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Sample records for eating disorders meta-analysis

  1. Disordered eating in male athletes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, James; Woodman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We examined the propensity for male athletes to exhibit symptoms of disordered eating. Using meta-analytic techniques, we examined overall effect size, individual effect sizes for specific sport types, standard of athletic competition and diagnostic tools from 31 studies. When all studies were considered as a homogeneous group, male athletes did not have symptoms of disordered eating that were significantly different from non-athletic controls. However, significant moderator effects emerged for sport type and measurement: (a) wrestling reported a greater incidence of disordered eating; and (b) studies that reported data from the Eating Attitudes Test yielded a significantly greater incidence of disordered eating in male athletes compared to non-athletes. Although some sports seem to present a higher risk of disordered eating compared to others, the effects are weak and heterogeneous. We make suggestions for the development of the research area, which has been severely hampered by the diagnostic tools that have been available for the study of men. PMID:25916949

  2. A meta-analysis of temperament in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Atiye, Minna; Miettunen, Jouko; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu

    2015-03-01

    Although suggested as an important contributor to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, temperament has not previously been studied adopting a meta-analytical approach. We therefore pooled data (N = 14 studies; N = 3315 cases, N = 3395 controls) on Cloninger's temperament traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence and persistence) in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Persistence was significantly higher than in the controls in all eating disorders except for BED the highest levels being observed in AN. Correspondingly, the highest effect sizes for harm avoidance were seen in AN. Novelty seeking was significantly elevated relative to the controls only in BN. Harm avoidance was significantly lower, and reward dependence was significantly higher in individuals who had recovered from AN than in those who remained ill. Future studies with a longitudinal design are needed to explore the temporal relationships between eating disorders and temperament traits. PMID:25546554

  3. Tooth Erosion and Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Patrícia A. D.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Auad, Sheyla M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? Methods An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders) vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. Results Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1–37.5). Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6–68.8). Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2–41.7). Conclusion The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion. PMID:25379668

  4. Prevalence of eating disorders amongst dancers: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Mitchell, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Eating disorders in dancers are thought to be common, but the exact rates remain to be clarified. The aim of this study is to systematically compile and analyse the rates of eating disorders in dancers. A literature search, appraisal and meta-analysis were conducted. Thirty-three relevant studies were published between 1966 and 2013 with sufficient data for extraction. Primary data were extracted as raw numbers or confidence intervals. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for controlled studies. The overall prevalence of eating disorders was 12.0% (16.4% for ballet dancers), 2.0% (4% for ballet dancers) for anorexia, 4.4% (2% for ballet dancers) for bulimia and 9.5% (14.9% for ballet dancers) for eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The dancer group had higher mean scores on the EAT-26 and the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. Dancers, in general, had a higher risk of suffering from eating disorders in general, anorexia nervosa and EDNOS, but no higher risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa. The study concluded that as dancers had a three times higher risk of suffering from eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa and EDNOS, specifically designed services for this population should be considered. PMID:24277724

  5. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and Officially Recognized Eating Disorders: Meta-Analysis and Implications for DSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),…

  6. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and Officially Recognized Eating Disorders: Meta-Analysis and Implications for DSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),

  7. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d = .41, p = .003; dieting (six studies), d = .68, p < .001, and negative affect (three studies), d = 1.00, p < .001. No effect emerged for bulimic symptoms (four studies), d = .22, p = .73. Findings confirmed the effect of pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26230192

  8. Inhibitory Control in Bulimic-Type Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mudan; Hartmann, Mechthild; Skunde, Mandy; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarise data from neuropsychological studies on inhibitory control to general and disease-salient (i.e., food/eating, body/shape) stimuli in bulimic-type eating disorders (EDs). A systematic literature search was conducted to identify eligible experimental studies. The outcome measures studied included the performance on established inhibitory control tasks in bulimic-type EDs. Effect sizes (Hedges' g) were pooled using random-effects models. For inhibitory control to general stimuli, 24 studies were included with a total of 563 bulimic-type ED patients: 439 had bulimia nervosa (BN), 42 had anorexia nervosa of the binge/purge subtype (AN-b), and 82 had binge eating disorder (BED). With respect to inhibitory control to disease-salient stimuli, 12 studies were included, representing a total of 218 BN patients. A meta-analysis of these studies showed decreased inhibitory control to general stimuli in bulimic-type EDs (g?=??0.32). Subgroup analysis revealed impairments with a large effect in the AN-b group (g?=??0.91), impairments with a small effect in the BN group (g?=??0.26), and a non-significant effect in the BED group (g?=??0.16). Greater impairments in inhibitory control were observed in BN patients when confronted with disease-salient stimuli (food/eating: g?=??0.67; body/shape: g?=??0.61). In conclusion, bulimic-type EDs showed impairments in inhibitory control to general stimuli with a small effect size. There was a significantly larger impairment in inhibitory control to disease salient stimuli observed in BN patients, constituting a medium effect size. PMID:24391763

  9. The relationship between eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: Meta-analysis and implications for DSM

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. This meta-analysis aimed to inform DSM revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS to that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search identified 125 eligible studies (published and unpublished) appearing in the literature from 1987 to 2007. Random effects analyses indicated that while EDNOS did not differ significantly from AN and BED on eating pathology or general psychopathology, BN exhibited greater eating and general psychopathology than EDNOS. Moderator analyses indicated that EDNOS groups who met all diagnostic criteria for AN except for amenorrhea did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Similarly, EDNOS groups who met all criteria for BN or BED except for binge frequency did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Results suggest that EDNOS represents a set of disorders associated with substantial psychological and physiological morbidity. While certain EDNOS subtypes could be incorporated into existing DSM-IV categories, others such as purging disorder and non-fat-phobic ANmay be best conceptualized as distinct syndromes. PMID:19379023

  10. Novel methods to help develop healthier eating habits for eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Bruidegom, Kiki; Cardi, Valentina; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This paper systematically reviews novel interventions developed and tested in healthy controls that may be able to change the over or under controlled eating behaviours in eating and weight disorders. Electronic databases were searched for interventions targeting habits related to eating behaviours (implementation intentions; food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification). These were assessed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In healthy controls the implementation intention approach produces a small increase in healthy food intake and reduction in unhealthy food intake post-intervention. The size of these effects decreases over time and no change in weight was found. Unhealthy food intake was moderately reduced by food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification post-intervention. This work may have important implications for the treatment of populations with eating and weight disorders. However, these findings are preliminary as there is a moderate to high level of heterogeneity in implementation intention studies and to date there are few food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification studies. PMID:26695383

  11. E-therapy in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loucas, Christina E.; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Whittington, Craig; Pennant, Mary E.; Stockton, Sarah; Kendall, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The widespread availability of the Internet and mobile-device applications (apps) is changing the treatment of mental health problems. The aim of the present study was to review the research on the effectiveness of e-therapy for eating disorders, using the methodology employed by the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Electronic databases were searched for published randomised controlled trials of e-therapies, designed to prevent or treat any eating disorder in all age groups. Studies were meta-analysed where possible, and effect sizes with confidence intervals were calculated. The GRADE approach was used to determine the confidence in the effect estimates. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. For prevention, a CBT-based e-intervention was associated with small reductions in eating disorder psychopathology, weight concern and drive for thinness, with moderate confidence in the effect estimates. For treatment and relapse prevention, various e-therapies showed some beneficial effects, but for most outcomes, evidence came from single studies and confidence in the effect estimates was low. Overall, although some positive findings were identified, the value of e-therapy for eating disorders must be viewed as uncertain. Further research, with improved methods, is needed to establish the effectiveness of e-therapy for people with eating disorders. PMID:25461787

  12. Reward-related decision making in eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence from neuropsychological studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mudan; Brockmeyer, Timo; Hartmann, Mechthild; Skunde, Mandy; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) are serious public health concerns that share common neuropsychological features and patterns of disturbed eating. Reward-related decision making as a basic neurocognitive function may trans-diagnostically underlie both pathological overeating and restricted eating. The present meta-analysis synthesizes the evidence from N=82 neuropsychological studies for altered reward-related decision making in all ED subtypes, OW and OB. The overall effect sizes for the differences between currently-ill ED patients and OW/OB people and controls were Hedge's g=-0.49 [CI: -0.63; -0.35], and Hedge's g=-0.39 [CI: -0.53; -0.25], respectively. Decision making was found to be altered to similar degrees in all ED subtypes and OB. Effect sizes, however, diverged for the different measures of decision making. Adolescents appear to be less affected than adults. When foods were used as rewarding stimuli, decision making was found to be intact in OB. The findings support that altered general reward-related decision making is a salient neuropsychological factor across eating and weight disorders in adulthood. PMID:26698021

  13. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and/or maintain an imaginary appearance. Related information Anorexia nervosa fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet ... your area. Eating disorders are serious medical problems. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder are ...

  14. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  15. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  16. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  17. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.

  18. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  19. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  20. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African

  1. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may promote weight loss.​ What are the health risks of binge eating disorder? People with binge eating ... binge eating disorder try to lose weight? What health risks are linked to excess weight? Excess weight may ...

  2. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  3. Meta-analysis of genetic association studies on bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela Belmonte; Judy, Jennifer; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Jancic, Dubravka; Taylor, Jacob; Goes, Fernando S; Potash, James B; Zandi, Peter P

    2012-07-01

    Numerous candidate gene association studies of bipolar disorder (BP) have been carried out, but the results have been inconsistent. Individual studies are typically underpowered to detect associations with genes of small effect sizes. We conducted a meta-analysis of published candidate gene studies to evaluate the cumulative evidence. We systematically searched for all published candidate gene association studies of BP. We then carried out a random-effects meta-analysis on all polymorphisms that were reported on by three or more case-control studies. The results from meta-analyses of these genes were compared with the findings from a recent mega-analysis of eleven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in BP performed by the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC). A total of 487 articles were included in our review. Among these, 33 polymorphisms in 18 genes were reported on by three or more case-control studies and included in the random-effects meta-analysis. Polymorphisms in BDNF, DRD4, DAOA, and TPH1, were found to be nominally significant with a P-value < 0.05. However, none of the findings were significant after correction for multiple testing. Moreover, none of these polymorphisms were nominally significant in the PGC-BP GWAS. A number of plausible candidate genes have been previously associated with BP. However, the lack of robust findings in our review of these candidate genes highlights the need for more atheoretical approaches to study the genetics of BP afforded by GWAS. The results of this meta-analysis and from other on-going genomic experiments in BP are available online at Metamoodics (http://metamoodics.igm.jhmi.edu). PMID:22573399

  4. Meta-Analysis of Genetic Association Studies on Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela Belmonte; Judy, Jennifer; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Jancic, Dubravka; Taylor, Jacob; Goes, Fernando S.; Potash, James B.; Zandi, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous candidate gene association studies of bipolar disorder (BP) have been carried out, but the results have been inconsistent. Individual studies are typically underpowered to detect associations with genes of small effect sizes. We conducted a meta-analysis of published candidate gene studies to evaluate the cumulative evidence. We systematically searched for all published candidate gene association studies of BP. We then carried out a random-effects meta-analysis on all polymorphisms that were reported on by three or more case–control studies. The results from meta-analyses of these genes were compared with the findings from a recent mega-analysis of eleven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in BP performed by the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC). A total of 487 articles were included in our review. Among these,33 polymorphismsin 18genes were reported on by three or more case–control studies and included in the random-effects meta-analysis. Polymorphisms in BDNF, DRD4, DAOA, and TPH1, were found to be nominally significant with a P-value < 0.05. However, none of the findings were significant after correction for multiple testing. Moreover, none of these polymorphisms were nominally significant in the PGC-BP GWAS. A number of plausible candidate genes have been previously associated with BP. However, the lack of robust findings in our review of these candidate genes highlights the need for more atheoretical approaches to study the genetics of BP afforded by GWAS. The results of this meta-analysis and from other on-going genomic experiments in BP are available online at Metamoodics (http://metamoodics.igm.jhmi.edu). PMID:22573399

  5. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... binge eating of calorie-dense foods. People with anorexia nervosa may excessively exercise or excessively stand, pace ... a medical condition can be the gateway to anorexia nervosa or bulimia. For those who are genetically ...

  6. Neural correlates of eating disorders: translational potential

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Carrie J; Smith, Whitney

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex and serious psychiatric illnesses whose etiology includes psychological, biological, and social factors. Treatment of eating disorders is challenging as there are few evidence-based treatments and limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in sustained recovery. In the last 20 years, we have begun to identify neural pathways that are altered in eating disorders. Consideration of how these pathways may contribute to an eating disorder can provide an understanding of expected responses to treatments. Eating disorder behaviors include restrictive eating, compulsive overeating, and purging behaviors after eating. Eating disorders are associated with changes in many neural systems. In this targeted review, we focus on three cognitive processes associated with neurocircuitry differences in subjects with eating disorders such as reward, decision-making, and social behavior. We briefly examine how each of these systems function in healthy people, using Neurosynth meta-analysis to identify key regions commonly implicated in these circuits. We review the evidence for disruptions of these regions and systems in eating disorders. Finally, we describe psychiatric and psychological treatments that are likely to function by impacting these regions. PMID:26767185

  7. Cholinesterase Inhibitors for Lewy Body Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yasue, Ichiro; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Background: We performed a meta-analysis of cholinesterase inhibitors for patients with Lewy body disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson’s disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Methods: The meta-analysis included only randomized controlled trials of cholinesterase inhibitors for Lewy body disorders. Results: Seventeen studies (n = 1798) were assessed. Cholinesterase inhibitors significantly improved cognitive function (standardized mean difference [SMD] = −0.53], behavioral disturbances (SMD = −0.28), activities of daily living (SMD = −0.28), and global function (SMD = −0.52) compared with control treatments. Changes in motor function were not significantly different from control treatments. Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitor group had a higher all-cause discontinuation (risk ratio [RR] = 1.48, number needed to harm [NNH] = 14), discontinuation due to adverse events (RR = 1.59, NNH = 20), at least one adverse event (RR = 1.13, NNH = 11), nausea (RR = 2.50, NNH = 13), and tremor (RR = 2.30, NNH = 20). Conclusions: Cholinesterase inhibitors appear beneficial for the treatment of Lewy body disorders without detrimental effects on motor function. However, a careful monitoring of treatment compliance and side effects is required. PMID:26221005

  8. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  9. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Binge Eating Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Binge Eating Disorder Print A A A Text Size What's in ... takes a combination of things to develop an eating disorder including a person's genes, emotions, and behaviors (such ...

  10. EATING DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  11. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Unoka, Zsolt; J Richman, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses. PMID:26708387

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder in peacekeepers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Figueira, Ivan; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Volchan, Eliane; Portella, Carla Marques; Mendona-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2011-05-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among peacekeepers. A systematic review was carried out using Medline, Institute for Scientific Information/Web of Science and Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress databases, leading to a total of 12 studies reporting PTSD estimates. Pooled current PTSD prevalence was 5.3%, ranging from 0.05% to 25.8%, and a metaregression was used to investigate the variables that could account for the lack of homogeneity. However, none of the extracted information was capable of explaining the heterogeneity of the estimates. Peacekeeping studies presented different methodologies such as several screening instruments and different times from the deployment to the moment of PTSD assessment. The wide difference found among those estimates highlights the importance of the creation of standards for PTSD evaluation among peacekeepers. PMID:21543949

  13. Identification of Pathways for Bipolar Disorder A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurnberger, John I.; Koller, Daniel L.; Jung, Jeesun; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Guella, Ilaria; Vawter, Marquis P.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Genome-wide investigations provide systematic information regarding the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE To identify biological pathways that contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP) using genes with consistent evidence for association in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS). DATA SOURCES Four independent data sets with individual genome-wide data available in July 2011 along with all data sets contributed to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Group by May 2012. A prior meta-analysis was used as a source for brain gene expression data. STUDY SELECTION The 4 published GWAS were included in the initial sample. All independent BP data sets providing genome-wide data in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were included as a replication sample. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS We identified 966 genes that contained 2 or more variants associated with BP at P < .05 in 3 of 4 GWAS data sets (n = 12 127 [5253 cases, 6874 controls]). Simulations using 10 000 replicates of these data sets corrected for gene size and allowed the calculation of an empirical P value for each gene; empirically significant genes were entered into a pathway analysis. Each of these pathways was then tested in the replication sample (n = 8396 [3507 cases, 4889 controls]) using gene set enrichment analysis for single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The 226 genes were also compared with results from a meta-analysis of gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Empirically significant genes and biological pathways. RESULTS Among 966 genes, 226 were empirically significant (P < .05). Seventeen pathways were overrepresented in analyses of the initial data set. Six of the 17 pathways were associated with BP in both the initial and replication samples: corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling, cardiac β-adrenergic signaling, phospholipase C signaling, glutamate receptor signaling, endothelin 1 signaling, and cardiac hypertrophy signaling. Among the 226 genes, 9 differed in expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with BP: CACNA1C, DTNA, FOXP1, GNG2, ITPR2, LSAMP, NPAS3, NCOA2, and NTRK3. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Pathways involved in the genetic predisposition to BP include hormonal regulation, calcium channels, second messenger systems, and glutamate signaling. Gene expression studies implicate neuronal development pathways as well. These results tend to reinforce specific hypotheses regarding BP neurobiology and may provide clues for new approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:24718920

  14. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  15. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  16. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a

  17. Efficacy of treatments for anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Borwin; Reitt, Markus; Rver, Christian; Michaelis, Sophie; Grlich, Yvonne; Wedekind, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    To our knowledge, no previous meta-analysis has attempted to compare the efficacy of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments for the three main anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia). Pre-post and treated versus control effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all evaluable randomized-controlled studies (n = 234), involving 37,333 patients. Medications were associated with a significantly higher average pre-post ES [Cohen's d = 2.02 (1.90-2.15); 28,051 patients] than psychotherapies [1.22 (1.14-1.30); 6992 patients; P < 0.0001]. ES were 2.25 for serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (n = 23 study arms), 2.15 for benzodiazepines (n = 42), 2.09 for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 62) and 1.83 for tricyclic antidepressants (n = 15). ES for psychotherapies were mindfulness therapies, 1.56 (n = 4); relaxation, 1.36 (n = 17); individual cognitive behavioural/exposure therapy (CBT), 1.30 (n = 93); group CBT, 1.22 (n = 18); psychodynamic therapy 1.17 (n = 5); therapies without face-to-face contact (e.g. Internet therapies), 1.11 (n = 34); eye movement desensitization reprocessing, 1.03 (n = 3); and interpersonal therapy 0.78 (n = 4). The ES was 2.12 (n = 16) for CBT/drug combinations. Exercise had an ES of 1.23 (n = 3). For control groups, ES were 1.29 for placebo pills (n = 111), 0.83 for psychological placebos (n = 16) and 0.20 for waitlists (n = 50). In direct comparisons with control groups, all investigated drugs, except for citalopram, opipramol and moclobemide, were significantly more effective than placebo. Individual CBT was more effective than waiting list, psychological placebo and pill placebo. When looking at the average pre-post ES, medications were more effective than psychotherapies. Pre-post ES for psychotherapies did not differ from pill placebos; this finding cannot be explained by heterogeneity, publication bias or allegiance effects. However, the decision on whether to choose psychotherapy, medications or a combination of the two should be left to the patient as drugs may have side effects, interactions and contraindications. PMID:25932596

  18. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... probably heard about anorexia, which is also called anorexia nervosa (say: an-uh-REK-see-uh nur-VOH- ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  19. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Via MC; American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Committee on Quality Issues (CQI). Practice parameter ... with eating disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry . 2015;54:412-25. PMID: 25901778 www.ncbi. ...

  20. Maternal Smoking and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany N.; Lee, Brian K.; Lee, Nora L.; Yang, Yunwen; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 15 studies on maternal prenatal smoking and ASD risk in offspring. Using a random-effects model, we found no evidence of an association (summary OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93-1.12). Stratifying by study design, birth year, type of healthcare system, and adjustment for socioeconomic status or psychiatric history did not alter

  1. Maternal Smoking and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany N.; Lee, Brian K.; Lee, Nora L.; Yang, Yunwen; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 15 studies on maternal prenatal smoking and ASD risk in offspring. Using a random-effects model, we found no evidence of an association (summary OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93-1.12). Stratifying by study design, birth year, type of healthcare system, and adjustment for socioeconomic status or psychiatric history did not alter…

  2. Disorder-specific genetic factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comprehensive meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Much remains to be learned about the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twin studies suggest that it arises from both disorder-specific and non-specific genetic factors. To understand the etiology of OCD per se, it is necessary to identify disorder-specific factors. Previous research shows that OCD is associated with serotonin-related polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR coded as triallelic and HTR2A rs6311/rs6313) and, in males, a polymorphism involved in catecholamine modulation; COMT (rs4680). The present study is the first comprehensive meta-analysis to investigate whether these polymorphisms are specific to OCD. A meta-analysis was conducted for genetic association studies of OCD or any other psychiatric disorder, published in any language, in any country. A total of 551 studies were examined, of which 290 were included, consisting of 47,358 cases and 68,942 controls from case control studies, and 2,443 trios from family based studies. The main meta-analysis was limited to those disorders in which there were at least five datasets (studies or sub-studies) per disorder. Results confirmed that OCD is associated with polymorphisms of 5-HTTLPR, HTR2A, and, in males only, COMT. These polymorphisms were not associated with almost all other forms of psychopathology, including unipolar mood disorders, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, schizophrenia, and alcohol dependence. OCD, compared to most other disorders, had a significantly stronger association with particular alleles of each of the polymorphisms. Results did not differ across ancestral groups (Asian vs. Caucasian), designs (case control vs. family based), or diagnostic systems. Results suggest that the polymorphisms investigated in this study are relatively specific to OCD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26616111

  3. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  4. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the

  5. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  6. Eating disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  7. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  8. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention

  11. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

  12. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  13. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for

  14. Prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of epidemiological studies lies in recognition of cases that do not come to treatment settings. The increasing focus on child adolescent mental health in India points to the necessity of epidemiological studies on children. Although there are a few such studies done in different parts of India in different socio-cultural settings, data from those cannot be generalized to the entire country. This need can be served by meta-analysis. There has been no meta-analysis reported from India for the child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology. Aim To review and do the meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on child and adolescent psychiatric disorder from India. Methods Sixteen community based studies on 14594 children and adolescents; and seven school based studies on 5687 children and adolescents, reporting prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder were analyzed and overall prevalence was calculated. Results The prevalence rate of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in the community has been found to be 6.46% (95% confidence interval 6.08% - 6.88%) and in the school it has been found to be 23.33% (95% confidence interval 22.25% - 24.45%). Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis determining the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India. It has been found that the reporting systems of psychiatric disorders in children are inadequate. PMID:25071865

  15. Maternal Smoking and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Brittany N; Lee, Brian K; Lee, Nora L; Yang, Yunwen; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 15 studies on maternal prenatal smoking and ASD risk in offspring. Using a random-effects model, we found no evidence of an association (summary OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93-1.12). Stratifying by study design, birth year, type of healthcare system, and adjustment for socioeconomic status or psychiatric history did not alter the findings. There was evidence that ascertaining exposure at the time of birth produced a lower summary OR than when this information was gathered after birth. There was no evidence of publication bias. Non-differential exposure misclassification was shown to have the potential for negligible influence on the results. We found no evidence to support a measurable association between maternal prenatal smoking and ASD in offspring. PMID:25432101

  16. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several

  17. The Effectiveness of Treatment for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Whiteside, Sephen P.; Deacon, Brett J.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the number of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome.

  18. Innovative Technology-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided

  19. The Effectiveness of Treatment for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Whiteside, Sephen P.; Deacon, Brett J.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the number of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome.…

  20. Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Treatment Trials for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Hunna J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis on randomized, controlled treatment trials of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Studies were included if they employed randomized, controlled methodology and treated young people (19 years or under) with OCD. A comprehensive literature search identified 13 RCTs containing 10…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Matthew E.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of evidence-based treatments is important for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the increasing number of interventions available and the prevalence of ASD. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for this population by conducting a meta-analysis of published

  2. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Using Mixed-Effects Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online

  3. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J. L.; Langely, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of…

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Intimate Relationship Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),

  5. Psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Combination for Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nikita; Reece, John

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis aims to inform clinical practice of treatment strategies for adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). The efficacy of three empirically validated treatments was compared to determine the most effective treatment. These were: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

  6. Meta-Analysis of Dropout in Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Zac E.; Laska, Kevin; Jakupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many patients drop out of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); some clinicians believe that trauma-focused treatments increase dropout. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of dropout among active treatments in clinical trials for PTSD (42 studies; 17 direct comparisons). Results: The average dropout rate was 18%, but it

  7. Psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Combination for Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nikita; Reece, John

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis aims to inform clinical practice of treatment strategies for adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). The efficacy of three empirically validated treatments was compared to determine the most effective treatment. These were: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)…

  8. Innovative Technology-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided…

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Intimate Relationship Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…

  10. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J. L.; Langely, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of

  11. Meta-Analysis of the Nonword Reading Deficit in Specific Reading Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Julia A.; Matyas, Tom; Pratt, Chris

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether specific reading disorder (SRD) groups demonstrate a deficit in using phonological recoding strategies. Thirty-four studies were reviewed that had compared the nonword reading performances of SRD groups with reading-level matched (RL) control groups. The average nonword reading difference

  12. Anger, Hostility, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Wieland, Elias

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the available data on the strength of association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between hostility and PTSD, covering 39 studies with trauma-exposed adults. Effect sizes did not differ for anger and hostility, which could therefore be combined; effect sizes for anger expression variables

  13. Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical

  14. Genome Scan Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Part III: Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Gill, Michael; Nurnberger,Jr., John I.; Craddock, Nick; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Baron, Miron; Gershon, Elliot S.; Ekholm, Jenny; Cichon, Sven; Turecki, Gustavo; Claes, Stephan; Kelsoe, John R.; Schofield, Peter R.; Badenhop, Renee F.; Morissette, J.; Coon, Hilary; Blackwood, Douglas; McInnes, L. Alison; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J.; Reich, Theodore; Rice, John P.; Goate, Alison; McInnis, Melvin G.; McMahon, Francis J.; Badner, Judith A.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Bennett, Phil; Willour, Virginia L.; Zandi, Peter P.; Liu, Jianjun; Gilliam, Conrad; Juo, Suh-Hang; Berrettini, Wade H.; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Peltonen, Leena; Lnnqvist, Jouko; Nthen, Markus M.; Schumacher, Johannes; Windemuth, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Propping, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Alda, Martin; Grof, Paul; Rouleau, Guy A.; Del-Favero, Jurgen; VanBroeckhoven, Christine; Mendlewicz, Julien; Adolfsson, Rolf; Spence, M. Anne; Luebbert, Hermann; Adams, Linda J.; Donald, Jennifer A.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Barden, Nicholas; Shink, Eric; Byerley, William; Muir, Walter; Visscher, Peter M.; Macgregor, Stuart; Gurling, Hugh; Kalsi, Gursharan; McQuillin, Andrew; Escamilla, Michael A.; Reus, Victor I.; Leon, Pedro; Freimer, Nelson B.; Ewald, Henrik; Kruse, Torben A.; Mors, Ole; Radhakrishna, Uppala; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Akarsu, Nurten

    2003-01-01

    Genome scans of bipolar disorder (BPD) have not produced consistent evidence for linkage. The rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method was applied to 18 BPD genome scan data sets in an effort to identify regions with significant support for linkage in the combined data. The two primary analyses considered available linkage data for very narrow (i.e., BP-I and schizoaffective disorderBP) and narrow (i.e., adding BP-II disorder) disease models, with the ranks weighted for sample size. A broad model (i.e., adding recurrent major depression) and unweighted analyses were also performed. No region achieved genomewide statistical significance by several simulation-based criteria. The most significant P values (<.01) were observed on chromosomes 9p22.3-21.1 (very narrow), 10q11.21-22.1 (very narrow), and 14q24.1-32.12 (narrow). Nominally significant P values were observed in adjacent bins on chromosomes 9p and 18p-q, across all three disease models on chromosomes 14q and 18p-q, and across two models on chromosome 8q. Relatively few BPD pedigrees have been studied under narrow disease models relative to the schizophrenia GSMA data set, which produced more significant results. There was no overlap of the highest-ranked regions for the two disorders. The present results for the very narrow model are promising but suggest that more and larger data sets are needed. Alternatively, linkage might be detected in certain populations or subsets of pedigrees. The narrow and broad data sets had considerable power, according to simulation studies, but did not produce more highly significant evidence for linkage. We note that meta-analysis can sometimes provide support for linkage but cannot disprove linkage in any candidate region. PMID:12802785

  15. A genome-wide meta-analysis identifies novel loci associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Xue-Feng; Aragam, Nagesh

    2010-12-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder both have strong inherited components. Recent studies have indicated that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share more than half of their genetic determinants. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis (combined analysis) for genome-wide association data of the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 to detect genetic variants influencing both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using European-American samples (653 bipolar cases and 1034 controls, 1172 schizophrenia cases and 1379 controls). The best associated SNP rs11789399 was located at 9q33.1 (p=2.38 10(-6), 5.74 10(-4), and 5.56 10(-9), for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively), where one flanking gene, ASTN2 (220kb away) has been associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. The next best SNP was rs12201676 located at 6q15 (p=2.67 10(-4), 2.12 10(-5), 3.88 10(-8) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and meta-analysis, respectively), near two flanking genes, GABRR1 and GABRR2 (15 and 17kb away, respectively). The third interesting SNP rs802568 was at 7q35 within CNTNAP2 (p=8.92 10(-4), 1.38 10(-5), and 1.62 10(-7) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and meta-analysis, respectively). Through meta-analysis, we found two additional associated genes NALCN (the top SNP is rs2044117, p=4.57 10(-7)) and NAP5 (the top SNP is rs10496702, p=7.15 10(-7)). Haplotype analyses of above five loci further supported the associations with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These results provide evidence of common genetic variants influencing schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These findings will serve as a resource for replication in other populations to elucidate the potential role of these genetic variants in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:20889312

  16. Animal models of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

  17. Management of eating disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Nancy D; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A; Lohr, Kathleen N; Sedway, Jan A; Rooks, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed evidence on efficacy of treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), harms associated with treatments, factors associated with the treatment efficacy and with outcomes of these conditions, and whether treatment and outcomes for these conditions differ by sociodemographic characteristics. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health (CINAHL), PSYCHINFO, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), the National Agricultural Library (AGRICOLA), and Cochrane Collaboration libraries. REVIEW METHODS We reviewed each study against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. For included articles, a primary reviewer abstracted data directly into evidence tables; a second senior reviewer confirmed accuracy. We included studies published from 1980 to September 2005, in all languages. Studies had to involve populations diagnosed primarily with AN, BN, or BED and report on eating, psychiatric or psychological, or biomarker outcomes. RESULTS We report on 30 treatment studies for AN, 47 for BN, 25 for BED, and 34 outcome studies for AN, 13 for BN, 7 addressing both AN and BN, and 3 for BED. The AN literature on medications was sparse and inconclusive. Some forms of family therapy are efficacious in treating adolescents. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may reduce relapse risk for adults after weight restoration. For BN, fluoxetine (60 mg/day) reduces core bulimic symptoms (binge eating and purging) and associated psychological features in the short term. Individual or group CBT decreases core behavioral symptoms and psychological features in both the short and long term. How best to treat individuals who do not respond to CBT or fluoxetine remains unknown. In BED, individual or group CBT reduces binge eating and improves abstinence rates for up to 4 months after treatment; however, CBT is not associated with weight loss. Medications may play a role in treating BED patients. Further research addressing how best to achieve both abstinence from binge eating and weight loss in overweight patients is needed. Higher levels of depression and compulsivity were associated with poorer outcomes in AN; higher mortality was associated with concurrent alcohol and substance use disorders. Only depression was consistently associated with poorer outcomes in BN; BN was not associated with an increased risk of death. Because of sparse data, we could reach no conclusions concerning BED outcomes. No or only weak evidence addresses treatment or outcomes difference for these disorders. CONCLUSIONS The literature regarding treatment efficacy and outcomes for AN, BN, and BED is of highly variable quality. In future studies, researchers must attend to issues of statistical power, research design, standardized outcome measures, and sophistication and appropriateness of statistical methodology. PMID:17628126

  18. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions. PMID:26857889

  19. Voxel-Based Morphometry ALE meta-analysis of Bipolar Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana, Omar; Laird, Robert

    2012-03-01

    A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.

  20. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  1. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

  2. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  3. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been

  4. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy

  5. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying

  6. THE VALIDITY OF THE MOOD DISORDER QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SCREENING BIPOLAR DISORDER: A META-ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Ahn, Il Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to review the diagnostic accuracy of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) among patients with mood disorders. We used a bivariate random effects model to calculate summary sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-one studies were included. At the standard or modified cutoff value of 7, summary sensitivity was .62 and summary specificity was .85. When we pooled 11 studies including both patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with unipolar depression, the summary sensitivity was .76 and summary specificity was .81. However, among the six studies that excluded patients with known BD, the summary sensitivity was significantly reduced to .37 and summary specificity was .88. There were no significant differences on the diagnostic accuracy of the MDQ between studies from Eastern and Western countries after adjusting for various clinical correlates. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the MDQ was relatively good. However, when the MDQ is applied among patients with depression without previous diagnoses of BD, its sensitivity was significantly reduced. This suggests that when the MDQ is applied among this population, its optimal cutoff value should be adjusted to enhance its sensitivity. PMID:26010478

  7. Attentional bias in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Cooper, Zafra; Palmer, Robert L; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between eating disorders and attentional biases. Method: The first study comprised 23 female patients with clinical eating disorders, women with high levels ofanxiety (n = 19), and three female normal control groups comprising low (n = 31), moderate (n = 21), or high levels of shape concern (n = 23). The second study comprised 82 women with clinical eating disorders and 44 healthy controls. All participants completed measures of eating disorder psychopathology and completed a modified pictorial dot-probe task. Results: In the first study, biases were found for negative eating and neutral weight pictures, and for positive eating pictures in women with eating disorders; these biases were greater than those found in anxious and normal controls. The second study replicated these findings and biases were also found for negative and neutral shape stimuli. Conclusion: It is concluded that future research should establish whether such biases warrant specific therapeutic interventions. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007 PMID:17330290

  8. Association of HLA and post-schistosomal hepatic disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hamada, Mohamed; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Lan, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Yasunami, Michio; Zamora, Javier; Hirayama, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    Several human genetic variants, HLA antigens and alleles are reportedly linked to post-schistosomal hepatic disorder (PSHD), but the results from these reports are highly inconclusive. In order to estimate overall associations between human genetic variants, HLA antigens, HLA alleles and PSHD, we systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies in both post-schistosomal hepatic disorder and post-schistosomal non-hepatic disorder patients. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, The HuGE Published Literature database, Cochrane Library, and manual search of reference lists of articles published before July 2009 were used to retrieve relevant studies. Two reviewers independently selected articles and extracted data on study characteristics and data regarding the association between genetic variants, HLA antigens, HLA alleles and PSHD in the form of 2×2 tables. A meta-analysis using fixed-effects or random-effects models to pooled odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated only if more than one study had investigated particular variation. We found 17 articles that met our eligibility criteria. Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum were reported as the species causing PSHD. Since human genetic variants were only investigated in one study, these markers were not assessed by meta-analysis. Thus, only HLA-genes (a total of 66 HLA markers) were conducted in the meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis showed that human leucocyte antigens HLA-DQB1*0201 (OR=2.64, P=0.018), DQB1*0303 (OR=1.93, P=0.008), and DRB1*0901 (OR=2.14, P=0.002) alleles and HLA-A1 (OR=5.10, P=0.001), A2 (OR=2.17, P=0.005), B5 (OR=4.63, P=0.001), B8 (OR=2.99, P=0.02), and B12 (OR=5.49, P=0.005) serotypes enhanced susceptibility to PSHD, whereas HLA-DQA1*0501 (OR=0.29, P≤0.001) and DQB1*0301 (OR=0.58, P=0.007) were protective factors against the disease. We further suggested that the DRB1*0901-DQB1*0201, DRB1*0901-DQB1*0303 and A1-B8 haplotypes enhanced susceptibility to PSHD, whereas DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 linkage decreased the risk of PSHD. The result improved our understanding of the association between the HLA loci and PSHD with regard to pathogenic or protective T-cells and provided novel evidence that HLA alleles may influence disease severity. PMID:21664486

  9. Eating Disorders and the Family

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sam; Sananes, Renee

    1991-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex, often chronic, biopsychosocial disorders characterized by a pursuit for control which, in interaction with familial factors, results in disturbed patterns of relating to food and its meaning. Overt and covert resistance to intervention at the family level can reflect family dynamics but can be mitigated by engaging families of adolescents with eating disorders, by using multidisciplinary teams, and by hospitalization. PMID:21228994

  10. Cytokine aberrations in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Masi, A; Quintana, D S; Glozier, N; Lloyd, A R; Hickie, I B; Guastella, A J

    2015-04-01

    The role of non-diagnostic features in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is unclear. Increasing evidence suggests immune system alterations in ASD may be implicated in the severity of behavioral impairment and other developmental outcomes. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate if there is a characteristic abnormal cytokine profile in ASD compared with healthy controls (HCs). We identified relevant studies following a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge and Scopus. A meta-analysis was performed on studies comparing plasma and serum concentrations of cytokines in unmedicated participants with ASD and HCs. Results were reported according to PRISMA statement. Seventeen studies with a total sample size of 743 participants with ASD and 592 HC were included in the analysis. Nineteen cytokines were assessed. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta (P<0.001), IL-6 (P=0.03), IL-8 (P=0.04), interferon-gamma (P=0.02), eotaxin (P=0.01) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (P<0.05) were significantly higher in the participants with ASD compared with the HC group, while concentrations of transforming growth factor-β1 were significantly lower (P<0.001). There were no significant differences between ASD participants and controls for the other 12 cytokines analyzed. The findings of our meta-analysis identified significantly altered concentrations of cytokines in ASD compared to HCs, strengthening evidence of an abnormal cytokine profile in ASD where inflammatory signals dominate. PMID:24934179

  11. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schfer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J.L.; Langely, Kate; ODonovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although twin and family studies have shown Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association scans (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of existing studies to boost statistical power. Method We used data from four projects: a) the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), b) phase I of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics project (IMAGE), c) phase II of IMAGE (IMAGE II), and d) the Pfizer funded study from the University of California, Los Angeles, Washington University and the Massachusetts General Hospital (PUWMa). The final sample size consisted of 2,064 trios, 896 cases and 2,455 controls. For each study, we imputed HapMap SNPs, computed association test statistics and transformed them to Z-scores, and then combined weighted Z-scores in a meta-analysis. Results No genome-wide significant associations were found, although an analysis of candidate genes suggests they may be involved in the disorder. Conclusions Given that ADHD is a highly heritable disorder, our negative results suggest that the effects of common ADHD risk variants must, individually, be very small or that other types of variants, e.g. rare ones, account for much of the disorders heritability. PMID:20732625

  12. Eating disorders and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E

    2001-06-01

    This review examines the current debate on the role that sexual and physical abuse may play in predisposing to eating disorders in women. Despite some discordant opinions, clinicians agree that the experience of abuse in early childhood may be important for understanding the complex genesis of the eating disorders of some women. Three groups of studies are presented: those in which no connections emerge between sexual abuse and eating disorders, those in which a strong link is present and those in which the results refer to a multifactorial interpretative model. Some of the main symptoms, such as reactualization of the trauma, dissociation, personality disorders, pathological relationship with food, distortion of body image, suicide attempts and self-inflicted punishment that victims of abuse and eating disordered subjects share are examined. PMID:11456424

  13. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight effects are limited and not typically lasting. A number of psychotherapies have been shown to be beneficial, mostly for stopping binge eating, and tend to show little impact on weight loss. Numerous pharmacologic interventions have been developed, with the focus on antidepressants (used for their anti-binge eating effects) and weight loss drugs. Both have been shown to be helpful but again, for antidepressants, bringing about lasting weight loss appears to be difficult. The most effective approach to treating binge eating disorder (if available) is likely psychotherapy combined with medication management as indicated. PMID:26251823

  14. Resting state vagal tone in borderline personality disorder: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Julian; Kemp, Andrew H; Feeling, Nicole R; Thayer, Julian F; Kaess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the most common personality disorder in clinical settings. It is characterized by negative affectivity, emotional liability, anxiety, depression, as well as disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and risk taking), all of which have been linked to lower resting state vagal tone, which may be indexed by vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV). Here, we aimed to quantify the current evidence on alterations in resting state vmHRV in individuals with BPD, relative to healthy controls. A rigorous search of the literature, according to the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses", revealed 5 studies suitable for meta-analysis, reporting vmHRV in individuals with BPD (n=95), relative to healthy controls (n=105). Short-term measures of resting state vmHRV were extracted and subjected to meta-analysis using both random- and fixed effect models in RevMan. BPD displayed lower resting state vmHRV relative to healthy controls in random- (Hedges' g=-0.59, 95% CI [-1.11; -0.06], k=5) and fixed-effect meta-analysis (Hedges' g=-0.56, 95% CI [-0.86; -0.27], k=5). Control for potential publication bias did not change observed findings. Lowered resting state vagal tone may be an important trait characteristic underlying BPD. As prior studies have observed lowered vmHRV in a variety of psychiatric disorders, we propose that lowered vmHRV may reflect a common psychophysiological mechanism underlying difficulties in emotion regulation and impulsivity, in particular. PMID:26169575

  15. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  16. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  17. Mental state decoding impairment in major depression and borderline personality disorder: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Richman, Mara J; Unoka, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    BackgroundPatients with major depression and borderline personality disorder are characterised by a distorted perception of other people's intentions. Deficits in mental state decoding are thought to be the underlying cause of this clinical feature.AimsTo examine, using meta-analysis, whether mental state decoding abilities in patients with major depression and borderline personality disorder differ from those of healthy controls.MethodA systematic review of 13 cross-sectional studies comparing Reading in the Mind of the Eyes Test (RMET) accuracy performance of patients with major depression or borderline personality disorder and healthy age-matched controls (n = 976). Valence scores, where reported, were also assessed.ResultsLarge significant deficits were seen for global RMET performance in patients with major depression (d = -0.751). The positive RMET valence scores of patients with depression were significantly worse; patients with borderline personality disorder had worse neutral scores. Both groups were worse than controls. Moderator analysis revealed that individuals with comorbid borderline personality disorder and major depression did better than those with borderline personality disorder alone on accuracy. Those with comorbid borderline personality disorder and any cluster B or C personality disorder did worse than borderline personality disorder alone. Individuals with both borderline personality disorder and major depression performed better then those with borderline personality disorder without major depression for positive valence.ConclusionsThese findings highlight the relevance of RMET performance in patients with borderline personality disorder and major depression, and the importance of considering comorbidity in future analysis. PMID:26628692

  18. Does D-Cycloserine Enhance Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Humans? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Helga; Figueira, Ivan; Lopes, Alessandra; Gonalves, Raquel; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Ventura, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of anxiety is on the edge of a new era of combinations of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions. A new wave of translational research has focused on the use of pharmacological agents as psychotherapy adjuvants using neurobiological insights into the mechanism of the action of certain psychological treatments such as exposure therapy. Recently, d-cycloserine (DCS) an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis has been applied to enhance exposure-based treatment for anxiety and has proved to be a promising, but as yet unproven intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DCS in the enhancement of exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic searches were conducted in the databases ISI-Web of Science, Pubmed and PsycINFO. We included only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with humans, focusing on the role of DCS in enhancing the action of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. We identified 328 references, 13 studies were included in our final sample: 4 on obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 on panic disorder, 2 on social anxiety disorder, 2 on posttraumatic stress disorder, one on acrophobia, and 2 on snake phobia. The results of the present meta-analysis show that DCS enhances exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Cohen d?=? ?0.34; CI: ?0.54 to ?0.14), facilitating the specific process of extinction of fear. DCS seems to be effective when administered at a time close to the exposure therapy, at low doses and a limited number of times. DCS emerges as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with refractory anxiety disorders that are unresponsive to the conventional treatments available. When administered correctly, DCS is a promising strategy for augmentation of CBT and could reduce health care costs, drop-out rates and bring faster relief to patients. PMID:24991926

  19. Does D-cycloserine enhance exposure therapy for anxiety disorders in humans? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Helga; Figueira, Ivan; Lopes, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Raquel; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Ventura, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of anxiety is on the edge of a new era of combinations of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions. A new wave of translational research has focused on the use of pharmacological agents as psychotherapy adjuvants using neurobiological insights into the mechanism of the action of certain psychological treatments such as exposure therapy. Recently, d-cycloserine (DCS) an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis has been applied to enhance exposure-based treatment for anxiety and has proved to be a promising, but as yet unproven intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DCS in the enhancement of exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic searches were conducted in the databases ISI-Web of Science, Pubmed and PsycINFO. We included only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with humans, focusing on the role of DCS in enhancing the action of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. We identified 328 references, 13 studies were included in our final sample: 4 on obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 on panic disorder, 2 on social anxiety disorder, 2 on posttraumatic stress disorder, one on acrophobia, and 2 on snake phobia. The results of the present meta-analysis show that DCS enhances exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Cohen d =  -0.34; CI: -0.54 to -0.14), facilitating the specific process of extinction of fear. DCS seems to be effective when administered at a time close to the exposure therapy, at low doses and a limited number of times. DCS emerges as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with refractory anxiety disorders that are unresponsive to the conventional treatments available. When administered correctly, DCS is a promising strategy for augmentation of CBT and could reduce health care costs, drop-out rates and bring faster relief to patients. PMID:24991926

  20. Meta-analysis of COMT val158met in panic disorder: ethnic heterogeneity and gender specificity.

    PubMed

    Domschke, Katharina; Deckert, Juergen; O'donovan, Michael C; Glatt, Stephen J

    2007-07-01

    There is strong evidence for a genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of panic disorder, with the functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism having been suggested as a potential susceptibility factor. In the present study, a meta-analysis of six available case-control studies (557 patients with panic disorder and 763 healthy controls in total) on the role of the COMT val158met polymorphism in panic disorder was conducted in an attempt to reconcile previous conflicting results and to facilitate evaluation of the role of COMT gene variation in panic disorder. Overall, no significant association, but strong between-study heterogeneity, was discerned. Analysis of studies pooled by ancestry yielded a significant association of the COMT 158val allele with panic disorder in Caucasian samples and, conversely, a trend towards association of the COMT 158met allele with the disorder in Asian samples. Interestingly, stratification for gender as well as ethnicity revealed that association of the 158val allele in Caucasians and, reciprocally, the 158met allele in Asian samples was restricted to females. The present meta-analysis provides tentative support for the COMT val158met polymorphism as a possible risk factor for panic disorder, with differential effects in Caucasian and Asian populations, and suggests a female-specific effect. However, given the relatively small number of case-control studies presently available, several more association studies, preferably including a larger number of family-based studies, are warranted for conclusive evaluation of the COMT val158met polymorphism as a vulnerability factor in panic disorder. PMID:17357147

  1. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  2. Treatment Programs for Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Mihandoost, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aim of this study was to determine the experimental evidence of treatment/intervention programs for deficits in social skills, attention, and behavioral disorder in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence Acquisition: Meta-analysis procedures were employed to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD exhibit deficits in attention and social skills. A total of 17 empirical research studies published between 2000 and 2013 met our inclusion criteria. Attention and social skills measures were categorized according to both modality and type of processing required. Results: Children with ADHD exhibited deficits in multiple components of attention and social skills that were not related to language-learning disorders and weaknesses in general intellectual abilities. The overall percentage effect for attention and social skills in students with ADHD was calculated (effect size = 0. 79, confidence interval = 0.57 - 1.08). This meta-analysis study showed that treatment programs reduced attention deficit and social skills in ADHD children and adolescents. Conclusions: The evidence of attention and social skills deficits in children with ADHD supports recent studies in ADHD deficits. Further research is required to explain in detail the nature, severity, and specificity of the deficits in individuals with ADHD. PMID:26576168

  3. Innovative technology-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

    2014-05-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided interventions via a desktop computer, interactive DVD, shared active surface, and virtual reality. None employed robotics. The results provide evidence for the overall effectiveness of technology-based training. The overall mean effect size for posttests of controlled studies of children with autism spectrum disorders who received technology-based interventions was significantly different from zero and approached the medium magnitude, d = 0.47 (confidence interval: 0.08-0.86). The influence of age and IQ was not significant. Differences in training procedures are discussed in the light of the negative correlation that was found between the intervention durations and the studies' effect sizes. The results of this meta-analysis provide support for the continuing development, evaluation, and clinical usage of technology-based intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24092843

  4. The efficacy of motivational interviewing for disordered gambling: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, Igor; Quigley, Leanne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Hodgins, David C; Ronksley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Motivational interviewing is a client-centered therapeutic intervention that aims to resolve ambivalence toward change. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of motivational interviewing, compared to non-motivational interviewing controls, in the treatment of disordered gambling. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated change in gambling behavior using motivational interviewing in adult disordered gamblers. The primary outcomes were the weighted mean difference (WMD) for change in average days gambled per month and average dollars lost per month. The search strategy yielded 447 articles, of which 20 met criteria for full text review. Overall, 8 studies (N=730) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for systematic review and 5 (N=477) were included in the meta-analysis. Motivational interviewing was associated with significant reduction in gambling frequency up to a year after treatment delivery. For gambling expenditure, motivational interviewing yielded significant reductions in dollars spent gambling compared to non-motivational controls at post-treatment only (1-3 months). Overall, the results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing is an efficacious style of therapy for disordered gambling in the short term. Whether treatment effects are maintained over time remains unclear. PMID:25577724

  5. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative symptoms and symptoms of an Eating Disorder. PMID:26417791

  6. Association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pu, Danhua; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is essential for DNA biosynthesis and the epigenetic process of DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and cancers. However, reports on the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the relationship of the MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and the risk of ASD by meta-analysis. Up to December 2012, eight case-control studies involving 1672 patients with ASD and 6760 controls were included for meta-analysis. The results showed that the C677T polymorphism was associated with significantly increased ASD risk in all the comparison models [T vs. C allele (frequency of allele): odds ratio (OR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.85; CT vs. CC (heterozygote): OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.00; TT vs. CC (homozygote): OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.08-3.20; CT+TT vs. CC (dominant model): OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12-2.18; and TT vs. CC+CT (recessive model): OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22], whereas the A1298C polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with reduced ASD risk but only in a recessive model (CC vs. AA+AC: OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.97). In addition, we stratified the patient population based on whether they were from a country with food fortification of folic acid or not. The meta-analysis showed that the C677T polymorphism was found to be associated with ASD only in children from countries without food fortification. Our study indicated that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to increased ASD risk, and periconceptional folic acid may reduce ASD risk in those with MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism. PMID:23653228

  7. Disordered eating among mothers of Polish patients with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Jzefik, Barbara; Sa?apa, Kinga

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating as measured by the Eating Attitude Test (EAT26) among mothers of girls diagnosed with various types of eating disorders, in comparison with mothers of depressive girls and their relationship with daughters results 14 years after the beginning of the Polish political and cultural transformation of 1989. Material/Methods The data of 68 mothers and their daughters were used in statistical analysis (anorexia nervosa restrictive type: 18, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type: 12, bulimia: 14, depression: 24). The mean age in the group of mothers was 43.5 (SD 5.3), daughters: 16.7 (SD 1.4). Results In the group of mothers, the results of EAT26 test were lower than results of the general population of Polish females or patients mothers obtained in a different cultural context. Results from girls with an eating disorder diagnosis considerably exceed the mean result of Polish population studies of teenagers. There were no statistically significant differences between the EAT26 results of mothers of girls with various types of eating disorders and mothers of depressive girls. Sociocultural variables such as education and place of residence of mothers also did not differentiate the studied groups and did not have a significant influence on attitudes towards weight and body shape presented by the studied mothers. Conclusions The obtained results may suggest that in the studied population, the social background of mothers and disturbances of their own mothers attitudes towards weight and body shape were not an important and specific risk factor in the development of their daughters eating disorders. PMID:23197240

  8. Treatment of psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder with aripiprazole monotherapy: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available clinical trials concerning the usefulness of aripiprazole in the treatment of the psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder. Methods A systematic MEDLINE and repository search concerning clinical trials for aripiprazole in bipolar disorder was conducted. Results The meta-analysis of four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on acute mania suggests that the effect size of aripiprazole versus placebo was equal to 0.14 but a more reliable and accurate estimation is 0.18 for the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score. The effect was higher for the PANSS-positive subscale (0.28), PANSS-hostility subscale (0.24) and PANSS-cognitive subscale (0.20), and lower for the PANSS-negative subscale (0.12). No data on the depressive phase of bipolar illness exist, while there are some data in favour of aripiprazole concerning the maintenance phase, where at week 26 all except the total PANSS score showed a significant superiority of aripiprazole over placebo (d = 0.28 for positive, d = 0.38 for the cognitive and d = 0.71 for the hostility subscales) and at week 100 the results were similar (d = 0.42, 0.63 and 0.48, respectively). Conclusion The data analysed for the current study support the usefulness of aripiprazole against psychotic symptoms during the acute manic and maintenance phases of bipolar illness. PMID:20043829

  9. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  10. Adding psychotherapy to antidepressant medication in depression and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials in which the effects of treatment with antidepressant medication were compared to the effects of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in adults with a diagnosed depressive or anxiety disorder. A total of 52 studies (with 3,623 patients) met inclusion criteria, 32 on depressive disorders and 21 on anxiety disorders (one on both depressive and anxiety disorders). The overall difference between pharmacotherapy and combined treatment was Hedges' g?=?0.43 (95% CI: 0.31-0.56), indicating a moderately large effect and clinically meaningful difference in favor of combined treatment, which corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 4.20. There was sufficient evidence that combined treatment is superior for major depression, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The effects of combined treatment compared with placebo only were about twice as large as those of pharmacotherapy compared with placebo only, underscoring the clinical advantage of combined treatment. The results also suggest that the effects of pharmacotherapy and those of psychotherapy are largely independent from each other, with both contributing about equally to the effects of combined treatment. We conclude that combined treatment appears to be more effective than treatment with antidepressant medication alone in major depression, panic disorder, and OCD. These effects remain strong and significant up to two years after treatment. Monotherapy with psychotropic medication may not constitute optimal care for common mental disorders. PMID:24497254

  11. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances

  12. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  13. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of Antidepressants in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Wehry, Anna M.; Keeshin, Brooks R.; Rynn, Moira A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated that antidepressants are efficacious in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. However, there are no recent, systematic analyses of the efficacy, safety or tolerability of these medications in pediatric anxiety disorders. With this in mind, we sought to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled-trials of antidepressants in these conditions. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective, randomized, parallel-group, controlled trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) in pediatric patients with non-OCD anxiety disorders was undertaken using a search of PubMed/Medline (19662014). The meta-analysis utilized random-effects models to evaluate change in the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale or similar anxiety scale, suicidality and adverse events. Additionally, a series of pharmacologic variables (e.g., serotonin binding) were explored with regard to effect size. Results Data were included from 9 trials involving 1,673 patients and 6 medications, including 5 SSRIs and 3 SSNRI trials. All SSRI/SSNRIs evaluated demonstrated significant efficacy, and the meta-analytic summary estimate was of moderate magnitude (Cohen's d=0.64, confidence interval [CI]: 0.340.96, p=0.0017) and there was evidence of modest heterogenity (I2=0.26, p=0.107). Activation trended towards being more likely with antidepressant treatment (OR: 1.86, CI: 0.983.53, p=.054), but no increased risk was observed for nausea/abdominal symptoms (p=0.262) or discontinuation as a result of an adverse event (p=0.132). Treatment-emergent suicidality did not differ between antidepressant-treated youth and those who received placebo (OR: 1.3, CI: 0.533.2, p=0.514). Conclusions Data for 9 SSRI/SSNRIs suggest superiority to placebo for the treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders with a moderate effect size and a non-significant risk of suicidality. PMID:25449861

  15. Psychological treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Grilo, Carlos M; Vitousek, Kelly M

    2007-04-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Important challenges remain. Even the most effective interventions for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder fail to help a substantial number of patients. A priority must be the extension and adaptation of these treatments to a broader range of eating disorders (eating disorder not otherwise specified), to adolescents, who have been largely overlooked in clinical research, and to chronic, treatment-resistant cases of anorexia nervosa. The article highlights current conceptual and clinical innovations designed to improve on existing therapeutic efficacy. The problems of increasing the dissemination of evidence-based treatments that are unavailable in most clinical service settings are discussed. PMID:17469898

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shiming; Wang, Ying; Gong, Xuan; Wang, Gaohua

    2015-01-01

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring up to 10 June 2015. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. 15 observational studies (6 cohort studies and 9 case-control studies), with 17,890 ASD cases and 1,810,258 participants were included for analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.931.13) comparing mothers who smoked during pregnancy with those who did not. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy is not associated with ASD risk in offspring. Further well-designed cohort studies are needed to confirm the present findings. PMID:26343689

  17. Sleep in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Román, Amparo; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in sleep between people with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and, if so, whether such differences are associated with comorbid depressive symptoms or other conditioning factors. We conducted a search for articles published until March 2013 in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Scopus, Trip Database, Dissertation Abstracts, and OpenSIGLE. We retrieved 9658 records, which were assessed against the inclusion and quality criteria. Six studies were included in the review and four were included in the meta-analysis. They were all cross-sectional studies with medium methodological quality. All studies except one were polysomnographic. The total sample of the meta-analysis consisted of 111 patients with OCD and 141 controls. The synthesis of results showed differences in sleep between people with and without OCD. The presence of comorbid depression was a key issue in the amount and type of differences found. Nevertheless, in order to support these results, longitudinal studies should be conducted with larger sample sizes and different age ranges. PMID:26298778

  18. A meta-analysis of mismatch negativity in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chan, Pei-Ying S; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-26

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an optimal neurophysiological signal to assess the integrity of auditory sensory memory and involuntary attention switch. The generation of MMN is independent of overt behavioral requirements, concentration or motivation, and thus serves as a suitable tool to study the perceptual function in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). It remains unclear whether ADHD children showed altered MMN responses. Therefore we performed a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed MMN studies that had targeted both typically developed and ADHD children to examine the pooled effect size. The published articles between 1990 and 2014 were searched in PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, and CINAHL. The mean effect size and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. Six studies, consisting of 10 individual investigations, were included in the final analysis. A significant effect size of 0.28 was found (p=0.028, 95% CI at 0.03-0.53). These results were also free from publication bias or heterogeneity. In conclusion, our meta-analysis results suggest ADHD children demonstrated a reduced MMN amplitude compared to healthy controls. PMID:26628248

  19. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143

  20. Hyperintense MRI lesions in bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis and review

    PubMed Central

    BEYER, JOHN L.; YOUNG, ROBERT; KUCHIBHATLA, MARAGATHA; KRISHNAN, K. RANGA R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cortical and subcortical hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are thought to represent areas of ischemic damage to brain tissue. Researchers have focused on the possible role these lesions may have in psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder. In 1997, the proposed vascular mania diagnosis suggested utilizing not only the presence of strokes, but also confluent hyperintensities in its diagnostic criteria. This study was conducted to use meta-analytic techniques to investigate the association of hyperintensities and bipolar illness and to evaluate the current state of the literature. Methods Using the PubMed and MEDLINE databases, we conducted a systematic literature search of studies investigating hyperintensities in subjects with bipolar disorder and controls or other psychiatric illnesses. We identified 44 publications from which 35 studies were included for review and 27 were selected for meta-analysis. Summary statistics of the prevalence were estimated through odds-ratios and confidence interval. Heterogeneity of the results across studies was tested using Q-statistics. Results Meta-analysis identified an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% CI 1.9, 3.3) for hyperintensities in bipolar subjects compared to controls; however, there was significant heterogeneity among the studies (Q-statistics =32; p =0.04). This finding was most prominent for adolescents and children where the odds ratio was 5.7 (95% CI 2.3, 13.7). Deep white matter hyperintensities (odd ratio 3.2; 95% CI 2.2, 4.5) and subcortical grey matter hyperintensities (odds ratio 2.7; 95% CI 1.3, 2.9) were more strongly associated with bipolar subjects. There were no differences between bipolar subjects and controls for perivascular hyperintensities (odds ratio 1.3; 95% CI 0.8, 1.9). Though hyperintensities were numerically greater in bipolar subjects, meta-analysis did not demonstrate any significant differences between bipolar subjects and unipolar depression subjects (OR 1.6; 95% CI 0.9, 2.7) nor subjects with schizophrenia (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9, 2.7). Conclusions This meta-analysis continues to support the association of bipolar disorder and hyperintensities, especially in the deep white matter and subcortical grey matter. It also highlights the increased incidence in children and adolescence with bipolar disorder. However, hyperintensities are not specific to bipolar disorder, but appear at similar rates in unipolar depression and schizophrenia. Thus, the role of hyperintensities in the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and treatment of bipolar disorder remains unclear. Further studies are required that are large enough to decrease the heterogeneity of the samples and MRI techniques, assess size and location of hyperintensities, and the impact on treatment response. Coordination with newer imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be especially helpful in understanding the pathology of these lesions. PMID:20374153

  1. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van der Heijden, Geert JMG; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad

    2016-01-01

    The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a treatment for alleviating either state or trait anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies concerned panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (four studies, total n = 130), specific phobia (two studies, total n = 37), social phobia (one study, n = 16), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (one study, n = 19). Three out of four panic disorder trials qualified for pooled analyses. These meta-analyses found no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of propranolol and benzodiazepines regarding the short-term treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Also, no evidence was found for effects of propranolol on PTSD symptom severity through inhibition of memory reconsolidation. In conclusion, the quality of evidence for the efficacy of propranolol at present is insufficient to support the routine use of propranolol in the treatment of any of the anxiety disorders. PMID:26487439

  2. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van der Heijden, Geert Jmg; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad

    2016-02-01

    The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a treatment for alleviating either state or trait anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies concerned panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (four studies, total n = 130), specific phobia (two studies, total n = 37), social phobia (one study, n = 16), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (one study, n = 19). Three out of four panic disorder trials qualified for pooled analyses. These meta-analyses found no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of propranolol and benzodiazepines regarding the short-term treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Also, no evidence was found for effects of propranolol on PTSD symptom severity through inhibition of memory reconsolidation. In conclusion, the quality of evidence for the efficacy of propranolol at present is insufficient to support the routine use of propranolol in the treatment of any of the anxiety disorders. PMID:26487439

  3. A quantitative meta-analysis of neurocognitive functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J. Cobb; Matt, Georg E.; Wrocklage, Kristen M.; Crnich, Cassandra; Jordan, Jessica; Southwick, Steven M.; Krystal, John H.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with regional alterations in brain structure and function that are hypothesized to contribute to symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. We present here the first systematic meta-analysis of neurocognitive outcomes associated with PTSD to examine a broad range of cognitive domains and describe the profile of cognitive deficits, as well as modifying clinical factors and study characteristics. This report is based on data from 60 studies totaling 4,108 participants, including 1,779with PTSD, 1,446 trauma-exposed comparison participants, and 895 healthy comparison participants without trauma exposure. Effect size estimates were calculated using a mixed-effects meta-analysis for nine cognitive domains: attention/working memory, executive functions, verbal learning, verbal memory, visual learning, visual memory, language, speed of information processing, and visuospatial abilities. Analyses revealed significant neurocognitive effects associated with PTSD, although these ranged widely in magnitude, with the largest effect sizes in verbal learning (d =−.62), speed of information processing (d =−.59), attention/working memory (d =−.50), and verbal memory (d =−.46). Effect size estimates were significantly larger in treatment-seeking than community samples and in studies that did not exclude participants with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and effect sizes were affected by between-group IQ discrepancies and the gender composition of the PTSD groups. Our findings indicate that consideration of neuropsychological functioning in attention, verbal memory, and speed of information processing may have important implications for the effective clinical management of persons with PTSD. Results are further discussed in the context of cognitive models of PTSD and the limitations of this literature. PMID:25365762

  4. A quantitative meta-analysis of neurocognitive functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, J Cobb; Matt, Georg E; Wrocklage, Kristen M; Crnich, Cassandra; Jordan, Jessica; Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Schweinsburg, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with regional alterations in brain structure and function that are hypothesized to contribute to symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. We present here the first systematic meta-analysis of neurocognitive outcomes associated with PTSD to examine a broad range of cognitive domains and describe the profile of cognitive deficits, as well as modifying clinical factors and study characteristics. This report is based on data from 60 studies totaling 4,108 participants, including 1,779 with PTSD, 1,446 trauma-exposed comparison participants, and 895 healthy comparison participants without trauma exposure. Effect-size estimates were calculated using a mixed-effects meta-analysis for 9 cognitive domains: attention/working memory, executive functions, verbal learning, verbal memory, visual learning, visual memory, language, speed of information processing, and visuospatial abilities. Analyses revealed significant neurocognitive effects associated with PTSD, although these ranged widely in magnitude, with the largest effect sizes in verbal learning (d = -.62), speed of information processing (d = -.59), attention/working memory (d = -.50), and verbal memory (d =-.46). Effect-size estimates were significantly larger in treatment-seeking than community samples and in studies that did not exclude participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and effect sizes were affected by between-group IQ discrepancies and the gender composition of the PTSD groups. Our findings indicate that consideration of neuropsychological functioning in attention, verbal memory, and speed of information processing may have important implications for the effective clinical management of persons with PTSD. Results are further discussed in the context of cognitive models of PTSD and the limitations of this literature. PMID:25365762

  5. Iowa gambling task performance in euthymic bipolar I disorder: A meta-analysis and empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Michael D.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Ng, Tommy; Carver, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been recommended as an index of reward sensitivity, which is elevated in bipolar disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of IGT performance in euthymic bipolar I disorder compared with control participants. Findings indicated that people with bipolar disorder make more risky choices than control participants, though the effect is small (g=0.35). It is not clear which of the many processes involved in IGT performance are involved in producing the observed group difference. Methods Fifty-five euthymic people with bipolar disorder and 39 control participants completed the IGT. The Expectancy Valence Model was used to examine differences in IGT. We also examined whether variation in IGT performance within the bipolar group was related to current mood, illness course, impulsivity, or demographics. Results Bipolar and control groups did not differ on the total number of risky choices, rate of learning, or any of the parameters of the Expectancy Valence Model. IGT performance in bipolar disorder was not related to any of the examined individual differences. Limitations It is possible that there are group differences that are too small to detect at our sample size or that are not amenable to study via the Expectancy Valence Model. Conclusions We were unable to identify group differences on the IGT or correlates of IGT performance within bipolar disorder. Though the IGT may serve as a useful model for decision-making, its structure may make it unsuitable for behavioral assessment of reward sensitivity independent of punishment sensitivity. PMID:23219060

  6. Sensitivity to reward and punishment in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Amy; O'Brien, Niamh; Lopez, Carolina; Treasure, Janet

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this review was to collate and summarise the self-report data regarding anomalies in sensitivity to reward and punishment in eating disorders (ED) with use of a meta-analysis where possible. Electronic databases were searched to December 2008. Studies were required to have a non-eating disorder healthy control group and include at least one self-report measure of sensitivity to reward or punishment in an eating disorder population. Findings were very heterogeneous and inconsistencies between studies and measures were highlighted. In general, patients with anorexia nervosa (restricting type) were less sensitive to reward than healthy controls, whereas patients with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa (binge/purge) type were more sensitive. All ED groups report higher sensitivity to punishment than healthy controls. Individuals with eating disorders differ from healthy controls in measures of reward and punishment sensitivity as measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and BIS/BAS scales, but further work is required as there is some heterogeneity in the data. Generating more research using behavioural measures may increase understanding of the findings. PMID:20381877

  7. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Linkage Scans of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kaixin; Dempfle, Astrid; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Bakker, Steven C.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan; Castellanos, F.Xavier; Doyle, Alysa; Ebstein, Richard P.; Ekholm, Jenny; Forabosco, Paola; Franke, Barbara; Freitag, Christine; Friedel, Susann; Gill, Michael; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke; Jacob, Christian; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Loo, Sandra K.; Lopera, Francisco; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Meyer, Jobst; Mick, Eric; Miranda, Ana; Muenke, Maximilian; Mulas, Fernando; Nelson, Stanley F.; Nguyen, T.Trang; Oades, Robert D.; Ogdie, Matthew N.; Palacio, Juan David; Pineda, David; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Roeyers, Herbert; Romanos, Marcel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Schfer, Helmut; Sergeant, Joseph; Sinke, Richard J.; Smalley, Susan L.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; van der Meulen, Emma; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Lewis, Cathryn M; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies, there has been limited replications between the various independent datasets. The current study gathered the results from all seven of the ADHD linkage scans and performed a Genome Scan Meta Analysis (GSMA) to identify the genomic region with most consistent linkage evidence across the studies. Genome-wide significant linkage (PSR=0.00034, POR=0.04) was identified on chromosome 16 between 64 and 83 Mb. In addition there are nine other genomic regions from the GSMA showing nominal or suggestive evidence of linkage. All these linkage results may be informative and focus the search for novel ADHD susceptibility genes. PMID:18988193

  8. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with broad impairments in executive function: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Kaiser, Roselinde H.; Warren, Stacie L.; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious and often chronically disabling condition. The current dominant model of OCD focuses on abnormalities in prefrontal-striatal circuits that support executive function (EF). While there is growing evidence for EF impairments associated with OCD, results have been inconsistent, making the nature and magnitude of these impairments controversial. The current meta-analysis uses random-effects models to synthesize 110 previous studies that compared participants with OCD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. The results indicate that individuals with OCD are impaired on tasks measuring most aspects of EF, consistent with broad impairment in EF. EF deficits were not explained by general motor slowness or depression. Effect sizes were largely stable across variation in demographic and clinical characteristics of samples, although medication use, age, and gender moderated some effects. PMID:25755918

  9. Antiepileptic medications in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

    2014-04-01

    Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and topiramate. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference between medication and placebo in four studies targeting irritability/agitation and three studies investigating global improvement, although limitations include lack of power and different medications with diverse actions. Across all seven studies, there was no significant difference in discontinuation rate between two groups. AEDs do not appear to have a large effect size to treat behavioral symptoms in ASD, but further research is needed, particularly in the subgroup of patients with epileptiform abnormalities. PMID:24077782

  10. Gray Matter Alterations in ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder: An Anatomic Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rotge, Jean-Yves; Langbour, Nicolas; Guehl, Dominique; Bioulac, Bernard; Jaafari, Nematollah; Allard, Michele; Aouizerate, Bruno; Burbaud, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Many voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have found abnormalities in gray matter density (GMD) in obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of VBM studies contrasting OCD patients with healthy controls (HC). A literature search identified 10 articles that included 343 OCD patients and 318 HC. Anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analyses were performed to assess GMD changes in OCD patients relative to HC. GMD was smaller in parieto-frontal cortical regions, including the supramarginal gyrus, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, and greater in the basal ganglia (putamen) and the anterior prefrontal cortex in OCD patients relative to HC. No significant differences were found between children and adults. Our findings indicate differences in GMD in parieto-frontal areas and the basal ganglia between OCD patients and HC. We conclude that structural abnormalities within the prefrontal-basal ganglia network are involved in OCD pathophysiology. PMID:19890260

  11. Study Confirms Eating Disorders' Deadly Toll

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156987.html Study Confirms Eating Disorders' Deadly Toll Those with anorexia 5 times more ... assesses the often fatal outcomes for people with eating disorders, particularly anorexia. The study found that people with ...

  12. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits. PMID:26575979

  13. Prevalence of Conduct Disorder in the Middle East: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Salmanian, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Keshtkar, Aabbas Ali; Asadian-koohestani, Fatemeh; Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Sepasi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: The global burden of conduct disorder is a major public health concern. Although there are different reports on the prevalence of conduct disorder in different Middle Eastern countries, to date, no research has reviewed them. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the literature and present the prevalence of conduct disorder among children and adolescents in Middle Eastern countries. Methods: Those cross-sectional studies with any type of random or non-random sampling, which described the prevalence of conduct disorder prior to age of 18, for at least one gender in the general or school-based populations who resided in Middle Eastern countries were included in this review. The scientific databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC), and Grey Literature including conference proceedings, and hand searching of key journals were searched from 1995 to the end of 2014. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included studies independently and extracted the relevant data. Discussion: This review provided a picture of different frequencies of conduct disorder in Middle Eastern countries and analyzed the sources of heterogeneity. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42014014996 PMID:27006674

  14. The Efficacy of Treatment for Children with Developmental Speech and Language Delay/ Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Garrett, Zoe; Nye, Chad

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out of interventions for children with primary developmental speech and language delays/disorders. The data were categorized depending on the control group used in the study (no treatment, general stimulation, or routine speech and language therapy) and were considered in terms of the effects of intervention on…

  15. Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort

  16. The Effects of School-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis 1996-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Vilardo, Brigid

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis evaluating the effects of school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted by examining 60 outcome studies between 1996 and 2010 that yielded 85 effect sizes. Separate analyses were performed for studies employing between-subjects, within- subjects, and single-subject experimental

  17. Examining the Efficacy of Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna; Zablocki, Mark; Teagarden, James

    2014-01-01

    Two previous reviews have indicated that self-regulated strategy instruction (SRSD) is an evidence-based practice that can improve the writing skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to extend the findings and analytic methods of previous reviews by examining published studies regarding

  18. Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

  19. Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Subjective and Objective Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 16 subjective and objective sleep studies with a sample of 722 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus a control that numbers 638 shows that the children with ADHD are significantly more impaired in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures than their counterpart.

  20. The Effects of School-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis 1996-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Vilardo, Brigid

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis evaluating the effects of school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted by examining 60 outcome studies between 1996 and 2010 that yielded 85 effect sizes. Separate analyses were performed for studies employing between-subjects, within- subjects, and single-subject experimental…

  1. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric…

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric

  4. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of

  5. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Social Skills Interventions for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellini, Scott; Peters, Jessica K.; Benner, Lauren; Hopf, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Social skills deficits are a central feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis of 55 single-subject design studies examined the effectiveness of school-based social skills interventions for children and adolescents with ASD. Intervention, maintenance, and generalization effects were measured by computing the percentage of

  6. Eating disorders in older women.

    PubMed

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. PMID:26261037

  7. Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating1234

    PubMed Central

    Aveyard, Paul; Daley, Amanda; Jolly, Kate; Lewis, Amanda; Lycett, Deborah; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive processes such as attention and memory may influence food intake, but the degree to which they do is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine whether such cognitive processes influence the amount of food eaten either immediately or in subsequent meals. Design: We systematically reviewed studies that examined experimentally the effect that manipulating memory, distraction, awareness, or attention has on food intake. We combined studies by using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between experimental and control groups and assessing heterogeneity with the I2 statistic. Results: Twenty-four studies were reviewed. Evidence indicated that eating when distracted produced a moderate increase in immediate intake (SMD: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.53) but increased later intake to a greater extent (SMD: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.07). The effect of distraction on immediate intake appeared to be independent of dietary restraint. Enhancing memory of food consumed reduced later intake (SMD: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.68), but this effect may depend on the degree of the participants’ tendencies toward disinhibited eating. Removing visual information about the amount of food eaten during a meal increased immediate intake (SMD: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.68). Enhancing awareness of food being eaten may not affect immediate intake (SMD: 0.09; 95% CI: −0.42, 0.35). Conclusions: Evidence indicates that attentive eating is likely to influence food intake, and incorporation of attentive-eating principles into interventions provides a novel approach to aid weight loss and maintenance without the need for conscious calorie counting. PMID:23446890

  8. Effectiveness of Yoga Therapy as a Complementary Treatment for Major Psychiatric Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Patricia; Meyer, Hilary B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of yoga therapy as a complementary treatment for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data Sources: Eligible trials were identified by a literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Control Trials Register, Google Scholar, and EBSCO on the basis of criteria of acceptable quality and relevance. The search was performed using the following terms: yoga for schizophrenia, yoga for depression, yoga for anxiety, yoga for PTSD, yoga therapy, yoga for psychiatric disorders, complementary treatment, and efficacy of yoga therapy. Trials both unpublished and published with no limitation placed on year of publication were included; however, the oldest article included in the final meta-analysis was published in 2000. Study Selection: All available randomized, controlled trials of yoga for the treatment of mental illness were reviewed, and 10 studies were eligible for inclusion. As very few randomized, controlled studies have examined yoga for mental illness, this meta-analysis includes studies with participants who were diagnosed with mental illness, as well as studies with participants who were not diagnosed with mental illness but reported symptoms of mental illness. Trials were excluded due to the following: (1) insufficient information, (2) inadequate statistical analysis, (3) yoga was not the central component of the intervention, (4) subjects were not diagnosed with or did not report experiencing symptoms of one of the psychiatric disorders of interest (ie, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and PTSD), (5) study was not reported in English, and (6) study did not include a control group. Data Extraction: Data were extracted on participant diagnosis, inclusion criteria, treatment and control groups, duration of intervention, and results (pre-post mean and standard deviations, t values, and f values). Number, age, and sex ratio of participants were also obtained when available. Data Synthesis: The combined analysis of all 10 studies provided a pooled effect size of ?3.25 (95% CI, ?5.36 to ?1.14; P = .002), indicating that yoga-based interventions have a statistically significant effect as an adjunct treatment for major psychiatric disorders. Findings in support of alternative and complementary interventions may especially be an aid in the treatment of disorders for which current treatments are found to be inadequate or to carry severe liabilities. Conclusions: As current psychopharmacologic interventions for severe mental illness are associated with increased risk of weight gain as well as other metabolic side effects that increase patients risk for cardiovascular disease, yoga may be an effective, far less toxic adjunct treatment option for severe mental illness. PMID:22132353

  9. Spotlight on Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorder? The answer, which may surprise you, is anorexia nervosa. It has an estimated mortality rate of ... which is much more common in women with anorexia than most other mental disorders. The last week ...

  10. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  11. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.

  12. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  13. Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders on Quality of Life: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Wu, Jade Q.; Boettcher, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective for treating anxiety disorders, little is known about its effect on quality of life. To conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders on quality of life, we searched for relevant studies in PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library, and conducted manual searches. METHOD The search identified 44 studies that included 59 CBT trials, totaling 3,326 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. We estimated the controlled and within-group random effects of the treatment changes on quality of life. RESULTS The pre-post within-group and controlled effect sizes were moderately strong, Hedges g = 0.54 and Hedges g = 0.56, respectively. Improvements were greater for physical and psychological domains of quality of life than for environmental and social domains. The overall effect sizes decreased with publication year and increased with treatment duration. Face-to-face treatments delivered individually and in groups produced significantly higher effect sizes than internet-delivered treatments. CONCLUSION Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders is moderately effective for improving quality of life, especially in physical and psychological domains. Internet-delivered treatments are less effective in improving quality of life than face-to-face treatments. PMID:24447006

  14. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the

  15. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered

  16. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  17. D-cycloserine augmentation in behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jing; Du, Yanqiu; Han, Jiyang; Liu, Guo; Wang, Xumei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS) augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2) to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global ImpressionSeverity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS. Conclusion Our result suggested that with the careful optimization of DCS-augmented ERP therapy by fine-tuning timing and dosing of DCS administration and number and frequency of ERP sessions, DCS may enhance the efficacy of ERP therapy in reducing the symptomatic severity of OCD patients, especially at early stage of the treatment; therefore, DCS augmentation could possibly reduce treatment cost, reduce treatment drop and refusal rate, and help to improve access to the limited number of experienced therapists. PMID:25960632

  18. Amygdala volume in Major Depressive Disorder: A meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. Paul; Siemer, Matthias; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder has been associated with volumetric abnormality in the amygdala. In this meta-analysis we examine results from magnetic resonance imaging volumetry studies of the amygdala in depression in order to assess both the nature of the relationship between depression and amygdala volume as well as the influence of extra-experimental factors that may account for significant variability in reported findings. We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for articles published from 1985 to 2008 that used the wildcard terms Depress* and Amygdal* in the title, keywords, or abstract. From the 13 studies that met inclusion criteria for our meta-analysis, we calculated aggregate effect size and heterogeneity estimates from amygdala volumetric data; we then used meta-regression to determine whether variability in specific extra-experimental factors accounted for variability in findings. The lack of a reliable difference in amygdala volume between depressed and never-depressed individuals was accounted for by a positive correlation between amygdala volume differences and the proportion of medicated depressed persons in study samples: whereas the aggregate effect size calculated from studies that included only medicated individuals indicated that amygdala volume was significantly increased in depressed relative to healthy persons, studies with only unmedicated depressed individuals showed a reliable decrease in amygdala volume in depression. These findings are consistent with a formulation in which an antidepressant-mediated increase in levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor promotes neurogenesis and protects against glucocorticoid toxicity in the amygdala in medicated but not in unmedicated depression. PMID:18504424

  19. Impact of Physical Exercise on Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongshi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yingying; Li, Rena; Zhou, Chenglin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine whether long-term physical exercise could be a potential effective treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Methods The PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, CNKI and China Info were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies in regards to the effects of physical exercise on SUD between the years 1990 and 2013. Four main outcome measures including abstinence rate, withdrawal symptoms, anxiety, and depression were evaluated. Results Twenty-two studies were integrated in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that physical exercise can effectively increase the abstinence rate (OR?=?1.69 (95% CI: 1.44, 1.99), z?=?6.33, p<0.001), ease withdrawal symptoms (SMD?=??1.24 (95% CI: ?2.46, ?0.02), z?=??2, p<0.05), and reduce anxiety (SMD?=??0.31 (95% CI: ?0.45, ?0.16), z ?=? ?4.12, p<0.001) and depression (SMD ?=? ?0.47 (95% CI: ?0.80, ?0.14), z?=??2.76, p<0.01). The physical exercise can more ease the depression symptoms on alcohol and illicit drug abusers than nicotine abusers, and more improve the abstinence rate on illicit drug abusers than the others. Similar treatment effects were found in three categories: exercise intensity, types of exercise, and follow-up periods. Conclusions The moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercises, designed according to the Guidelines of American College of Sports Medicine, and the mind-body exercises can be an effective and persistent treatment for those with SUD. PMID:25330437

  20. Epidemiology of Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Korterink, Judith J.; Diederen, Kay; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to review the literature regarding epidemiology of functional abdominal pain disorders in children and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution including associated risk factors of developing functional abdominal pain. Methods The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases were systematically searched up to February 2014. Study selection criteria included: (1) studies of birth cohort, school based or general population samples (2) containing data concerning epidemiology, prevalence or incidence (3) of children aged 4-18 years (4) suffering from functional abdominal pain. Quality of studies was rated by a self-made assessment tool. A random-effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the prevalence of functional abdominal pain in childhood. Results A total of 58 articles, including 196,472 children were included. Worldwide pooled prevalence for functional abdominal pain disorders was 13.5% (95% CI 11.8-15.3), of which irritable bowel syndrome was reported most frequently (8.8%, 95% CI 6.2-11.9). The prevalence across studies ranged widely from 1.6% to 41.2%. Higher pooled prevalence rates were reported in South America (16.8%) and Asia (16.5%) compared to Europe (10.5%). And a higher pooled prevalence was reported when using the Rome III criteria (16.4%, 95% CI 13.5-19.4). Functional abdominal pain disorders are shown to occur significantly more in girls (15.9% vs. 11.5%, pooled OR 1.5) and is associated with the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders, stress and traumatic life events. Conclusion Functional abdominal pain disorders are a common problem worldwide with irritable bowel syndrome as most encountered abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. Female gender, psychological disorders, stress and traumatic life events affect prevalence. PMID:25992621

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Mentalizing Impairments in Adults With Schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yu Sun

    2014-01-01

    Mentalizing has been examined both in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) primarily by either cognitive-linguistic (referred to as verbal) or emotion recognition from eyes (referred to as visual) mentalizing tasks. Each type of task is thought to measure different aspects of mentalizing. Differences in clinical features and developmental courses of each disorder may predict distinct patterns of mentalizing performance across dis orders on each type of task. To test this, a meta-analysis was conducted using 37 studies that assessed mentalizing either verbally or visually in adults with SCZ or ASD. We found that the estimated effect sizes of impairments in verbal and visual mentalizing tasks for both clinical groups were statistically large and at a similar level (overall Hedges g = 0.73-1.05). For each disorder, adults with SCZ showed a trend towards larger impairments on verbal (overall Hedges g = 0.99) than on visual mentalizing task (overall Hedges g = 0.73; Qbet = 3.45, p =.06, df =1). Adults with ASD did not show different levels of impairment on the verbal versus visual tasks (Qbet = 0.08, p =.78, df =1). These results suggest that both clinical groups share, at least in part, some common cognitive processing deficits associated with mentalizing impairments. PMID:23686020

  2. Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with

  3. Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…

  4. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  5. Sexual Abuse and Lifetime Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Laura P.; Murad, M. Hassan; Paras, Molly L.; Colbenson, Kristina M.; Sattler, Amelia L.; Goranson, Erin N.; Elamin, Mohamed B.; Seime, Richard J.; Shinozaki, Gen; Prokop, Larry J.; Zirakzadeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the evidence for an association between sexual abuse and a lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search (from January 1980-December 2008, all age groups, any language, any population) of 9 databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents, PsycINFO, ACP Journal Club, CCTR, CDSR, and DARE. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords was used to define the concept areas of sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders and was limited to epidemiological studies. Six independent reviewers extracted descriptive, quality, and outcome data from eligible longitudinal studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled across studies by using the random-effects model. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: The search yielded 37 eligible studies, 17 case-control and 20 cohort, with 3,162,318 participants. There was a statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a lifetime diagnosis of anxiety disorder (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 2.43-3.94), depression (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 2.14-3.30), eating disorders (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 2.04-3.63), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.59-3.43), sleep disorders (OR, 16.17; 95% CI, 2.06-126.76), and suicide attempts (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.98-5.76). Associations persisted regardless of the victim's sex or the age at which abuse occurred. There was no statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a diagnosis of schizophrenia or somatoform disorders. No longitudinal studies that assessed bipolar disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder were found. Associations between sexual abuse and depression, eating disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder were strengthened by a history of rape. CONCLUSION: A history of sexual abuse is associated with an increased risk of a lifetime diagnosis of multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:20458101

  6. Facial emotion recognition in alcohol and substance use disorders: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Filippo; Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Gamba, Giulia; Tremolada, Martina; Santambrogio, Jacopo; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    People with alcohol and substance use disorders (AUDs/SUDs) show worse facial emotion recognition (FER) than controls, though magnitude and potential moderators remain unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the association between AUDs, SUDs and FER impairment. Electronic databases were searched through April 2015. Pooled analyses were based on standardized mean differences between index and control groups with 95% confidence intervals, weighting each study with random effects inverse variance models. Risk of publication bias and role of potential moderators, including task type, were explored. Nineteen of 70 studies assessed for eligibility met the inclusion criteria, comprising 1352 individuals, of whom 714 (53%) had AUDs or SUDs. The association between substance related disorders and FER performance showed an effect size of -0.67 (-0.95, -0.39), and -0.65 (-0.93, -0.37) for AUDs and SUDs, respectively. There was no publication bias and subgroup and sensitivity analyses based on potential moderators confirmed core results. Future longitudinal research should confirm these findings, clarifying the role of specific clinical issues of AUDs and SUDs. PMID:26546735

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Autobiographical Memory Studies in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Berna, Fabrice; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Aouadi, Ismail; Ricarte, Jorge Javier; All, Mlissa C; Coutelle, Romain; Boyer, Laurent; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine Vanessa; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses and reviews on cognitive disorders in schizophrenia have shown that the most robust and common cognitive deficits are found in episodic memory and executive functions. More complex memory domains, such as autobiographical memory (AM), are also impaired in schizophrenia, but such impairments are reported less often despite their negative impact on patients' outcome. In contrast to episodic memory, assessed in laboratory tasks, memories of past personal events are much more complex and directly relate to the self. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, 571 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and 503 comparison subjects. It found moderate-to-large effect sizes with regard to the 3 parameters commonly used to assess AM: memory specificity (g = -0.97), richness of detail (g = -1.40), and conscious recollection (g = -0.62). These effect sizes were in the same range as those found in other memory domains in schizophrenia; for this reason, we propose that defective memories of personal past events should be regarded as a major cognitive impairment in this illness. PMID:26209548

  8. Sleep, arousal, and circadian rhythms in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nota, Jacob A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Coles, Meredith E

    2015-04-01

    Findings of this meta-analysis show that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is related to disruptions in both the duration and timing of sleep. PsycINFO and Google Scholar database searches identified 12 relevant studies that compared measures of sleep in individuals with OCD to those of either a healthy control group or published norms. Sleep measures included sleep onset latency, sleep duration, awakening after sleep onset, percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, percentage of slow wave sleep, and prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Individual effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Sleep duration was found to be shorter, and the prevalence of DSPD higher, in individuals with OCD compared to controls. Further, excluding samples with comorbid depression did not meaningfully reduce the magnitude of these effects (although the results were no longer statistically significant) and medication use by participants is unlikely to have systematically altered sleep timing. Overall, available data suggest that sleep disruption is associated with OCD but further research on both sleep duration and sleep timing in individuals with OCD is needed. PMID:25603315

  9. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  10. [Correlation between eating disorders and sleep disturbances].

    PubMed

    Eiber, R; Friedman, S

    2001-01-01

    Anorectics and bulimics often complain sleep onset insomnia and disrupted sleep. During awakenings bulimics can have binges. Conversely, eating disorders can be a clinical expression of a concomitantly occurring sleep disorder. Two clinical entities have been recently described: the Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and the Sleep Related Eating Disorders. The main goal of this literature review was to better characterize the relationships between eating disorders and sleep disturbances. No specific EEG sleep pattern emerges in anorectic and bulimic patients. However, all studies include several methodological limitations: a few number of patients, heterogeneous patient groups, various diagnostic criteria. The results of studies evaluating the impact of depression on sleep EEG in eating disorder patients are also subject to controversy. The only study examining the relationship between sleep EEG and morphological alterations in anorectics and normal weight bulimics shows that patients with enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces spent more time in slow wave sleep and that the duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was reduced. The ventricular brain ratio was negatively correlated with REM sleep. The Night Eating Syndrome consists in insomnia, binge eating and morning anorexia. Other criteria are proposed to characterize the NES: more than 50% of the daily energy intake is consumed after the last evening meal, awakenings at least once a night, repetition of the provisional criteria for more than 3 months, subjects do not meet criteria for bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Patients have no amnesia nor alteration of alertness, and no other sleep disorder. There is no modification of sleep EEG except sleep maintenance. The prevalence of the NES is 1.5% in the general population. Some neuroendocrine disturbances have been found in the NES. The delimitation with eating disorders is not yet clearly established. If it shares the compulsive features with eating disorders, particularly the "Binge Eating Disorder", and occurs during full awakenings, the night eating syndrome may be recognized as a specific eating disorder. The sleep related eating syndrome is also characterized by compulsive binge eating during awakenings. But in this case, night eating is linked with a reduced consciousness and sleep disorders, mainly somnambulism. Patients never experience hunger, abdominal pain, nausea or hypoglycemia. Night-eating takes place invariant across weekdays, weekend and vacations. Patients consumed high caloric foods and fluids but never alcohol and purging does not occur. Diurnal bulimia is frequently associated with the sleep-related eating disorder. In conclusion, the sleep related eating disorder seems rather be a clinical subtype of sleep disorders whereas the NES could be considered as an eating disorder. PMID:11760692

  11. Stereotactic surgery for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bomin; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a group of severely impaired eating behaviors, which include three subgroups: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future. PMID:23682343

  12. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  13. Psychotic Disorders and Repeat Offending: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis on the risk of repeat offending in individuals with psychosis and to assess the effect of potential moderating characteristics on risk estimates. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 6 bibliographic databases from January 1966 to January 2009, supplemented with correspondence with authors. Studies that reported risks of repeat offending in individuals with psychotic disorders (n = 3511) compared with individuals with other psychiatric disorders (n = 5446) and healthy individuals (n = 71 552) were included. Risks of repeat offending were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to examine how risk estimates were affected by various study characteristics including mean sample age, study location, sample size, study period, outcome measure, duration of follow-up, and diagnostic criteria. Results: Twenty-seven studies, which included 3511 individuals with psychosis, were identified. Compared with individuals without any psychiatric disorders, there was a significantly increased risk of repeat offending in individuals with psychosis (pooled OR = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–1.8), although this was only based on 4 studies. In contrast, there was no association when individuals with other psychiatric disorders were used as the comparison group (pooled OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.7–1.3), although there was substantial heterogeneity. Higher risk estimates were found in female-only samples with psychosis and in studies conducted in the United States. Conclusions: The association between psychosis and repeat offending differed depending on the comparison group. Despite this, we found no support for the findings of previous reviews that psychosis is associated with a lower risk of repeat offending. PMID:19959703

  14. Exogenous melatonin for sleep disorders in neurodegenerative diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xue-Yan; Su, Su-Wen; Jia, Qing-Zhong; Ding, Tao; Zhu, Zhong-Ning; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the efficacy of exogenous melatonin in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We searched Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov, from inception to July 2015. We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared melatonin with placebo and that had the primary aim of improving sleep in people with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). We pooled data with the weighted mean difference in sleep outcomes. To assess heterogeneity in results of individual studies, we used Cochran's Q statistic and the I (2) statistic. 9 RCTs were included in this research. We found that the treatment with exogenous melatonin has positive effects on sleep quality as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in PD patients (MD: 4.20, 95 % CI: 0.92-7.48; P = 0.01), and by changes in PSQI component 4 in AD patients (MD: 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.04-1.30; P = 0.04), but not on objective sleep outcomes in both AD and PD patients. Treatment with melatonin effectively improved the clinical and neurophysiological aspects of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), especially elderly individuals with underlying neurodegenerative disorders. This meta-analysis provided some evidence that melatonin improves sleep quality in patients with AD and PD, and melatonin can be considered as a possible sole or add-on therapy in neurodegenerative disorders patients with RBD. PMID:26255301

  15. Eating disorders: assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W G; Schlundt, D G

    1985-09-01

    Anorexia and bulimia are eating disorders affecting a significant number of adolescent and young adult women. The core symptoms of both disorders are similar and include a fear of obesity, body image disturbance, erratic eating patterns, and purging. These symptoms produce significant physical and psychologic complications. Both anorexia and bulimia appear to have a common origin in a fear of obesity and dieting. Anorectics, being "successful" dieters, lose a significant amount of weight; whereas bulimics alternate between binges and purges. Treatment for the eating disorders is gradually evolving as clinical research experience accumulates. For anorexia, hospitalization is indicated when weight falls below 15% of ideal, and most investigators agree that therapy for the core symptoms cannot be undertaken until weight is restored. During the impatient stay, a behavior modification program can effectively organize medical, nutritional, and psychologic support, and offers the quickest and most direct route to weight restoration. The nasogastric tube and total parenteral nutrition are used primarily for those who are severely emaciated or who actively resist standard modes of therapy. Inpatient treatment is most effectively and efficiently rendered in a specialized eating disorder unit. Once weight restoration is progressing, behavior therapy for core symptoms is commenced and continued on an outpatient basis. A variety of behavioral techniques are employed, and they are designed primarily to influence anorectic assumptions and beliefs. Although there may be a brief inpatient stay for initiation of treatment, the bulk of therapy for bulimia occurs on an outpatient basis. The available literature indicates that behavioral techniques and antidepressant medication are effective for the symptoms of bulimia. Early identification of core symptoms of both disorders can lead to an initiation of treatment before the core symptoms become ingrained. A potentially more effective intervention lies in efforts to influence the media. As noted, standards for feminine beauty as portrayed in the media have changed significantly over the past 20 years. An attempt at the primary prevention of eating disorders would include efforts to convince the media to change their standards of femininity from cosmetic slimness to a focus on health and physical fitness. These efforts could stem from professional and lay organizations who have the interest and capability to influence policy. PMID:3863731

  16. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

  17. Mother-daughter coping and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. PMID:25645347

  18. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments. PMID:25455628

  19. Lead and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Goodlad, James K; Marcus, David K; Fulton, Jessica J

    2013-04-01

    This meta-analysis examined the association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and lead exposure in children and adolescents. Thirty-three studies published between 1972 and 2010 involving 10,232 children and adolescents were included. There was a small to medium association between inattention symptoms and lead exposure (r=.16, k=27, p<.001) and a similar association between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and lead exposure (r=.13, k=23, p<.001). There was significant heterogeneity among the effect sizes for both inattention symptoms and for hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms, with studies using hair analysis to assess lead burden yielding substantially larger effect sizes than those using other methods. Excluding the hair analysis studies, the average rs were .14 for inattention (k=23, p<.001) and .12 for hyperactivity/impulsivity (k=21, p<.001). Overall, the relation between lead exposure and ADHD symptoms was similar in magnitude to the relation between lead exposure and decreased IQ and between lead exposure and conduct problems. PMID:23419800

  20. The Incidence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Floods: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims, between different flood intensities, and between different time points after a flood. A search of several electronic literature databases was conducted to collect data on the incidence of PTSD after a flood. Loney criteria for research quality were used to evaluate the quality of selected search results. The combined incidence of PTSD was estimated using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Subgroup analyses were conducted on different trauma intensities and different time points after a flood. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of research quality. Fourteen articles were included in this meta-analysis, including a total of 40 600 flood victims; 3862 victims were diagnosed with PTSD. The combined incidence of PTSD was 15.74%. The subgroup analyses showed that the incidence of PTSD in victims who experienced severe and moderate flood intensity was higher than that in victims who experienced mild flood intensity. The incidence of PTSD was lower at 6 or more months after a flood (11.45%) than within 6 months (16.01%) of a flood. In conclusion, the incidence of PTSD among floods of different trauma intensities was statistically significant. PMID:25857395

  1. Head circumference and brain size in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-11-30

    Macrocephaly and brain overgrowth have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and statistical significance for both head circumference and total brain volume in autism. Our literature search strategy identified 261 and 391 records, respectively; 27 studies defining percentages of macrocephalic patients and 44 structural brain imaging studies providing total brain volumes for patients and controls were included in our meta-analyses. Head circumference was significantly larger in autistic compared to control individuals, with 822/5225 (15.7%) autistic individuals displaying macrocephaly. Structural brain imaging studies measuring brain volume estimated effect size. The effect size is higher in low functioning autistics compared to high functioning and ASD individuals. Brain overgrowth was recorded in 142/1558 (9.1%) autistic patients. Finally, we found a significant interaction between age and total brain volume, resulting in larger head circumference and brain size during early childhood. Our results provide conclusive effect sizes and prevalence rates for macrocephaly and brain overgrowth in autism, confirm the variation of abnormal brain growth with age, and support the inclusion of this endophenotype in multi-biomarker diagnostic panels for clinical use. PMID:26456415

  2. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Hausenblas, Heather Ann; Saha, Debbie; Dubyak, Pamela Jean; Anton, Stephen Douglas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Due to safety concerns and side effects of many antidepressant medications, herbal psychopharmacology research has increased, and herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as alternatives to prescribed medications for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Of these, accumulating trials reveal positive effects of the spice saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for the treatment of depression. A comprehensive and statistical review of the clinical trials examining the effects of saffron for treatment of MDD is warranted. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials examining the effects of saffron supplementation on symptoms of depression among participants with MDD. SEARCH STRATEGY We conducted electronic and non-electronic searches to identify all relevant randomized, double-blind controlled trials. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched for relevant studies. INCLUSION CRITERIA The criteria for study selection included the following: (1) adults (aged 18 and older) with symptoms of depression, (2) randomized controlled trial, (3) effects of saffron supplementation on depressive symptoms examined, and (4) study had either a placebo control or anti-depressant comparison group. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS Using random effects modeling procedures, we calculated weighted mean effect sizes separately for the saffron supplementation vs. placebo control groups, and for the saffron supplementation vs. antidepressant groups. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using the Jadad score. The computer software Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2 was used to analyze the data. RESULTS Based on our pre-specified criteria, five randomized controlled trials (n = 2 placebo controlled trials, n = 3 antidepressant controlled trials) were included in our review. A large effect size was found for saffron supplementation vs. placebo control in treating depressive symptoms (M ES = 1.62, p < 0.001), revealing that saffron supplementation significantly reduced depression symptoms compared to the placebo control condition. A null effect size was evidenced between saffron supplementation vs. the antidepressant groups (M ES = −0.15) indicating that both treatments were similarly effective in reducing depression symptoms. The mean JADAD score was 5 indicating high quality trials. CONCLUSION Findings from clinical trials conducted to date indicate that saffron supplementation can improve symptoms of depression in adults with MDD. Larger clinical trials, conducted by research teams outside of Iran, with long-term follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be made regarding saffron’s efficacy and safety for treating depressive symptoms. PMID:24299602

  3. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant for generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pae, Chi-Un; Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Praksh S; Serretti, Alessandro

    2015-05-01

    Vortioxetine has a beneficial pharmacological profile for reducing anxiety and depression. Recently, a number of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of vortioxetine have been conducted in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); however, the results from GAD RCTs are inconsistent. With an extensive search of databases and clinical trial registries, four published short-term RCTs were identified and included in the present meta-analysis. The mean change in total scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) from baseline was the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoints included the response and remission rates, as defined by a ?50% reduction in HAMA total scores and a ?7 change in the HAMA total score at the end of treatment. In addition, the mean change in the HAMA total score from baseline in the subgroup with a HAMA total score ?25 at baseline was included. Vortioxetine was significantly more effective than was placebo, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of-0.118 (95% CIs,-0.203 to-0.033, P=0.007). In particular, those with severe GAD (HAMA total score ?25 at baseline) had a significantly greater benefit from vortioxetine than those without (SMD=-0.338, 95% CIs=-0.552 to-0.124, p=0.002). The odds ratios (ORs) for vortioxetine for response and remission were 1.221 (95% CIs, 1.027 to 1.452, P=0.024) and 1.052 (95% CIs, 0.853 to 1.296, P=0.637), respectively. Discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs) (OR=1.560, 1.006 to 2.419, p=0.047) was marginally higher in vortioxetine than placebo treatment, whereas discontinuation due to any reason (OR=0.971, 0.794 to 1.187, p=0.771) and inefficacy (OR=0.687, 0.380 to 1.243, p=0.215) were not significantly different among treatment groups. Although our results suggest that vortioxetine may have a potential as an another treatment option for GAD (especially for severe GAD), they should be interpreted and translated into clinical practice with caution, as the meta-analysis was based on a limited number of RCTs. PMID:25851751

  4. Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917

  5. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders

  6. [Involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mari Hotta

    2015-04-01

    This article gives an outline about involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa become common diseases in woman in Japan. Binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome are observed in men as well as women. Binge eating is characteristic of bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome. It should be noted that high energy availability observed in these diseases results in obesity and exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) can make patients to control symptoms and improve their QOL. Osteoporosis is one of chief complications and sequelae of anorexia nervosa. Low-birth weight babies born from emaciated patients with eating disorders are subject to metabolic syndrome in the future. PMID:25936153

  7. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in

  8. American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Juleen K.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered

  9. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  10. Unique contributions of individual eating disorder symptoms to eating disorder-related impairment.

    PubMed

    Hovrud, Lindsey; De Young, Kyle P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the unique contribution of individual eating disorder symptoms and related features to overall eating disorder-related impairment. Participants (N=113) from the community with eating disorders completed assessments including the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that 58.6% of variance in the CIA was accounted for by binge eating frequency, weight and shape concerns, and depression. These findings indicate that certain eating disorder symptoms uniquely account for impairment and that depression is a substantial contributor. It is possible that purging, restrictive eating, and body mass index did not significantly contribute to impairment because these features are consistent with many individuals' weight and shape goals. The results imply that eating disorder-related impairment may be more a result of cognitive features and binge eating rather than body weight and compensatory behaviors. PMID:26026614

  11. Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V.; Lugtenberg, Marlies J.; Smets, Eline; van Schayck, Constant P.; Kramer, Boris W.; Mommers, Monique; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. Methods and Findings Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 199523 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated doseresponse associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.571.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children) and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.291.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children). The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.613.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.553.12). Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ?3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual confounding. Conclusions There is compelling evidence that preterm birthparticularly very preterm birthincreases the risk of asthma. Given the projected global increases in children surviving preterm births, research now needs to focus on understanding underlying mechanisms, and then to translate these insights into the development of preventive interventions. Review Registration PROSPERO CRD42013004965 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24492409

  12. Educators' views of eating disorder prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Varnado-Sullivan, Paula J; Parr, Francoise; O'Grady, Megan A; Savoy, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Further understanding of educators' views of eating disorder prevention can further engage them in this effort. No previous studies of educators have used acceptability methodology or compared eating disorder prevention to other prevention efforts. Educators (n=135) rated the acceptability of five sample programs and provided their opinions about eating disorder and other prevention programs. The results indicated primarily psychoeducational and general well-being programs were most acceptable. Educators-specified trained professionals should implement programs during school hours to male and female junior high students. Although eating disorder prevention was perceived as important, it was not rated as vital as other programs, such as substance abuse prevention. PMID:23760842

  13. The effect of parent involvement in the treatment of anxiety disorders in children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Thulin, Ulrika; Svirsky, Liv; Serlachius, Eva; Andersson, Gerhard; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Among clinicians, it is common practice to include parents in treatment, and it has been taken for granted that parents' involvement in their children's treatment is beneficial for therapy outcome, although research on this issue is far from clear. A meta-analysis was carried out in order to investigate whether parent involvement potentiates the outcome for children with anxiety disorders when treated with cognitive-behavior therapy. Sixteen studies, which directly compared parent-involved treatments with child-only treatments, were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed a small, nonsignificant effect size of - 0.10 in favor of the child-only treatments. There was no indication of publication bias in the analysis. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:24950054

  14. Perplexities of treatment resistence in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed. Description The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the eating disorders. Conclusion Treatment resistance in eating disorders is usually predicted by the severity of the core eating disorder psychopathology which develops from an interaction between environmental risk factors with genetic traits and a vulnerable neurobiology. Future investigations of the biological features and neurocircuitry of the core eating disorders psychopathology and behaviors may provide information for more successful treatment interventions. PMID:24199597

  15. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is it nature or nurture, inherited or learned behavior? Studies of twins suggest that genes play a role. To help further research into the genetics of eating disorders, Drs. Kaye, Bulik, and other ...

  16. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases

  17. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  18. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic

  19. Multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis of white matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Radua, Joaquim; Grau, Mar; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Stein, Dan J; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Catani, Marco; Mataix-Cols, David

    2014-06-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or FA between patients with OCD and healthy controls in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases were retrieved. Manual searches were also conducted and authors were contacted soliciting additional data. Thirty-four data sets were identified, of which 22 met inclusion criteria (five of them unpublished; comprising 537 adult and pediatric patients with OCD and 575 matched healthy controls). Whenever possible, raw statistical parametric maps were also obtained from the authors. Peak and raw WMV and FA data were combined using novel multimodal meta-analytic methods implemented in effect-size signed differential mapping. Patients with OCD showed widespread WM abnormalities, but findings were particularly robust in the anterior midline tracts (crossing between anterior parts of cingulum bundle and body of corpus callosum), which showed both increased WMV and decreased FA, possibly suggesting an increase of fiber crossing in these regions. This finding was also observed when the analysis was limited to adult participants, and especially pronounced in samples with a higher proportion of medicated patients. Therefore, patients with OCD may have widespread WM abnormalities, particularly evident in anterior midline tracts, although these changes might be, at least in part, attributable to the effects of therapeutic drugs. PMID:24407265

  20. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeRamus, Thomas P.; Kana, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietaltemporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations. PMID:25844306

  1. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    DeRamus, Thomas P; Kana, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal-temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations. PMID:25844306

  2. Multimodal Voxel-Based Meta-Analysis of White Matter Abnormalities in ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Radua, Joaquim; Grau, Mar; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Stein, Dan J; Canales-Rodrguez, Erick J; Catani, Marco; Mataix-Cols, David

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or FA between patients with OCD and healthy controls in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases were retrieved. Manual searches were also conducted and authors were contacted soliciting additional data. Thirty-four data sets were identified, of which 22 met inclusion criteria (five of them unpublished; comprising 537 adult and pediatric patients with OCD and 575 matched healthy controls). Whenever possible, raw statistical parametric maps were also obtained from the authors. Peak and raw WMV and FA data were combined using novel multimodal meta-analytic methods implemented in effect-size signed differential mapping. Patients with OCD showed widespread WM abnormalities, but findings were particularly robust in the anterior midline tracts (crossing between anterior parts of cingulum bundle and body of corpus callosum), which showed both increased WMV and decreased FA, possibly suggesting an increase of fiber crossing in these regions. This finding was also observed when the analysis was limited to adult participants, and especially pronounced in samples with a higher proportion of medicated patients. Therefore, patients with OCD may have widespread WM abnormalities, particularly evident in anterior midline tracts, although these changes might be, at least in part, attributable to the effects of therapeutic drugs. PMID:24407265

  3. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ain Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  4. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  5. Disordered eating: a defense against psychosis?

    PubMed

    Hugo, P J; Lacey, J H

    1998-11-01

    The authors present four cases suffering with either bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa in conjunction with a psychotic illness. In all cases there appeared to be a reciprocal relationship between the eating disorder and psychosis such that improvement in eating precipitated or exacerbated the psychotic symptoms. We suggest that disordered eating serves as a defense against psychosis. Difficulties in treating such patients are discussed. PMID:9741045

  6. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

  7. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  8. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing

  9. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  10. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  11. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The

  12. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and

  13. Drug Abuse and Eating Disorders: Prevention Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Ellis, Anne Marie

    1992-01-01

    Explored relationship between drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders in female adolescents (n=826). Eating Disorders Risk Scale was adopted and correlated with drug and alcohol use, other forms of deviance, family and peer relationships, and depression. Findings support concept of generalized theory of addictions based on psychosocial,

  14. Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable than Autistic Disorder? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondeau, Emelie; Klein, Leslie S.; Masse, Andre; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as

  15. Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable than Autistic Disorder? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondeau, Emelie; Klein, Leslie S.; Masse, Andre; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as…

  16. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating in Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence, Screening, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hanlan, Margo E.; Griffith, Julie; Patel, Niral

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Recent research indicates higher prevalence rates of eating disorders among people with type 1 diabetes, as compared to their peers without diabetes. Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors – especially insulin omission – are associated with poorer glycemic control and serious risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin in pre-adolescence and continue through early adulthood, as many disordered eating behaviors begin during the transition to adolescence and may persist for years. Available screening tools and treatment options are reviewed. Given the complexity of diabetes management in combination with eating disorder treatment, it is imperative to screen early and often, in order to identify those most vulnerable and begin appropriate treatment in a timely manner. PMID:24022608

  17. Brain structure anomalies in autism spectrum disorder--a meta-analysis of VBM studies using anatomic likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Habel, Ute; Michel, Tanja Maria; Manning, Janessa; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Schneider, Frank; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive developmental disorders with characteristic core symptoms such as impairments in social interaction, deviance in communication, repetitive and stereotyped behavior, and impaired motor skills. Anomalies of brain structure have repeatedly been hypothesized to play a major role in the etiopathogenesis of the disorder. Our objective was to perform unbiased meta-analysis on brain structure changes as reported in the current ASD literature. We thus conducted a comprehensive search for morphometric studies by Pubmed query and literature review. We used a revised version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging results. Probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps were applied to compare the localization of the obtained significant effects to histological areas. Each of the significant ALE clusters was analyzed separately for age effects on gray and white matter density changes. We found six significant clusters of convergence indicating disturbances in the brain structure of ASD patients, including the lateral occipital lobe, the pericentral region, the medial temporal lobe, the basal ganglia, and proximate to the right parietal operculum. Our study provides the first quantitative summary of brain structure changes reported in literature on autism spectrum disorders. In contrast to the rather small sample sizes of the original studies, our meta-analysis encompasses data of 277 ASD patients and 303 healthy controls. This unbiased summary provided evidence for consistent structural abnormalities in spite of heterogeneous diagnostic criteria and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology, but also hinted at a dependency of VBM findings on the age of the patients. PMID:21692142

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Peer-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated interventions for promoting social interactions among children from birth to eight years of age diagnosed with ASD. Forty-five single-subject design studies were analyzed and the effect sizes were calculated by the regression model developed by Allison and Gorman (1993). The overall…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Peer-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated interventions for promoting social interactions among children from birth to eight years of age diagnosed with ASD. Forty-five single-subject design studies were analyzed and the effect sizes were calculated by the regression model developed by Allison and Gorman (1993). The overall

  20. The global prevalence of common mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis 1980–2013

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Zachary; Marnane, Claire; Iranpour, Changiz; Chey, Tien; Jackson, John W; Patel, Vikram; Silove, Derrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the introduction of specified diagnostic criteria for mental disorders in the 1970s, there has been a rapid expansion in the number of large-scale mental health surveys providing population estimates of the combined prevalence of common mental disorders (most commonly involving mood, anxiety and substance use disorders). In this study we undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of this literature. Methods: We applied an optimized search strategy across the Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and PubMed databases, supplemented by hand searching to identify relevant surveys. We identified 174 surveys across 63 countries providing period prevalence estimates (155 surveys) and lifetime prevalence estimates (85 surveys). Random effects meta-analysis was undertaken on logit-transformed prevalence rates to calculate pooled prevalence estimates, stratified according to methodological and substantive groupings. Results: Pooling across all studies, approximately 1 in 5 respondents (17.6%, 95% confidence interval:16.3–18.9%) were identified as meeting criteria for a common mental disorder during the 12-months preceding assessment; 29.2% (25.9–32.6%) of respondents were identified as having experienced a common mental disorder at some time during their lifetimes. A consistent gender effect in the prevalence of common mental disorder was evident; women having higher rates of mood (7.3%:4.0%) and anxiety (8.7%:4.3%) disorders during the previous 12 months and men having higher rates of substance use disorders (2.0%:7.5%), with a similar pattern for lifetime prevalence. There was also evidence of consistent regional variation in the prevalence of common mental disorder. Countries within North and South East Asia in particular displayed consistently lower one-year and lifetime prevalence estimates than other regions. One-year prevalence rates were also low among Sub-Saharan-Africa, whereas English speaking counties returned the highest lifetime prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Despite a substantial degree of inter-survey heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, the findings confirm that common mental disorders are highly prevalent globally, affecting people across all regions of the world. This research provides an important resource for modelling population needs based on global regional estimates of mental disorder. The reasons for regional variation in mental disorder require further investigation. PMID:24648481

  1. Eating and Exercise Disorders in Young College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,

  2. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

  3. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    PubMed Central

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships) were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established. PMID:22934173

  4. Is pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified less stable than autistic disorder? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Emélie; Klein, Leslie S; Masse, André; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Guilé, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-01

    We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as response criterion. The pooled Relative Risk was 1.95 (p < 0.001) showing that AD diagnostic stability was higher than PDD-NOS. When diagnosed before 36 months PDD-NOS bore a 3-year stability rate of 35%. Examining the developmental trajectories showed that PDD-NOS corresponded to a group of heterogeneous pathological conditions including prodromic forms of later AD, remitted or less severe forms of AD, and developmental delays in interaction and communication. PMID:21153874

  5. Eating disorders and spirituality in college students.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lauren; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Mechling, Brandy M; MacKain, Sally; Kim-Godwin, Yeounsoo; Leopard, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Associations were examined between eating disorder symptoms and spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of college students. Undergraduate nursing students at a university in a Mid-Atlantic coastal beach community were recruited for the study. A total of 115 students completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS); the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food (SCOFF) screening questionnaire; and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Approximately one quarter of students had positive screens for an eating disorder, and 40% admitted to binging/purging. SWBS scores reflected low life satisfaction and a lack of clarity and purpose among students. A significant association was found between EAT-26 scores and SWBS Existential Well-Being (EWB) sub-scale scores (p = 0.014). SCOFF scores were significantly associated with SWBS EWB scores (p = 0.001). Symptoms of eating disorders were pervasive. Future research that assesses the impact of spiritual factors on eating disorders may help health care providers better understand the unique contributions to the development of eating disorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(1), 30-37.]. PMID:25490775

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis on screening lipid disorders in the pediatric age group

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Keikha, Mojtaba; Aliramezany, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different viewpoints exist about lipid screening in all children or only in children with positive family history (FH) of premature cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) or hypercholesterolemia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to assess the effectiveness of lipid screening in children and adolescents according to the existence of positive FH of CVD risk factors. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched to identify relevant papers that were published from November 1980 until 30 November 2013. Irrelevant studies were set aside after studying their title, abstract, and full text. Then, the relevant studies were assessed by using a quality appraisal checklist. We used random effect model for meta-analysis and calculating the total estimation of sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value (PPV) of FH in predicting dyslipidemia among children and adolescents. Results: Overall, 17,214 studies were identified in the primary search, out of which 19 primary studies were qualified for study entry. The sensitivity of positive FH of premature CVD or dyslipidemia for predicting dyslipidemia among children varied between 15 and 93. Moreover, the effectiveness of screening children for dyslipidemia according to premature CVD or dyslipidemia in their relatives was low in 86.9% of the primary studies. The total estimation of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value was 42.6, 59, and 20.7, respectively, according to the meta-analysis results. Conclusion: The present meta-analysis indicated that selecting target population for screening children and adolescents for dyslipidemia according to their FH has low sensitivity.

  7. Effects of Stimulants on Brain Function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rubia, Katya; Alegria, Analucia A.; Cubillo, Ana I.; Smith, Anna B.; Brammer, Michael J.; Radua, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychostimulant medication, most commonly the catecholamine agonist methylphenidate, is the most effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, relatively little is known on the mechanisms of action. Acute effects on brain function can elucidate underlying neurocognitive effects. We tested methylphenidate effects relative to placebo in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during three disorder-relevant tasks in medication-naïve ADHD adolescents. In addition, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI findings of acute stimulant effects on ADHD brain function. Methods The fMRI study compared 20 adolescents with ADHD under either placebo or methylphenidate in a randomized controlled trial while performing stop, working memory, and time discrimination tasks. The meta-analysis was conducted searching PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. Peak coordinates of clusters of significant effects of stimulant medication relative to placebo or off medication were extracted for each study. Results The fMRI analysis showed that methylphenidate significantly enhanced activation in bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/insula during inhibition and time discrimination but had no effect on working memory networks. The meta-analysis, including 14 fMRI datasets and 212 children with ADHD, showed that stimulants most consistently enhanced right IFC/insula activation, which also remained for a subgroup analysis of methylphenidate effects alone. A more lenient threshold also revealed increased putamen activation. Conclusions Psychostimulants most consistently increase right IFC/insula activation, which are key areas of cognitive control and also the most replicated neurocognitive dysfunction in ADHD. These neurocognitive effects may underlie their positive clinical effects. PMID:24314347

  8. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits

    PubMed Central

    Kas, Martien J. H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

  9. School Counselors' Knowledge of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joy A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Findings from 337 school counselors revealed 11 percent rated themselves as very competent in helping students with eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), 49 percent considered themselves moderately competent, 40 percent believed they were not very competent; 75 percent did not believe it was their role to treat students with eating

  10. Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

  11. Zn/Cu Levels in the Field of Autism Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    SAYEHMIRI, Fatemeh; BABAKNEJAD, Nasim; BAHRAMI, Somayeh; SAYEHMIRI, Kourosh; DARABI, Mojtaba; REZAEI-TAVIRANI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is probably a relationship between zinc/cupper concentration in individuals with autism. The present review was written to estimate this probability by using meta-analysis method. Martials & Methods In this meta-analysis of Fixed Effect Model, by searching PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar databases, 11 articles were selected and verified published in 1978 to 2012. I² statistics were calculated to examine heterogeneity. The information was analyzed by R and STATA Ver. 11.2. Results Due to non-uniform measurement methods of Zn/Cu concentrations, the concentration of these elements was measured in various subgroups (plasma, hair and general) in both study cases and controls. There was a significant statistical difference between plasma OR=0.252 (95% CI: -0.001-0.504) and hair OR=0.27(95% CI: 0.059-0.481, P=0.01) concentrations of Zn/Cu statuses between controls and autistic patients. Using a Fixed Effects Model, the overall integration of data from the two groups was significant as risk factor OR=0.31(95% CI:0.16-0.46, P=0.001). Conclusion Significant correlation existed between Zn/Cu levels and the development of autistic disorders in general analysis. Therefore, Zn/Cu levels could be mentioned as a pathogenesis reason of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26664435

  12. A Lifetime Prevalence of Comorbidity Between Bipolar Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analysis of 52 Interview-based Studies of Psychiatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Behrouz; Mitchell, Alex J.; Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar affective disorder has a high rate of comorbidity with a multitude of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. Among all the potential comorbidities, co-existing anxiety disorders stand out due to their high prevalence. Aims To determine the lifetime prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in bipolar affective disorder under the care of psychiatric services through systematic review and meta-analysis. Method Random effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the lifetime prevalence of comorbid generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in bipolar affective disorder. Results 52 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The rate of lifetime comorbidity was as follows: panic disorder 16.8% (95% CI 13.7–20.1), generalised anxiety disorder 14.4% (95% CI 10.8–18.3), social anxiety disorder13.3% (95% CI 10.1–16.9), post-traumatic stress disorder 10.8% (95% CI 7.3–14.9), specific phobia 10.8% (95% CI 8.2–13.7), obsessive compulsive disorder 10.7% (95% CI 8.7–13.0) and agoraphobia 7.8% (95% CI 5.2–11.0). The lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder was 42.7%. Conclusions Our results suggest a high rate of lifetime concurrent anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder. The diagnostic issues at the interface are particularly difficult because of the substantial symptom overlap. The treatment of co-existing conditions has clinically remained challenging. PMID:26629535

  13. A random effects meta-analysis investigating the prevalence of bipolar disorder in people with fibromyalgia: An updated analysis.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-02-01

    I read with great interest the innovative review paper recently published by Kudlow et al. (2015). The authors address an important topic, investigating the prevalence and odds of bipolar disorder (BD) among people with fibromyalgia (FM), which has received minimal attention in the literature to date. Whilst this paper was helpful and clearly advanced the field, the authors determined the 'pooled prevalence rate' based upon a calculation using the sum of the total number of people with BD across all studies divided by the total sample size and did not perform a meta-analysis. Therefore, utilising the author's data across the eight studies, I recalculated the prevalence of BD in FM with a random effects meta-analysis together with the 95% CI. Across all 8 studies, the pooled prevalence of BD was 15.2% (95% CI 5.3-36.3%) with high heterogeneity (I(2)=95%). Although the Egger test indicated no significant publication bias (=-6.70, p=0.12) the Duval and Tweedie trim and fill adjusted prevalence of BD in fibromyalgia was 17.9% (6.68-40.2%) with one study adjusted for publication bias. Sub group meta-analysis determined that the prevalence of BD was similar in case control (15.2%, 95% CI 2.9-54.0%, 4 studies) and cohort studies (14.2%, 95% CI 2.7-49.7%, P=0.94, 4 studies). Thus, the actual prevalence of BD in FM may be slightly lower than that the reported by the authors. Nonetheless, more should be done to accurately identify and manager people with FM and comorbid BD. Future research might also consider common neurobiological underpinnings. PMID:26702521

  14. Eating disorders, perceived control, assertiveness and hostility.

    PubMed

    Williams, G J; Chamove, A S; Millar, H R

    1990-09-01

    There are anecdotal claims that eating disorder patients perceive themselves as highly controlled by the family and by society, but that they do not show assertive behaviour towards controllers. Anorexic and bulimic females were compared with female psychiatric patients, dieters and non-dieting controls on measures of eating disorder symptomatology, locus of control, assertiveness, inwardly directed hostility, family control and family encouragement of independence. Eating disorder patients reported significantly more external control, more inwardly directed hostility, less self-assertion and less family encouragement of independence than dieters and non-dieting controls, but they did not differ from psychiatric controls. Most of the characteristics seen in eating disorder subjects were also reported by psychiatric controls. PMID:2252948

  15. The efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depressive and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    Although psychotherapy and antidepressant medication are efficacious in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders, it is not known whether they are equally efficacious for all types of disorders, and whether all types of psychotherapy and antidepressants are equally efficacious for each disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies in which psychotherapy and antidepressant medication were directly compared in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Systematic searches in bibliographical databases resulted in 67 randomized trials, including 5,993 patients that met inclusion criteria, 40 studies focusing on depressive disorders and 27 focusing on anxiety disorders. The overall effect size indicating the difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy after treatment in all disorders was g=0.02 (95% CI: ?0.07 to 0.10), which was not statistically significant. Pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than psychotherapy in dysthymia (g=0.30), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (g=0.64). Furthermore, pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than non-directive counseling (g=0.33), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy with tricyclic antidepressants (g=0.21). These results remained significant when we controlled for other characteristics of the studies in multivariate meta-regression analysis, except for the differential effects in dysthymia, which were no longer statistically significant. PMID:23737423

  16. Single and married patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kiriike, N; Nagata, T; Matsunaga, H; Tobitan, W; Nishiura, T

    1998-12-01

    Forty married and 22 unmarried female patients with eating disorders were studied to elucidate the relationship between eating disorders and marriage. Eating disorders developed in 14 patients before marriage (premarital onset) and in 26 patients at or after marriage (postmarital onset). The postmarital onset group was a significantly higher age at onset, but similar in age and duration of illness compared with the group of 22 unmarried patients. However, the various clinical features of the three groups did not differ. Four premarital onset patients showed exaggerated clinical features after marriage, but the other patients showed no change in clinical features after marriage. In the postmarital onset group, eating disorders were triggered in 18 (69%) patients by marital problems, separation or divorce. In contrast, eating disorders were triggered by dieting to be slim in eight (57%) patients of the premarital onset group and 12 (55%) patients of the unmarried group. These results suggest that marital discord plays an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders among married women. PMID:9895178

  17. A meta-analysis of differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder and high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-07-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did individuals with HFA; (b) individuals with AspD had significantly higher VIQ than PIQ; and (c) VIQ was similar to PIQ in individuals with HFA. These findings seem to suggest that AspD and HFA are two different subtypes of Autism. The implications of the present findings to DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder are discussed. PMID:24362849

  18. Understanding Eating Disorders among Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Vela, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of the literature on eating disorders (EDs) among Latinas in the U.S and presents data that illustrate symptomatology and associated psychopathology in this group. The current empirical evidence suggests similarities between Latinas and white European-American women in regards to risk factors, symptomatology, psychopathology, and prevalence of EDs. Despite these similarities, Latinas are less likely to report dieting, dietary restriction, and are more likely to be obese compared to white women. Although Latinas report distress associated with EDs, only a small proportion ever seek treatment. Several factors appear to contribute to their under-utilization of services including lack of knowledge, stigma, beliefs about seeking treatment, lack of health insurance, and lack of affordable and accessible treatment services. It is unclear whether the identified differences between white and Latina women are the result of cultural factors or are better explained by disparities in SES. Efforts to meet the treatment needs of Latinas in the U.S. should aim to increase awareness and education about EDs in this population and to address cultural beliefs and norms that may act as barriers to treatment utilization. Further, it is important to educate and train healthcare professionals to be aware that EDs may develop in or affect Latina patients, and to develop accessible, culturally-appropriate and cost-effective evidence-based treatments that can be disseminated through partnerships with primary care providers and community organizations. PMID:24999448

  19. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p <.001) and EDE-Q global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Discussion Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  20. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and

  1. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

  2. Eating disorder emergencies: understanding the medical complexities of the hospitalized eating disordered patient.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Martina M

    2004-12-01

    Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients. PMID:15571940

  3. Implicit Family Process Rules in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.

    2009-01-01

    Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…

  4. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  5. Implicit Family Process Rules in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.

    2009-01-01

    Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This

  6. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Developed the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire (AMDQ) to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/DE). Athletes from various sports completed the AMDQ, two other tests, and a structured diagnostic interview to determine which test screened most effectively. The AMDQ identified ED/DE more accurately than the

  7. The multimodal treatment of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    HALMI, KATHERINE A.

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of eating disorders is based on a multimodal model, recognizing that these disorders do not have a single cause or a predictable course. The treatment strategy is determined by the severity of illness and the specific eating disorder diagnosis. For the treatment of anorexia nervosa, the key elements are medical management, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and family therapy, while pharmacotherapy is at best an adjunct to other therapies. In bulimia nervosa, the treatment of choice is cognitive-behavioral therapy, but a greater improvement in mood and anxiety occurs when antidepressant therapy is added. In binge eating disorder, cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy produce substantial and long-lasting changes and pharmacological treatment has often a useful role. PMID:16633511

  8. Depression and suicidality in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Viesselman, J O; Roig, M

    1985-04-01

    The first 95 patients admitted to an inpatient Eating Disorders Program and diagnosed as having bulimia (binge eating only), bulimarexia (binging and purging), and anorexia nervosa (food restriction only) were evaluated for depression, suicidality, and family history. Major depression was found in 80% of patients; 20% had made suicide attempts in their life; and 40% of those attempting suicide made potentially lethal attempts. Patients with anorexia and bulimarexia tended to be younger, single, and Protestant. Patients with bulimarexia had overeating, oversleeping, more preoccupation with suicide, and more depression in their mothers. Patients with anorexia had more relatives with anorexia and bulimarexia, and patients with bulimia had more relatives with obesity. These findings suggest that eating disorders are unique disorders and not variants of affective disorder or alcoholism. PMID:3856565

  9. Disproportionality of English Learners with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Meta-Analysis with English Learners with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas; Gersten, Russell; Sugai, George; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate representation of English learners in special education has been a longstanding and ongoing concern. However, research examining disproportionate representation of English learners receiving special education services for emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) has been limited. To address this gap, a meta-analysis of

  10. Gender and Age Differences in the Core Triad of Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia J. M.; van Eeten, Evelien; Groen, Wouter B.; Van Deurzen, Patricia A.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2014-01-01

    Autism is an extensively studied disorder in which the gender disparity in prevalence has received much attention. In contrast, only a few studies examine gender differences in symptomatology. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 peer reviewed original publications examines gender differences in the core triad of impairments in autism.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Social Skills Interventions of Single-Case Research for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Results from Three-Level HLM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 115 single-case studies with 343 participants that examined the effectiveness of social skills interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The average effect size of the included studies was 1.40 (SD=0.43, 95% CL=1.32-1.48, N=115). In the further, several

  12. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Reading Instruction on the Reading Skills of Students with or at Risk of Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.; Mooney, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The findings of a meta-analysis of the effect of reading instruction on the reading skills of students with or at risk of behavioral disorders (BD) are reported. The goal of the synthesis was to extend the work of Coleman and Vaughn by (a) detailing independent variables and outcome measures for each study, (b)including studies sampling from

  13. Gender and Age Differences in the Core Triad of Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia J. M.; van Eeten, Evelien; Groen, Wouter B.; Van Deurzen, Patricia A.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2014-01-01

    Autism is an extensively studied disorder in which the gender disparity in prevalence has received much attention. In contrast, only a few studies examine gender differences in symptomatology. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 peer reviewed original publications examines gender differences in the core triad of impairments in autism.…

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Differences in IQ Profiles between Individuals with Asperger's Disorder and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y.; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did

  15. Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorders Inventory: Norms for Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in grades 9 through 12, on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), used to measure symptoms of eating disorders. Obtained significant sex, but not age, differences, and some racial and socioeconomic differences among the girls. (Author/KS)

  16. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  17. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

  18. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eating disorders,…

  19. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eating disorders,

  20. Gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    The two most clinically serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A drive for thinness and fear of fatness lead patients with anorexia nervosa either to restrict their food intake or binge-eat then purge (through self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) to reduce their body weight to much less than the normal range. A drive for thinness leads patients with bulimia nervosa to binge-eat then purge but fail to reduce their body weight. Patients with eating disorders present with various gastrointestinal disturbances such as postprandial fullness, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, gastric distension, and early satiety, with altered esophageal motility sometimes seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. Other common conditions noted in patients with eating disorders are postprandial distress syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional constipation. Binge eating may cause acute gastric dilatation and gastric perforation, while self-induced vomiting can lead to dental caries, salivary gland enlargement, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and electrolyte imbalance. Laxative abuse can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Vomiting and/or laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia, which carries a risk of fatal arrhythmia. Careful assessment and intensive treatment of patients with eating disorders is needed because gastrointestinal symptoms/disorders can progress to a critical condition. PMID:26499370

  1. Meta-analysis and meta-regression of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mocking, R J T; Harmsen, I; Assies, J; Koeter, M W J; Ruhé, H G; Schene, A H

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation has been proposed as (adjuvant) treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present meta-analysis, we pooled randomized placebo-controlled trials assessing the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on depressive symptoms in MDD. Moreover, we performed meta-regression to test whether supplementation effects depended on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid dose, their ratio, study duration, participants' age, percentage antidepressant users, baseline MDD symptom severity, publication year and study quality. To limit heterogeneity, we only included studies in adult patients with MDD assessed using standardized clinical interviews, and excluded studies that specifically studied perinatal/perimenopausal or comorbid MDD. Our PubMED/EMBASE search resulted in 1955 articles, from which we included 13 studies providing 1233 participants. After taking potential publication bias into account, meta-analysis showed an overall beneficial effect of omega-3 PUFAs on depressive symptoms in MDD (standardized mean difference=0.398 (0.114-0.682), P=0.006, random-effects model). As an explanation for significant heterogeneity (I(2)=73.36, P<0.001), meta-regression showed that higher EPA dose (β=0.00037 (0.00009-0.00065), P=0.009), higher percentage antidepressant users (β=0.0058 (0.00017-0.01144), P=0.044) and earlier publication year (β=-0.0735 (-0.143 to 0.004), P=0.04) were significantly associated with better outcome for PUFA supplementation. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed. In conclusion, present meta-analysis suggested a beneficial overall effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation in MDD patients, especially for higher doses of EPA and in participants taking antidepressants. Future precision medicine trials should establish whether possible interactions between EPA and antidepressants could provide targets to improve antidepressant response and its prediction. Furthermore, potential long-term biochemical side effects of high-dosed add-on EPA supplementation should be carefully monitored. PMID:26978738

  2. Mitochondrial Aspartate/Glutamate Carrier SLC25A12 and Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yuta; Cortese, Samuele

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies investigating the possible association between ASD and polymorphism in SLC25A12, which encodes the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier, have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of such studies to elucidate if and which SLC25A12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with ASD. We searched PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and ERIC databases through September 20th, 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) were aggregated using random effect models. Sensitivity analyses were conducted based on study design (family-based or case-control). Fifteen out of 79 non-duplicate records were retained for qualitative synthesis. We pooled 10 datasets from 9 studies with 2001 families, 735 individuals with ASD and 632 typically developing (TD) individuals for the meta-analysis of rs2292813, as well as 11 datasets from 10 studies with 2016 families, 852 individuals with ASD and 1058 TD individuals for the meta-analysis of rs2056202. We found a statistically significant association between ASD and variant in rs2292813 (OR = 1.190, 95 % CI 1.052-1.346, P = 0.006) as well as in rs2056202 (OR = 1.206, 95 % CI 1.035-1.405, P = 0.016). Sensitivity analyses including only studies with family-based design demonstrated significant association between ASD and polymorphism in rs2292813 (OR = 1.216, 95 % CI 1.075-1.376, P = 0.002) and rs2056202 (OR = 1.267, 95 % CI 1.041-1.542, P = 0.018). In contrast, sensitivity analyses including case-control design studies only failed to find a significant association. Further research on the role of SLC25A12 and ASD may pave the way for potential innovative therapeutic interventions. PMID:25663199

  3. Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to

  4. Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

  5. Pro-eating disorder websites: users' opinions.

    PubMed

    Csipke, Emese; Horne, Outi

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of 'pro-eating disorder' websites remains relatively unexplored by researchers in published formats. Supporters of the sites claim beneficial effects but health professionals worry that the sites propagate disordered behaviours. The present study addressed visitor characteristics and perceived impact of visits. A 24-item questionnaire supplemented with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) was developed and posted on the website of the UK mental health charity SANE. Participants who interacted with others on the sites and sought emotional support reported improved mental state after visiting, and for them, evidence was found of reduced impact from potentially damaging content. 'Silent browsing' in order to sustain a disorder was found to be mainly harmful. 'Silent browsers' may be particularly vulnerable to a worsening of their symptoms in the absence of beneficial effects from emotional support, but those who interact and find support could face a danger of a different sort. PMID:17676689

  6. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature. PMID:26941955

  7. Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, Mary V

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

  8. Major Depressive Disorder is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. While many studies have found significant deficits associated with MDD on neuropsychological measures of EF, others have not, potentially due to low statistical power, task impurity, and diverse patient samples, and there have been no recent, comprehensive, meta-analyses investigating EF in patients with MDD. The current meta-analysis uses random effects models to synthesize 113 previous research studies that compared participants with MDD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate that MDD is reliably associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological measures of EF, with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.32–0.97. While patients with MDD also have slower processing speed, motor slowing alone cannot account for these results. In addition, some evidence suggests that deficits on neuropsychological measures of EF are greater in patients with more severe current depression symptoms, and those taking psychotropic medications, while evidence for effects of age was weaker. The results are consistent with the theory that MDD is associated with broad impairment in multiple aspects of EF. Implications for treatment of MDD and theories of EF are discussed. Future research is needed to establish the specificity and causal link between MDD and EF impairments. PMID:22642228

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Treatment Outcome and Predictors of Response

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Pino; Cuadras, Daniel; Gabriëls, Loes; Denys, Damiaan; Goodman, Wayne; Greenberg, Ben D.; Jimenez-Ponce, Fiacro; Kuhn, Jens; Lenartz, Doris; Mallet, Luc; Nuttin, Bart; Real, Eva; Segalas, Cinto; Schuurman, Rick; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Menchon, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an alternative to ablative neurosurgery for severe treatment-resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), although with partially discrepant results probably related to differences in anatomical targetting and stimulation conditions. We sought to determine the efficacy and tolerability of DBS in OCD and the existence of clinical predictors of response using meta-analysis. Methods We searched the literature on DBS for OCD from 1999 through January 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We performed fixed and random-effect meta-analysis with score changes (pre-post DBS) on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) as the primary-outcome measure, and the number of responders to treatment, quality of life and acceptability as secondary measures. Findings Thirty-one studies involving 116 subjects were identified. Eighty-three subjects were implanted in striatal areas—anterior limb of the internal capsule, ventral capsule and ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens and ventral caudate—27 in the subthalamic nucleus and six in the inferior thalamic peduncle. Global percentage of Y-BOCS reduction was estimated at 45.1% and global percentage of responders at 60.0%. Better response was associated with older age at OCD onset and presence of sexual/religious obsessions and compulsions. No significant differences were detected in efficacy between targets. Five patients dropped out, but adverse effects were generally reported as mild, transient and reversible. Conclusions Our analysis confirms that DBS constitutes a valid alternative to lesional surgery for severe, therapy-refractory OCD patients. Well-controlled, randomized studies with larger samples are needed to establish the optimal targeting and stimulation conditions and to extend the analysis of clinical predictors of outcome. PMID:26208305

  10. Eating disorders treatment patterns by age.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Jaime; Crane, D Russell

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal, retrospective study examines patterns in eating disorder outpatient mental health treatment by age. Participants (n = 5,445) included patients treated for an eating disorder, with claims for treatment from Cigna, a leading health care insurance provider in the United States. Treatments for individuals 55 and older were less expensive and shorter than for any other age group. Treatments for individuals 44-55 were less expensive than for 15-24. Individual therapy is the most common treatment modality, but younger individuals are likely to receive family therapy. Younger individuals have lower dropout and higher return to care rates. PMID:25412302

  11. Adolescent tanning, disordered eating, and risk taking.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C

    2014-04-01

    Indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors are both significant adolescent public health risks. Recent results by Amrock and Weitzman provocatively suggest a link between the two, perhaps because of a shared cause of dysfunctional cognition about body image. This commentary discusses a possible model to explain the association between indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors among teenagers. It also presents various strategies to prevent the negative outcomes, with a focus on preventing adolescent tanning behavior. Prevention strategies worth consideration include counseling by pediatricians or other health professionals, improved parental supervision and monitoring, and policy change to prohibit adolescent use of tanning facilities. PMID:24695120

  12. Self-help treatment of anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of effects and potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Haug, Thomas; Nordgreen, Tine; st, Lars Gran; Havik, Odd E

    2012-07-01

    Self-help treatments have the potential to increase the availability and affordability of evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders. Although promising, previous research results are heterogeneous, indicating a need to identify factors that moderate treatment outcome. The present article reviews the literature on self-help treatment for anxiety disorders among adults, with a total sample of 56 articles with 82 comparisons. When self-help treatment was compared to wait-list or placebo, a meta-analysis indicated a moderate to large effect size (g=0.78). When self-help treatment was compared to face-to-face treatment, results indicated a small effect that favored the latter (g=-0.20). When self-help was compared to wait-list or placebo, subgroup analyses indicated that self-help treatment format, primary anxiety diagnosis and procedures for recruitment of subjects were related to treatment outcome in bivariate analyses, but only recruitment procedures remained significant in a multiple meta-regression analysis. When self-help was compared to face-to-face treatment, a multiple meta-regression indicated that the type of comparison group, treatment format and gender were significantly related to outcome. We conclude that self-help is effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and should be offered as part of stepped care treatment models in community services. Implications of the results and future directions are discussed. PMID:22681915

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis on controlled treatment trials of metacognitive therapy for anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramin; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Mahmoudi, Leili Zarif; Asgharipour, Negar; Seyfi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on controlled treatment trials of meta-cognitive therapy for anxiety disorders. Materials and Methods: Studies were included if they employed controlled methodology and treated people above 18 years with anxiety disorders. Case studies (with less than 4 cases) and single case designed studies were excluded. A comprehensive literature search identified 15 trials for systematic review. Results: All included studies showed better treatment results in the MCT arms compared to the control groups. We also statistically pooled the results across studies (when possible). The meta-analyses also showed that MCT had statistically significant better results compared to the control groups in GAD (both immediately post-treatment and 12 months post-therapy results), OCD, and PTSD (p-values ranged <0.0001-0.025). Conclusion: Based on the results of our systematic review, MCT seems to be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders and can effectively control their psychological problems. PMID:26759579

  14. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    PubMed Central

    Tromp, Marilou DP; Donners, Anouk AMT; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, and daytime functioning. Design Survey. Setting The Netherlands. Participants N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old). Measurements Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP) and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD), and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2) and positive (>2) on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4) and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese) were compared using nonparametric statistics. Results Almost 12% (n=67) of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012), insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001), CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011), and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001). ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005), sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004), sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012), and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001), but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112). BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001) and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001). When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015). Conclusion Participants who score positive for eating disorders scored significantly higher on sleep disorder scales, and reported significantly more impairment of daytime functioning. PMID:26848280

  15. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided Self Help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and cost-effective than existing, efficacious BED specialty treatments which are limited in public health utility and impact given their time and expense demands. No existing BED GSH treatment has incorporated affect regulation models of binge eating, which appears warranted given research linking negative affect and binge eating. Integrative Response Therapy (IRT), a new group-based guided self-help treatment, based on the affect regulation model of binge eating, that has shown initial promise in a pilot sample of adults meeting DSM IV criteria for BED, is described. Fifty-four% and 67% of participants were abstinent at post-treatment and three month follow-up respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of binge days over the previous 28 days from baseline to post-treatment [14.44 (7.16) to 3.15 (5.70); t=7.71, p<.001; d=2.2] and from baseline to follow-up [14.44 (7.16) to 1.50 (2.88); t=5.64, p<.001; d=1.7]. All subscales from both the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Emotional Eating Scale were significantly lower at post-treatment compared to baseline. 100% of IRT participants would recommend the program to a friend or family member in need. IRTs longer-term efficacy and acceptability are presently being tested in a National Institute of Mental Health funded randomized controlled trial. PMID:24605043

  16. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  17. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC

  18. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  19. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  20. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  1. Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2003-01-01

    Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…

  2. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a

  3. Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

    2001-01-01

    The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor

  4. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  5. Preventing a Continuum of Disordered Eating: Going beyond the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2007-01-01

    Efforts aimed at the prevention of eating disorders need to consider the context within which these disorders develop and aim to promote not only healthy eating and physical activity but also address mental health factors, such as body image. Exploring the relationship between body image and eating disorders will provide a foundation and further

  6. Exploring the Construct Validity of the Eating Disorder Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Subich, Linda Mezydlo

    1999-01-01

    Specific psychological, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics known to be related to clinical eating disorders were examined in two studies undertaken to explore whether these characteristics vary by eating-disorder-continuum placement. Results of these two studies support the construct validity of the eating-disorder continuum. Implications

  7. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas

  8. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  9. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  10. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly

  11. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 1824 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:22888181

  12. Targeting the Noradrenergic System in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prazosin Trials.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Marini, Stefano; Serroni, Nicola; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Mazza, Monica; Tempesta, Daniela; Valchera, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Pompili, Maurizio; Sepede, Gianna; Vellante, Federica; Orsolini, Laura; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that may develop after exposure to a life-threatening trauma. As veterans and armed forces may deal with diverse health problems compared with civilians, they have a greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including PTSD, than civilians, even if the disorder may be also frequent in the general population. PTSD is associated with significant comorbidity, especially with mood disorders and substance abuse. Moreover, the suicide risk is higher in PTSD patients than in the general population. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are commonly employed in the management of PTSD, but often these treatments fail or are discontinued due to adverse effects. It has been demonstrated that high noradrenergic activity may be associated with hyperarousal, trauma nightmares and sleep disturbances in PTSD subjects, probably through the stimulation of ? -1 adrenergic receptors in the brain prefrontal cortex. The ? -1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin decreases noradrenaline effects at brain ?-1 adrenoreceptors and may be a promising agent in the treatment of PTSD, as some studies have found it effective and well tolerated. Therefore, the present review is aimed to examine the role of noradrenergic system in the pathophysiology of PTSD. Moreover, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of prazosin in PTSD patients. Meta-analysis was used to combine data from multiple studies and better estimate the effect of prazosin on specific outcomes. We found prazosin to be significantly more efficacious than placebo in reducing distressing dreams in PTSD patients, even though our results should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies included in our quantitative synthesis. PMID:25944011

  13. Efficacy of Modafinil on Fatigue and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Associated with Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowen; Huang, Chengguang; Yu, Mingkun; Han, Xi; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting agent approved by the FDA ameliorating excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in three disorders: narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing trials of modafinil for fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders provided inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess drug safety and effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted in order to identify published studies assessing the effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders. Primary outcomes included fatigue and EDS. Secondary outcomes included depression and adverse effects. Findings Ten randomized controlled trials were identified including 4 studies of Parkinsons disease (PD), 3 of multiple sclerosis (MS), 2 of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 1 of post-polio syndrome (PPS). A total of 535 patients were enrolled. Our results suggested a therapeutic effect of modafinil on fatigue in TBI (MD -0.82 95% CI -1.54 - -0.11 p=0.02, I2=0%), while a beneficial effect of modafinil on fatigue was not confirmed in the pooled studies of PD or MS. Treatment results demonstrated a clear beneficial effect of modafinil on EDS in patients with PD (MD -2.45 95% CI -4.00 - -0.91 p=0.002 I2=14%), but not with MS and TBI. No difference was seen between modafinil and placebo treatments in patients with PPS. Modafinil seemed to have no therapeutic effect on depression. Adverse events were similar between modafinil and placebo groups except that more patients were found with insomnia and nausea in modafinil group. Conclusions Existing trials of modafinil for fatigue and EDS associated with PD, MS, TBI and PPS provided inconsistent results. The majority of the studies had small sample sizes. Modafinil is not yet sufficient to be recommended for these medical conditions until solid data are available. PMID:24312590

  14. Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  15. An Empirically Supported Eating Disorder Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Sapia, Jennifer; Nathanson, David; Nelson, Linda

    2000-01-01

    An eating disorder prevention program was completed with middle school, high school, and college females. Some successful outcomes included: (1) facilitating an acknowledgement of pressures to attain a model skeletal look; (2) changing attitudes about standards of beauty; and (3) altering the participants' current and future intentional use of…

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper was designed to provide professional counselors with a comprehensive but concise method of accurately evaluting, interviewing, and planning for treatment of eating disorder clients. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section, Diagnosis, compares, contrasts, and offers clear explanations of the diagnostic criteria for

  17. Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kristin L.

    Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by

  18. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the

  19. Correlates of Eating Disorders in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanne, Lynn P. Fisher

    Recent research indicates that a significant number of college-age women suffer from bulimarexia (also called the gorging-purging syndrome, the binge-purge cycle, bulimia or bulimia nervosa). To examine the relationship of three personality variables (anxiety, assertiveness, and locus of control) to eating disorders, 46 college students

  20. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

  1. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

  2. Self-Mutilation and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Armando R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents evidence from literature review, patient interviews, responses to Self-Harm Behavior Survey, and case reports that patients with eating disorders are at high risk for self-mutilation. In lieu of dual diagnosis, postulates that combination of self-mutilation, anorexia, bulimia, and other symptoms may be manifestations of impulse control

  3. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,

  4. Correlates of Eating Disorders in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanne, Lynn P. Fisher

    Recent research indicates that a significant number of college-age women suffer from bulimarexia (also called the gorging-purging syndrome, the binge-purge cycle, bulimia or bulimia nervosa). To examine the relationship of three personality variables (anxiety, assertiveness, and locus of control) to eating disorders, 46 college students…

  5. A meta-analysis of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Trickey, David; Siddaway, Andy P; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Serpell, Lucy; Field, Andy P

    2012-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex and chronic disorder that causes substantial distress and interferes with social and educational functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make a child more likely to experience traumatic distress is of academic, clinical and social importance. This meta-analysis estimated the population effect sizes of 25 potential risk factors for PTSD in children and adolescents aged 6-18 years across 64 studies (N=32,238). Medium to large effect sizes were shown for many factors relating to subjective experience of the event and post-trauma variables (low social support, peri-trauma fear, perceived life threat, social withdrawal, comorbid psychological problem, poor family functioning, distraction, PTSD at time 1, and thought suppression); whereas pre-trauma variables and more objective measures of the assumed severity of the event generated small to medium effect sizes. This indicates that subjective peri-trauma factors and post-event factors are likely to have a major role in determining whether a child develops PTSD following exposure to a traumatic event. Such factors could potentially be assessed following a potentially traumatic event in order to screen for those most vulnerable to developing PTSD and target treatment efforts accordingly. The findings support the cognitive model of PTSD as a way of understanding its development and guiding interventions to reduce symptoms. PMID:22245560

  6. The prevalence of subclinical eating disorders among male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Riebl, Shaun K; Subudhi, Andrew W; Broker, Jeffery P; Schenck, Kim; Berning, Jacqueline R

    2007-07-01

    Disordered eating behaviors are typically seen as a problem in females and there are little data assessing their prevalence in males. The objective of the present cross-sectional investigation was to identify subclinical disordered eating patterns and dietary characteristics among competitive male cyclists. A nutritional questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and Survey of Eating Disorders Among Cyclists, were completed by male cyclists (n=61) and noncyclists (n=63). Male cyclists scored significantly higher on the EAT-26 compared to the male control group (P<0.001). Of the 12 cyclists who showed the greatest tendency toward disordered eating (EAT-26 >20), only five self-reported having an eating disorder. Approximately half the cyclists believed eating disorders were somewhat common in the sport (28 of 60). The nutritional questionnaire revealed that male cyclists may not consume adequate nutrients to sustain their metabolic needs. Thus, the results of this study suggest that male cyclists may not know how to identify disordered eating habits and may be at an amplified risk for eating disorders and nutritional deficits. Further research should utilize various measures to address the prevalence of disordered eating in a larger sample size and quantify energy balance. PMID:17604754

  7. The Heritability of Eating Disorders: Methods and Current Findings

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Laura M.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder (BED), and the proposed purging disorder presentation (PD) have consistently demonstrated that genetic factors contribute to the variance in liability to eating disorders. In addition, endophenotypes and component phenotypes of eating disorders have been evaluated and provide further insight regarding genetic factors influencing eating disorders and eating disorder diagnostic criteria. Many of these phenotypes have demonstrated substantial heritability. This chapter reviews biometrical genetic methods and current findings from family and twin studies that investigate the role of genes and environment in the etiology of eating disorders. We review the methodology used to estimate heritability, the results of these studies, and discuss the implications of this research for the basic conceptualization of eating disorders and the future value of twin modeling in the molecular genetic era. PMID:21243474

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity to the Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these

  9. A Risk Model for Pre-Adolescent Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Jessica L.; Pearson, Carolyn M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study tested this risk model for disordered eating in pre-adolescent girls: pubertal onset is associated with increases in negative urgency (the personality tendency to act rashly when distressed); negative urgency influences eating disorder symptoms by shaping psychosocial learning (expectancy formation), thus indirectly influencing symptom levels; and many influences on purging are mediated by binge eating. Method 905 fifth grade girls completed questionnaire measures of eating pathology, negative urgency, and dieting/thinness and eating expectancies. Results Binge eating and purging behaviors were present in 5th grade girls. As anticipated, pubertal status was associated with higher levels of negative urgency, negative urgency was associated with each expectancy measure, quadratic dieting/thinness and eating expectancies were associated with binge eating, and binge eating was associated with purging. Discussion It is important and feasible to develop risk models for pre-adolescent eating disordered behaviors. Our model that integrates puberty, personality, and psychosocial learning appears promising. PMID:21997422

  10. Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodrguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referral by student participants were found. PMID:24044598

  11. Objectification processes and disordered eating in British women and men.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Rachel M

    2009-04-01

    The present study extended the applicability of Objectification Theory to predict disordered eating in British women and men. Participants completed measures of self-objectification, body surveillance, body shame and disordered eating. Path analyses indicated strong support for the theoretical model in women, with body shame fully mediating the relation between self-objectification and disordered eating. Patterns were similar for men with two exceptions; body shame increased with lower self-objectification and disordered eating was directly increased with higher self-objectification. Findings extend Objectification Theory as a useful framework for identifying sociocultural influences on disordered eating in British women and men. PMID:19293301

  12. Eating disorders today--not just a girl thing.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20632480

  13. Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar disorder: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, K; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder, speculated to mirror alterations in brain expression of BDNF. The research area is rapidly evolving; however, recent investigations have yielded conflicting results with substantial variation in outcomes, highlighting the need to critically assess the state of current evidence. The aims of the study were to investigate differences in peripheral blood BDNF concentrations between bipolar disorder patients and healthy control subjects and between affective states in bipolar disorder patients, including assessment of the effect of treatment of acute episodes on BDNF levels. A systematic review of English language studies without considering publication status was conducted in PubMed (January 1950-November 2014), Embase (1974-November 2014) and PsycINFO (1806-November 2014), and 35 studies comprising a total of 3798 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that crude peripheral blood BDNF levels may be lower in bipolar disorder patients overall (Hedges' g=-0.28, 95% CI: -0.51 to -0.04, P=0.02) and in serum of manic (g=-0.77, 95% CI: -1.36 to -0.18, P=0.01) and depressed (g=-0.87, 95% CI: -1.42 to -0.32, P=0.002) bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects. No differences in peripheral BDNF levels were observed between affective states overall. Longer illness duration was associated with higher BDNF levels in bipolar disorder patients. Relatively low study quality, substantial unexplained between-study heterogeneity, potential bias in individual studies and indications of publication bias, was observed and studies were overall underpowered. It could thus not be excluded that identified differences between groups were due to factors not related to bipolar disorder. In conclusion, limitations in the evidence base prompt tempered conclusions regarding the role of peripheral BDNF as a biomarker in bipolar disorder and substantially improving the quality of further research is warranted. PMID:26194180

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Eating Disordered Behaviors among Undergraduate Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Betz, Nancy E.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated eating disordered behaviors among nonobese, nonanorexic college women (N=643). Classified 3 percent as bulimic, 61 percent as having intermediate form of eating behavior problem, 33 percent as having normal eating habits. Degree of disturbed eating was strongly correlated with lowered self-esteem, negative body image, endorsement of…

  15. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  16. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  17. Impact of Chronic Pain on Treatment Prognosis for Patients with Opioid Use Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Brittany B; Bawor, Monica; Naji, Leen; Chan, Carol K; Varenbut, Jaymie; Paul, James; Varenbut, Michael; Daiter, Jeff; Plater, Carolyn; Pare, Guillaume; Marsh, David C; Worster, Andrew; Desai, Dipika; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND While a number of pharmacological interventions exist for the treatment of opioid use disorder, evidence evaluating the effect of pain on substance use behavior, attrition rate, and physical or mental health among these therapies has not been well established. We aim to evaluate these effects using evidence gathered from a systematic review of studies evaluating chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) in patients with opioid use disorder. METHODS We searched the Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProQuest Dissertations and theses Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry databases to identify articles evaluating the impact of pain on addiction treatment outcomes for patients maintained on opioid agonist therapy. RESULTS Upon screening 3,540 articles, 14 studies with a combined sample of 3,128 patients fulfilled the review inclusion criteria. Results from the meta-analysis suggest that pain has no effect on illicit opioid consumption [pooled odds ratio (pOR): 0.70, 95%CI 0.41–1.17; I2 = 0.0] but a protective effect for reducing illicit non-opioid substance use (pOR: 0.57, 95%CI 0.41–0.79; I2 = 0.0). Studies evaluating illicit opioid consumption using other measures demonstrate pain to increase the risk for opioid abuse. Pain is significantly associated with the presence of psychiatric disorders (pOR: 2.18; 95%CI 1.6, 2.9; I2 = 0.0%). CONCLUSION CNCP may increase risk for continued opioid abuse and poor psychiatric functioning. Qualitative synthesis of the findings suggests that major methodological differences in the design and measurement of pain and treatment response outcomes are likely impacting the effect estimates. PMID:26417202

  18. The efficacy of treatment for children with developmental speech and language delay/disorder: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Law, James; Garrett, Zoe; Nye, Chad

    2004-08-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out of interventions for children with primary developmental speech and language delays/disorders. The data were categorized depending on the control group used in the study (no treatment, general stimulation, or routine speech and language therapy) and were considered in terms of the effects of intervention on expressive and receptive phonology, syntax, and vocabulary. The outcomes used in the analysis were dependent on the aims of the study; only the primary effects of intervention are considered in this review. These were investigated at the level of the target of therapy, measures of overall linguistic development, and broader measures of linguistic functioning taken from parent report or language samples. Thirty-six articles reporting 33 different trials were found. Of these articles, 25 provided sufficient information for use in the meta-analyses; however, only 13 of these, spanning 25 years, were considered to be sufficiently similar to be combined. The results indicated that speech and language therapy might be effective for children with phonological or expressive vocabulary difficulties. There was mixed evidence concerning the effectiveness of intervention for children with expressive syntax difficulties and little evidence available considering the effectiveness of intervention for children with receptive language difficulties. No significant differences were found between interventions administered by trained parents and those administered by clinicians. The review identified longer duration (>8 weeks) of therapy as being a potential factor in good clinical outcomes. A number of gaps in the evidence base are identified. PMID:15324296

  19. World Trade Center Disaster Exposure-Related Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Responders and Civilians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  20. World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  1. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats. PMID:26953823

  2. Quetiapine monotherapy in acute treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak; Woottiluk, Pakapan; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Suttajit, Sirijit; Boonyanaruthee, Vudhichai; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have indicated the efficacy of quetiapine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Objective The purpose of this study was to systematically review the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of quetiapine in adult patients with GAD. Methods The SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched in April 2015. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of GAD were considered to be included in this meta-analysis. All RCTs of quetiapine in GAD patients providing endpoint outcomes relevant to severity of anxiety, response rate, remission rate, overall discontinuation rate, or discontinuation rate due to adverse events were included. The version reports from suitable clinical studies were explored, and the important data were extracted. Measurement for efficacy outcomes consisted of the mean-changed scores of the rating scales for anxiety, and response rate. Results A total of 2,248 randomized participants in three RCTs were included. The pooled mean-changed score of the quetiapine-treated group was greater than that of the placebo-treated group and comparable to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Unfortunately, the response and the remission rates in only 50 and 150 mg/day of quetiapine-XR (extended-release) were better than those of the placebo. Their response and remission rates were comparable to SSRIs. The rates of pooled overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events of quetiapine-XR were greater than placebo. Only the overall discontinuation rate of quetiapine-XR at 50 and 150 mg/day and the discontinuation rate due to adverse events of quetiapine-XR at 50 mg/day were comparable to SSRIs. Conclusion Based on this meta-analysis, quetiapine-XR is efficacious in the treatment of GAD in adult patients. Despite its low acceptability and tolerability, the use of 50–150 mg/day quetiapine-XR for adult GAD patients may be considered as an alternative treatment. Further well-defined studies should be conducted to warrant these outcomes. PMID:26834458

  3. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates and moderating factors for cancer-related post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Gareth; Thompson, Simon B N; Hickish, Tamas; Heathcote, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Systematic reviews highlight a broad range of cancer-related post-traumatic stress disorder (CR-PTSD) prevalence estimates in cancer survivors. This meta-analysis was conducted to provide a prevalence estimate of significant CR-PTSD symptoms and full diagnoses to facilitate the psychological aftercare of cancer survivors. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted for studies using samples of cancer survivors by using validated clinical interviews and questionnaires to assess the prevalence of CR-PTSD (k?=?25, n?=?4189). Prevalence estimates were calculated for each assessment method using random-effects meta-analysis. Mixed-effects meta-regression and categorical analyses were used to investigate study-level moderator effects. Results Studies using the PTSD ChecklistCivilian Version yielded lower event rates using cut-off [7.3%, 95% confidence intervals (CI)?=?4.511.7, k?=?10] than symptom cluster (11.2%, 95% CI?=?8.714.4, k?=?9). Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (SCID), yielded low rates for lifetime (15.3%, 95% CI?=?9.125, k?=?5) and current CR-PTSD (5.1%, 95% CI?=?2.88.9, k?=?9). Between-study heterogeneity was substantial (I2?=?5487%). Studies with advanced-stage samples yielded significantly higher rates with PTSD ChecklistCivilian Version cluster scoring (p?=?0.05), and when assessing current CR-PTSD on the SCID (p?=?0.05). The effect of mean age on current PTSD prevalence met significance on the SCID (p?=?0.05). SCID lifetime prevalence rates decreased with time post-treatment (R2?=?0.56, p?

  4. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.

    PubMed

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005). PMID:26846227

  5. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N?=?198; n?=?52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z?=?-3.6, p?=?0.0003, r(2) ?=?0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-nave participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR?=?1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p?=?0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. PMID:26407790

  6. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N?=?198; n?=?52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z?=??3.6, p?=?0.0003, r2?=?0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-nave participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR?=?1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p?=?0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. PMID:26407790

  7. Effect of Pharmacotherapy for Anxiety Disorders on Quality of Life: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Wu, Jade Q.; Boettcher, Hannah; Sturm, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders, but its effects on quality of life have not been examined systematically. Our objective was to conduct an effect size analysis of pharmacological interventions on quality of life outcomes in patients with DSM-IV anxiety disorders. Methods Manual and electronic searches using PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were conducted for records from the first available date through May 1st, 2013 for trials of pharmacological interventions in patients with anxiety disorders, which had measures of quality of life before and after treatment. Of 1,865 entries, 93 studies were identified as potentially relevant and 32 met inclusion criteria, of which results were examined from 22 studies reporting 27 distinct pharmacological trials, representing data from 4,344 anxiety disorder patients. Data were extracted independently by multiple observers to estimate within-group and placebo-controlled random effects of the treatment changes on quality of life. We hypothesized that pharmacotherapy improves quality of life, which is associated with improvement in anxiety symptoms. Results Pharmacological interventions effectively improved quality of life from before to after treatment (Hedges' g = .59), although the controlled effect size is smaller among those trials with placebo interventions (Hedges' g = .32). These effect sizes were robust, increased with publication year, and increased with reductions in anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Pharmacological therapy is effective for improving quality of life in anxiety disorders, and larger symptom reductions are associated with greater improvement in quality of life. PMID:24241771

  8. Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

  9. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  10. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their

  11. Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

    2001-01-01

    Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female

  12. Efficacy of turmeric in the treatment of digestive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Digestive disorders pose significant burdens to millions of people worldwide in terms of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Turmeric has been traditionally used for conditions associated with the digestive system, and its therapeutic benefits were also confirmed in clinical studies. However, rigorous systematic review on this topic is severely limited. Our study aims to systematically review the therapeutic and adverse effects of turmeric and its compounds on digestive disorders, including dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel disease, Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods/Design This study will include both randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of turmeric or its compounds in comparison to a placebo or any other active interventions for digestive disorders without any restrictions on participant age or language of publication. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients that have experienced treatment success. Secondary outcomes are the prevalence of an individual symptom of digestive disorders, the proportion of patients who experienced relapse, the number of physician visits/hospitalization due to digestive disorders, health-related quality of life and the proportion of patients who experienced adverse events. Relevant studies will be identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, Dissertations & Theses Database and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials from their inception to August 31, 2013. In addition, grey literature such as information published on drug regulatory agencies websites and abstracts/proceedings from conferences will also be reviewed. A calibration exercise will be conducted in a process of study screening, whereby two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts from the literature search. Any conflicts will be resolved through a subsequent team discussion. The same process will be adopted in data abstraction and methodological quality appraisal by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We will describe study and patient characteristics, risk of bias/methodological quality results, and outcomes of the included studies. If we have sufficient data and homogeneity, a random effects meta-analysis will be performed. Discussion Our results will help patients and healthcare practitioners to make informed decisions when considering turmeric as an alternative therapy for digestive disorders. Trial registration PROSPERO registry number: CRD42013005739. PMID:24973984

  13. Motor Coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Kimberly A.; Hass, Chris J.; Naik, Sagar K.; Lodha, Neha; Cauraugh, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Are motor coordination deficits an underlying cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Database searches identified 83 ASD studies focused on motor coordination, arm movements, gait, or postural stability deficits. Data extraction involved between-group comparisons for ASD and typically developing controls (N = 51). Rigorous

  14. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  15. Child-Parent Interventions for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…

  16. Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison with Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitte, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of (cognitive) behavioral therapy ([C]BT) for generalized anxiety disorder was investigated and compared with the efficacy of pharmacological therapy using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 65 (C)BT studies and pharmacological studies were included. (C)BT was more effective than control conditions. The results of the comparison

  17. Developmental Meta-Analysis of the Functional Neural Correlates of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Daniel P.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Seymour, Karen E.; Laird, Angela R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Barrett, Rowland P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a pressing need to elucidate the brain-behavior interactions underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the marked rise in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has begun to address this need, but few fMRI studies have evaluated age-related changes in ASD. Therefore, we conducted…

  18. Meta-Analysis of Math Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Tran Nguyen; Neel, Richard S.; Blood, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) struggle in the area of academics as well as behavior, and these academic difficulties manifest a great deal in mathematics. The number of children with EBD served in general education settings is increasing, and mathematics curriculum is expanding to include additional content areas and more…

  19. Child-Parent Interventions for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior

  20. Unidentified Language Deficits in Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollo, Alexandra; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Low language proficiency and problem behavior often co-occur, yet language deficits are likely to be overlooked in children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine prevalence and severity of the problem. Across 22 studies, participants included 1,171 children ages 5-13 with formally

  1. Pharmacologic Treatments for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Howard Y.; Potter, Mona P.; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Yorks, Dayna M.; Petty, Carter R.; Wozniak, Janet R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of literature has documented pediatric bipolar disorder to be a severely impairing form of psychopathology. However, concerns remain as to the inadequacy of the extant literature on its pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, treatment studies have not been systematically reviewed for treatment effects on core and associated

  2. Antiepileptic Medications in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n=171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine,

  3. Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison with Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitte, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of (cognitive) behavioral therapy ([C]BT) for generalized anxiety disorder was investigated and compared with the efficacy of pharmacological therapy using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 65 (C)BT studies and pharmacological studies were included. (C)BT was more effective than control conditions. The results of the comparison…

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…

  5. Antiepileptic Medications in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine,…

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from

  7. Pharmacologic Treatments for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Howard Y.; Potter, Mona P.; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Yorks, Dayna M.; Petty, Carter R.; Wozniak, Janet R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of literature has documented pediatric bipolar disorder to be a severely impairing form of psychopathology. However, concerns remain as to the inadequacy of the extant literature on its pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, treatment studies have not been systematically reviewed for treatment effects on core and associated…

  8. Unidentified Language Deficits in Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollo, Alexandra; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Low language proficiency and problem behavior often co-occur, yet language deficits are likely to be overlooked in children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine prevalence and severity of the problem. Across 22 studies, participants included 1,171 children ages 5-13 with formally…

  9. Meta-Analysis of Pivotal Response Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkus-Genc, Gulden; Yucesoy-Ozkan, Serife

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to review pivotal response training and examine the efficacy of pivotal response training for children with autism spectrum disorder. The other purposes of study were to (a) examine the characteristics of participants and components of the intervention in which pivotal response training was used; (b) determine…

  10. Informant Agreement for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated informant agreement on emotional and behavior problems and social skills in youth with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability using meta-analytic methods. Forty-nine studies were included, consisting of 107 effect sizes. The mean weighted effect size across all raters and all behaviors was 0.36, reflecting

  11. Developmental Meta-Analysis of the Functional Neural Correlates of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Daniel P.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Seymour, Karen E.; Laird, Angela R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Barrett, Rowland P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a pressing need to elucidate the brain-behavior interactions underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the marked rise in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has begun to address this need, but few fMRI studies have evaluated age-related changes in ASD. Therefore, we conducted

  12. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Design Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995–2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Main outcome measures Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. Results 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17 000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Conclusions Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. PMID:25432903

  13. Appropriate care for children with eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Eating disorders are essentially psychological diseases that are characterised by abnormal eating habits. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are the most common forms of eating disorders. There is an increased recognition of eating disorders among both men and women, and growing numbers of children and teenagers seeking help for eating disorders. Fear of body-weight gain is central to both anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Before the diagnosis of an eating disorder is made, it is essential to exclude organic diseases that may present with similar symptoms to eating disorders. Management initially should focus on correcting the nutritional deficiencies and dehydration at a paediatric or paediatric gastroenterology department, followed by a multidisciplinary approach. At the other extreme, the prevalence of obesity in children is increasing at an alarming rate, and presents a serious public health challenge. PMID:26018017

  14. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

  15. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and

  16. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  17. Systematic review and meta-analysis of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Newby, Jill M; McKinnon, Anna; Kuyken, Willem; Gilbody, Simon; Dalgleish, Tim

    2015-08-01

    A broad array of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders have been evaluated, but existing reviews of this literature are restricted to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocols. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating clinician-guided internet/computerised or face-to-face manualised transdiagnostic treatments, to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 50 studies showed that transdiagnostic treatments are efficacious, with large overall mean uncontrolled effects (pre- to post-treatment) for anxiety and depression (gs=.85 and .91 respectively), and medium for QOL (g=.69). Uncontrolled effect sizes were stable at follow-up. Results from 24 RCTs that met inclusion criteria showed that transdiagnostic treatments outperformed control conditions on all outcome measures (controlled ESs: gs=.65, .80, and .46 for anxiety, depression and QOL respectively), with the smallest differences found compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) control conditions. RCT quality was generally poor, and heterogeneity was high. Examination of the high heterogeneity revealed that CBT protocols were more effective than mindfulness/acceptance protocols for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: gs=.88 and .61 respectively), but not depression. Treatment delivery format influenced outcomes for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: group: g=.70, individual: g=.97, computer/internet: g=.96) and depression (uncontrolled ESs: group: g=.89, individual: g=.86, computer/internet: g=.96). Preliminary evidence from 4 comparisons with disorder-specific treatments suggests that transdiagnostic treatments are as effective for reducing anxiety, and may be superior for reducing depression. These findings show that transdiagnostic psychological treatments are efficacious, but higher quality research studies are needed to explore the sources of heterogeneity amongst treatment effects. PMID:26094079

  18. Relations among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Comorbid Major Depression, and HPA Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Compas, Bruce E.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic stress is associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) function. Research linking traumatic stress with HPA function in PTSD has been inconsistent, however, in part due to (a) the inclusion of trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD (TE) in control groups and (b) a failure to consider comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and moderating variables. This meta-analysis of 47 studies (123 effect sizes, N=6,008 individuals) revealed that daily cortisol output was lower for PTSD (d=−.36, SE=.15, p=.008) and PTSD+MDD (d=−.65, SE=.25, p=.008) groups relative to no trauma controls (NTC); TE and NTC groups did not differ significantly from each other. Afternoon/evening cortisol was lower in TE (d=−.25, SE=.09, p=.007) and PTSD (d=−.27, SE=.12, p=.021) groups and higher in PTSD+MDD groups (d=.49, SE=.24, p=.041) relative to NTC. Post-DST cortisol levels were lower in PTSD (d=−.40, SE=.12, p<.001), PTSD+MDD (d=−.65, SE=.14, p<.001), and TE groups (d=−.53, SE=.14, p<.001) relative to NTC. HPA effect sizes were moderated by age, sex, time since index event, and developmental timing of trauma exposure. These findings suggest that enhanced HPA feedback function may be a marker of trauma-exposure rather than a specific mechanism of vulnerability for PTSD, whereas lower daily cortisol output may be associated with PTSD in particular. PMID:22459791

  19. Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?

    PubMed

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B?=?-0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B?=?0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception. PMID:25450896

  20. Eating Disorders and Therapist Emotional Responses.

    PubMed

    Colli, Antonello; Speranza, Anna Maria; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Gentile, Daniela; Nassisi, Valentina; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (a) patterns of clinicians' emotional responses to patients with eating disorders (ED); (b) patient, clinician, and treatment variables associated with therapist emotional responses; and (c) the influence of patient personality on therapist emotional responses. A random national sample of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapists (N = 149) was asked to examine one patient (>18 years old) with an ED. Clinicians completed the SWAP-200, the Therapist Response Questionnaire, and the Clinical Questionnaire-Eating Disorder Form to provide general information about themselves, patients, and therapies. Results suggested a therapist pattern of emotional response in relation to different ED diagnosis and indicated meaningful influence of therapist experience and patient variables (such as sexual abuse, dissociative symptoms, and self-harm) on therapist emotional reactions. Finally, regression analysis suggested that therapist responses are more related to patient personality than ED symptoms. This study confirms the importance of patient personality in evoking specific therapists' reactions. PMID:26461481

  1. Assessing blinding in trials of psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis based on blinding index.

    PubMed

    Freed, Brian; Assall, Oliver Paul; Panagiotakis, Gary; Bang, Heejung; Park, Jongbae J; Moroz, Alex; Baethge, Christopher

    2014-10-30

    The assessment of blinding in RCTs is rarely performed. Currently most studies that do report data on evaluation of blinding merely report percentages of correct guessing, not taking into account correct guessing by chance. Blinding assessment using the blinding index (BI) has never been performed in a systematic review on studies of major psychiatric disorders. This study is a systematic review of psychiatric randomized control trials using the BI as a chance-corrected measurement of blinding, a tool to analyze and understand the patterns of blinding across studies of major psychiatric disorders with available data. Of 2467 psychiatric RCTs from 2000 to 2010, 66 reported on blinding and 40 studies were found to have enough information on evaluation of blinding to be analyzed using the BI. The experimental treatment groups had an average BI value of 0.14 and the control groups had an average BI value of 0.00. The most common BI scenario was random-random, indicating ideal blinding. A positive correlation between effect size and more correct guesses was also found. Overall, based on BI values and the most common blinding scenario, the published articles on major psychiatric disorders from 2000 to 2010, which reported on blinding assessment for patients, were effectively blinded. PMID:24930582

  2. [Alexithymia and depression in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Guilbaud, O; Corcos, M; Chambry, J; Paterniti, S; Loas, G; Jeammet, P

    2000-01-01

    Patients suffering from eating disorder show elevated rates of alexithymia and depression. We compared alexithymia and depression ratings for non-hospitalized women meeting DSM IV criteria for anorexia nervosa (n = 32) and bulimia nervosa (n = 32) to healthy women (n = 74). Alexithymia was evaluated by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and depression by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). We found that TAS and HAD scores were significantly higher in anorexic compared to bulimic patients, although alexithymia and depression, as evaluated, were significantly and positively correlated with each other (r = 0.53, p = 0.001). Finally, a logistic regression with alexithymia and depression as independent variables showed a strong correlations between the HAD ratings and anorexia, but no correlations between TAS score and the eating disorder subgroups. In eating disorder patients, alexithymia, as evaluated by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, seems to exhibit a thymo-dependent component which could be secondary to concurrent depression. Through recent studies and results of our research, we analyze and give several interpretations which may explain this correlation between alexithymia and depression. PMID:11192799

  3. Eating disorder symptoms in female college gymnasts.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, P J; Lewis, R D; Kirchner, E M

    1995-04-01

    In study 1, 21 females provided both honest and dishonest answers to the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). It was found that the EDI-2 can be easily faked. The fake profile was used to screen subjects in a second study, in which 25 gymnasts and 25 matched controls were assessed on symptoms of eating disorders, energy intake, menstrual history, and bone mineral density (BMD). A Hotelling's T2 test (Wilks' lambda = 0.70) revealed that the gymnast and control groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) on the EDI-2 subscales; however, both groups exhibited scores on the Drive For Thinness (DFT) subscale of the EDI-2 that were higher than the published average for college women. More gymnasts (61%) than controls (24%) reported an absence of their menstrual cycle of 3 months or more. A higher percentage (8/11, 73%; chi 2 = 4.7, P < 0.05) of the subgroup with elevated DFT scores (i.e., > 14) reported having this disruption of their menstrual cycle compared with those with lower DFT scores (13/33, 39%). DFT scores were negatively (P < 0.05) related to energy intake (r = -0.48) and whole body BMD (r = -0.47). It is concluded that (a) DFT scores may be useful in identifying gymnasts at risk for problems associated with eating disorders, and (b) response distortion must be considered in future research using the EDI-2. PMID:7791586

  4. Tonsillectomy versus Tonsillotomy for Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children: A Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Fu, Yangyang; Feng, Yanmei; Guan, Jian; Yin, Shankai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tonsillotomy has gained popular acceptance as an alternative to the traditional tonsillectomy in the management of sleep-disordered breathing in children. Many studies have evaluated the outcomes of the two techniques, but uncertainty remains with regard to the efficacy and complications of tonsillotomy versus a traditional tonsillectomy. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and complications of tonsillotomy versus tonsillectomy, in terms of the short- and long-term results. Methods We collected data from electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The following inclusion criteria were applied: English language, children, and prospective studies that directly compared tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy in the management of sleep disordered breathing. Subgroup analysis was then performed. Results In total, 10 eligible studies with 1029 participants were included. Tonsillotomy was shown to be advantageous over tonsillectomy in short-term measures, such as a lower hemorrhage rate, shorter operation time, and faster pain relief. In long-term follow-up, there was no significant difference in resolution of upper-airway obstructive symptoms, the quality of life, or postoperative immune function between the tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy groups. The risk ratio of SDB recurrence was 3.33 (95% confidence interval = 1.62 6.82, P = 0.001), favoring tonsillectomy at an average follow-up of 31 months. Conclusions Tonsillotomy may be advantageous over tonsillectomy in the short term measures and there are no significant difference of resolving obstructive symptoms, quality of life and postoperative immune function. For the long run, the dominance of tonsillotomy may be less than tonsillectomy with regard to the rate of sleep-disordered breathing recurrence. PMID:25807322

  5. Rate of Cannabis Use Disorders in Clinical Samples of Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Johanna; Löhönen, Johanna; Koponen, Hannu; Isohanni, Matti; Miettunen, Jouko

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to review recent studies and estimate the rate of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in schizophrenia, as well as to examine the factors affecting this rate. Methods: We conducted an electronic search of 3 literature databases and a manual search of articles from 1996 to 2008. The key words used were “schizophreni*,” “psychos*s,” “psychotic,” “cannabis abuse,” “cannabis dependence,” “cannabis use disorder,” “substance use disorder,” “substance abuse,” “substance dependence,” and “dual diagnosis.” Articles that reported diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or International Classification of Diseases were included. Regression analysis was used to examine how estimated rates of CUDs are affected by various study characteristics such as the classification system, inpatient vs outpatient status, study location, proportion of males, age of the sample, or duration of illness. Results: Thirty-five studies met our search criteria. The median current rate of CUDs was 16.0% (interquartile range [IQR] = 8.6–28.6, 10 studies), and the median lifetime rate was 27.1% (IQR = 12.2–38.5, 28 studies). The median rate of CUDs was markedly higher in first-episode vs long-term patients (current 28.6%/22.0%, lifetime 44.4%/12.2%, respectively) and in studies where more than two-thirds of the participants were males than in the other studies (33.8%/13.2%). CUDs were also more common in younger samples than in the others (current 38.5%/16.0%, lifetime 45.0%/17.9%). Conclusions: Approximately every fourth schizophrenia patient in our sample of studies had a diagnosis of CUDs. CUDs were especially common in younger and first-episode patient samples as well as in samples with a high proportion of males. PMID:19386576

  6. Exposure therapy in eating disorders revisited.

    PubMed

    Koskina, Antonia; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2013-02-01

    Exposure therapy is a widely used and effective form of treatment in anxiety disorders and addictions but evidence for its usefulness in eating disorders (ED) is inconsistent. This paper systematically reviews the literature on the use of exposure therapy in ED, the theory underpinning its use, and the deficits in current knowledge. Databases were searched to 2012. In addition, potential improvements in the use of exposure techniques in ED are considered by drawing upon theory and research involving neuropharmacology, basic and clinical neuroscience, contemporary behavioural and neurobiological research, and technologies such as virtual reality (VR). PMID:23201859

  7. Melanocortin system and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Adan, Roger A H; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; De Rijke, Corine; Nijenhuis, Wouter; Vink, Tom; Garner, Keith M; Kas, Martien J H

    2003-06-01

    The melanocortin (MC) system is involved in the regulation of energy balance and in the development of obesity. Here we briefly review why we became interested in investigating whether the MC system - more particularly, the increased activity of the MC system - is also involved in disorders of negative energy balance. We provide evidence that suppression of increased MC receptor activity by treatment with the inverse agonist agouti-related peptide (AgRP) (83-132) rescues rats exposed to an animal model known as activity-based anorexia. Furthermore, we found a polymorphism, Ala67Thr AgRP, that was observed more frequently in anorexia nervosa. PMID:12851325

  8. Managing adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Slupik, R I

    1999-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a complex psychiatric disorder with endocrinologic manifestations primarily affecting adolescent females. The classic triad of presenting symptoms is weight loss in excess of 15% of ideal body weight, behavioral changes and amenorrhea (secondary or primary). The menstrual irregularities may cause the patient or family to seek gynecologic consultation before the diagnosis of primary psychiatric disorder has been made. Bulimia is a separate disease entity characterized by compulsive overeating binges followed by compensatory purging behavior to maintain a desired weight. Depending on the degree of psychiatric disturbance, purging, and ultimate body weight, such patients may or may not present with menstrual abnormalities. Hypoestrogenic hypothalamic amenorrhea in both types of patients may result in osteoporosis, stress fractures, and infertility. Obese women, in contrast to the above, most often have abnormally heavy bleeding patterns secondary to chronic anovulation. Their-short term gynecologic concerns may be cycle control or infertility, but over the long term they are at increased risk for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. PMID:10435910

  9. Informant agreement for youth with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stratis, Elizabeth A; Lecavalier, Luc

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated informant agreement on emotional and behavior problems and social skills in youth with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability using meta-analytic methods. Forty-nine studies were included, consisting of 107 effect sizes. The mean weighted effect size across all raters and all behaviors was .36, reflecting moderate agreement. Consistent with meta-analyses in typically developing youth, pairs of similar informants (e.g., parent-parent) demonstrated higher agreement compared to pairs of different raters (e.g., parent-teacher). With all rater pairs combined, agreement was significantly higher for externalizing problems (r = .42) than either internalizing problems (r = .35) or social skills (r = .30). Several factors appear to moderate the level of agreement among informants, including the youth's diagnosis, age, and IQ. PMID:25253177

  10. The Cognitive Effects of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; Kakar, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction is often present in major depressive disorder (MDD). Several clinical trials have noted a pro-cognitive effect of antidepressants in MDD. The objective of the current systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the pooled efficacy of antidepressants on various domains of cognition in MDD. Methods: Trials published prior to April 15, 2015, were identified through searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov, and relevant review articles. Data from randomized clinical trials assessing the cognitive effects of antidepressants were pooled to determine standard mean differences (SMD) using a random-effects model. Results: Nine placebo-controlled randomized trials (2 550 participants) evaluating the cognitive effects of vortioxetine (n = 728), duloxetine (n = 714), paroxetine (n = 23), citalopram (n = 84), phenelzine (n = 28), nortryptiline (n = 32), and sertraline (n = 49) were identified. Antidepressants had a positive effect on psychomotor speed (SMD 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.050.27; I2 = 46%) and delayed recall (SMD 0.24; 95% CI 0.150.34; I2 = 0%). The effect on cognitive control and executive function did not reach statistical significance. Of note, after removal of vortioxetine from the analysis, statistical significance was lost for psychomotor speed. Eight head-to-head randomized trials comparing the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; n = 371), selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs; n = 25), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs; n = 138), and norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs; n = 46) were identified. No statistically significant difference in cognitive effects was found when pooling results from head-to-head trials of SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, and NDRIs. Significant limitations were the heterogeneity of results, limited number of studies, and small sample sizes. Conclusions: Available evidence suggests that antidepressants have a significant positive effect on psychomotor speed and delayed recall. PMID:26209859

  11. Prevalence of REM sleep behavior disorder in multiple system atrophy: a multicenter study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Fernandez-Cordon, Clara; Coon, Elizabeth A.; Low, Phillip A.; Miglis, Mitchell G.; Jaradeh, Safwan; Bhaumik, Arijit K.; Dayalu, Praveen; Urrestarazu, Elena; Iriarte, Jorge; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Objectivey Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia frequently affecting patients with synucleinopathies but its exact prevalence in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is unclear. Whether questionnaires alone are sufficient to diagnose RBD is also unknown. Methods Cross-sectional study of patients with probable MSA from six academic centers in the US and Europe. RBD was ascertained clinically and with polysomnography; and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines for studies published before September 2014 that reported the prevalence of RBD in MSA. A random-effects model was constructed using weighted prevalence proportions. Only articles in English were included. Studies were classified into those that ascertained the presence of RBD in MSA clinically and with polysomnography. Case reports or case series (?5 patients) were not included. Results Forty-two patients completed questionnaires and underwent polysomnography. Of those, 32 (76.1%) had clinically-suspected RBD and 34 (81%) had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. Two patients reported no symptoms of RBD but had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The primary search strategy yielded 374 articles of which 12 met the inclusion criteria The summary prevalence of clinically suspected RBD was 73% (95% CI, 62%-84%) in a combined sample of 324 MSA patients. The summary prevalence of polysomnography-confirmed RBD was 88% (95% CI, 79%-94%) in a combined sample of 217 MSA patients. Interpretation Polysomnography-confirmed RBD is present in up to 88% of patients with MSA. RBD was present in some patients that reported no symptoms. More than half of MSA patients report symptoms of RBD before the onset of motor deficits. PMID:25739474

  12. Placebo group improvement in trials of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders: A multivariate meta-analysis examining change over time

    PubMed Central

    Del Re, AC; Maisel, Natalya; Blodgett, Janet; Wilbourne, Paula; Finney, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective Placebo group improvement in pharmacotherapy trials has been increasing over time across several pharmacological treatment areas. However, it is unknown to what degree increasing improvement has occurred in pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorders or what factors may account for placebo group improvement. This meta-analysis of 47 alcohol pharmacotherapy trials evaluated (1) the magnitude of placebo group improvement, (2) the extent to which placebo group improvement has been increasing over time, and (3) several potential moderators that might account for variation in placebo group improvement. Method Random-effects univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted that examined the magnitude of placebo group improvement in the 47 studies and several potential moderators of improvement: (a) publication year, (b) country in which the study was conducted, (c) outcome data source/type, (d) number of placebo administrations, (e) overall severity of study participants, and (f) additional psychosocial treatment. Results Substantial placebo group improvement was found overall and improvement was larger in more recent studies. Greater improvement was found on moderately subjective outcomes, with more frequent administrations of the placebo, and in studies with greater participant severity of illness. However, even after controlling for these moderators, placebo group improvement remained significant, as did placebo group improvement over time. Conclusion Similar to previous pharmacotherapy placebo research, substantial pre- to post-test placebo group improvement has occurred in alcohol pharmacotherapy trials, an effect that has been increasing over time. However, several plausible moderator variables were not able to explain why placebo group improvement has been increasing over time. PMID:23857312

  13. Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Gradient of Severity in Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Claire S.; Nava, Caroline; Polge, Anne; Gauthier, Julie; Huguet, Guillaume; Lumbroso, Serge; Giuliano, Fabienne; Stordeur, Coline; Depienne, Christel; Mouzat, Kevin; Pinto, Dalila; Howe, Jennifer; Lemière, Nathalie; Durand, Christelle M.; Guibert, Jessica; Ey, Elodie; Toro, Roberto; Peyre, Hugo; Mathieu, Alexandre; Amsellem, Frédérique; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, I. Carina; Rappold, Gudrun A.; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Maestrini, Elena; Galan, Pilar; Heron, Delphine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rastetter, Agnès; Brice, Alexis; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Laffargue, Fanny; Lespinasse, James; Chiesa, Jean; Rivier, François; Bonneau, Dominique; Regnault, Beatrice; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Edery, Patrick; Perrin, Laurence; Tabet, Anne Claude; Schmeisser, Michael J.; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Coleman, Mary; Sato, Daisuke; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ∼1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability—more than 1 in 50—warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice. PMID:25188300

  14. Predictors of placebo response in pharmacological and dietary supplement treatment trials in pediatric autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Masi, A; Lampit, A; Glozier, N; Hickie, I B; Guastella, A J

    2015-01-01

    Large placebo responses in many clinical trials limit our capacity to identify effective therapeutics. Although it is often assumed that core behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) rarely remit spontaneously, there has been limited investigation of the size of the placebo response in relevant clinical trials. These trials also rely on caregiver and clinical observer reports as outcome measures. The objectives of this meta-analysis are to identify the pooled placebo response and the predictors of placebo response in pharmacological and dietary supplement treatment trials for participants with a diagnosis of ASD. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in pediatric ASD, conducted between 1980 and August 2014, were identified through a search of Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and clinicaltrials.gov. RCTs of at least 14 days duration, comparing the treatment response for an oral active agent and placebo using at least one of the common outcome measures, were included. Analysis of 25 data sets (1315 participants) revealed a moderate effect size for overall placebo response (Hedges' g=0.45, 95% confidence interval (0.34-0.56), P<0.001). Five factors were associated with an increase in response to placebo, namely: an increased response to the active intervention; outcome ratings by clinicians (as compared with caregivers); trials of pharmacological and adjunctive interventions; and trials located in Iran. There is a clear need for the identification of objective measures of change in clinical trials for ASD, such as evaluation of biological activity or markers, and for consideration of how best to deal with placebo response effects in trial design and analyses. PMID:26393486

  15. Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: a gradient of severity in cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Claire S; Nava, Caroline; Polge, Anne; Gauthier, Julie; Huguet, Guillaume; Lumbroso, Serge; Giuliano, Fabienne; Stordeur, Coline; Depienne, Christel; Mouzat, Kevin; Pinto, Dalila; Howe, Jennifer; Lemire, Nathalie; Durand, Christelle M; Guibert, Jessica; Ey, Elodie; Toro, Roberto; Peyre, Hugo; Mathieu, Alexandre; Amsellem, Frdrique; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, I Carina; Rappold, Gudrun A; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P; Maestrini, Elena; Galan, Pilar; Heron, Delphine; Jacquette, Aurlia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rastetter, Agns; Brice, Alexis; Devillard, Franoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Laffargue, Fanny; Lespinasse, James; Chiesa, Jean; Rivier, Franois; Bonneau, Dominique; Regnault, Beatrice; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Edery, Patrick; Perrin, Laurence; Tabet, Anne Claude; Schmeisser, Michael J; Boeckers, Tobias M; Coleman, Mary; Sato, Daisuke; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W; Rouleau, Guy A; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Delorme, Richard; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ?1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice. PMID:25188300

  16. Treatment discontinuation with methylphenidate in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Castells X; Cunill R; Capellà D

    2013-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is increasingly diagnosed and treated. Methylphenidate is frequently advocated as a first-line pharmacological treatment.PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to compare all-cause discontinuation rate of methylphenidate and its pharmaceutical presentations with placebo in adults with ADHD.METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing methylphenidate with placebo in adults with ADHD. All-cause treatment discontinuation was the primary endpoint. The efficacy in reducing ADHD symptoms and safety were the secondary endpoints.RESULTS: Twelve studies (2,496 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Four racemic methylphenidate and one dexmethylphenidate presentations were investigated. The rate of all-cause treatment discontinuation was greater with methylphenidate than with placebo, but this difference was not statistically significant [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.82-1.74, P = 0.37, I(2) = 64 %] This finding reached the conventional threshold of statistical significance after one outlier study was excluded (OR?1.44, 95 % CI 1.14-1.82, P = 0.002, I(2)?=?0). Methylphenidate was more efficacious than placebo for reducing ADHD symptoms and it was associated with a higher proportion of patients dropping out due to adverse effects.CONCLUSIONS: Despite reducing ADHD symptoms, methylphenidate showed no advantage over placebo in terms of treatment discontinuation. More attention should be given in the future to the endpoint "all-cause treatment discontinuation" when making regulatory decisions and developing clinical guidelines involving the treatment of ADHD in adulthood.

  17. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, and health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Dietary patterns consider synergistic effects compared with isolated foods or nutrients on health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the associations of diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or incidence, cancer mortality or incidence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative diseases. A literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE with an end date of May 10, 2014. Study-specific risk ratios were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2. Fifteen cohort studies (34 reports), including 1,020,642 subjects, met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Diets of the highest quality, as assessed by the HEI, AHEI, and DASH score, resulted in a significant risk reduction (RR) for all-cause mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.80; P<0.00001; I=61%, 95% CI 20% to 81%), cardiovascular disease (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.81; P<0.00001; I=45%, 95% CI 13% to 66%), cancer (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88; P<0.00001; I=77%, 95% CI 68% to 84%), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.00001; I=74%, 95% CI 52% to 86%). Differences observed for neurodegenerative diseases were not significant. Egger regression tests provided no evidence of publication bias. Diets that score highly on the HEI, AHEI, and DASH are associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by 22%, 22%, 15%, and 22%, respectively, and therefore is of high public health relevance. PMID:25680825

  18. A meta-analysis of imitation abilities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Laura A

    2014-06-01

    Although imitation impairments are often reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), previous work has not yet determined whether these impairments are significant, specific to ASD, and present across the entire spectrum. This report of 53 studies on imitation in ASD seeks to determine whether individuals with ASD show significant imitation deficits, the magnitude of these deficits, and whether they are specific to ASD. Using standard meta-analytic techniques in a random-effects model, the data reviewed suggest that individuals with ASD show deficits in imitation, performing on average 0.81 SDs below individuals without ASD on imitation tasks. This deficit was specific to the condition of having ASD. Moderator analyses revealed that the average Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores of groups of ASD participants were significantly and strongly negatively associated with the imitation abilities of these subjects, but average participant IQ was not associated with imitation abilities. Study setting, novelty of actions, format of imitation tasks (live vs. not), number of actions to imitate, or verbal prompts were not found to significantly affect the sizes of the imitation differences between individuals with and without ASD. The manner in which imitation was operationalized, however, had significant effects on whether imitation deficits were found between individuals with and without ASD. In tests that measured imitation of both form and end points, participants with ASD showed significant deficits compared with those without ASD; on tests of end point emulation only, individuals with ASD showed no deficits. PMID:24863681

  19. Psychological treatments for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Karen; Jonas, Daniel E; Forneris, Catherine A; Wines, Candi; Sonis, Jeffrey; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Feltner, Cynthia; Brownley, Kimberly A; Olmsted, Kristine Rae; Greenblatt, Amy; Weil, Amy; Gaynes, Bradley N

    2016-02-01

    Numerous guidelines have been developed over the past decade regarding treatments for Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, given differences in guideline recommendations, some uncertainty exists regarding the selection of effective PTSD therapies. The current manuscript assessed the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and adverse effects of psychological treatments for adults with PTSD. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PILOTS, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Web of Science. Two reviewers independently selected trials. Two reviewers assessed risk of bias and graded strength of evidence (SOE). We included 64 trials; patients generally had severe PTSD. Evidence supports efficacy of exposure therapy (high SOE) including the manualized version Prolonged Exposure (PE); cognitive therapy (CT), cognitive processing therapy (CPT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-mixed therapies (moderate SOE); eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and narrative exposure therapy (low-moderate SOE). Effect sizes for reducing PTSD symptoms were large (e.g., Cohen's d ~-1.0 or more compared with controls). Numbers needed to treat (NNTs) were <4 to achieve loss of PTSD diagnosis for exposure therapy, CPT, CT, CBT-mixed, and EMDR. Several psychological treatments are effective for adults with PTSD. Head-to-head evidence was insufficient to determine these treatments' comparative effectiveness, and data regarding adverse events was absent from most studies. PMID:26574151

  20. A meta-analysis of cognitive functions in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefanie; Mller, Carmen; Helmreich, Isabella; Huss, Michael; Tadi?, Andr

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in children and adolescents averages 9.5 %. The majority of adults with MDD suffer from significant cognitive deficits, but the available neuropsychological data on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents with MDD yielded mixed results. Meta-analytic methods were used to assess the severity of cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with MDD as compared to healthy children and adolescents. We identified 17 studies comparing the intelligence, executive functions, verbal memory and attention of 447 patients with DSM-IV MDD and 1,347 healthy children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with MDD performed 0.194-0.772 (p < 0.001) standard mean differences worse than healthy control subjects in neuropsychological test procedures. The most pronounced deficits of children and adolescents with MDD were seen in inhibition capacity (STD = 0.772; p = 0.002), phonemic verbal fluency (STD = 0.756; p = 0.0001), sustained attention (STD = 0.522; p = 0.000), verbal memory (STD = 0.516; p = 0.0009) and planning (STD = 0.513; p = 0.014). We revealed cognitive deficits of children and adolescents with MDD in various cognitive domains. Long-term studies should investigate how the cognitive deficits of depressed youth affect their academic and social functioning, and whether age, comorbidity and depression severity play a role in this process. PMID:24869711

  1. Ambient Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Talbott, Evelyn O; Xu, Xiaohui

    2014-11-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ? 10, 2.5 ?m) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Contents, Global Health, and Cochrane were searched (last search: September, 2013). After a detailed screening of 270 studies, 10 studies were extracted. We conducted meta-analyses if a pollutant in a specific exposure window was reported by at least four studies. Using fixed- and random-effects models, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for each pollutant with specific increment of concentration. Increases in risks of HDP (OR per 10 ppb = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30) and preeclampsia (OR per 10 ppb = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17) were observed to be associated with exposure to NO2 during the entire pregnancy, and significant associations between HDP and exposure to CO (OR per 1 ppm = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45) and O3 (OR per 10 ppb = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.13) during the first trimester were also observed. Our review suggests an association between ambient air pollution and HDP risk. Although the ORs were relatively low, the population-attributable fractions were not negligible given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution. PMID:25242883

  2. Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Xu, Xiaohui

    2014-11-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ≤10, 2.5 μm) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Contents, Global Health, and Cochrane were searched (last search: September, 2013). After a detailed screening of 270 studies, 10 studies were extracted. We conducted meta-analyses if a pollutant in a specific exposure window was reported by at least four studies. Using fixed- and random-effects models, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for each pollutant with specific increment of concentration. Increases in risks of HDP (OR per 10 ppb = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30) and preeclampsia (OR per 10 ppb = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17) were observed to be associated with exposure to NO2 during the entire pregnancy, and significant associations between HDP and exposure to CO (OR per 1 ppm = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45) and O3 (OR per 10 ppb = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.13) during the first trimester were also observed. Our review suggests an association between ambient air pollution and HDP risk. Although the ORs were relatively low, the population-attributable fractions were not negligible given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution.

  3. Ambient Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Xu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ? 10, 2.5 ?m) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Contents, Global Health, and Cochrane were searched (last search: September, 2013). After a detailed screening of 270 studies, 10 studies were extracted. We conducted meta-analyses if a pollutant in a specific exposure window was reported by at least four studies. Using fixed- and random-effects models, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for each pollutant with specific increment of concentration. Increases in risks of HDP (OR per 10 ppb = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30) and preeclampsia (OR per 10 ppb = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17) were observed to be associated with exposure to NO2 during the entire pregnancy, and significant associations between HDP and exposure to CO (OR per 1 ppm = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45) and O3 (OR per 10 ppb = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.13) during the first trimester were also observed. Our review suggests an association between ambient air pollution and HDP risk. Although the ORs were relatively low, the population-attributable fractions were not negligible given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution. PMID:25242883

  4. White Matter Volume in Alcohol Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monnig, Mollie A.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Yeo, Ronald A.; Thoma, Robert J.; McCrady, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    Atrophy of brain white matter (WM) often is considered a signature injury of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, investigations into AUD-related changes in WM volume have yielded complex findings that are difficult to synthesize in a narrative review. The objective of this study was to obtain an averaged effect size (ES) for WM volume reduction associated with AUD diagnosis and to test potential moderators of ES. Study inclusion criteria were: 1) English language; 2) peer-reviewed; 3) published before December 2011; 4) use of MRI; 5) human participants; 6) inclusion of AUD group; 7) inclusion of non-AUD comparison group; 8) reporting or testing of total or cerebral WM volume. Moderators included study design, MRI methodology, and AUD characteristics. Nineteen studies with a total of 1,302 participants (70% male) were included, and calculated ES were confirmed by the corresponding author for 12 studies. The magnitude of the averaged ES adjusted for small sample bias (Hedges g) for WM reduction in AUDs was .304 (standard error = .134, range = ?.571.21). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that the overall ES differed significantly from 0, t(18) = 2.257, p = .037, and that the distribution of the 19 ES showed significant heterogeneity beyond sampling error, ?2(18) = 52.400, p < .001. Treatment-seeking status and length of abstinence were significant moderators of ES distribution. These results are suggestive of WM recovery with sustained abstinence and point to the need for further investigation of factors related to treatment-seeking status. PMID:22458455

  5. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Patel, Rupal; Rughooputh, Fabienne; Abrahams, Hannah; Watson, Andrew J.; Drummond, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population. PMID:26366407

  6. Eating Disorders in Childhood: Prevention and Treatment Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are chronic clinical mental disorders that are disruptive to the psychological and social development of children and adolescents. They can be difficult to prevent and treat and are considered among the most chronic and medically lethal of mental disorders. Research suggests that the incidence and prevalence of eating

  7. Sex Roles and Eating Disorders: Evidence for Two Independent Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Lauren

    Because such eating disorders as anorexia and bulimia have been found to be more common in women than in men, much recent research on these disorders has examined their relationship to gender roles. Some evidence exists supporting the existence of two types of eating disorders; one associated with stereotypically feminine concerns, the other

  8. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that

  9. Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Wilcox, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower

  10. Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

    2009-01-01

    Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did

  11. Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

    2009-01-01

    Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…

  12. Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K.W.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the treatment of those often detrimental disorders. PMID:22532388

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, D A; Frye, R E

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive literature search was performed to collate evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with two primary objectives. First, features of mitochondrial dysfunction in the general population of children with ASD were identified. Second, characteristics of mitochondrial dysfunction in children with ASD and concomitant mitochondrial disease (MD) were compared with published literature of two general populations: ASD children without MD, and non-ASD children with MD. The prevalence of MD in the general population of ASD was 5.0% (95% confidence interval 3.2, 6.9%), much higher than found in the general population (∼0.01%). The prevalence of abnormal biomarker values of mitochondrial dysfunction was high in ASD, much higher than the prevalence of MD. Variances and mean values of many mitochondrial biomarkers (lactate, pyruvate, carnitine and ubiquinone) were significantly different between ASD and controls. Some markers correlated with ASD severity. Neuroimaging, in vitro and post-mortem brain studies were consistent with an elevated prevalence of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. Taken together, these findings suggest children with ASD have a spectrum of mitochondrial dysfunction of differing severity. Eighteen publications representing a total of 112 children with ASD and MD (ASD/MD) were identified. The prevalence of developmental regression (52%), seizures (41%), motor delay (51%), gastrointestinal abnormalities (74%), female gender (39%), and elevated lactate (78%) and pyruvate (45%) was significantly higher in ASD/MD compared with the general ASD population. The prevalence of many of these abnormalities was similar to the general population of children with MD, suggesting that ASD/MD represents a distinct subgroup of children with MD. Most ASD/MD cases (79%) were not associated with genetic abnormalities, raising the possibility of secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment studies for ASD/MD were limited, although improvements were noted in some studies with carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and B-vitamins. Many studies suffered from limitations, including small sample sizes, referral or publication biases, and variability in protocols for selecting children for MD workup, collecting mitochondrial biomarkers and defining MD. Overall, this evidence supports the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with ASD. Additional studies are needed to further define the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. PMID:21263444

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, D A; Frye, R E

    2012-03-01

    A comprehensive literature search was performed to collate evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with two primary objectives. First, features of mitochondrial dysfunction in the general population of children with ASD were identified. Second, characteristics of mitochondrial dysfunction in children with ASD and concomitant mitochondrial disease (MD) were compared with published literature of two general populations: ASD children without MD, and non-ASD children with MD. The prevalence of MD in the general population of ASD was 5.0% (95% confidence interval 3.2, 6.9%), much higher than found in the general population (≈ 0.01%). The prevalence of abnormal biomarker values of mitochondrial dysfunction was high in ASD, much higher than the prevalence of MD. Variances and mean values of many mitochondrial biomarkers (lactate, pyruvate, carnitine and ubiquinone) were significantly different between ASD and controls. Some markers correlated with ASD severity. Neuroimaging, in vitro and post-mortem brain studies were consistent with an elevated prevalence of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. Taken together, these findings suggest children with ASD have a spectrum of mitochondrial dysfunction of differing severity. Eighteen publications representing a total of 112 children with ASD and MD (ASD/MD) were identified. The prevalence of developmental regression (52%), seizures (41%), motor delay (51%), gastrointestinal abnormalities (74%), female gender (39%), and elevated lactate (78%) and pyruvate (45%) was significantly higher in ASD/MD compared with the general ASD population. The prevalence of many of these abnormalities was similar to the general population of children with MD, suggesting that ASD/MD represents a distinct subgroup of children with MD. Most ASD/MD cases (79%) were not associated with genetic abnormalities, raising the possibility of secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment studies for ASD/MD were limited, although improvements were noted in some studies with carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and B-vitamins. Many studies suffered from limitations, including small sample sizes, referral or publication biases, and variability in protocols for selecting children for MD workup, collecting mitochondrial biomarkers and defining MD. Overall, this evidence supports the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with ASD. Additional studies are needed to further define the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. PMID:21263444

  15. Self-recognition of eating-disordered behavior in college women: further evidence of poor eating disorders "mental health literacy"?

    PubMed

    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Mond, Jonathan; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Self-recognition of eating-disordered behavior was examined among female college students (n?=?94) with a high level of bulimic-type eating disorder symptoms. A vignette was presented describing a fictional young woman with bulimia nervosa. Participants were asked whether they might currently have a problem such as the one described, while also completing self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms, general psychological distress, and functional impairment. Less than half (47.9%) of participants believed that they currently had a problem with their eating. In both bivariate and multivariable analysis, the variables most strongly associated with self-recognition were overall levels of eating disorder psychopathology, prior treatment for an eating problem, and the use of self-induced vomiting as a means of controlling weight or shape. No other eating disorder behaviors were independently associated with self-recognition. The findings support the hypothesis that young women with eating disorder symptoms may be unlikely, or at least less likely, to recognize a problem with their eating behavior when that behavior does not entail self-induced vomiting. Health promotion and early intervention programs for eating disorders may need to address the perception that, among young women of normal or above-average body weight, only problems with eating that involve self-induced vomiting are pathological. PMID:23767672

  16. The relationships among religious affiliation, religious angst, and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Gates, K; Pritchard, M

    2009-03-01

    Although religion is thought to be a positive aspect of life, sometimes that is not always the case. One potentially negative effect of religion is the way people learn to perceive their bodies. Although many studies have examined factors that influence disordered eating (e.g., gender, self-esteem), few studies have examined the relationships among disordered eating and religious affiliation and religious angst. In the present study of 330 undergraduates, we found that Catholics and Christians displayed significantly more disordered eating than did other students. In addition, individuals scoring high on religious angst also reported more disordered eating behaviors than did other students. Implications for counseling will be discussed. PMID:19367131

  17. Understanding Eating Disorders in Elite Gymnastics: Ethical and Conceptual Challenges.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jacinta Oon Ai; Calitri, Raff; Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Eating disorders and disordered eating are more common in high performance sports than the general population, and particularly so in high performance aesthetic sports. This paper presents some of the conceptual difficulties in understanding and diagnosing eating disorders in high performance gymnasts. It presents qualitative and quantitative data from a study designed to ascertain the pattern of eating disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms and levels of self-esteem among national and international level gymnasts from the UK in the gymnastic disciplines of sport acrobatics, tumbling, and rhythmic gymnastics. PMID:26832977

  18. Effectiveness of programs for reducing the stigma associated with mental disorders. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Parsons, Alison; Reid, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The stigma associated with mental disorders is a global public health problem. Programs to combat it must be informed by the best available evidence. To this end, a meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of existing programs. A systematic search of PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases yielded 34 relevant papers, comprising 33 randomized controlled trials. Twenty-seven papers (26 trials) contained data that could be incorporated into a quantitative analysis. Of these trials, 19 targeted personal stigma or social distance (6,318 participants), six addressed perceived stigma (3,042 participants) and three self-stigma (238 participants). Interventions targeting personal stigma or social distance yielded small but significant reductions in stigma across all mental disorders combined (d=0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.39, p<0.001) as well as for depression (d=0.36, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60, p<0.01), psychosis (d=0.20, 95% CI: 0.06-0.34, p<0.01) and generic mental illness (d=0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.50, p<0.01). Educational interventions were effective in reducing personal stigma (d=0.33, 95% CI: 0.19-0.42, p<0.001) as were interventions incorporating consumer contact (d=0.47, 95% CI: 0.17-0.78, p<0.001), although there were insufficient studies to demonstrate an effect for consumer contact alone. Internet programs were at least as effective in reducing personal stigma as face-to-face delivery. There was no evidence that stigma interventions were effective in reducing perceived or self-stigma. In conclusion, there is an evidence base to inform the roll out of programs for improving personal stigma among members of the community. However, there is a need to investigate methods for improving the effectiveness of these programs and to develop interventions that are effective in reducing perceived and internalized stigma. PMID:24890069

  19. The aetiological and psychopathological validity of borderline personality disorder in youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Eyden, Julie; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-03-01

    Controversy surrounds the diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in youth. This meta-analysis summarised evidence regarding the aetiological and psychopathological validity of youth BPD (the extent to which youth and adult BPD share common risk factors and psychopathology). We identified 61 studies satisfying predetermined inclusion criteria. Statistically significant pooled associations with youth (19years of age and under) BPD were observed for sexual abuse (all youth: odds ratio=4.88; 95% confidence interval=3.30, 7.21; children: OR=3.97; 95% CI=1.51, 10.41; adolescents: OR=5.41; 95% CI=3.43, 8.53); physical abuse (all youth: 2.79 [2.03, 3.84]; children: 2.86 [1.98, 4.13]; adolescents: 2.60 [1.38, 4.90]); maternal hostility/verbal abuse (all youth: 3.28 [2.67, 4.03]; children: 3.15 [2.55, 3.88]; adolescents: 4.71 [1.77, 12.53]); and neglect (all youth: 3.40 [2.27, 5.11]; children: 2.87 [1.73, 4.73]; adolescents: 4.87 [2.24, 10.59]). Several psychopathological features were also associated with youth BPD, including comorbid mood (3.21 [2.13, 4.83]), anxiety (2.30 [1.44, 3.70]) and substance use (2.92 [1.60, 5.31]) disorders; self-harm (2.81 [1.61, 4.90]); suicide ideation (all youth: 2.02 [1.23, 3.32]; children: 6.00 [1.81, 19.84]; adolescents: 1.75 [1.20; 2.54]) and suicide attempt (2.10 [1.21, 3.66]). Results demonstrate that adult and youth BPD share common aetiological and psychopathological correlates. This offers some support for the diagnostic validity of youth BPD and indicates the need for clinical recognition in this age group. PMID:26709502

  20. Overlap in Eating Disorders and Obesity in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rancourt, Diana; McCullough, Mary Beth

    2015-10-01

    While eating disorders and obesity have traditionally been conceptualized as separate conditions, recent research suggests important overlap in several areas including etiology, comorbidity, risk factors, and prevention approaches. Examining the commonality among these conditions is particularly important as adolescents who present with both eating disorder symptomology and obesity demonstrate poorer outcomes within weight control treatments and are at greater risk for future development of full threshold eating disorders and additional weight gain. The purpose of this paper is to review the research examining the overlap in prevalence rates for eating disorders and obesity in adolescents, as well as shared etiology, risk factors, and psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Current preventive and treatment approaches also will be discussed, while highlighting the need for more integrated assessment, prevention, and treatment efforts that focus on maladaptive eating and activity patterns shared by both eating disorders and obesity. PMID:26303593

  1. Regimented and Lifestyle Restraint in Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study tested the psychometric properties of two commonly used measures of dietary restraint, the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Method Restraint data from 512 overweight/obese participants with binge eating disorder (BED) were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results Factor analyses of the restraint variables indicated a two-factor solution, interpreted as Regimented and Lifestyle restraint. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that Regimented restraint was more predictive of eating pathology, whereas Lifestyle restraint appeared to be protective of eating problems. Neither type of restraint was related to binge eating. Cluster analysis of the restraint dimensions yielded three distinct subgroups of patients who differed significantly on several important eating- and weight-related features. Discussion Future research is needed to test the significance of these restraint constructs over time in both the development of obesity and binge eating problems as well as their treatment. PMID:19107829

  2. A Review of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating amongst Nutrition Students and Dietetic Professionals.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Heather Mciver; Lordly, Daphne

    2015-03-01

    The diet industry and media have a powerful influence over women, leading many to believe that they must modify their appearance for societal acceptance. Dietetics, as one of many predominantly female professions, may be particularly vulnerable to these pressures. An integrative review process was used to examine eating disorders and disordered eating within the dietetics profession with the aim to both synthesize existing data and develop questions for future research. Seventeen articles were reviewed using broad search terms and dates because of the dearth of available literature. Given nutrition programs and dietetic practice often involve significant exposure to food, ideas and opinions about food, weight, and its place in health and dietetic practice researchers were compelled to ask "why". Findings were organized under 3 categories including thinness ideology, implications of food and body associated with nutrition or dietetic education, and establishment of a continuum. This review serves as a platform to inspire future research in an understudied but important topic related to dietetic education and practice. Minimally as a profession, baseline data need to be collected to understand the prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders along the continuum of practice in Canada. PMID:26067246

  3. Words on walls: Passive eating disorder education.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Mary E; Henkel, Kristin E

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a short-term passive intervention on nursing students' beliefs about eating disorders (EDs). Before and after a weeklong ED education poster campaign, participants completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes about individuals with EDs. Results showed a reduction in the belief that people with EDs are almost always women, increased attribution to biological and genetic factors, and decreased attribution to society's thin ideal. Personal connection moderated response to the items: [people with EDs] "are putting their lives at risk" and "would not improve with treatment." This intervention shows promise for reducing ED-associated stereotype endorsement among medical professionals. PMID:25880802

  4. I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cuts? I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > For Teens > I ... Signs of Eating Disorders How to Help About Eating Disorders Every year, thousands of teens (and adults, too) ...

  5. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

  6. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging measurement of structural volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Daniel C M; Chitty, Kate M; Saddiqui, Sonia; Bennett, Maxwell R; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2015-04-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition associated with mild to moderate cognitive impairment and with a prevalence rate of up to 22% in veterans. This systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis explore volumetric differences of three key structural brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)), all of which have been implicated in dysfunction of both salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN) in PTSD sufferers. A literature search was conducted in Embase, Medline, PubMed and PsycINFO in May 2013. Fifty-nine volumetric analyses from 44 articles were examined and included (36 hippocampus, 14 amygdala and nine ACC) with n=846 PTSD participants, n=520 healthy controls (HCs) and n=624 traumatised controls (TCs). Nine statistical tests were performed for each of the three regions of interest (ROIs), measuring volume differences in PTSD subjects, healthy and traumatised controls. Hippocampal volume was reduced in subjects with PTSD, with a greater reduction in the left hippocampus. A medium effect size reduction was found in bilateral amygdala volume when compared with findings in healthy controls; however, no significant differences in amygdala volume between PTSD subjects and trauma-exposed controls were found. Significant volume reductions were found bilaterally in the ACC. While often well matched with their respective control groups, the samples of PTSD subjects composed from the source studies used in the meta-analyses are limited in their homogeneity. The current findings of reduced hippocampal volume in subjects with PTSD are consistent with the existing literature. Amygdala volumes did not show significant reductions in PTSD subjects when compared with volumes in trauma-exposed controls-congruous with reported symptoms of hypervigilance and increased propensity in acquisition of conditioned fear memories-but a significant reduction was found in the combined left and right hemisphere volume analysis when compared with healthy controls. Bilateral volume reductions in the ACC may underpin the attentional deficits and inabilities to modulate emotions that are characteristically associated with PTSD patients. PMID:25735885

  8. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, Baoliang; XIANG, Yutao; CAO, Xiaolan; LI, Yan; ZHU, Junhong; CHIU, Helen F. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiction who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treating substance abuse problems. Aim Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. Methods We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R software. Results The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. The pooled lifetime prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30% (95%CI: 23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I2 =95%, p<0.001). Men had a higher prevalence than women (44% vs. 21%), and injection heroin users had higher prevalence than those who smoked heroin (44% vs. 27%). Studies that were methodologically stronger had higher reported prevalence of ASPD among heroin dependent individuals. Conclusions There are substantial methodological problems in the available literature about ASPD in Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence, but we estimate that about one-third of them meet criteria for ASPD. Further work is needed to increase clinicians’ awareness of this issue; to compare the pathogenesis, treatment responsiveness and recidivism of those with and without ASPD; and to develop and test targeted interventions for this difficult-to-treat subgroup of individuals with heroin dependence. PMID:25477719

  9. [Long-term evolution and complications of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Isabelle

    2008-01-31

    Eating disorders long-term evolution is good in 50% of cases, middle in 25% (recovery from eating disorders, but still psychological suffering) and bad in 25% of cases, with chronic eating disorders, anxious or depressive comorbid disorder, and bad consequences in social patients' life. Anorexia nervosa has a considerably worse long-term outcome than bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorders. Never the less, purging bulimia nervosa is often associated with other impulsive symptoms, such as addictions and suicide attempts. Chronic undernutrition leads to main long-term medical complications of eating disorders: linear growth in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, infertility, and osteoporosis. These complications need a specific medical follow up, at least once a year, added to the psychiatric and psychotherapist follow-up. PMID:18361276

  10. Distinguishing Between Risk Factors for Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Purging Disorder.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-08-01

    Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model, this significant indirect effect was not moderated by eating disorder group. The results support a prospective model of risk that applies to bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. Common prevention approaches may be possible for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. PMID:25233874

  11. Advances from neuroimaging studies in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, brain imaging has helped to better define eating disorder-related brain circuitry. Brain research on gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes had been inconsistent, possibly due to the effects of acute starvation, exercise, medication, and comorbidity, but newer studies have controlled for such effects. Those studies suggest larger left medial orbitofrontal gyrus rectus volume in ill adult and adolescent anorexia nervosa after recovery from anorexia nervosa, and in adult bulimia nervosa. The orbitofrontal cortex is important in terminating food intake, and altered function could contribute to self-starvation. The right insula, which processes taste but also interoception, was enlarged in ill adult and adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as adults recovered from the illness. The fixed perception of being fat in anorexia nervosa could be related to altered insula function. A few studies investigated WM integrity, with the most consistent finding of reduced fornix integrity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa-a limbic pathway that is important in emotion but also food intake regulation. Functional brain imaging using basic sweet taste stimuli in eating disorders during the ill state or after recovery implicated repeatedly reward pathways, including insula and striatum. Brain imaging that targeted dopamine-related brain activity using taste-reward conditioning tasks suggested that this circuitry is hypersensitive in anorexia nervosa, but hyporesponsive in bulimia nervosa and obesity. Those results are in line with basic research and suggest adaptive reward system changes in the human brain in response to extremes of food intake-changes that could interfere with normalization of eating behavior. PMID:25902917

  12. Neurobiological features of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Balodis, Iris M; Grilo, Carlos M; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Biobehavioral features associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) have been investigated; however, few systematic reviews to date have described neuroimaging findings from studies of BED. Emerging functional and structural studies support BED as having unique and overlapping neural features as compared with other disorders. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence linking heightened responses to palatable food cues with prefrontal areas, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), with specific relationships to hunger and reward-sensitivity measures. While few studies to date have investigated non-food-cue responses; these suggest a generalized hypofunctioning in frontostriatal areas during reward and inhibitory control processes. Early studies applying neuroimaging to treatment efforts suggest that targeting neural function underlying motivational processes may prove important in the treatment of BED. PMID:26530404

  13. Genetics and Epigenetics of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Hardaway, J. Andrew; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of AN, BN, and BED, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research.

  14. Characterization of eating patterns among individuals with eating disorders: what is the state of the plate?

    PubMed

    Forbush, Kelsie T; Hunt, Tyler K

    2014-07-01

    Eating disorders will affect approximately 18 million individuals in the United States at some point in their lives, and are associated with significant psychological distress, psychosocial and quality-of-life impairment, medical morbidity, and mortality. Although aberrant eating behaviors play a central role in diagnostic definitions for eating disorders, much remains to be learned about eating patterns, diet quality, and energy balance among individuals with eating pathology. The goal of the current paper was to systematically review and integrate findings from published research studies characterizing the eating behaviors of individuals with eating disorders, including findings from both descriptive and laboratory-based research. We also describe results from studies using ecological momentary assessment - a methodology that assesses individuals' behaviors in their natural environment as they occur, which may reduce retrospective recall bias, and provide improved ability to prospectively assess the temporal occur of changes in multiple eating behaviors over time. We conclude with suggestions for future research, including the need for additional studies to test for differences in eating patterns among different demographic groups of individuals with eating disorders, and the need for new, more objective, assessment tools. PMID:24582916

  15. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were

  16. A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.

  17. Positive Psychology in the Prevention of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Erin L.; Abrams, Laura M.; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally the identification of, and treatment for, eating disorders has been based on developmental psychopathology theory and research, thereby emphasizing risk factors and the elimination of maladaptive behaviors. This article seeks to reconceptualize the prevention of, and protective factors for, eating disordered behavior from the

  18. Acculturation and Eating Disorders in a Mexican American Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2006-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican

  19. Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The excessive influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation--referred to as overvaluation--is considered by some a central feature across eating disorders but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined shape/weight overvaluation in 399 consecutive patients with BED. Participants completed semistructured

  20. The starting point of eating disorders: role of genetics.

    PubMed

    Juli, Giada; Juli, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    Eating disorders are perplexing diseases of which the etiology is still unknown. Recent research has focused on the possibility that genetics plays a role in vulnerability to these pathologies. This study gives an overview of the available literature focusing on family, twin and molecular genetic studies of eating disorders. PMID:25413528

  1. Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.…

  2. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  3. Acculturation and Eating Disorders in a Mexican American Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2006-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…

  4. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  5. Alexithymia and eating disorders: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24999402

  6. Acculturation and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation

  7. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer

  8. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and

  9. Eating Disorders among Athletes: Theory, Issues, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R., Ed.

    Eating disorders among athletes has become an important topic both nationally and internationally. This volume of empirically focused articles presents theory, issues, and the latest research in a concise form for a variety of audiences. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Eating Disorders among Athletes: Current Perspective" (D. R. Black); (2) "College

  10. A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.…

  11. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  12. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based

  13. Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.

  14. Child feeding perceptions among mothers with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Feldman, Talya; Ram, Anca; Gur, Eitan; Zubery, Eynat; Steiner, Evelyne; Latzer, Yael; Lock, James D

    2015-12-01

    Feeding and eating difficulties are documented among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Understanding the perspective of mothers with eating disorders is likely essential to develop parent-based early prevention programs for children of these mothers. In the present study, twenty-nine mothers who were diagnosed with an eating disorder prior to becoming mothers and who currently had toddler age children participated in a semi-structured interview examining maternal functioning and child feeding. The maternal perceptions that emerged from the interviews were sorted into central themes and subcategories using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data indicate that mothers with eating disorders express preoccupation with their child's eating, shape and weight, and many dilemmas about child feeding. They also reported rarity of family meals and their toddlers' preliminary awareness of maternal symptoms. Maternal concerns regarding child nutrition, feeding and weight were reported as more intense in regards to daughters. These maternal perceptions illuminate the maternal psychological processes that underlie the feeding and eating problems of the children of mothers with lifetime eating disorders. Findings should be addressed in the evaluation, treatment, and research of adult and childhood eating disorders. PMID:26145278

  15. A Preliminary Examination of a Nonpurging Compensatory Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Heather A.; Holland, Lauren A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlates of a compensatory eating disorder (CED) characterized by recurrent nonpurging compensatory behaviors in the absence of objectively large binge episodes among normal weight individuals who endorse undue influence of weight/shape on self-evaluation as possible indicators of clinical significance and distinctiveness. Method Women with CED (n=20), women with bulimia nervosa (BN) (n=20), and controls (n=20) completed an interview and questionnaires assessing eating disorder and general psychopathology and weight history. Results Compared to controls, women with CED reported significantly greater body image disturbance and disordered eating, higher anxiety proneness, increased perfectionism, and greater weight suppression. Compared to BN, CED was associated with significantly less body image disturbance, disordered eating, weight suppression, and lower likelihood of being overweight in childhood. However, CED and BN did not differ on anxiety proneness or perfectionism. Discussion CED merits further examination to determine whether it is a clinically significant and distinct eating disorder. PMID:24105678

  16. [Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].

    PubMed

    Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; Garca Snchez, F; Ros Rial, B

    2005-01-01

    New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out. PMID:15704033

  17. Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours?

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of this body of research, most studies have weaknesses in their designs (e.g. observational design, no control groups, or small sample sizes). The basic tenets of yoga, anecdotal reports of its effectiveness, its high accessibility and low cost, and initial research findings suggest that yoga may offer promise for the field of eating disorders. Two options are suggested for prevention: (1) eating disorder prevention can be integrated into ongoing yoga classes and (2) yoga can be integrated into eating disorder prevention programmes. Regarding treatment, it is important to examine the effectiveness of different teaching styles and practices for different eating disorders. Potential harms of yoga should also be explored. Further research, using stronger study designs, such as randomised, controlled trials, is needed. PMID:24955291

  18. Eating Disorders: National Institute of Mental Healths Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Mark; Insel, Tom R.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of the eating disorders, there are still significant challenges that need to be addressed. This article briefly describes some of these challenges, recent NIMH-supported research and research-related activities directed at addressing these challenges, and approaches and areas of research that hold promise for furthering the understanding and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:17469895

  19. Couple-Based Interventions for Adults with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    KIRBY, JENNIFER S.; RUNFOLA, CRISTIN D.; FISCHER, MELANIE; BAUCOM, DONALD H.; BULIK, CYNTHIA M.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of adults with eating disorders fail to achieve relief from the disorder, with many dropping out from treatment or relapsing. Standard treatment remains individual therapy despite partners being negatively affected and typically wanting to help in an effective and loving way. We propose that couple-based interventions, which leverage the support of a partner and the relationship in treatment, may improve outcome and recovery rates for adults with eating disorders. In this paper, we survey the empirical literature supporting the treatment of adults in a couple context and describe our existing and emerging couple-based interventions for eating disorders. PMID:26010371

  20. Perceived Expressed Emotion in Adolescents with Binge-Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ricarda; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-10-01

    A sizeable body of research has documented Expressed Emotion (EE) to predict clinical outcomes in various psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Patients' perceptions of relative's EE, however, were found to play an important role in the processing of EE. This study aimed to examine the level of perceived EE in adolescent binge-eating disorder (BED) and its impact on eating disorder psychopathology. Adolescents (12-20years) seeking treatment for BED (n?=?40) were compared to adolescents without current or lifetime eating disorder (CG; n?=?40). Both groups were stratified according to age, sex, body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), and socio-economic status. The Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) and the Brief Dyadic Scale of EE were administered to assess patients' perceived maternal EE. Additionally, adolescents and mothers completed questionnaires on eating disorder and general psychopathology. On the FMSS, 37.5% of patients with BED perceived their mothers as high EE (vs. 12.5% in the CG). On the Brief Dyadic Scale of EE, patients with BED reported significantly higher levels of perceived maternal criticism, emotional overinvolvement, and lower levels of perceived warmth than controls. After controlling for the diagnosis of BED, perceived criticism and warmth, as assessed by questionnaire, significantly explained adolescents' global eating disorder psychopathology. Negative perceptions of maternal behavior and emotional atmosphere towards the child are characteristic of adolescent BED. As documented for other eating disorders, family factors are likely to have substantial implications for the maintenance and treatment of adolescent BED. PMID:25860811

  1. Current and Emerging Drug Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483

  2. Association between HTR2A T102C polymorphism and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Xia; Hu, Zhe; Yan, Ze-Ming; Li, Wen; Chen, Yu-Sen; Zhao, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Liang-Qing; Zhao, Bin; Zhong, Wang-Tao; Feng, Du

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted on the association between HTR2A T102C polymorphism and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Chinese, this association remains elusive and controversial. To clarify the effects of HTR2A T102C polymorphism on the risk of MDD, a meta-analysis was performed in the Chinese population. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 5 May 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the associations. Statistical analyses were conducted with Version 10.0 STATA statistical software. A total of 12 case-control studies including 1444 MDD cases and 1445 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant association with MDD risk was provided in the Chinese population (C vs. T: OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.81-1.17, 95%; CC vs. TT: OR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.65-1.37; CC+TC vs. TT: OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.75-1.12; CC vs. TT+TC: OR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.78-1.12). In subgroup analyses stratified by geographic area and source of controls, no significant association was found in any of the subgroups. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicate that the HTR2A T102C polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to MDD in Chinese population. PMID:26885016

  3. Association between HTR2A T102C polymorphism and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis in the Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Xia; Hu, Zhe; Yan, Ze-Ming; Li, Wen; Chen, Yu-Sen; Zhao, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Liang-Qing; Zhao, Bin; Zhong, Wang-Tao; Feng, Du

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted on the association between HTR2A T102C polymorphism and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Chinese, this association remains elusive and controversial. To clarify the effects of HTR2A T102C polymorphism on the risk of MDD, a meta-analysis was performed in the Chinese population. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 5 May 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the associations. Statistical analyses were conducted with Version 10.0 STATA statistical software. A total of 12 case-control studies including 1444 MDD cases and 1445 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant association with MDD risk was provided in the Chinese population (C vs. T: OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.81-1.17, 95%; CC vs. TT: OR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.65-1.37; CC+TC vs. TT: OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.75-1.12; CC vs. TT+TC: OR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.78-1.12). In subgroup analyses stratified by geographic area and source of controls, no significant association was found in any of the subgroups. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicate that the HTR2A T102C polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to MDD in Chinese population. PMID:26885016

  4. Eating disorders. A review and update.

    PubMed Central

    Haller, E

    1992-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are prevalent illnesses affecting between 1% and 10% of adolescent and college age women. Developmental, family dynamic, and biologic factors are all important in the cause of this disorder. Anorexia nervosa is diagnosed when a person refuses to maintain his or her body weight over a minimal normal weight for age and height, such as 15% below that expected, has an intense fear of gaining weight, has a disturbed body image, and, in women, has primary or secondary amenorrhea. A diagnosis of bulimia nervosa is made when a person has recurrent episodes of binge eating, a feeling of lack of control over behavior during binges, regular use of self-induced vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, strict dieting, or vigorous exercise to prevent weight gain, a minimum of 2 binge episodes a week for at least 3 months, and persistent overconcern with body shape and weight. Patients with eating disorders are usually secretive and often come to the attention of physicians only at the insistence of others. Practitioners also should be alert for medical complications including hypothermia, edema, hypotension, bradycardia, infertility, and osteoporosis in patients with anorexia nervosa and fluid or electrolyte imbalance, hyperamylasemia, gastritis, esophagitis, gastric dilation, edema, dental erosion, swollen parotid glands, and gingivitis in patients with bulimia nervosa. Treatment involves combining individual, behavioral, group, and family therapy with, possibly, psychopharmaceuticals. Primary care professionals are frequently the first to evaluate these patients, and their encouragement and support may help patients accept treatment. The treatment proceeds most smoothly if the primary care physician and psychiatrist work collaboratively with clear and frequent communication. PMID:1475950

  5. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Flament, Martine F; Bissada, Hany; Spettigue, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to review scientific evidence for efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in adults or children with an eating disorder (ED). We conducted a computer search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1960 and May 2010 for treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED). For drugs for which no RCT was found, open trials or case reports were retrieved. Clinically relevant RCTs in the treatment of AN have used atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and zinc supplementation. Olanzapine demonstrated an adjunctive effect for in-patient treatment of underweight AN patients, and fluoxetine helped prevent relapse in weight-restored AN patients in 1/2 studies. For treatment of BN, controlled studies have used SSRIs, other antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. In 9/11 studies, pharmacotherapy yielded a statistically significant although moderate reduction in binge/purge frequency, and some additional benefits. For BED, RCTs have been conducted using SSRIs and one serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), mood stabilizers, and anti-obesity medications. In 11/12 studies, there was a statistically significant albeit limited effect of medication. Meta-analyses on efficacy of pharmacotherapy for BN and BED support moderate effect sizes for medication, but generally low recovery rates. Treatment resistance is an inherent feature of AN, where treatment should focus on renourishment plus psychotherapy. For BN and BED, combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy has been more effective than either alone. Data on the long-term efficacy of pharmacotherapy for EDs are scarce. Short- and long-term pharmacotherapy of EDs still remains a challenge for the clinician. PMID:21414249

  6. Efficacy and Acceptability of Pharmacological Treatments for Depressive Disorders in Primary Care: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Klaus; Kriston, Levente; Rcker, Gerta; Jamil, Susanne; Schumann, Isabelle; Meissner, Karin; Sigterman, Kirsten; Schneider, Antonius

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate whether antidepressants are more effective than placebo in the primary care setting, and whether there are differences between substance classes regarding efficacy and acceptability. METHODS We conducted literature searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and PsycINFO up to December 2013. Randomized trials in depressed adults treated by primary care physicians were included in the review. We performed both conventional pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis combining direct and indirect evidence. Main outcome measures were response and study discontinuation due to adverse effects. RESULTS A total of 66 studies with 15,161 patients met the inclusion criteria. In network meta-analysis, tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI; venlafaxine), a low-dose serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor (SARI; trazodone) and hypericum extracts were found to be significantly superior to placebo, with estimated odds ratios between 1.69 and 2.03. There were no statistically significant differences between these drug classes. Reversible inhibitors of monoaminoxidase A (rMAO-As) and hypericum extracts were associated with significantly fewer dropouts because of adverse effects compared with TCAs, SSRIs, the SNRI, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI), and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant agents (NaSSAs). CONCLUSIONS Compared with other drugs, TCAs and SSRIs have the most solid evidence base for being effective in the primary care setting, but the effect size compared with placebo is relatively small. Further agents (hypericum, rMAO-As, SNRI, NRI, NaSSAs, SARI) showed some positive results, but limitations of the currently available evidence makes a clear recommendation on their place in clinical practice difficult. PMID:25583895

  7. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

  8. Eating disorders in men aged midlife and beyond.

    PubMed

    Reas, Deborah L; Stedal, Kristin

    2015-06-01

    Eating disorders are serious psychiatric illnesses which can occur across the lifespan. Men aged midlife and beyond are vulnerable to stigma, shame, and stereotypes portraying eating disorders as afflictions of youth and female gender. Historically, men have been neglected in the field of eating disorders owing to traditional and female-centric approaches to conceptualization and classification. In this literature review, we identified 16 case reports of eating disorders in males ranging from the age of 40 to 81 years. The majority of cases reported an earlier onset in life, followed by a variable course of illness with periods of relapse interspersed with remission. Diagnostic crossover or symptom fluctuation was common. High rates of comorbid depression were found, and several cases described a history of weight cycling and premorbid obesity. Precipitating factors included stressors which disproportionately occur in later life, including loss due to death or divorce, changes in financial or housing situation, and medical issues. Very little is known regarding the prevalence of eating disorders in older men, with initial population estimates ranging from 0.02% to 1.6%. Rates of subthreshold eating disordered behavior are higher and appear to be increasing among older individuals and males in the community. Recent revisions in the DSM-5 will likely increase the broader applicability of diagnostic criteria for eating disorders, stimulating improved recognition of diverse presentations occurring across the lifespan for both genders. Eating disorders should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained weight gain or weight loss irrespective of age or gender. Multi-site studies are needed for adequate sampling and to allow larger empirical investigations regarding how to improve clinical practices in screening and assessment, as well the provision of differential care for older men suffering from an eating disorder. PMID:25869901

  9. Chocolate craving and disordered eating. Beyond the gender divide?

    PubMed

    Hormes, Julia M; Orloff, Natalia C; Timko, C Alix

    2014-12-01

    Chocolate craving in women has previously been linked to disordered eating behaviors. A relatively higher prevalence of eating disorder pathology may account for the fact that chocolate craving is significantly more common in women in North America, compared to many other countries. While support for a causal role of disordered eating in the etiology of craving in women is growing, little is known about the extent to which food cravings are associated with disordered eating behaviors in men. This study was designed to systematically assess the impact of gender and chocolate craving on measures of attitudes to chocolate, responsiveness to food cues in the environment, body shape dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and eating disorder and general pathology. Undergraduate men and women (n = 645, 37.2% male) were invited to complete self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, height and weight, food cravings, dietary attitudes and behaviors, along with eating disorder and general pathology. Data suggest that the relationship between chocolate craving and disordered eating behaviors in men is the opposite of what has previously been observed in women: compared to non-cravers, male chocolate cravers reported significantly more guilt related to craving, but were significantly less likely to diet and reported lower levels of dietary restraint, less frequent weight fluctuations, and fewer symptoms of eating disorders. Findings indicate that a positive relationship between disordered eating behaviors and chocolate craving may be unique to women (and potentially women in North America). Findings have important implications for our understanding of cultural and psychosocial factors involved in the etiology of food cravings. PMID:25173065

  10. Transcriptome meta-analysis reveals common differential and global gene expression profiles in cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders and identifies CFTR regulators.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Luka A; Botelho, Hugo M; Sousa, Lisete; Falcao, Andre O; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-11-01

    A meta-analysis of 13 independent microarray data sets was performed and gene expression profiles from cystic fibrosis (CF), similar disorders (COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPF: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, asthma), environmental conditions (smoking, epithelial injury), related cellular processes (epithelial differentiation/regeneration), and non-respiratory "control" conditions (schizophrenia, dieting), were compared. Similarity among differentially expressed (DE) gene lists was assessed using a permutation test, and a clustergram was constructed, identifying common gene markers. Global gene expression values were standardized using a novel approach, revealing that similarities between independent data sets run deeper than shared DE genes. Correlation of gene expression values identified putative gene regulators of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, of potential therapeutic significance. Our study provides a novel perspective on CF epithelial gene expression in the context of other lung disorders and conditions, and highlights the contribution of differentiation/EMT and injury to gene signatures of respiratory disease. PMID:26225835

  11. The Bipolar Association Case-Control Study (BACCS) and meta-analysis: No association with the 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Craig, Ian; Gaysina, Darya; Gray, Joanna; Gunasinghe, Cerisse; Craddock, Nick; Elkin, Amanda; Jones, Lisa; Kennedy, James; King, Nicole; Korszun, Ania; Knight, Jo; Owen, Michael; Parikh, Sagar; Strauss, John; Sterne, Abram; Tozzi, Federica; Perry, Julia; Muglia, Pierandrea; Vincent, John; McGuffin, Peter; Farmer, Anne

    2010-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex genetic disease for which the underlying pathophysiology has yet to be fully explained. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a crucial enzyme in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism and folate deficiency can be associated with psychiatric symptoms. A single base variant in MTHFR gene (C677T) results in the production of a mildly dysfunctional thermolabile enzyme and has recently been implicated in BD. We conducted an association study of this polymorphism in 897 patients with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder, and 1,687 healthy control subjects. We found no evidence for genotypic or allelic association in this sample. We also performed a meta-analysis of our own, and all published data, and report no evidence for association. Our findings suggest that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is not involved in the genetic etiology of clinically significant BD. PMID:20552676

  12. Eating Patterns and Disorders in a College Population: Are College Women's Eating Problems a New Phenomenon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires returned by 395 sophomores reveals that the eating difficulties of college women may be a problem that only partially resembles clinical eating disorders. They displayed the behavioral symptoms but not the psychological traits associated with anorexia and bulimia. Diagnosis and treatment issues, and sociocultural

  13. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory in Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normals. Only weak support was found for concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Recommends combination of

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of level 3 portable sleep tests versus level 1 polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    El Shayeb, Mohamed; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Stafinski, Tania; Pawluk, Lawrence; Menon, Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Greater awareness of sleep-disordered breathing and rising obesity rates have fueled demand for sleep studies. Sleep testing using level 3 portable devices may expedite diagnosis and reduce the costs associated with level 1 in-laboratory polysomnography. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of level 3 testing compared with level 1 testing and to identify the appropriate patient population for each test. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies of level 3 versus level 1 sleep tests in adults with suspected sleep-disordered breathing. We searched 3 research databases and grey literature sources for studies that reported on diagnostic accuracy parameters or disease management after diagnosis. Two reviewers screened the search results, selected potentially relevant studies and extracted data. We used a bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model to estimate summary diagnostic accuracy parameters. Results: We included 59 studies involving a total of 5026 evaluable patients (mostly patients suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea). Of these, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was high, ranging between 0.85 and 0.99 across different levels of disease severity. Summary sensitivity ranged between 0.79 and 0.97, and summary specificity ranged between 0.60 and 0.93 across different apneahypopnea cut-offs. We saw no significant difference in the clinical management parameters between patients who underwent either test to receive their diagnosis. Interpretation: Level 3 portable devices showed good diagnostic performance compared with level 1 sleep tests in adult patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and no unstable comorbidities. For patients suspected of having other types of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep disorders not related to breathing, level 1 testing remains the reference standard. PMID:24218531

  15. Discriminating autism spectrum disorders from schizophrenia by investigation of mental state attribution on an on-line mentalizing task: A review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bliksted, Vibeke; Ubukata, Shiho; Koelkebeck, Katja

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, theories of how humans form a "theory of mind" of others ("mentalizing") have increasingly been called upon to explain impairments in social interaction in mental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether tasks that assess impairments in mentalizing can also contribute to determining differential deficits across disorders, which may be important for early identification and treatment. Paradigms that challenge mentalizing abilities in an on-line, real-life fashion have been considered helpful in detecting disease-specific deficits. In this review, we are therefore summarizing results of studies that assess the attribution of mental states using an animated triangles task. Behavioral as well as brain imaging studies in ASD and schizophrenia have been taken into account. While for neuroimaging methods, data are sparse and investigation methods inconsistent, we performed a meta-analysis of behavioral data to directly investigate performance deficits across disorders. Here, more impaired abilities in the appropriate description of interactions were found in ASD patients than in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, an analysis of first-episode (FES) versus longer lasting (LLS) schizophrenia showed that usage of mental state terms was reduced in the LLS group. In our review and meta-analysis, we identified performance differences between ASD and schizophrenia that seem helpful in targeting differential deficits, taking into account different stages of schizophrenia. However, to tackle the deficits in more detail, studies are needed that directly compare patients with ASD and schizophrenia using behavioral or neuroimaging methods with more standardized task versions. PMID:26817402

  16. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for acute anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: study protocol for a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Zhou, Xinyu; James, Anthony C; Qin, Bin; Whittington, Craig J; Cuijpers, Pim; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Liu, Yiyun; Cohen, David; Weisz, John R; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Anxiety disorders are associated with significant public health burden in young individuals. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the most commonly used psychotherapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, but previous reviews were hindered by a limited number of trials with direct comparisons between different psychotherapies and their deliveries. Consequently, the main aim of this research was to investigate the comparative efficacy and acceptability of various types and deliveries of psychotherapies for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis We will systematically search PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and LiLACS for randomised controlled trials, regardless of whether participants received blinding or not, published from 1 January 1966 to 30 January 2015 (updated to 1 July 2015), that compared any psychotherapy with either a control condition or an active comparator with different types and/or different delivery formats for the acute treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Data extraction, risk of bias and quality assessments will be independently extracted by two reviewers. The primary outcome for efficacy will be mean overall change scores in anxiety symptoms (self-rated or assessor-rated) from baseline to post-treatment between two groups. The acceptability of treatment will be measured as the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment during the acute phase of treatment. We will assess efficacy, based on the standardised mean difference (SMD), and acceptability, based on the OR, using a random-effects network meta-analysis within a Bayesian framework. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be disseminated electronically and in print. The meta-analysis may be updated to inform and guide management of anxiety in children and adolescents. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015016283. PMID:26443658

  17. Development and validation of the Stirling Eating Disorder Scales.

    PubMed

    Williams, G J; Power, K G; Miller, H R; Freeman, C P; Yellowlees, A; Dowds, T; Walker, M; Parry-Jones, W L

    1994-07-01

    The development and reliability/validity check of an 80-item, 8-scale measure for use with eating disorder patients is presented. The Stirling Eating Disorder Scales (SEDS) assess anorexic dietary behavior, anorexic dietary cognitions, bulimic dietary behavior, bulimic dietary cognitions, high perceived external control, low assertiveness, low self-esteem, and self-directed hostility. The SEDS were administered to 82 eating disorder patients and 85 controls. Results indicate that the SEDS are acceptable in terms of internal consistency, reliability, group validity, and concurrent validity. PMID:7920579

  18. Disorganization of white matter architecture in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangxiang; Hu, Xinyu; Li, Lei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Kuang, Weihong; Ai, Hua; Bi, Feng; Gu, Zhongwei; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in major depressive disorder (MDD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) studies have detected abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA) in MDD, but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We performed a quantitative meta-analysis of TBSS studies contrasting MDD patients with healthy control subjects (HCS). A total of 17 studies with 18 datasets that included 641 MDD patients and 581 HCS were identified. Anisotropic effect size-signed differential mapping (AES-SDM) meta-analysis was performed to assess FA alterations in MDD patients compared to HCS. FA reductions were identified in the genu of the corpus callosum (CC) extending to the body of the CC and left anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) in MDD patients relative to HCS. Descriptive analysis of quartiles, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis further confirmed these findings. Meta-regression analysis revealed that individuals with more severe MDD were significantly more likely to have FA reductions in the genu of the CC. This study provides a thorough profile of WM abnormalities in MDD and evidence that interhemispheric connections and frontal-striatal-thalamic pathways are the most convergent circuits affected in MDD. PMID:26906716

  19. Disorganization of white matter architecture in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangxiang; Hu, Xinyu; Li, Lei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Kuang, Weihong; Ai, Hua; Bi, Feng; Gu, Zhongwei; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in major depressive disorder (MDD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) studies have detected abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA) in MDD, but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We performed a quantitative meta-analysis of TBSS studies contrasting MDD patients with healthy control subjects (HCS). A total of 17 studies with 18 datasets that included 641 MDD patients and 581 HCS were identified. Anisotropic effect size-signed differential mapping (AES-SDM) meta-analysis was performed to assess FA alterations in MDD patients compared to HCS. FA reductions were identified in the genu of the corpus callosum (CC) extending to the body of the CC and left anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) in MDD patients relative to HCS. Descriptive analysis of quartiles, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis further confirmed these findings. Meta-regression analysis revealed that individuals with more severe MDD were significantly more likely to have FA reductions in the genu of the CC. This study provides a thorough profile of WM abnormalities in MDD and evidence that interhemispheric connections and frontal-striatal-thalamic pathways are the most convergent circuits affected in MDD. PMID:26906716

  20. The Role of Loss of Control Eating in Purging Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forney, K. Jean; Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Purging Disorder (PD), an Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder,1 is characterized by recurrent purging in the absence of binge eating. Though objectively large binge episodes are not present, individuals with PD may experience a loss of control (LOC) while eating a normal or small amounts of food. The present study sought to examine the role of LOC eating in PD using archival data from 101 women with PD. Method Participants completed diagnostic interviews and self-report questionnaires. Analyses examined the relationship between LOC eating and eating disorder features, psychopathology, personality traits, and impairment, in bivariate models and then in multivariate models controlling for purging frequency, age, and body mass index. Results Across bivariate and multivariate models, LOC eating frequency was associated with greater disinhibition around food, hunger, depressive symptoms, negative urgency, and distress and impairment. Discussion LOC eating is a clinically significant feature of PD and should be considered in future definitions of PD. Future research should examine whether LOC eating better represents a dimension of severity in PD or a specifier that may impact treatment response or course. PMID:24185981

  1. Physical activity in the treatment of Post-traumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Vancampfort, Davy; Steel, Zachary; Newby, Jill; Ward, Philip B; Stubbs, Brendon

    2015-12-15

    People with PTSD experience high levels of cardiovascular disease and comorbid mental health problems. Physical activity (PA) is an effective intervention in the general population. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of PA on PTSD. We searched major electronic databases from inception till 03/2015 for RCTs of PA interventions among people with PTSD. A random effects meta-analysis calculating hedges g was conducted. From a potential of 812 hits, four unique RCTs met the inclusion criteria (n=200, mean age of participants 34-52 years). The methodological quality of included trials was satisfactory, and no major adverse events were reported. PA was significantly more effective compared to control conditions at decreasing PTSD and depressive symptoms among people with PTSD. There was insufficient data to investigate the effect on anthropometric or cardiometabolic outcomes. Results suggest that PA may be a useful adjunct to usual care to improve the health of people with PTSD. Although there is a relative paucity of data, there is reason to be optimistic for including PA as an intervention for people with PTSD, particularly given the overwhelming evidence of the benefits of PA in the general population. Robust effectiveness and implementation studies are required. PMID:26500072

  2. The relationship between stealing and eating disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Baum, A; Goldner, E M

    1995-01-01

    The literature exploring stealing behavior in individuals with an eating disorder is reviewed. Although epidemiological data are lacking, clinical observations and preliminary studies suggest an association between stealing behavior and eating disorders. Stealing appears to be strongly associated with bulimic symptoms in patients with eating disorders, and the presence of stealing behavior may serve as a marker of eating-disorder severity. The apparent connection between the two problems is discussed, and nine putative explanatory factors are examined: starvation-induced mental dysfunction, effects of medications, affective spectrum disorder, personality disorder, psychodynamic features, dissociative phenomena, tension reduction, pseudopubertal impulsivity, and sociocultural influences. Various combinations of these factors may operate in any particular patient. One of the challenges to our current understanding is the scarcity of information regarding the prevalence and distribution of stealing behavior in the general population. Areas for future research are suggested and include epidemiological surveys to investigate the proposed connection between stealing and eating disorders, examination of the effects of legal intervention, systematic study of the treatment of stealing in patients with eating disorders, and longitudinal studies exploring prognostic implications of stealing behavior. PMID:9384949

  3. Treatment improves symptoms shared by PTSD and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Karen S; Wells, Stephanie Y; Mendes, Adell; Resick, Patricia A

    2012-10-01

    Eating disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are debilitating conditions that frequently co-occur. Although the two disorders have different clinical presentations, they share associated features, including cognitive disturbances, emotion dysregulation, dissociation, and impulsivity. We hypothesized that reductions in PTSD symptoms following cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and its treatment components (CPT without the written account or the written account only) would be associated with improvements in symptoms common to PTSD and eating disorders. Participants in the current investigation included women with PTSD (N = 65) who reported a history of rape or physical assault, were in a randomized dismantling study of CPT, and completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) at pre- and posttreatment. Latent growth modeling results indicated that decreases in PTSD symptom scores were significantly associated with reductions in the Impulse Regulation, Interoceptive Awareness, Interpersonal Distrust, Ineffectiveness, and Maturity Fears subscales of the EDI-2. Thus, PTSD treatment affected symptoms shared by PTSD and eating disorders. Currently, there are no clear guidelines for treatment of comorbid PTSD and eating disorders. Traditional CPT may impact symptoms common to both, but additional therapy may be needed for specific disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23073973

  4. What's eating the internet? Content and perceived harm of pro-eating disorder websites.

    PubMed

    Steakley-Freeman, Diana M; Jarvis-Creasey, Zachary L; Wesselmann, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The internet is a popular tool for information dissemination and community building, serving many purposes from social networking to support seeking. However, there may be a downside to using some online support communities. For individuals with eating disorders (EDs), it is possible that certain online communities may reinforce the negative social aspects that encourage these disorders, rather than positive aspects that would facilitate treatment and recovery. Previous research identified several linguistic themes present on pro-eating disorder websites in an attempt to better understand the web-based conversation in the pro-eating disorder movement. We hypothesized that differences in theme presentation may predict changes in perceived harm. The present study sought to understand the perceived harm, and presentation patterns of pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) website content. We replicated and extended previous research by having laypersons code these websites' content using previously identified linguistic themes and rate perceived harm. Our data replicate and extend the previous research by finding the same associations between co-occurring themes, and investigating associated perceived harm. We found that themes of Sacrifice, Control, Deceit, and Solidarity were associated with the highest perceived harm scores. In addition, we suggest an initial conceptualization of the "Eating Disorder Lifestyle", and its associations with the themes of Isolation, Success, and Solidarity. This research may provide clinicians with information to better understand the potential influence these sites have on eating disorders. PMID:26363674

  5. Family Meal Frequency among Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies on family meals and disordered eating have mainly drawn their samples from the general population. The goal of the current study is to determine family meal frequency among children and adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified (FED-NEC), and to examine if family meal frequency is associated with eating disorder psychopathology. Methods: Participants included 154 children and adolescents (M=14.92±2.62), who met criteria for AN (n=60), BN (n=32), or FED-NEC (n=62). All participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the Family Meal Questionnaire (FMQ) prior to treatment at the University of Chicago Eating Disorders Program. Results: AN and BN participants significantly differed in terms of family meal frequency. A majority of participants with AN (71.7%), compared to less than half (43.7%) of participants with BN, reported eating dinner with their family frequently (five or more times per week). Family meal frequency during dinner was significantly and negatively correlated with dietary restraints and eating concerns among participants with BN (r=-.381, r=-.366, p<.05) and FED-NEC (r=-.340, r=-.276, p<.05). Conclusions: AN patients' higher family meal frequency may beexplained bytheir parents' relatively greater vigilance over eating, whereas families of BN patients may be less aware of eating disorder behaviors and hence less insistent upon family meals. Additionally, children and adolescents with AN may be more inhibited and withdrawn, and therefore are perhaps more likely to stay at home and eat together with their families. PMID:24529833

  6. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined

  7. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  8. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not

  9. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Children and Adolescents in the Child Welfare System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Alessandrini, Marine; Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Tordjman, Sylvie; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS.All of the epidemiological surveys assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents in the CWS were included. The pooled prevalence was estimated with random effect models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression analyses.Eight studies provided prevalence estimates that were obtained from 3104 children and adolescents. Nearly 1 child or adolescent of every 2 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 43-54) was identified as meeting criteria for a current mental disorder. The most common mental disorder was disruptive disorder (27%; 95% CI 20-34), including conduct disorder (20%; 95% CI 13-27) and oppositional defiant disorder (12%; 95% CI 10-14). The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was estimated to be 11% (95% CI 6-15). The prevalence estimates of anxiety and depressive disorders were 18% (95% CI 12-24) and 11% (95% CI 7-15). Posttraumatic stress disorder had the lowest prevalence (4%; 95% CI 2-6).High prevalences of mental disorders in the CWS were reported, which highlights the need for the provision of qualified service. The substantial heterogeneity of our findings is indicative of the need for accurate epidemiological data to effectively guide public policy. PMID:26886603

  10. In Search of the Trauma Memory: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Symptom Provocation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    PubMed Central

    Sartory, Gudrun; Cwik, Jan; Knuppertz, Helge; Schrholt, Benjamin; Lebens, Morena; Seitz, Rdiger J.; Schulze, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping) were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being involved in associative learning and priming, the retrosplenial cortex may have an important function in relation to trauma memory, in particular, the intrusive reexperiencing of the traumatic event. PMID:23536785

  11. Why Do Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Co-Occur?

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Lauren O.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823

  12. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. PMID:25565909

  13. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete. PMID:25014386

  14. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Kelly C.; Crow, Scott J.; Reeves, Rebecca R.; West, Delia Smith; Foreyt, John P.; DiLillo, Vicki G.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Van Dorsten, Brent; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. Research Methods and Procedures The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone interviews were conducted using the EDE for those who reported at least eight episodes of objective binge eating in the past month and using the Night Eating Syndrome History and Interview for those who scored ?25 on the NEQ. Recruitment at four sites (Birmingham, n = 200; Houston, n = 259; Minneapolis, n = 182; and Philadelphia, n = 204) yielded 845 participants (58% women; mean age = 60.1 6.7 years; mean BMI = 36.2 6.3 kg/m2). Results Screening scores were met by 47 (5.6%) applicants on the EDE-Q and 71 (8.4%) on the NEQ. Of the 85% (40/47) who completed the EDE interview, 12 were diagnosed with BED, representing 1.4% of the total sample. Of the 72% (51/71) who completed the Night Eating Syndrome History and Interview, 32 were diagnosed with NES, equal to 3.8% of the total sample. Three participants had both BED and NES. Participants with eating disorders were younger, heavier, and reported more eating pathology than those without eating disorders. Discussion Among obese adults with type 2 diabetes, NES was reported more frequently than BED, which, in turn, was less common than expected. PMID:17495205

  15. Meta-analysis of social skills interventions of single-case research for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: results from three-level HLM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying

    2013-07-01

    This meta-analysis used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 115 single-case studies with 343 participants that examined the effectiveness of social skills interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The average effect size of the included studies was 1.40 (SD = 0.43, 95% CL = 1.32-1.48, N = 115). In the further, several common predictors including intervention length, age and gender of the participants, and study quality indicators (provision of sufficient, in-depth, and replicable information of participants, settings/materials, independent variables, and dependent variables) were not found to mediate the intervention effectiveness. Only research design that the study employed was found to impact the intervention effectiveness; the studies using multiple baseline or reversal design had larger effect sizes than studies using other designs. Implications of the results and limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:23212808

  16. Assessing motivation to change in eating disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa are often ambivalent about their eating disorder symptoms. Therefore, a lack of motivation to change is a frequent problem in the treatment of eating disorders. This is of high relevance, as a low motivation to change is a predictor of an unfavourable treatment outcome and high treatment dropout rates. In order to quantify the degree of motivation to change, valid and reliable instruments are required in research and practice. The transtheoretical model of behaviour change (TTM) offers a framework for these measurements. Objective This paper reviews existing instruments assessing motivation to change in eating disorders. Method We screened N?=?119 studies from the databases Medline and Psycinfo found by combinations of the search keywords eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, motivation, readiness to change, assessment, measurement, and questionnaire. Results Ultimately, n?=?15 studies investigating psychometric properties of different assessment tools of motivation to change in eating disorders were identified. Reviewed instruments can be divided into those assessing the stages of change according to the TTM (6 instruments) and those capturing decisional balance (3 instruments). Overall, the psychometric properties of these instruments are satisfactory to good. Discussion Advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of the reviewed assessment tools are discussed. So far, the TTM provides the only framework to assess motivation to change in eating disorders. PMID:24999416

  17. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys. PMID:19447351

  18. Interpersonal Influences on Late Adolescent Girls’ and Boys’ Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-01-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys’ and girls’ symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16–19 years of age (N = 199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents’, mothers’ and friends’ reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents’ perceptions and friends’ reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys. PMID:19447351

  19. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

  20. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Negative Affect, and Personality Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Brownstone, Lisa M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Printz, Katherine S.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study explored the clinical meaningfulness of distinguishing subjective (SBE) from objective binge eating (OBE) among individuals with threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). We examined relations between OBEs and SBEs and eating disorder symptoms, negative affect, and personality dimensions using both a group comparison and a continuous approach. Method Participants were 204 adult females meeting criteria for threshold/subthreshold BN who completed questionnaires related to disordered eating, affect, and personality. Results Group comparisons indicated that SBE and OBE groups did not significantly differ on eating disorder pathology or negative affect, but did differ on two personality dimensions (cognitive distortion and attentional impulsivity). Using the continuous approach, we found that frequencies of SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, diuretic use frequency, depressive symptoms, anxiety, social avoidance, insecure attachment, and cognitive distortion. Discussion SBEs in the context of BN may indicate broader areas of psychopathology. PMID:23109272

  1. Eating disorder examination questionnaire: norms for young adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Carter, J C; Stewart, D A; Fairburn, C G

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports young adolescent female norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The standardization sample was comprised of 808 girls aged between 12 and 14 years from three single-sex schools (one private and two state schools). Means, standard deviations and percentile ranks for raw EDE-Q subscale scores are presented. Prevalence figures for key eating disorder behaviors over the previous two weeks were as follows: 4% self-induced vomiting; 1% laxative misuse; 0.4% diuretic misuse; and 8% regular binge eating. PMID:11341255

  2. A content analysis of popular magazine articles on eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Inch, Rebecca; Merali, Noorfarah

    2006-01-01

    This study tested two hypotheses about popular magazine articles on eating disorders: (a) anorexics would be profiled more often than bulimics due to their conformity to the thin beauty ideal projected in the Western media, and (b) disordered behaviors used to achieve weight loss would be mentioned more often than their physical consequences. Forty-two popular magazine articles on eating disorders published in the last five years were coded for illness type, mention of weight loss, disordered behaviors, and health impacts. The findings confirmed both hypotheses. PMID:16777808

  3. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between anxiety and cannabis use/cannabis use disorders in the general population. Methods A total of N = 267 studies were identified from a systematic literature search (any time- March 2013) of Medline and PsycInfo databases, and a hand search. The results of 31 studies (with prospective cohort or cross-sectional designs using non-institutionalised cases) were analysed using a random-effects meta-analysis with the inverse variance weights. Lifetime or past 12-month cannabis use, anxiety symptoms, and cannabis use disorders (CUD; dependence and/or abuse/harmful use) were classified according to DSM/ICD criteria or scores on standardised scales. Results There was a small positive association between anxiety and either cannabis use (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p = .006; N = 15 studies) or CUD (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.23-2.31, p = .001; N = 13 studies), and between comorbid anxiety + depression and cannabis use (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40, p = .004; N = 5 studies). The positive associations between anxiety and cannabis use (or CUD) were present in subgroups of studies with ORs adjusted for possible confounders (substance use, psychiatric illness, demographics) and in studies with clinical diagnoses of anxiety. Cannabis use at baseline was significantly associated with anxiety at follow-up in N = 5 studies adjusted for confounders (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54, p = .01). The opposite relationship was investigated in only one study. There was little evidence for publication bias. Conclusion Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalised members of the general population of 10 countries. PMID:24884989

  4. Attachment insecurity, personality, and body dissatisfaction in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Gramaglia, Carla; Amianto, Federico; Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is assessing interactions between attachment style and personality in predicting body dissatisfaction (BD). A total of 586 outpatients with eating disorders (EDs) were recruited: 101 with anorexia nervosa, restricting type; 52 with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; 184 with bulimia nervosa, purging type; and 249 with an eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed Temperament and Character Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attachment Style Questionnaire. An insecure attachment was found in all EDs, as well as in eating disorder not otherwise specified. In all diagnostic groups, need for approval, as measured by the Attachment Style Questionnaire and depressive symptomatology, was found to be the best predictor of BD. Personality traits are weaker predictors of BD. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment insecurity is directly correlated with BD, core element in predicting and perpetuating EDs, independently of personality. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:20611057

  5. 'Healthy anorexia': The complexity of care in disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Connie; Warin, Megan; Wade, Tracey; Gilchrist, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how contemporary understandings of 'health' and 'care' are engaged with and practiced by women with disordered eating. Based on findings from an Australian study investigating why people with disordered eating are reluctant to engage with treatment services (March 2012 to March 2015), we demonstrate how young women use elements of a 'health habitus' and 'care' to rationalise and justify their practices. Moving beyond Foucauldian theories of self-discipline and individual responsibility we argue that Bourdieu's concept of habitus and ethnographic concepts of care provide a deeper understanding of the ways in which people with disordered eating embody health practices as a form of care and distinction. We demonstrate how eating and bodily practices that entail 'natural', medical and ethical concerns (in particular, the new food regime known as orthorexia) are successfully incorporated into participants' eating disorder repertoires and embodied as a logic of care. Understanding how categories of health and care are tinkered with and practiced by people with disordered eating has important implications for health professionals, family members and peers engaging with and identifying people at all stages of help-seeking. PMID:26150064

  6. Risk behaviors for eating disorders in Brazilian dancers.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L G; da Veiga, G V

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the frequency of risk behaviors for eating disorders and their association with anthropometric, demographic, and socioeconomic variables in Brazilian professional dancers. Portuguese-language versions of the Eating Attitudes Test and of the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) were applied to 39 female and 22 male dancers considered to be some of the best classical ballet performers in Brazil. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Risk behaviors for eating disorders were observed in 31% of the dancers. Those who had a percentage of body fat above (PR=4.04; 95% CI=1.42-11.47) or below (PR=3.57; 95% CI=1.04-12.24) what is considered normal for the profession, and those who lived alone (PR=3.13; 95% CI=1.16-8.48) presented higher risk for eating disorders. In conclusion, the frequency of risk behaviors for eating disorders among the Brazilian dancers was high, which seems to be associated with the physical requirements of the profession. Those who are outside the BF% expected for dancers and those who live alone are the groups most vulnerable to developing eating disorders, and thus are the ones which are most in need of receiving special attention in regard to the intervention measures. PMID:20148375

  7. Integrating messages from the eating disorders field into obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    Weight-related problems, including unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating, overweight and obesity, and eating disorders, are prevalent in youth. Furthermore, many young people exhibit more than one of these problems. Therefore, it is essential to consider how to simultaneously work toward the prevention of a broad range of weight-related problems in youth. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, weight talk, and weight-related teasing are commonly addressed risk factors within eating disorder prevention interventions, whereas low levels of physical activity and high intakes of foods high in fat and sugar are commonly addressed within interventions aimed at obesity prevention. Empirical data to be presented in this article demonstrate why risk factors such as dieting and body dissatisfaction, which are typically addressed within the eating disorder field, need to also be addressed within the obesity field. Although dieting and body dissatisfaction strongly predict weight gain over time, these findings are not always taken into account in the design of obesity interventions for youth. Possible reasons as to why risk factors such as dieting, body dissatisfaction, and weight stigmatization may be not adequately addressed within interventions addressing obesity are discussed. Suggestions for how physicians and other nonphysician clinicians might link messages from the fields of both eating disorders and obesity into their work with youth are provided. Finally, the potential for work on mindfulness and yoga to decrease risk factors for both eating disorders and obesity are explored. PMID:23437686

  8. The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the γ-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors. PMID:22524510

  9. Shared and unique mechanisms underlying binge eating disorder and addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Erica M; Grilo, Carlos M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-03-01

    Scientific interest in "food addiction" is growing, but the topic remains controversial. One critique of "food addiction" is its high degree of phenotypic overlap with binge eating disorder (BED). In order to examine associations between problematic eating behaviors, such as binge eating and "food addiction," we propose the need to move past examining similarities and differences in symptomology. Instead, focusing on relevant mechanisms may more effectively determine whether "food addiction" contributes to disordered eating behavior for some individuals. This paper reviews the evidence for mechanisms that are shared (i.e., reward dysfunction, impulsivity) and unique for addiction (i.e., withdrawal, tolerance) and eating disorder (i.e., dietary restraint, shape/weight concern) frameworks. This review will provide a guiding framework to outline future areas of research needed to evaluate the validity of the "food addiction" model and to understand its potential contribution to disordered eating. PMID:26879210

  10. The relationship between eating disorder symptoms and obsessive compulsive disorder in primigravida women

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi; Modares-Gharavi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating Disorder Symptoms are among the most common disorders in perinatal period and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors such as anxiety disorders. So, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive disorder in primigravida women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 213 in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers, selected through a two stage sampling method (cluster-convenience) in Mashhad in 2013. Demographic and prenatal characteristics Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q)(26Q) and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire (30Q) were completed by the subjects. The statistical analysis was performed with various statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, one-way ANOVA and linear regression. Significance level was considered as P < 0.05. Results: Based on the findings 94.6% of the subjects had Obsessive Compulsive disorder, and 18% had Eating Disorder Symptoms. In addition, there was a poor positive correlation between the rate of Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive. Conclusions: There was a correlation between the Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive in pregnant women. It is recommended to eliminate or decrease Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive among Iranian pregnant women through preventive measures. PMID:26793246

  11. The efficacy and safety of 10 mg vortioxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangjian; Wang, Xu; Ma, Dihui

    2016-01-01

    Background Vortioxetine is an investigational multimodal antidepressant. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of 10 mg vortioxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically reviewed to assess the treatment effects and safety profiles of patients with MDD who were treated with 10 mg vortioxetine. The outcome measures included response rate, remission rate, changes from baseline in Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (24-items) (HAM-D24), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores. Results were expressed with risk ratio or weighted mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. Pooled results were calculated using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model according to the heterogeneity among included trials. Results Six RCTs with a total of 1,801 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The 10 mg vortioxetine dose significantly increased the response rate and remission rate in the treatment of MDD compared with placebo. Moreover, there was a statistically significant reduction from baseline in the MADRS, HAM-D24, CGI-S, and CGI-I scores with 10 mg vortioxetine vs placebo. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and hyperhidrosis was higher in the 10 mg vortioxetine group than in the placebo group. Conclusion Vortioxetine 10 mg can significantly increase the response rate and remission rate, and reduce the MADRS, HAM-D24, CGI-S, and CGI-I scores in patients with MDD with an acceptable risk of treatment-emergent adverse events. Further well-conducted, large-scale trials are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27013879

  12. Suicide related events and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treatments in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of atomoxetine and methylphenidate comparator clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is becoming an increasingly commonly diagnosed and treated childhood illness. Untreated ADHD is recognised as an independent risk factor for suicide-related events and deliberate self-harm and is reported more commonly in these populations. With the treatment of ADHD it is thus crucial to understand further any associations between pharmacological treatments and suicide-related events. Specific data for suicide-related events with stimulants have not been publically reported. Suicidal tendencies are, however, a contraindication to the treatment of patients with methylphenidate. Clinicians and patients may be helped by a meta-analytic comparison of suicide-related events in comparative randomised double-blind atomoxetine and methylphenidate clinical trials. Methods Suicide-related events retrospectively mapped to the suicide-related event assessment instrument recommended by the FDA, the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment (C-CASA), were evaluated in five double-blind placebo controlled comparative studies of atomoxetine and methylphenidate (n?=?1024) of 6 to 9weeks duration. The Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio and Mantel-Haenszel incidence differences have been calculated. Results In total there were 5 suicide-related events, atomoxetine (ATX) 3/559 and methylphenidate (MPH) 2/465. There were no suicide attempts nor completed suicides. Meta-analysis finds no difference of a difference in risk between ATX and MPH with a Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio of 0.52 (95% CI; 0.06, 4.54). Conclusion In the only reported meta-analysis of comparative suicide-related events between atomoxetine and methylphenidate, no significant evidence of a difference in risk has been found. These data may be informative to clinicians and patients when developing clinical guidelines. PMID:23777626

  13. Eating disorder symptoms among Japanese female students in 1982, 1992 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Nin, Kazuko; Noma, Shunichi

    2014-09-30

    To study transcultural differences in eating disorders, we examined eating disorder symptoms and point prevalence of eating disorders among Japanese female students in 1982, 1992 and 2002. In 1982, 1992 and 2002, a total of 10,499 Japanese female students, aged 16-23 years, were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Diagnosis of an eating disorder was made on the basis of DSM-IV criteria. On almost all measures, there were significant increases of a disordered attitude about fear of gaining weight, body perception disturbance and problematic eating behaviors over time. The point prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified significantly increased over time. These results suggest that the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms and the point prevalence of eating disorders were increasing among Japanese female students in 2002. Changing socio-cultural factors in Japan may explain the dramatic increase of eating disorders over time. PMID:24889844

  14. Eating disorders: the current status of molecular genetic research

    PubMed Central

    Scherag, Susann; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders characterized by disordered eating behavior where the patients attitude towards weight and shape, as well as their perception of body shape, are disturbed. Formal genetic studies on twins and families suggested a substantial genetic influence for AN and BN. Candidate gene studies have initially focused on the serotonergic and other central neurotransmitter systems and on genes involved in body weight regulation. Hardly any of the positive findings achieved in these studies were unequivocally confirmed or substantiated in meta-analyses. This might be due to too small sample sizes and thus low power and/or the genes underlying eating disorders have not yet been analyzed. However, some studies that also used subphenotypes (e.g., restricting type of AN) led to more specific results; however, confirmation is as yet mostly lacking. Systematic genome-wide linkage scans based on families with at least two individuals with an eating disorder (AN or BN) revealed initial linkage regions on chromosomes 1, 3 and 4 (AN) and 10p (BN). Analyses on candidate genes in the chromosome 1 linkage region led to the (as yet unconfirmed) identification of certain variants associated with AN. Genome-wide association studies are under way and will presumably help to identify genes and pathways involved in these eating disorders. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying eating disorders might improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:20033240

  15. [The communicating body--eating disorders and culture].

    PubMed

    Skrderud, Finn

    2004-09-23

    What is "culture" in eating disorders as culture-bound syndromes? The human body is a flesh-and-blood entity, but it also functions as a symbolic instrument. The body communicates about culture itself, about norms and boundaries. In this paper one central aspect in the phenomenology of eating disorders is emphasised: The subjective experience of lack of control and the sense of an overwhelming "chaos", both on the inner and outer level. On this basis rapid societal transitions are discussed as specific pathogenic factors. Sociocultural instability represents insecure conditions for construction of a healthy and stable identity. "The open body" is a relevant metaphor, with its dialectical relationship to the isolation and delimitation represented by eating disordered behaviour. With reference to history and geography the paper also discusses the pathoplasticity of eating disorders; how they change in time and space. Cultural analysis of eating disorders can contribute to a richer understanding of the complexity of the construction of meaning in these disorders, both across cultures and within our own cultural contexts. PMID:15467802

  16. Disordered eating in women: implications for the obesity pandemic.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Christie S; Mihalynuk, Tanis V

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Western society emphasizes thinness for women, and the ideal female body size has become progressively smaller over the past half century. Meanwhile, the actual female body size has increased steadily, and rates of aberrant attitudes and behaviours surrounding food and weight have risen and tend to be much more common in overweight individuals. Thus disordered eating and excess body weight may perpetuate each other's development. We have synthesized the literature concerning female body size and disordered eating within a sociocultural context. Eight cognitions and behaviours that occur in women were examined: media exposure, weight stereotypes, body dissatisfaction, dieting, "fat talk," emotional eating, perfectionism, and the "superwoman" ideal. The research literature suggests that these factors may play a role in both disordered eating and obesity. Furthermore, these factors may induce triggers, exacerbated by perfectionism and excess weight, that increase the risk of binge eating. These triggers include interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. Comprehensive interventions targeting the indicated sociocultural cognitions and behaviours, combined with healthy living education, may be the most effective strategy for reducing the prevalence of disordered eating and obesity among females. PMID:21382233

  17. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    PubMed Central

    Loas, Gwenole

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: schizophrenia in association with eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or night eating syndrome. Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care. PMID:25485152

  18. Eating patterns and breakfast consumption in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2006-11-01

    This study examined eating patterns and breakfast consumption, and their relationships to weight and binge eating, in obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). One-hundred seventy-three consecutively evaluated men (n=46) and women (n=127) with BED were administered semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess the frequency of meals and snacks eaten, as well as binge eating and eating disorder features. Overall, those who consumed more frequent meals, particularly breakfast, and snacks, weighed less. Breakfast, which was eaten on a daily basis by less than half of participants (n=74; 43%), was the least frequently eaten meal of the day. Participants (n=56; 32%) who ate three meals per day weighed significantly less, and had significantly fewer binges, than participants (n=117; 68%) who did not regularly eat three meals per day. Thus, eating more frequently, having breakfast and consuming three meals every day, have potentially important clinical applications for the treatment of BED given that the effectiveness of specific interventions within treatments for BED are unknown, and that weight loss outcome for BED has been poor. PMID:16376851

  19. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases through February 2011. Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction. A random-effects meta-analytic model generated summary effect sizes. Results Restriction diets reduced ADHD symptoms at an effect of g = 0.29 (95% CI, 0.07–0.53). For food colors, parent reports yielded an effect size of g = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24; p = .0007), which decreased to 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01–0.23; p < .05) after adjustment for possible publication bias. The effect was reliable in studies restricted to food color additives (g = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.36) but did not survive correction for possible publication bias and was not reliable in studies confined to Food and Drug Administration–approved food colors. Teacher/observer reports yielded a nonsignificant effect of 0.07 (95% CI = −0.03 to 0.18; p = .14). However, high-quality studies confined to color additives yielded a reliable effect (g = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.10–0.41, p = .030) that survived correction. In psychometric tests of attention, the summary effect size was 0.27 (95% CI = 0.07–0.47; p = .007) and survived correction. An estimated 8% of children with ADHD may have symptoms related to synthetic food colors. Conclusions A restriction diet benefits some children with ADHD. Effects of food colors were notable were but susceptible to publication bias or were derived from small, nongeneralizable samples. Renewed investigation of diet and ADHD is warranted. PMID:22176942

  20. Eating Disorders: About More Than Food

    MedlinePLUS

    ... still need answers. Researchers are studying questions about behavior, genetics, and brain function to better understand risk factors, ... target areas in the brain that control eating behavior. Brain imaging and genetic studies may provide clues for how each person ...