we reviewed, 8 genes were entered into the meta-analysis (SLC6A4, HTR1A, HTR2A, TPH1, gene encoding the ?-3 subunit, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), HTR3A and HTR3B). TPH1 218C\\/C genotype (7 studies, 754 subjects) was significantly associated with a better response (odds ratio, OR=1.62; P=0.005)
Although psychotherapy and antidepressant medication are efficacious in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders, it is not known whether they are equally efficacious for all types of disorders, and whether all types of psychotherapy and antidepressants are equally efficacious for each disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies in which psychotherapy and antidepressant medication were directly compared in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Systematic searches in bibliographical databases resulted in 67 randomized trials, including 5,993 patients that met inclusion criteria, 40 studies focusing on depressive disorders and 27 focusing on anxiety disorders. The overall effect size indicating the difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy after treatment in all disorders was g=0.02 (95% CI: ?0.07 to 0.10), which was not statistically significant. Pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than psychotherapy in dysthymia (g=0.30), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (g=0.64). Furthermore, pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than non-directive counseling (g=0.33), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy with tricyclic antidepressants (g=0.21). These results remained significant when we controlled for other characteristics of the studies in multivariate meta-regression analysis, except for the differential effects in dysthymia, which were no longer statistically significant.
Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F
Cognitions are of crucial importance in the -aetiology and the maintenance of eatingdisorders. Dysfunctional cognitions in eatingdisorders are related to body image, self-esteem and feeding. The aim of this paper is to review the actual knowledge in this area. First, we will display -cognitive models in eatingdisorders. Cognitive factors in -eatingdisorders are logical errors, cognitive slippage and conceptual complexity. Eatingdisorder patients seem to have a deficient cognitive development. Some cognitive models stipulate that eatingdisorder patients may develop organised cognitive structures schemas concerning the issues of weight and its implications for the self. These schemas can account for the persistence and for the understanding the "choice of the eatingdisorder symptomatology. Cognitive pheno-mena of interest are self-schema, weight-related schema and weight-related self-schema. The maintenance model of ano-rexia nervosa argued that, initially there is an extreme need to control eating which is supported by low self-esteem. The maintenance of the disorder is reinforced by three mechanisms: dietary restriction enhances the sense of being in control; aspects of starvation encourage further dietary restriction; concerns about shape and weight encourage restriction. The development and maintenance of bulimic symptomatology are explained by placing a high value on attaining an idealised weight and body shape accompanied by inaccurate beliefs. The cognitive model of specific family of origin experiences puts forward the development of -maladaptative expectancies for eating and thinness. Second, we discuss distortions in information processing. a) In feeding laboratories, bulimics show a wide range of caloric intake and a disruption of circadian feeding patterns. In overeating bulimics, large meals occurred mainly during afternoon and evening with high fat and carbohydrate intake, but the majority of meals were of normal size and frequency. Responsivity to food cues indicates that bulimics were more responsive to sight, smell and taste of their favourite binge food, and a greater responsivity was associated with increasing -cue salience. Eatingdisorder patients appear to have internalised a mediated social rule concerning "good food" and make drastic selections thus removing the possibility of choice of foodstuffs. b) Experimental processes: temporal factors in the processing of threat seem to be of importance in patients with high levels of eating psychopathology. There is no evidence for preattentive processing biases among anorectics. Changes in information processing speed after treatment were not linked to treatment condition or treatment response. c) Judgement and emotions: in eatingdisorder patients, distortions of depressogenic nature are found that influence the cognitive style; thoughts about eating, weight and shape are characterised by negative affective tone; negative emotions could account for bulimic behaviour; anxiety and distress are correlated to thought control strategies. Information treating seems to be impaired in a non-homogeneous way. d) Cognitive schemas are seriously maladaptive and not well investigated. In eatingdisorder patients, core beliefs are absolute, unconditional and dichotomous cognitions about oneself and the world. There are only few studies in this field moreover showing controversial results. Core beliefs can explain links between personality disorders and eating psychopathology. Pathological core beliefs have to be taken in to account because they influence the outcome and the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy. Third, the last part of this paper summarises actually available rating scales eva-luating distorted cognitions in eatingdisorders. There are different methods for evaluation: specific and non-specific self-report questionnaires, thought-sampling procedures, -methods derived from cognitive psychology. The Mizes Anorectic Cognition questionnaire (MAC) is a well-known self-rating scale with good psychometric properties. The revised form
We review association studies that have examined the genetic basis of eatingdisorders. Overall, findings suggest that serotonin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and estrogen genes may be important for the development of the disorders. These neuronal systems influence behavioral and personality characteristics (e.g., anxiety, food intake) that are disrupted in eatingdisorders. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes and inclusion of behavioral and personality covariates in analyses. Consideration of the mechanisms of genetic effects and interactions between genes and environment is also needed to extend conceptualizations of the genetic basis of these disorders.
Background: There is debate as to whether eatingdisorders may be culture-bound. However, accumulating evidence suggests that eatingdisorders may be found outside of the West, although the precise form of the eatingdisorder may differ.Aims: There were two aims of this study: (1) to translate and establish the psychometric properties of standard questionnaires to measure eating pathology in a
Kate Tchanturia; Melanie Katzman; Nicholas A. Troop; Janet Treasure
A review of the literature on ethnocultural identity and eatingdisorders indicates a relationship between conflicted identity and eating disturbance. This article discusses that relationship by suggesting that eatingdisorders represent internalized means of oppression for women of color. Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of eatingdisorders in women of color are identified. Suggestions for ways in which diagnosis, assessment,
Study Objective: To evaluate eating behavior and energy balance as a cause of increased body mass index (BMI) in narcolepsy. Design: Case controlled pilot study. Settings: University hospital Participants: 13 patients with narcolepsy (7 “typical” patients, with HLA DQB1*0602 and clear cut cataplexy, with suspected hypocretin deficiency; and 6 “atypical” narcoleptics, i.e., HLA negative or without cataplexy), and 9 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. Intervention: Energy balance was evaluated by measuring BMI, rest energy expenditure with calorimetry, daily food and water intake, and plasma hormone levels. Eating behavior was evaluated using psychometric tests (EAT-40, EDI2, CIDI-2, MADRS). Results: Patients with narcolepsy (whether typical or not) tended to be overweight and to have a lower basal metabolism than controls. Only patients with typical narcolepsy tended to eat less than controls. Narcoleptic patients who were overweight ate half as much as others, indicating caloric restriction. Plasma glucose, cortisol, thyroid, and sex hormones levels did not differ between groups, while prolactin levels were twice as high in patients with narcolepsy as in controls. Narcoleptic patients had higher EAT-40 scores and more frequent features of bulimia nervosa (independent of depressive mood) than controls, suggesting a mild eatingdisorder, classified as “EatingDisorder Not Other Specified.” Discussion: Both lower basal metabolism and subtle changes in eating behavior (rather than in calorie intake) could explain the positive energy balance leading to overweight in narcolepsy. Eating behavior changes may be a strategy to control weight or to avoid daytime sleepiness. Citation: Chabas D; Foulon C; Gonzalez J; Nasr M; Lyon-Caen O; Willer JC; Derenne JP; Amulf I. Eatingdisorder and metabolism in narcoleptic patients. SLEEP 2007;30(10):1267-1273.
The growing interest in the treatment and research of eatingdisorders has stimulated the development of assessment methods, and there are now many questionnaires for evaluating behavioral and attitudinal characteristics of eating pathology. The present article sets out to review the assessment tools that are widely used in clinical practice and research. In particular, it covers self-report measures with summaries of their psychometric properties. It also presents diagnostic questionnaires based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnostic criteria. The instruments described include screening questionnaires, measurement tools for specific eatingdisorder symptoms, measurement of quality of life in eatingdisorders, and some tools for the measurement of body image disorder, a common feature of eatingdisorders. There is also a discussion of distorting factors that decrease the authenticity of assessment tools. These problems arise from the definition of some constructs and from the phenomena of denial and concealment, which are frequent among eating-disordered individuals. The frequent co-occurrence of other psychopathological features (e.g., multiimpulsive symptoms) shows that other psychological phenomena should also be evaluated in line with the assessment of eatingdisorders. PMID:21109049
Eatingdisorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eatingdisorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients. PMID:15571940
... Disorders? What Can You Do to Help Prevent EatingDisorders? Learn all you can about anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eatingdisorder. Genuine awareness will help you avoid judgmental or ...
This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic and nutritional factors associated with disorderedeating among Brazilian female college students (n = 2,489). Prevalence ratios of risk factors were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance based on responses to selected questions from the Eating Attitude Test and DisorderedEating Attitude Scale. It was found that 40.7% of students were dieting, 35.6% were using diet or compensatory methods, 23.9% skipping meals, 12.6% not eating or just drinking liquids, and 3.3%, vomiting to lose weight. A positive association was found between not eating or just drinking liquids and skipping meals and nutritional status after adjustment for age and region. A positive association was found between compensatory methods and dieting and education level of the head of the family. Disorderedeating behaviors were frequent, and not eating and skipping meals were more prevalent among overweight/obese students; compensatory methods and dieting were less prevalent among students from families whose head had up to only four years of education. Prevention strategies and food education are necessary in order to decrease the prevalence of these behaviors. PMID:23702994
Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eatingdisorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eatingdisorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…
Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.
|Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eatingdisorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eatingdisorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…
Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.
The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eatingdisorders and disorderedeating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…
Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eatingdisorders/disorderedeating (ED/ DE). No validated eatingdisorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (EatingDisorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (EatingDisorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disorderedeating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eatingdisordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eatingdisorder or disorderedeating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disorderedeating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses.
Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.
The presence of a comorbid eatingdisorder (ED) and personality disorder (PD) is associated with greater problems and poorer functioning than having an ED alone or PD alone. This pattern is also found for non-ED axis I disorders and PDs. This study aims to examine if an ED, compared to other non-ED axis I disorders, in a PD sample confers
Eunice Yu Chen; Michael Sean McCloskey; Sara Michelson; Kathryn Hope Gordon; Emil Coccaro
Loss of control (LOC) over eating is reported during middle childhood samples. LOC eating is associated with overweight and disorderedeating attitudes and behaviors. However, data suggest that children (6-12y) may have a different clustering of associate...
Mediastinitis is a rare but life-threatening disorder. This infection, spreading from outside of the chest to the mediastinum, is most commonly derived from the pharynx or the teeth. In our patient, mediastinitis resulted from an eatingdisorder. She attempted to control her body weight by vomiting and damaged her pharynx by provoking vomiting. Eatingdisorder is exceptional as a cause of mediastinitis. This condition should be kept in mind in some common somatic symptoms and findings. An example of these is vomiting induced hypokalemia. PMID:22822605
Purpose: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular communication-training program for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis reviews the current empirical evidence for PECS in affecting communication and speech outcomes for children with ASD. Method: A systematic review of the literature on PECS…
Flippin, Michelle; Reszka, Stephanie; Watson, Linda R.
|The findings of a meta-analysis of the effect of reading instruction on the reading skills of students with or at risk of behavioral disorders (BD) are reported. The goal of the synthesis was to extend the work of Coleman and Vaughn by (a) detailing independent variables and outcome measures for each study, (b)including studies sampling from…
Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.; Mooney, Paul
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is a potential mechanism connecting psychosocial stress to functional somatic disorders (FSD), such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome. We present the first meta-analysis and systematic review of methodological study quality on the association between cardiac ANS dysfunction, measured as parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity using heart rate variability (HRV), and FSD.
Lineke M. Tak; Harriëtte Riese; Geertruida H. de Bock; Andiappan Manoharan; Iris C. Kok; Judith G. M. Rosmalen
The treatment of eatingdisorders is based on a multimodal model, recognizing that these disorders do not have a single cause or a predictable course. The treatment strategy is determined by the severity of illness and the specific eatingdisorder diagnosis. For the treatment of anorexia nervosa, the key elements are medical management, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and family therapy, while pharmacotherapy is at best an adjunct to other therapies. In bulimia nervosa, the treatment of choice is cognitive-behavioral therapy, but a greater improvement in mood and anxiety occurs when antidepressant therapy is added. In binge eatingdisorder, cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy produce substantial and long-lasting changes and pharmacological treatment has often a useful role.
The treatment of eatingdisorders is based on a multimodal model, recognizing that these disorders do not have a single cause or a predictable course. The treatment strategy is determined by the severity of illness and the specific eatingdisorder diagnosis. For the treatment of anorexia nervosa, the key elements are medical management, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and family therapy, while pharmacotherapy is at best an adjunct to other therapies. In bulimia nervosa, the treatment of choice is cognitive-behavioral therapy, but a greater improvement in mood and anxiety occurs when antidepressant therapy is added. In binge eatingdisorder, cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy produce substantial and long-lasting changes and pharmacological treatment has often a useful role. PMID:16633511
Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eatingdisorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,
Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca
The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eatingdisorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response relation with degree of urbanisation and was five times higher in cities than in rural
G. E. van Son; D. van Hoeken; A. I. M. Bartelds; E. F. van Furth; H. W. Hoek
Summary Recent research on Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) has shown an increasing understanding of the biological and physiological abnormalities that underlie the development of an eatingdisorder. Cultural pressures, individual and family experiences, along with physiological and genetic systems all appear to contribute to the onset of these disorders. There is significant evidence for genetic factors in
OBJECTIVE: Binge eatingdisorder (BED) and the night eating syndrome (NES) have been linked to obesity. This review summarizes their characteristics, implications of their diagnoses and treatment outcomes.METHOD: Selective review of the literature on BED and NES.RESULTS: BED was proposed as a distinctive disorder on the basis of two large multisite studies in the early 1990s. It is associated with
Increasing attention has been given to measuring symptoms of eatingdisorders in adolescents, but representative norms for the two widely used measures, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the EatingDisorders Inventory (EDI), have not been available. The present study collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in Grades 9–12. Significant sex, but not age, differences were
Eatingdisorders (ED) are a comorbid criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). The Children's Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI) was distributed to parents\\/guardians of children (N = 115) aged eight to fourteen, attending a private school and clinically diagnosed with ADHD or LD. The CEBI provides an eating behavior (EB) score and a parent-perceived eating problems
This article consists of a shortened and annotated translation of a paper on "An Interesting Oral Symptom Complex and Its Relationship to Addiction" by M. Wulff of Berlin, which was delivered before the German Psychoanalytic Society on April 12, 1932. The article describes four cases of an eatingdisorder in women that was characterized by binge eating, hypersomnolence, apathetic depression, and disparagement of the body image. After the eating binges, all four patients manifested periods of fasting, and two of the three, about whom such information is available, vomited. Translations of large excerpts of the case histories are presented together with a summary of Wulff's discussion. PMID:2248633
Objective: This study was designed to examine how anger, temperament and character profiles differ across subtypes of eatingdisorders (EDs) in comparison to healthy controls and to analyze the relationship between anger expression, eating attitudes and personality dimensions. Method: One hundred and thirty-five outpatients (50 of whom suffered from anorexia nervosa restrictor type [AN-R], 40 from anorexia nervosa binge\\/purging [AN-BP
Secondo Fassino; Giovanni Abbate Daga; Andrea Pierò; Paolo Leombruni; Giovanni Giacomo Rovera
\\u000a Alterations of both central and peripheral feeding regulatory substances occur in the acute phases of anorexia nervosa (AN)\\u000a and bulimia nervosa (BN) and, generally, reverse after recovery. Some of these alterations are believed not only to sustain\\u000a the altered eating behavior but also to contribute to certain psychopathological aspects and\\/or etiopathogenetic processes\\u000a of eatingdisorders (EDs). It has been suggested
Twin studies indicate significant genetic, but little shared environmental, influences on eatingdisorders. However, critics argue that study limitations constrain the conclusions that can be drawn. Adoption studies avoid many of these limitations, but to date, no adoption studies of eating pathology have been conducted. The current study was the first adoption study to examine genetic/environmental effects for disorderedeating. Participants included 123 adopted and 56 biological female sibling pairs. Disorderedeating (i.e., overall eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, binge eating) was assessed using the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey. Biometric model-fitting indicated significant genetic influences (59–82%) on all forms of disorderedeating, with nonshared environmental factors accounting for the remaining variance. Shared environmental factors did not contribute significantly to any disorderedeating symptom. Our findings bolster those from twin studies and provide critical evidence of significant genetic effects on disorderedeating symptoms.
Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
The growing interest in the treatment and research of eatingdisorders has stimulated the development of assessment methods, and there are now many questionnaires for evaluating behavioral and attitudinal characteristics of eating pathology. The present article sets out to review the assessment tools that are widely used in clinical practice and research. In particular, it covers self-report measures with summaries
|Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eatingdisorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eatingdisorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eatingdisorders,…
Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.
Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eatingdisorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eatingdisorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eatingdisorders,…
Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.
Disorderedeating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disorderedeating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disorderedeating. Disordered…
Although eatingdisorders often begin during adolescence, characteristics of this population can complicate early detection by clinicians. The purpose of this article is to selectively review the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eatingdisorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eatingdisorder) as described in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) and International Classification of Diseases (10th
Jori H. Reijonen; Helen D. Pratt; Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus
\\u000a Family, twin, and adoption studies of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eatingdisorder (BED), and the proposed\\u000a purging disorder presentation (PD) have consistently demonstrated that genetic factors contribute to the variance in liability\\u000a to eatingdisorders. In addition, endophenotypes and component phenotypes of eatingdisorders have been evaluated and provide\\u000a further insight regarding genetic factors influencing eatingdisorders and
Laura M. Thornton; Suzanne E. Mazzeo; Cynthia M. Bulik
Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eatingdisorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eatingdisorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…
The objective of this paper is to summarize research findings on eatingdisorders and the current state of the field in Mexico. Papers published in indexed journals and graduate dissertations were retrieved, using “eatingdisorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “body image,” “binge eating,” “restrained eating,” “weight and shape concern,” and “dieting” as keywords. These were combined with the Boolean operator
LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine two intervention measures for disorderedeating among young dancers.Affirmation of the predominant societal thinness ideal as well as restrained eating are risk factors for disorderedeating among adolescent females. The purpose of this study was to examine how perceived opinions of significant others towards dieting would influence levels of restrained eating. Theory of Reasoned Action was
|Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eatingdisorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eatingdisorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…
ObjectiveThis study investigates the longitudinal course of eating problems from childhood though adulthood. The following questions are answered: (1) How stable are eatingdisorder symptoms and diagnoses over a 17-year interval from childhood to adulthood? (2) Do early childhood eating problems predict the occurrence of eatingdisorders in adulthood?
LISA A. KOTLER; PATRICIA COHEN; MARK DAVIES; DANIEL S. PINE; B. TIMOTHY WALSH
The phenomenon of 'pro-eatingdisorder' websites remains relatively unexplored by researchers in published formats. Supporters of the sites claim beneficial effects but health professionals worry that the sites propagate disordered behaviours. The present study addressed visitor characteristics and perceived impact of visits. A 24-item questionnaire supplemented with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) was developed and posted on the website of the UK mental health charity SANE. Participants who interacted with others on the sites and sought emotional support reported improved mental state after visiting, and for them, evidence was found of reduced impact from potentially damaging content. 'Silent browsing' in order to sustain a disorder was found to be mainly harmful. 'Silent browsers' may be particularly vulnerable to a worsening of their symptoms in the absence of beneficial effects from emotional support, but those who interact and find support could face a danger of a different sort. PMID:17676689
Research has indicated that children as young as age 5 begin to demonstrate preoccupation with body image and weight, with the desire to be thin. Much of this preoccupation is influenced by increased public awareness of the obesity epidemic, which in turn has placed extreme pressures on school-age children, often leading to prejudices about shape and weight. This negative interaction can lead to a fear of being fat and gaining weight that develops into low self-esteem and eatingdisorders. An extensive amount of research has investigated the influences of eatingdisorders among adolescent children, but little has covered this health threat involving prepubescent children. This article explores the relationship between eatingdisorders, prepubescent children, and various influences. PMID:19266972
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disorderedeating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disorderedeating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or EatingDisorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. PMID:23569400
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) has been recently identified as a susceptibility gene for multiple autoimmune diseases. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of the association between STAT4 and several different autoimmune disorders to identify potential common inflammatory principles behind this association. Our meta-analysis revealed that the STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism is associated with four autoimmune diseases with systemic pathology, including systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.48 - 1.56, P<1.0 × 10(-16)), rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.21 - 1.33, P < 1.00 × 10(-16)), systemic sclerosis (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.27 - 1.50, P < 1.44 × 10(-14)), and primary Sjogren's syndrome (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.73, P = 4.40 × 10(-2)), while no association was found with type I diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Furthermore, the stratified meta-analysis also demonstrate that the STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism is associated with the presence of autoantibodies with systemic reactivity (anti-ds-DNA antibodies) in SLE patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.21 - 1.56, P = 1.12 × 10(-6)). However, no such specific association was seen in RA with regard to the presence of non-systemically reacting antibodies, including rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies. Taken together, these results suggest that STAT4 polymorphisms are associated with autoimmune diseases which are characterized by a systemic pathology and anti-dsDNA antibody. PMID:23628400
OBJECTIVE: To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eatingdisorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a MEDLINE search on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating\\u000a disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and
Previous findings were confirmed suggesting that weightlifters may be more prone to eatingdisorders than are casual exercisers. 25 weightlifters' mean eatingdisorder score was significantly higher than that of 25 casual exercisers when contrasted for practical difference. PMID:10883776
... Basics Treatment Basics What Does Treatment of an EatingDisorder Involve? The most effective and long-lasting treatment for an eatingdisorder is some form of psychotherapy or psychological counseling, ...
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Rationale Up to 60% of children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from comorbid affective or behavioral impairments, the most common condition being oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), which occurs in 40–60% of children with ADHD.Objectives This post hoc meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of the presence of comorbid ODD symptoms on clinical outcomes among pediatric and adolescent subjects being treated for
Joseph Biederman; Thomas J. Spencer; Jeffrey H. Newcorn; Haitao Gao; Denái R. Milton; Peter D. Feldman; Michael M. Witte
Self-help treatments have the potential to increase the availability and affordability of evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders. Although promising, previous research results are heterogeneous, indicating a need to identify factors that moderate treatment outcome. The present article reviews the literature on self-help treatment for anxiety disorders among adults, with a total sample of 56 articles with 82 comparisons. When self-help treatment was compared to wait-list or placebo, a meta-analysis indicated a moderate to large effect size (g=0.78). When self-help treatment was compared to face-to-face treatment, results indicated a small effect that favored the latter (g=-0.20). When self-help was compared to wait-list or placebo, subgroup analyses indicated that self-help treatment format, primary anxiety diagnosis and procedures for recruitment of subjects were related to treatment outcome in bivariate analyses, but only recruitment procedures remained significant in a multiple meta-regression analysis. When self-help was compared to face-to-face treatment, a multiple meta-regression indicated that the type of comparison group, treatment format and gender were significantly related to outcome. We conclude that self-help is effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and should be offered as part of stepped care treatment models in community services. Implications of the results and future directions are discussed. PMID:22681915
Haug, Thomas; Nordgreen, Tine; Öst, Lars Göran; Havik, Odd E
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of music therapy for acute and chronic sleep disorders in adults. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of publications in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library without language restriction was performed. REVIEW METHODS: Studies with randomized controlled design and adult participants were included if music was applied in a passive way to improve sleep quality. Subgroup analysis was conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Ten studies involving 557 participants were identified. The sleep quality was improved significantly by music (standard mean difference: -0.63; 95% CI: -0.92 to -0.34; p<0.001), with significant heterogeneity across studies. Subgroup analysis found heterogeneity between subgroups with objective or subjective assessing methods of sleep quality, and between subgroups with difference follow-up durations. No evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION: Music can assist in improving sleep quality of patients with acute and chronic sleep disorders. For chronic sleep disorders, music showed a cumulative dose effect and a follow-up duration more than three weeks is necessary for assessing its efficacy. PMID:23582682
Background: In this paper we tested the hypothesis that persons with eatingdisorders (EDs) are affected by disturbances of the way they experience their own body (embodiment) and shape their personal identity, assuming that the various kinds of anomalies of eating behavior are consequences thereof. Sampling and Methods: We developed and validated a new self-reported questionnaire named IDEA (IDentity and
Giovanni Stanghellini; Giovanni Castellini; Patrizia Brogna; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca
This article provides a survey of eatingdisorders in men, highlights the dramatic rise in eatingdisorders, identifies issues specific to males, and suggests areas for research and intervention. This survey concludes that men with eatingdisorders are currently under-diagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood by many clinicians who encounter them. Ongoing research addressing these issues is expected to result in assessment tools and treatment interventions that will advance positive outcomes for men with eatingdisorders.
The current study examined the features of women with bulimic-type eatingdisorders (n = 24) attending primary care in two smaller urban regions of the USA. The assessment included measures of eatingdisorder\\u000a psychopathology, medical comorbidity, impairment in role functioning, potential barriers to treatment and actual use of health\\u000a services. Eatingdisorders, primarily variants of bulimia nervosa and binge eatingdisorder not
Jonathan M. MondTricia; Tricia C. Myers; Ross D. Crosby; Phillipa J. Hay; James E. Mitchell
Investigates the influx of western-style eatingdisorders into India, Asia, and the southern Pacific region. Predicted Australian students would have more eatingdisorder symptoms, but instead, the Indian students showed more symptoms. Concludes substantial evidence of western-style eatingdisorders appear in the privileged socioeconomic class of…
Sjostedt, John P.; Schumaker, John F.; Nathawat, S. S.
While several reports have suggested a relationship between involvement in regular exercise activity and the presence of eatingdisorders or eating-disordered characteristics, other research has demonstrated no such association. Methodological difficulties and interpretive differences among researchers contributing to these disparate findings are reviewed. The present study investigated the relationship between exercise involvement and eating-disordered characteristics in 159 “exerciser” and 129
Efforts aimed at the prevention of eatingdisorders need to consider the context within which these disorders develop and aim to promote not only healthy eating and physical activity but also address mental health factors, such as body image. Exploring the relationship between body image and eatingdisorders will provide a foundation and further…
The history and etiology of eatingdisorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eatingdisorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eatingdisorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…
Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eatingdisorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the EatingDisorders Inventory-2. Women with eatingdisorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…
Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disorderedeating is sparse, especially on males and eatingdisorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disorderedeating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…
Adolescents become vulnerable to developing eatingdisorders as they mature. Very little is known about the prevalence, etiology, assessment, treatment, and outcome of eatingdisorders among adolescents. In general, research on eatingdisorders continues to be plagued with design flaws. Future studies need to be prospective research based on larger, more diverse samples of adolescents that represent all developmental stages
Helen D. Pratt; Elaine L. Phillips; Donald E. Greydanus; Dilip R. Patel
|Eatingdisorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eatingdisorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eatingdisorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner.…
|Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eatingdisorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the EatingDisorders Inventory-2. Women with eatingdisorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…
|There is little attention devoted to studying eatingdisorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eatingdisorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eatingdisorders in women of color, including a…
Strikingly high prevalence rates of symptoms of disorderedeating among college women have been documented. The question arises as to whether one aspect of the college experience, achievement orientation, is associated with disorderedeating. Competing hypotheses may be generated regarding the relationship between achievement orientation and disorderedeating, with arguments for either a positive or negative relationship. The Work and
Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Lisa R. Silberstein; Neil E. Grunberg; Judith Rodin
This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eatingdisorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eatingdisorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eatingdisorder…
Eatingdisorder researchers have focused more on the etiology and treatment and less on what happens for individuals during the recovery process from an eatingdisorder. For this qualitative study, we examined how social supports were helpful and hurtful during the eatingdisorder recovery process and learned about varying experiences with social supports from the perspectives of 22 recovered women.
Deanna Linville; Tiffany Brown; Katrina Sturm; Tori McDougal
Poor social support is a risk factor for the development of eatingdisorders (Ghaderi, 2003). We designed this study to investigate the relationship between social support and eatingdisorder symptomatology among a female, nonclinical population. The work is of international interest because disorderedeating behavior is common across many nations. The results of this research should help build a better
|Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disorderedeating is sparse, especially on males and eatingdisorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disorderedeating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…
Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eatingdisorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eatingdisorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eatingdisorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…
Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.
The relationship between girls' media exposure and their development of eatingdisorder symptomatology was assessed. At Time 1 and Time 2 (16 months later), participants (N = 374; M age = 12.0) completed a questionnaire that assessed eatingdisorder sympto-matology and television and fashion magazine exposure. Girls were divided into 3 groups: increased, decreased, or no change in eatingdisorder
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of disorderedeating behaviors in young female athletes and to compare the anxiety levels of the athletes with or without disorderedeating behaviors. Female athletes (n=243) of 15 to 25 years old from the city, Edirne, in Turkey participated our study. Disorderedeating behaviors and anxiety levels of participants were
Epidemiological studies of eatingdisorders in the United States have focused on white women and girls, and the prevalence of eatingdisorders in ethnic minority groups is unknown. This study examined the prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eatingdisorder in a geographically and economically diverse community sample of young white and black women who previously participated in
R. H. Striegel-Moore; Faith-Anne Dohm; H. C. Kraemer; C. B. Taylor; S. Daniels; P. B. Crawford; G. Schreiber
Recent studies have found that the eatingdisorders can best be conceptualized as multidimensional. Four factors have consistently emerged from factor analytic studies of eatingdisorder symptoms: dietary restraint, bulimic behaviors, neurotic personality characteristics, and body image\\/body dysphoria. Confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to determine if this four-factor structure of eatingdisorder symptoms would be found in a sample of
Paula J. Varnado; Donald A. Williamson; Richard Netemeyer
Objective: This study investigated the perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in ambulatory patients with eatingdisorders\\u000a in relation to the severity of eating symptomatology and psychological comorbidity. Methods: One hundred ninety-seven study patients were consecutively recruited at the EatingDisorders Outpatient Clinic. Short Form-36\\u000a items (SF-36), a generic HRQoL questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), and the Hospital
A. Padierna; J. M. Quintana; I. Arostegui; N. Gonzalez
Objective: Eatingdisorders (EDs) can have a serious impact on various life domains and may lead to physical, mental and social impairment and consequently to poor quality of life (QOL). This study compared the QOL of ED patients and former ED patients in a large community based sample to the QOL of a normal reference group and to the QOL
Adolescents face stress in relation to normal growing up, to cultural pressures in looking slim and having a body image that mirrors peers' norms and values. Many adolescents make it through their youth without showing significant behavioural difficulties. Others negotiate these pressures through eatingdisorders. Both quantitative and qualitative data are used to identify adolescents' experiences and meanings in relation
In this study, 15 male and 15 female patients with serious eatingdisorders were compared. The two groups were similar in terms of demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiological complications. All three males who had bone density assessed had significant osteopenia. Abuse histories were obtained from 10 males and 10 females; childhood sexual abuse was as common among males as among
|The study and treatment of eatingdisorders has long been associated with psychoanalytic concepts of rejection of femininity and fear of oral impregnation. Although a theoretical reformulation emphasizing feminist analysis began a decade ago, the extension and application of these ideas has not solidified into a comprehensive treatment…
|Therapists who assume that eatingdisorders affect only White middle class females may fail to detect such problems in Blacks and other minority patients. Therapists are encouraged to be more culturally sensitive in treating minority patients for these and other problems. (DM)|
Constipation is a common complaint among all eatingdisorder patients. It is variably defined by patients and staff, often leading to false expectations. A limited search for organic causes is indicated, as is a thorough review of the patient's medication history. Forewarning and education are cornerstones of the treatment process. Other medical therapies are also reviewed.
This study examines the relationship between attachment strategies and symptom reporting among college women. Sixty-one college women were selected who reported high or low levels of depressive and eatingdisorder symptoms. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered, and interview transcripts were rated with the Attachment Interview Q-Sort. The results indicated that women with hyperactivating AAI strategies were prone to
Background: Etiological hypotheses of eatingdisorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…
Binge eatingdisorder (BED) is the most prevalent eatingdisorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eatingdisordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eatingdisorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models.
Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.
|Background: Etiological hypotheses of eatingdisorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent…
|Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…
To date, research into disorderedeating in sport has focused on the prevalence and the identification of putative risk factors. Findings suggest that elite female athletes participating in sports with a focus on leanness or aesthetics are at greatest risk. A paucity of research remains as to the period after onset and how existing sufferers manage their illness over time.
The aim of this study was to determine whether doctors recognise eatingdisorders in children, in particular anorexia nervosa. A group of paediatricians, general practitioners, and school medical officers was approached to participate in the study. Each was sent a questionnaire including two case vignettes of children with anorexia nervosa and questions about diagnosis and management. The response rate was
R J Bryant-Waugh; B D Lask; R L Shafran; A R Fosson
Binge eatingdisorder (BED) is the most prevalent eatingdisorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eatingdisordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eatingdisorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016
Iacovino, Juliette M; Gredysa, Dana M; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E
Treatment-study hospitalisations are indicated in the case of severe eatingdisorders. This original programme for long term hospitalisation enables young patients to follow an individualised treatment at the same time as receiving support in their studies, adapted to the clinical condition. PMID:23923455
There has been an increasing body of research literature suggesting a seasonal pattern of mood fluctuations and eating behavior in bulimic patients. Fornari et al.  reported worsening of bulimic symptoms during winter. There is a logical connection between Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and bulimia nervosa as both show increased appetite and carbohydrate craving and probably share a common neurobiologic
Abdul-Missagh Ghadirian; Nadia Marini; Sheila Jabalpurwala; Howard Steiger
\\u000a Abstract 670 dental patients completed the Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE). Criteria of the Diagnostic and statistical\\u000a manual of mental disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) were used for identification of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),\\u000a and binge eatingdisorder (BED). We identified one 19 year old woman with a questionnaire response suggestive of restricting\\u000a type AN, one 49 years old man
This study examined the link between cognitive biases (i.e., attention biases and implicit associations) and symptoms of depression\\u000a and eatingdisorders and whether the content of these biases is disorder-specific. These hypotheses were examined with a sample\\u000a of 202 undergraduate women. Cognitive biases were measured via computer-based tasks (i.e., the probe detection task and the\\u000a Implicit Association Test) and symptom
Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eatingdisorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower levels of well-being. Therefore, if intuitive eating is a distinct
Criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the EatingDisorders Inventory (EDI) were assessed in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normal subjects. However, only weak support was found for the concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Generally there was little association between the EAT or the
Janet Gross; James C. Rosen; Harold Leitenberg; Mary E. Willmuth
|Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…
The purpose of this study was to examine, describe, and explain experiences of men with eatingdisorders and to gain understanding of the relevant life issues, perceptions, and attitudes. What are some of the contributing factors and experiences of men who suffer from eatingdisorders despite the widely held assumption that eatingdisorders are…
Family, twin, and adoption studies of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eatingdisorder (BED), and the proposed purging disorder presentation (PD) have consistently demonstrated that genetic factors contribute to the variance in liability to eatingdisorders. In addition, endophenotypes and component phenotypes of eatingdisorders have been evaluated and provide further insight regarding genetic factors influencing eatingdisorders and eatingdisorder diagnostic criteria. Many of these phenotypes have demonstrated substantial heritability. This chapter reviews biometrical genetic methods and current findings from family and twin studies that investigate the role of genes and environment in the etiology of eatingdisorders. We review the methodology used to estimate heritability, the results of these studies, and discuss the implications of this research for the basic conceptualization of eatingdisorders and the future value of twin modeling in the molecular genetic era.
Thornton, Laura M.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective This study tested this risk model for disorderedeating in pre-adolescent girls: pubertal onset is associated with increases in negative urgency (the personality tendency to act rashly when distressed); negative urgency influences eatingdisorder symptoms by shaping psychosocial learning (expectancy formation), thus indirectly influencing symptom levels; and many influences on purging are mediated by binge eating. Method 905 fifth grade girls completed questionnaire measures of eating pathology, negative urgency, and dieting/thinness and eating expectancies. Results Binge eating and purging behaviors were present in 5th grade girls. As anticipated, pubertal status was associated with higher levels of negative urgency, negative urgency was associated with each expectancy measure, quadratic dieting/thinness and eating expectancies were associated with binge eating, and binge eating was associated with purging. Discussion It is important and feasible to develop risk models for pre-adolescent eatingdisordered behaviors. Our model that integrates puberty, personality, and psychosocial learning appears promising.
Combs, Jessica L.; Pearson, Carolyn M.; Smith, Gregory T.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is an Axis II disorder that is characterized by an intact façade, longstanding self-regulation difficulties and self-harm behavior, and unstable interpersonal relationships and mood. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), the prevalence of BPD in the general population is around 2%. The symptoms of the
The aim of the study was to search for a body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) period preceding the symptoms meeting the criteria of either anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and an evaluation of the prevalence of BDD symptoms in a control group of girls without any eatingdisorder. Ninety-three girls (12–21 years old ) were included in the study (36 with anorexia
Background This study examined this relationship between eatingdisordered behaviors and exposure to ideal-type media in a sample of\\u000a South African university students, who could be expected to have reasonably high levels of media exposure. Possible underlying\\u000a reasons for this complex relationship were also investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method It examined the relationship via both quantitative (using a questionnaire that included the EAT-26 and a
Objective: To evaluate the effects of behavioral, family-based treatment on disorderedeating and child behavior problems for obese 8- to 12-year-old children. Study design: We examined disorderedeating in children and parents using the Kids’ EatingDisorder Survey (KEDS) and the Binge Eating Scale, respectively; and psychologic problems in children and their parents using the Child Behavior Checklist and Symptom
Leonard H. Epstein; Rocco A. Paluch; Brian E. Saelens; Michelle M. Ernst; Denise E. Wilfley
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are well-recognized eatingdisorders clinically. Night eating syndrome (NES)\\u000a and binge eatingdisorder (BED) are also of considerable importance and are increasingly recognized in the clinic, because\\u000a of the distress they cause and their links with obesity. Each of these four eatingdisorders has the capacity to disturb sleep\\u000a and in that respect
Jennifer D. Lundgren; John P. O’Reardon; Kelly C. Allison; Carrie D. Spresser
Although the causes of eatingdisorders remain unclear, epidemiological evidence suggests that peripubertal changes in body\\u000a shape and weight predispose young women to develop unhealthy eating attitudes. A psychiatric diagnosis of an eatingdisorder\\u000a can be made in up to 10% of young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes). Eatingdisorders, anorexia\\u000a nervosa and bulimia nervosa, pose a
A. Verrotti; M. Catino; F. A. De Luca; G. Morgese; F. Chiarelli
Most people envision eatingdisorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disorderedeating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eatingdisorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20632480
A specific model for eatingdisorder symptoms involving perfectionistic self-presentation and two different moderators (i.e., body image evaluation and body image investment) was tested. Participants completed measures of perfectionistic self-presentation, body image dysfunction, and eatingdisorder symptoms. Findings indicated that all three dimensions of perfectionistic self-presentation were associated with eatingdisorder symptoms. Results also showed that perfectionistic self-presentation predicted eating
Brandy J. McGee; Paul L. Hewitt; Simon B. Sherry; Melanie Parkin; Gordon L. Flett
Although psychiatric comorbidity is common among patients with anxiety disorders, its impact on treatment outcome remains unclear. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the relationship between diagnostic comorbidity and treatment outcome for patients with anxiety disorders. One hundred forty-eight anxiety-disordered treatment samples (combined N=3534) were examined for post-treatment effects from the PsychINFO database. Samples consisted of those exposed
Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disorderedeating or a frank eatingdisorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:19227390
Osteoporosis recently has been added to growing list of medical complications assisted with eatingdisorder in particular Anorexia nervosa. These often occur early in the course of anorexia in adolescent girls, presumably because this disorder not only interrupts the normal rapid bone accretion characteristic of adolescences, but also accelerate bone loss. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis in AN has not been completely characterized. While low body mass and amenorrhea are clearly important variables, other focters also may be involved. Some possible contributing factors in patients with AN include low Ca intake, increased glucocorticoids, insulin growth factor 1 deficiency. Simple weight gain needs to be part of the treatment, although it and exercise remain of unproven benefit for osteoporosis in patients with AN. But some studies have found that the clinical course of osteoporosis is not reversed simply with weight restoration. Long term studies are needed to answer the question of whether osteoporosis assisted with eatingdisorder is reversible. PMID:11268608
The objective of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a Mindful Eating Group as an adjunct to long-term treatment for a variety of eatingdisorders. Individuals (N = 33) attending treatment at an outpatient treatment facility participated in the 10-week intervention designed to enhance awareness around hunger and satiety cues. Disorderedeating symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention
Associations between stressful life events and disorderedeating behaviors were examined in 1708 older adolescents. Stressful life events were positively associated with extreme weight control behaviors and binge eating in both male and female respondents, emphasizing the importance of screening for disorderedeating behaviors among adolescents who report experiencing stressful life events.
Katie Loth; Patricia van den Berg; Marla E. Eisenberg; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
Associations between stressful life events and disorderedeating behaviors were examined in 1708 older adolescents. Stressful life events were positively associated with extreme weight control behaviors and binge eating in both male and female respondents, emphasizing the importance of screening for disorderedeating behaviors among adolescents who report experiencing stressful life events. PMID:18848681
Loth, Katie; van den Berg, Patricia; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
|There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to…
Binge eatingdisorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and “food addiction” may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food addiction is relatively new, understanding the relationship between food addiction and BED may be informative in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of problematic eating. In the following paper, we 1) examine the theoretical similarities and differences between BED and addiction, 2) review recent empirical evidence that speak to the relationship between BED and food addiction and 3) discuss the implications of associations between BED and food addiction with respect to clinical interventions.
Gearhardt, Ashley N.; White, Marney A.; Potenza, Marc N.
Objective This study estimates the prevalence of eatingdisorders in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women, and examines the association between participation in the gay community and eatingdisorder prevalence in gay and bisexual men. Method One hundred and twenty six white heterosexuals and 388 white, black, Latino LGB men and women were sampled from community venues. DSM-IV diagnoses of anorexia, bulimia, and binge eatingdisorder were assessed using the World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results Gay and bisexual men had significantly higher prevalence estimates of eatingdisorders than heterosexual men. There were no differences in eatingdisorder prevalence between lesbian and bisexual women and heterosexual women, or across gender or racial groups. Attending a gay recreational group was significantly related to eatingdisorder prevalence in gay and bisexual men. Conclusion Researchers should study the causes of the high prevalence of eatingdisorders among gay and bisexual men.
Objective This study examined perfectionism in relation to recovery from eatingdisorders by comparing different conceptualizations of perfectionism across healthy controls and fully recovered, partially recovered, and active eatingdisorder cases, where full recovery was defined using physical, behavioral, and psychological indices. Method Participants were primarily young adult females; 53 active eatingdisorder cases, 15 partially recovered cases, 20 fully recovered cases, and 67 healthy controls. Participants completed questionnaires assessing trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation style, and frequency of perfectionism cognitions, as well as a diagnostic interview to determine lifetime and current eatingdisorder diagnoses. Results A robust pattern emerged whereby the fully recovered eatingdisorder individuals and healthy controls had similar levels of perfectionism that were significantly lower than the perfectionism levels of the partially recovered and active eatingdisorder individuals, who were comparable to each other. Conclusion These findings have implications for more clearly defining eatingdisorder recovery and for the role perfectionism may play in achieving full recovery.
Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Sturm, Katrina; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma
BackgroundHOXA1 and HOXB1 have been strongly posed as candidate genes for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given their important role in the development of hindbrain. The A218G (rs10951154) in HOXA1 and the insertion variant in HOXB1 (nINS\\/INS, rs72338773) were of special interest for ASD but with inconclusive results. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis integrating case-control and transmission\\/disequilibrium test (TDT) studies to
Ran-Ran Song; Li Zou; Rong Zhong; Xia-Wen Zheng; Bei-Bei Zhu; Wei Chen; Li Liu; Xiao-Ping Miao; Julian Little
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in timing functions with, however, inconclusive findings on the underlying neurofunctional deficits. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of 11 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of timing in ADHD, comprising 150 patients and 145 healthy controls. Peak coordinates were extracted from significant case-control activation differences as well as demographic, clinical, and methodological variables. In addition, meta-regression analyses were used to explore medication effects. The most consistent deficits in ADHD patients relative to controls were reduced activation in typical areas of timing such as left inferior prefrontal cortex (IFC)/insula, cerebellum, and left inferior parietal lobe. The findings of left fronto-parieto-cerebellar deficits during timing functions contrast with well documented right fronto-striatal dysfunctions for inhibitory and attention functions, suggesting cognitive domain-specific neurofunctional deficits in ADHD. The meta-regression analysis showed that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation was reduced in medication-naïve patients but normal in long-term stimulant medicated patients relative to controls, suggesting potential normalization effects on the function of this prefrontal region with long-term psychostimulant treatment. PMID:22922163
The G72/G30 gene complex (G72 also known as D-amino acid oxidase activator, DAOA) and its chromosomal region 13q32–34 have been linked and associated with both schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) in multiple studies, including our initial association report on BP. However, the inconsistency of associated variants across studies is obvious. Previous meta-analyses had small data sets. The present meta-analysis combined 18 association articles published before April of 2007. There were 19 independent studies of SCZ, with 4304 cases, 5423 controls, and 1384 families, and four independent studies of BP with 1145 cases, 1829 controls, and 174 families. Of 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed in the 95-kb G72/G30 gene region, M18/rs947267 and M22/rs778293 showed association with SCZ in Asians, and M24/rs1421292 with SCZ in Europeans. The associations of C allele at M18 and A allele at M22 with SCZ in Asians survived conservative Bonferroni correction for multiple testing for 15 markers and subgroup analysis (adjusted P = 0.0000253 for M18; adjusted P = 0.009 for M22). No single maker showed evidence of overall association with BP. These results suggest that G72/G30 may influence susceptibility to schizophrenia with weak effects.
Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit behaviors and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to determine the relative efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD by identifying all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD. We located seven trials involving 225 children. A random effects meta-analysis of four methylphenidate trials showed methylphenidate to be effective for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD (ES = .67). Several adverse events were greater for children were taking methylphenidate compared to placebo. An individual trial of clonidine and two trials of atomoxetine suggest these agents may also be effective in treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD. PMID:23468071
Objective: To explore disorderedeating and eatingdisorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus. Self-report instruments were used to explore ED symptoms (the Eating
Mae Lynn Reyes-Rodríguez; Margarita Sala; Ann Von Holle; Claudia Unikel; Cynthia M. Bulik; Luis Cámara-Fuentes; Alba Suárez-Torres
|Given the recent focus on eatingdisorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eatingdisorders in African American girls given their…
The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the EatingDisorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eatingdisorder. Study 1 found that the EDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based diagnoses, convergent validity with risk factors for eating
Eatingdisorders on college campuses comprise a serious, yet understudied mental health issue. Specifically, prevalence studies of eatingdisorders among college counseling center populations are lacking in the current literature. Attempting to quantify the seriousness of this issue becomes an important first step in adapting counseling and outreach services for the larger campus community. Accordingly, this study utilized the Eating
|Compares the prevalence of eatingdisorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disorderedeating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…
Objective: A longitudinal study was conducted to examine whether the transition to college changed eatingdisorder symptoms and related attitudes. Method: Participants were 342 women who completed an in-depth survey in the spring of their senior year of high school and again during their first year of college. We assessed changes in body self- perception, eating-related attitudes, and disorderedeating
Kathleen D. Vohs; Todd F. Heatherton; Marcia Herrin
Although many counseling psychologists conceptualize eating disturbances along a continuum of degree, there appears to be a dearth of research exploring the construct validity of this eatingdisorder continuum hypothesis (L. B. Mintz et al., 1997). Specific psychological, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics known to be related to clinical eatingdisorders (C. Fairburn, 1995; D. M. Garner, 1991) were examined in
Objective: Each of 10 published studies investigating the relationship between HIV infection and risk for depressive disorders concluded that HIV-positive individuals are at no greater risk for depression than com- parable HIV-negative individuals. This study used meta-analytic techniques to further examine the relationship between depressive disorders and HIV infection. Method: Meta-analytic techniques were used to aggregate and reanalyze the data
Recent neurobiological models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that a dysfunction in orbitofrontal–subcortical circuitry underlies the etiology of this disorder. Much of the empirical support for these theories comes from studies using neuroimaging techniques to compare brain activity in OCD patients with that in non-OCD controls. Qualitative reviews of this literature implicate the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. In
Stephen P. Whiteside; John D. Port; Jonathan S. Abramowitz
Background Aberrant brain connectivity, especially with long-distance underconnectivity, has been recognized as a candidate pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders. However, a number of diffusion tensor imaging studies investigating people with autism spectrum disorders have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To test the long-distance underconnectivity hypothesis, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. Diffusion tensor imaging studies comparing individuals with autism spectrum disorders with typically developing individuals were searched using MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE from 1980 through 1 August 2012. Standardized mean differences were calculated as an effect size of the tracts. Results A comprehensive literature search identified 25 relevant diffusion tensor imaging studies comparing autism spectrum disorders and typical development with regions-of-interest methods. Among these, 14 studies examining regions of interest with suprathreshold sample sizes were included in the meta-analysis. A random-effects model demonstrated significant fractional anisotropy reductions in the corpus callosum (P = 0.023, n = 387 (autism spectrum disorders/typically developing individuals: 208/179)), left uncinate fasciculus (P = 0.011, n = 242 (117/125)), and left superior longitudinal fasciculus (P = 0.016, n = 182 (96/86)), and significant increases of mean diffusivity in the corpus callosum (P = 0.006, n = 254 (129/125)) and superior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally (P = 0.031 and 0.011, left and right, respectively, n = 109 (51/58)), in subjects with autism spectrum disorders compared with typically developing individuals with no significant publication bias. Conclusion The current meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies in subjects with autism spectrum disorders emphasizes important roles of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and corpus callosum in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders and supports the long-distance underconnectivity hypothesis.
Although psychiatric comorbidity is common among patients with anxiety disorders, its impact on treatment outcome remains unclear. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the relationship between diagnostic comorbidity and treatment outcome for patients with anxiety disorders. One hundred forty-eight anxiety-disordered treatment samples (combined N=3534) were examined for post-treatment effects from the PsychINFO database. Samples consisted of those exposed to both active (CBT, dynamic therapy, drug treatment, CBT+drug treatment, mindfulness) and inactive treatments (placebo/attention control, wait-list). All treatments were associated with significant improvement at post-treatment, and active treatments were associated with greater effects than were inactive treatments. However, overall comorbidity was generally unrelated to effect size at post-treatment or at follow-up. A significant negative relationship between overall comorbidity and treatment outcome was found for mixed or "neurotic" anxiety samples when examining associations between comorbidity and specific diagnoses. Conversely, there was a significant positive relationship between overall comorbidity and treatment outcome for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and PTSD or sexual abuse survivors. These findings suggest that while diagnostic comorbidity may not impact the effects of specific anxiety disorder treatments, it appears to differentially impact outcome for specific anxiety disorder diagnoses. PMID:20510492
Objective: There is renewed debate on whether modern diagnostic classification should adopt a dichotomous or dimensional approach to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study synthesizes data from voxel-based studies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to estimate the extent to which these conditions have a common neuroanatomical phenotype. Methods: A post-hoc meta-analytic estimation of the extent to which bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or both conditions contribute to brain gray matter differences compared to controls was achieved using a novel application of the conventional anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) method. 19 schizophrenia studies (651 patients and 693 controls) were matched as closely as possible to 19 bipolar studies (540 patients and 745 controls). Result: Substantial overlaps in the regions affected by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder included regions in prefrontal cortex, thalamus, left caudate, left medial temporal lobe, and right insula. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia jointly contributed to clusters in the right hemisphere, but schizophrenia was almost exclusively associated with additional gray matter deficits (left insula and amygdala) in the left hemisphere. Limitation: The current meta-analytic method has a number of constraints. Importantly, only studies identifying differences between controls and patient groups could be included in this analysis. Conclusion: Bipolar disorder shares many of the same brain regions as schizophrenia. However, relative to neurotypical controls, lower gray matter volume in schizophrenia is more extensive and includes the amygdala. This fresh application of ALE accommodates multiple studies in a relatively unbiased comparison. Common biological mechanisms may explain the neuroanatomical overlap between these major disorders, but explaining why brain differences are more extensive in schizophrenia remains challenging.
ObjectiveRelatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eatingdisorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eatingdisorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder.
Susan L. McElroy; Mark A. Frye; Gerhard Hellemann; Lori Altshuler; Gabriele S. Leverich; Trisha Suppes; Paul E. Keck; Willem A. Nolen; Ralph Kupka; Robert M. Post
The eatingdisorders anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are severe psychiatric disorders with high mortality. Our knowledge about the neurobiology of eatingdisorders is very limited, and the question remains whether alterations in brain structure or function in eatingdisorders are state related, remnants of the illness or premorbid traits. The brain reward system is a relatively well-characterized brain circuitry that plays a central role in the drive to eat and individuals with current or past eatingdisorders showed alterations in those pathways compared to controls. Here we propose that structural and functional alterations in the insula and frontal cortex, including orbitofrontal and cingulate regions, areas that contribute to reward and anxiety processing, could predispose to developing an eatingdisorder and that adaptive changes in those circuits in response to malnutrition or repeated binge eating and purging could further promote illness behavior, hinder recovery and contribute to relapse. PMID:23963630
Position It is the position of the Academy for Eating Disor- ders (AED) that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nerv- osa, along with their variants, are biologically based, serious mental illnesses (BBMI) that warrant the same level and breadth of health care coverage as conditions currently categorized in this way (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder). As set forth below,
Kelly L. Klump; Cynthia M. Bulik; Walter H. Kaye; Janet Treasure; Edward Tyson
The literature examining the relation between perfectionism and eatingdisorders was reviewed and content and methodological comparisons were made with the perfectionism literature in anxiety disorders and depressive disorders. A PsychInfo search using the key words “perfectionism\\/ perfect\\/ perfectionistic,” “anorexia,” “bulimia,” and “eatingdisorders” was performed and the generated list of papers was supplemented based on a review of reference
Anna M. Bardone-Cone; Stephen A. Wonderlich; Randy O. Frost; Cynthia M. Bulik; James E. Mitchell; Saritha Uppala; Heather Simonich
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of maintenance treatments for bipolar disorder. Placebo-controlled or active comparator bipolar maintenance clinical trials of ?6 months' duration with at least 15 patients/treatment group were identified using Medline, EMBASE, clinicaltrials.gov, and Cochrane databases (1993 to July 2010). The main outcome measure was relative risk for relapse for patients in remission. Twenty trials (5,364 patients) were identified. Overall, lithium and quetiapine were the most studied agents (eight and five trials, respectively). The majority of studies included patients who had previously responded to treatment for an acute episode. All interventions, with the exception of perphenazine+mood stabilizer, showed a relative risk for manic/mixed or depressive relapse below 1.0, although there was variation in the statistical significance of the findings vs. placebo. No monotherapy was associated with a significantly reduced risk for both manic/mixed and depressed relapse. Of the combination treatments, only quetiapine+lithium/divalproex, was associated with a significantly reduced risk vs. comparator (placebo+lithium/valproate) for relapse at both the manic/mixed and depressed poles of bipolar illness. Limitations for the analysis include differences in study durations and definitions of relapse. In conclusion, available maintenance therapies show considerable variation in efficacy. The efficacy of lithium and divalproex has been confirmed, but newer therapies, such as a number of atypical antipsychotics were also shown to be effective in bipolar disorder. Efficacy of all maintenance interventions needs to be balanced against the safety and tolerability profiles of individual agents. PMID:21733231
Vieta, Eduard; Günther, Oliver; Locklear, Julie; Ekman, Mattias; Miltenburger, Carolin; Chatterton, Mary Lou; Åström, Mikael; Paulsson, Björn
Objective:To describe sexual function- ing in women with eatingdisorders. Method:We assessed physical inti- macy, libido, sexual anxiety, partner sta- tus, and sexual relationships in 242 women from the International Price Foundation Genetic Studies relative to normative data. Results:Intercourse (55.3%), having a partner (52.7%), decreased sexual desire (66.9%), and increased sexual anxiety (59.2%) were common. Women with restricting and purging
Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro; T. J. Raney; Laura M. Thornton; Manfred M. Fichter; Wade H. Berrettini; David Goldman; Katherine A. Halmi; Allan S. Kaplan; Michael Strober; Janet Treasure; D. Blake Woodside; Walter H. Kaye; Cynthia M. Bulik
Objectives of review. The aim of this chapter is to review publications relevant to self-help treatments from the years 2004-2005. Summary of recent findings. Preliminary acceptability and efficiency findings suggest potential, as first steps in the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eatingdisorder (BED), for both unguided CD- ROM self-help (SH) and guided self-help (GSH) via internet. Cognitive behavior
Objective of review. The literature for the period 2004-2005 was reviewed in order to identify studies of the treatment for binge eatingdisorder (BED). Summary of recent findings. There is further evidence for the position that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best-established inter- vention for BED. There is further evidence for the effectiveness of therapist guided self-help CBT (CBTgsh)
BACKGROUND: Families of people with eatingdisorders are often caught up in rule bound eating and safety behaviours that characterise the illness. The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and specific scale to measure family accommodation in the context of having a relative with an eatingdisorder. METHODS: A new scale, the Accommodation and Enabling Scale
Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eatingdisorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. =
Andrea B. Goldschmidt; Daniel Le Grange; Pauline Powers; Scott J. Crow; Laura L. Hill; Carol B. Peterson; Ross D. Crosby; Jim E. Mitchell
|Objective: There is a pressing need to elucidate the brain-behavior interactions underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the marked rise in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has begun to address this need, but few fMRI studies have evaluated age-related changes in ASD. Therefore, we…
Dickstein, Daniel P.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Seymour, Karen E.; Laird, Angela R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Barrett, Rowland P.
Despite their purported advantages, researchers have consistently cited a lack of empirically sound research support for many popular interventions used for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There is now a tangible need for an effective synthesis of research that includes studies published over the past decade, a need most effectively met by meta-analytic review of cumulative research. The purpose
A comprehensive literature search was performed to collate evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with two primary objectives. First, features of mitochondrial dysfunction in the general population of children with ASD were identified. Second, characteristics of mitochondrial dysfunction in children with ASD and concomitant mitochondrial disease (MD) were compared with published literature of two general populations: ASD
Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and commonly studied forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Causal models of ADHD have long implicated dysfunction in fronto-striatal and frontal-parietal networks supporting executive function, a hypothesis that can now be examined…
Dickstein, Steven G.; Bannon, Katie; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.
The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.
Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.
Objective: A growing body of literature has documented pediatric bipolar disorder to be a severely impairing form of psychopathology. However, concerns remain as to the inadequacy of the extant literature on its pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, treatment studies have not been systematically reviewed for treatment effects on core and associated…
Liu, Howard Y.; Potter, Mona P.; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Yorks, Dayna M.; Petty, Carter R.; Wozniak, Janet R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph
|Objective: A growing body of literature has documented pediatric bipolar disorder to be a severely impairing form of psychopathology. However, concerns remain as to the inadequacy of the extant literature on its pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, treatment studies have not been systematically reviewed for treatment effects on core and associated…
Liu, Howard Y.; Potter, Mona P.; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Yorks, Dayna M.; Petty, Carter R.; Wozniak, Janet R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph
|The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.|
Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.
We performed a quantitative review of associations between the higher order personality traits in the Big Three and Big Five models (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, disinhibition, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness) and specific depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD) in adults. This approach resulted in 66…
Kotov, Roman; Gamez, Wakiza; Schmidt, Frank; Watson, David
|Are motor coordination deficits an underlying cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Database searches identified 83 ASD studies focused on motor coordination, arm movements, gait, or postural stability deficits. Data extraction involved between-group comparisons for ASD and typically developing controls (N = 51). Rigorous…
Fournier, Kimberly A.; Hass, Chris J.; Naik, Sagar K.; Lodha, Neha; Cauraugh, James H.
Are motor coordination deficits an underlying cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Database searches identified 83 ASD studies focused on motor coordination, arm movements, gait, or postural stability deficits. Data extraction involved between-group comparisons for ASD and typically developing controls (N = 51). Rigorous…
Fournier, Kimberly A.; Hass, Chris J.; Naik, Sagar K.; Lodha, Neha; Cauraugh, James H.
Fear conditioning represents the process by which a neutral stimulus comes to evoke fear following its repeated pairing with an aversive stimulus. Although fear conditioning has long been considered a central pathogenic mechanism in anxiety disorders, studies employing lab-based conditioning paradigms provide inconsistent support for this idea. A quantitative review of 20 such studies, representing fear-learning scores for 453 anxiety
Shmuel Lissek; Alice S. Powers; Erin B. McClure; Elizabeth A. Phelps; Girma Woldehawariat; Christian Grillon; Daniel S. Pine
|Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…
Objective. This study investigated the relationship between exercise and eatingdisorder features in a community sample of adult women with and without eatingdisorder psychopathology. The research focus was on the cognitions of exercisers who scored high and low on eatingdisorder symptoms. It was hypothesized that women with eatingdisorder symptoms would have more negative thoughts and beliefs about
Zara Lipsey; Stephen B. Barton; Angela Hulley; Andrew J. Hill
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pediatric sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurs in an estimated 0.8 to 6.2 per 100?000 children annually. Screening for cardiac disorders causing SCD in asymptomatic children has public appeal because of its apparent potential to avert tragedy; however, performance of the electrocardiogram (ECG) as a screening tool is unknown. We estimated (1) phenotypic (ECG- or echocardiogram [ECHO]-based) prevalence of selected pediatric disorders associated with SCD, and (2) sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ECG, alone or with ECHO. METHODS: We systematically reviewed literature on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), long QT syndrome (LQTS), and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the 3 most common disorders associated with SCD and detectable by ECG. RESULTS: We identified and screened 6954 abstracts, yielding 396 articles, and extracted data from 30. Summary phenotypic prevalences per 100?000 asymptomatic children were 45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10–79) for HCM, 7 (95% CI: 0–14) for LQTS, and 136 (95% CI: 55–218) for Wolff-Parkinson-White. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for ECG were 0.91 for detecting HCM and 0.92 for LQTS. The negative predictive value of detecting either HCM or LQTS by using ECG was high; however, the positive predictive value varied by different sensitivity and specificity cut-points and the true prevalence of the conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide an evidence base for evaluating pediatric screening for these