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1

The Relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and Officially Recognized Eating Disorders: Meta-Analysis and Implications for DSM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),…

Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2009-01-01

2

A systematic review and meta-analysis of 'Systems for Social Processes' in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Social and emotional problems have been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (ED). This paper reviews the facets of social processing in ED according to the NIMH Research and Domain Criteria (NIMH RDoC) 'Systems for Social Processes' framework. Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles published by March 2013. One-hundred and fifty four studies measuring constructs of: attachment, social communication, perception and understanding of self and others, and social dominance in people with ED, were identified. Eleven meta-analyses were performed, they showed evidence that people with ED had attachment insecurity (d=1.31), perceived low parental care (d=.51), appraised high parental overprotection (d=0.29), impaired facial emotion recognition (d=.44) and facial communication (d=2.10), increased facial avoidance (d=.52), reduced agency (d=.39), negative self-evaluation (d=2.27), alexithymia (d=.66), poor understanding of mental states (d=1.07) and sensitivity to social dominance (d=1.08). There is less evidence for problems with production and reception of non-facial communication, animacy and action. PMID:24333650

Caglar-Nazali, H Pinar; Corfield, Freya; Cardi, Valentina; Ambwani, Suman; Leppanen, Jenni; Olabintan, Olaolu; Deriziotis, Stephanie; Hadjimichalis, Alexandra; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

2014-05-01

3

Specificity of psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder? A meta-analysis of direct comparisons.  

PubMed

Treatment guidelines state that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy are the best-supported psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa (BN) and that CBT is the preferred psychological treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). However, no meta-analysis which both examined direct comparisons between psychological treatments for BN and BED and considered the role of moderating variables, such as the degree to which psychotherapy was bona fide, has previously been conducted Thus, such an analysis was undertaken. We included 77 comparisons reported in 53 studies. The results indicated that: (a) bona fide therapies outperformed non-bona fide treatments, (b) bona fide CBT outperformed bona fide non-CBT interventions by a statistically significant margin (only approaching statistical significance for BN and BED when examined individually), but many of these trials had confounds which limited their internal validity, (c) full CBT treatments offered no benefit over their components, and (d) the distribution of effect size differences between bona fide CBT treatments was homogeneously distributed around zero. These findings provide little support for treatment specificity in psychotherapy for BN and BED. PMID:23454220

Spielmans, Glen I; Benish, Steven G; Marin, Catherine; Bowman, Wesley M; Menster, Maria; Wheeler, Anthony J

2013-04-01

4

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

What are Eating Disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely ... participants with eating disorders . Share Science News About Eating Disorders 9 Eating Disorders Myths Busted Biology, Not Just ...

5

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

6

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa , bulimia nervosa , and binge eating disorder . People with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa tend ... kidney problems • Severe dehydration from purging of fluids Binge Eating Disorder Presently, the criteria for binge eating disorder are ...

7

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... normal weight or can be overweight. Continue Binge Eating Disorder This eating disorder is similar to anorexia and ... and celebrations involving food Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? No one is really sure what causes eating ...

8

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Order a free hardcopy En Español What are eating disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes ... population. 5 What are the different types of eating disorders? Anorexia nervosa Anorexia nervosa is characterized by: Extreme ...

9

Eating Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

10

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

11

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

12

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eating disorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders\\u000a as one of the nine

Rita DeBate; Heather Blunt; Marion Ann Becker

13

Eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

Konti?, Olga; Vasiljevi?, Nadja; Trisovi?, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Laki?, Aneta; Gasi?, Miroslava Jasovi?

2012-01-01

14

Eating disorders.  

PubMed

The main forms of eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia nervosa and obesity. The clinical features, aetiology, treatment and prognosis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa are described to highlight the similarities and differences between these two conditions. Both conditions affect predominantly the young female population with body image disturbance as one of the core symptoms. Whilst the body weight of anorexics are by definition low, most bulimics have normal or near normal body weight. Sufferers of anorexia nervosa tend to deny their illness while those with bulimia are often miserable and acutely aware of their eating difficulties. The aetiological factors in both conditions overlap to a large extent. The outcome of treatment for bulimia is reportedly better than that of anorexia nervosa. Obese people often become depressed and anxious as a result of low self-esteem causing them to seek psychiatric treatment. The severely obese who are placed on very low calorie diets may develop adverse emotional disturbances whilst weight gain may follow a major depressive illness or develop as a side effect of psychotropic medications. A subgroup of the obese population engage in frequent binge eating and preliminary criteria are being developed for this condition called "binge eating disorder". Behaviour therapy is the treatment of choice for obesity. Other forms of treatment include individual and group psychotherapy, use of appetite suppressants and in the severely obese, surgical methods. PMID:7761892

Low, B L

1994-12-01

15

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... to overeat. Continue How It Differs From Other Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are all considered eating disorders because they involve unhealthy patterns of eating. Both ...

16

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... files require the free Adobe Acrobat Reader Binge Eating Disorder How common is binge eating disorder? How do ... how to get help. How common is binge eating disorder? What is obesity? Obesity is usually defined as ...

17

Kids and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... withdrawing from social activities Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ... own appearance or body. Can Somebody Catch an Eating Disorder? You can't catch an eating disorder from ...

18

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Publications > Our publications > Our publications Publications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

19

The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

Pole, Nnamdi

2007-01-01

20

African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

O'Neill, Shannon K.

2003-01-01

21

Males and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

22

Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

2009-01-01

23

Eating disorders in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND The overall prevalence of eating disorders among children and adolescents is rising - the younger age group are more likely to present with anorexia nervosa (AN), while the older adolescent can present with either AN or bulimia nervosa (BN). However, eating disorders exist as part of a spectrum and general practitioners will encounter many adolescents that have an eating

Aranzazu Gonzalez; Michael R Kohn

24

Atypical eating disorders.  

PubMed

Some patients with eating disorders have neither anorexia nervosa (A.N.) nor bulimia. Cases which do not rigorously meet the DSM-III-R criteria for anorexia nervosa or for bulimia are usually defined as "eating disorders N.O.S." Among them are patients with pathological characteristics very closely related to the above-mentioned categories. Others, however, although affected by an eating disorder, present a quite different clinical picture from either A.N. or bulimia. In a study of 80 eating disorder cases, only 45 met the strict definition of A.N. or bulimia. The other 35 were diagnosed as atypical eating disorders and are the focus of this presentation. 29 were classified as Eating Disorders N.O.S. and 6 as obesity. Co-morbidity, gender and age data, and clinical vignettes are presented. PMID:1390797

Mitrany, E

1992-07-01

25

Boys with Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

Hatmaker, Grace

2005-01-01

26

Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

2001-01-01

27

Femininity and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine conformity to traditional feminine norms as a predictor of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology. Eight subscales of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI) were examined as predictors of ED symptomatology as assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Findings indicate the Thinness subscale of the CFNI predicted significant portions of the variance

Melinda A. Green; Christopher M. Davids; Anna K. Skaggs; Cori M. Riopel; Jada J. Hallengren

2008-01-01

28

Psychobiology of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. The goal of this review is to highlight advances in research on the psychobiology of eating disorders during the period 2005- 2006. Summary of recent findings. Studies on the function of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in eating disorders have demonstrated the presence of state- and trait-related alterations and their associations with behavioral and comorbid characteristics.

Angela Favaro; Palmiero Monteleone; Paolo Santonastaso; Mario Maj

29

Preadolescent Disordered Eating Predicts Subsequent Eating Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Objective?This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children.?Method?Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade).?Results?A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls.?Conclusion?A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade.

Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

2013-01-01

30

[Heterogeneity of eating disorders].  

PubMed

This paper revises the literature which has attempted to define subgroups within the umbrella category of eating disorders, taking into account the heterogeneity of the clinical picture regarding personality structure, its linkage to eating behavior disorders, and differences in emotional expression. Research conducted over the last few years, in light of the new definition of these disorders proposed by DSM IIR, reinforces the differences between patients following a restrictive pattern and patients with bulimic episodes. PMID:8213286

Ayuso Mateos, J L

1993-01-01

31

Meta-analysis of anxiety disorders and temperament.  

PubMed

Background: The aims of the present study were to explore whether symptoms in different anxiety disorders are associated with Cloninger's model temperament dimensions novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence and persistence compared with control subjects in clinical samples of adults or late adolescents. Method: Literature search in the following databases: Cochrane Library, PubMed (Medline), Web of Science, Psycinfo and PsycArticles. Systematic review, grading the level of evidence and meta-analysis for each disorder by comparing the temperament dimension scores between patient and control samples in single studies. Results: A total of 40 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were conducted on a total of 24 studies focusing on panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The primary finding was a constant and clinically marked positive association between the HA temperament dimension and symptoms of PD, SAD and OCD, with a most marked effect in SAD, and a moderate effect in OCD and PD. Second, less marked and clinically marginal associations between NS score and SAD and OCD (negative associations), but no associations with PD were observed. The meta-analyses revealed heterogeneity between the results of individual studies, especially in the analyses including SAD and OCD. Conclusions: PD, SAD and OCD share a marked and state-dependent avoidant behavioral pattern, which is common for all anxiety disorders. However, PD showed a different pattern of arousal to novel stimuli from that of SAD and OCD. The findings are state dependent and based on cross-sectional studies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24852727

Kampman, Olli; Viikki, Merja; Järventausta, Kaija; Leinonen, Esa

2014-01-01

32

Domestic Violence and Perinatal Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048). Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013), hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis. Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.6). Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eating disorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality. Conclusions High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly associated with having experienced domestic violence. High-quality evidence is now needed on how maternity and mental health services should address domestic violence and improve health outcomes for women and their infants in the perinatal period. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Howard, Louise M.; Oram, Sian; Galley, Helen; Trevillion, Kylee; Feder, Gene

2013-01-01

33

Identification of Pathways for Bipolar Disorder: A Meta-analysis.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Genome-wide investigations provide systematic information regarding the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE To identify biological pathways that contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP) using genes with consistent evidence for association in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS). DATA SOURCES Four independent data sets with individual genome-wide data available in July 2011 along with all data sets contributed to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Group by May 2012. A prior meta-analysis was used as a source for brain gene expression data. STUDY SELECTION The 4 published GWAS were included in the initial sample. All independent BP data sets providing genome-wide data in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were included as a replication sample. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS We identified 966 genes that contained 2 or more variants associated with BP at P?meta-analysis of gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Empirically significant genes and biological pathways. RESULTS Among 966 genes, 226 were empirically significant (P?

Nurnberger, John I; Koller, Daniel L; Jung, Jeesun; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Guella, Ilaria; Vawter, Marquis P; Kelsoe, John R

2014-06-01

34

Ghrelin and Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders.

Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

2012-01-01

35

Ghrelin and eating disorders.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

2013-01-10

36

[Sleep related eating disorder].  

PubMed

Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

2010-01-01

37

Electroencephalography in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images).

Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

38

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

Ray, Shannon L.

2004-01-01

39

Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

2005-01-01

40

A meta-analysis of the use of typical antipsychotic agents in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The potential benefits of typical antipsychotic agents in bipolar disorder are offset by serious treatment-associated side effects. Despite these concerns and the availability of mood stabilizing agents, the treatment of bipolar disorder with typical antipsychotic agents appears to be widespread. Methods: A Medline search identified 16 publications that outlined medication use among 2378 bipolar disorder patients. Meta-analysis was used

Mauricio Tohen; Fan Zhang; Cindy C Taylor; Patrick Burns; Carlos Zarate; Todd Sanger; Gary Tollefson

2001-01-01

41

Subclassifications in Eating Disorders Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine differences between eating disorder subgroups, including obese patients, in a large Italian sample seen at a specialist clinic. All patients (n = 263) who consecutively contacted the University Eating Disorder Outpatient Clinic of Padua were divided into subgroups according to the literature. Different subgroups were compared according to clinical features, SCL-90, EAT

Angela Favaro; Chiara Olivotto; Maurizio Zambenedetti; Tiziana Pavan; Paolo Santonastaso

1996-01-01

42

A meta-analysis of treatment outcome for panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effectiveness of pharmacological, cognitive-behavioral, and combined pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments in a meta-analysis of 43 controlled studies that included 76 treatment interventions. Cognitive-behavioral treatments yielded the highest mean effect sizes (ES = 0.68) relative to pharmacological (ES = 0.47) and combination treatments (ES = 0.56). In addition, the proportion of subjects who dropped out of cognitive-behavioral treatments

Robert A. Gould; Michael W. Ott; Mark H. Pollack

1995-01-01

43

A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

2012-01-01

44

[Eating disorders and drug addiction].  

PubMed

The link between drug addiction and eating disorders is often noted in clinical practice and in the literature. This may be due to their phenomenological, structural and systemic manifestations. In this paper, we shall underline these numerous links as well as their impact on the treatment of eating disorders. Addictive behaviour has long been well defined by clinicians and offers a model of understanding the underlying mechanisms of eating disorders without, however, identifying them with addiction. Eating disorders as well as addictions are multifactorial disorders implying different vulnerability traits, involving biological, psychological, familial and sociological factors. Their management therefore requires a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:23888585

Fuchs, S; Geronooz, I; Cleinge, L; Mezzena, K

2013-01-01

45

[Cognitive function in eating disorders].  

PubMed

Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

Okamoto, Yuri

2014-04-01

46

Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder.

Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J

2012-01-01

47

Males and Eating Disorders: Gender-Based Therapy for Eating Disorder Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health professionals may wonder how males with eating disorders differ from females with eating disorders and how best to treat males with eating disorders. The eating disorder literature largely focuses on females. Limited research has examined assessment and treatment of eating disorders in males. This article offers a unique view of eating disorder treatment for males by integrating it

Stefanie Teri Greenberg; Eva G. Schoen

2008-01-01

48

Prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of epidemiological studies lies in recognition of cases that do not come to treatment settings. The increasing focus on child adolescent mental health in India points to the necessity of epidemiological studies on children. Although there are a few such studies done in different parts of India in different socio-cultural settings, data from those cannot be generalized to the entire country. This need can be served by meta-analysis. There has been no meta-analysis reported from India for the child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology. Aim To review and do the meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on child and adolescent psychiatric disorder from India. Methods Sixteen community based studies on 14594 children and adolescents; and seven school based studies on 5687 children and adolescents, reporting prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder were analyzed and overall prevalence was calculated. Results The prevalence rate of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in the community has been found to be 6.46% (95% confidence interval 6.08% - 6.88%) and in the school it has been found to be 23.33% (95% confidence interval 22.25% - 24.45%). Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis determining the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India. It has been found that the reporting systems of psychiatric disorders in children are inadequate.

2014-01-01

49

The Use of Exogenous Melatonin in Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder: A Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To perform a meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in advancing sleep-wake rhythm in patients with delayed sleep phase disorder. Design: Meta analysis of papers indexed for PubMed, Embase, and the abstracts of sleep and chronobiologic societies (1990–2009). Patients: Individuals with delayed sleep phase disorder. Interventions: Administration of melatonin. Measurements and Results: A meta-analysis of data of randomized controlled trials involving individuals with delayed sleep phase disorder that were published in English, compared melatonin with placebo, and reported 1 or more of the following: endogenous melatonin onset, clock hour of sleep onset, wake-up time, sleep-onset latency, and total sleep time. The 5 trials including 91 adults and 4 trials including 226 children showed that melatonin treatment advanced mean endogenous melatonin onset by 1.18 hours (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89–1.48 h) and clock hour of sleep onset by 0.67 hours (95% CI: 0.45–0.89 h). Melatonin decreased sleep-onset latency by 23.27 minutes (95% CI: 4.83 –41.72 min). The wake-up time and total sleep time did not change significantly. Conclusions: Melatonin is effective in advancing sleep-wake rhythm and endogenous melatonin rhythm in delayed sleep phase disorder. Citation: van Geijlswijk IM; Korzilius HPLM; Smits MG. The use of exogenous melatonin in delayed sleep phase disorder: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1605-1614.

van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Smits, Marcel G.

2010-01-01

50

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

2008-01-01

51

The Effectiveness of Treatment for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the number of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome.…

Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Whiteside, Sephen P.; Deacon, Brett J.

2005-01-01

52

Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Treatment Trials for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis on randomized, controlled treatment trials of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Studies were included if they employed randomized, controlled methodology and treated young people (19 years or under) with OCD. A comprehensive literature search identified 13 RCTs containing 10…

Watson, Hunna J.; Rees, Clare S.

2008-01-01

53

Innovative Technology-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided…

Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

2014-01-01

54

Anger, Hostility, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis synthesizes the available data on the strength of association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between hostility and PTSD, covering 39 studies with trauma-exposed adults. Effect sizes did not differ for anger and hostility, which could therefore be combined; effect sizes for anger expression variables…

Orth, Ulrich; Wieland, Elias

2006-01-01

55

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Intimate Relationship Problems: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…

Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.

2011-01-01

56

Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

2007-01-01

57

Sociocultural influences on eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews articles published in 2005 and 2006 on the influence of culture, ethnicity and gender on eating disorders. Specific social environmental factors, including media portrayals of body ideals and peer and family environment, are also reviewed. Summary of recent findings. Certain non-Western values may increase the risk of eating disorders. Ethnicity and gender may moderate

Pamela K Keel; Julie A Gravener

58

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep disordered breathing in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children and adolescents has been suggested by some authors. Yet, this topic remains highly controversial in the literature. A meta-analysis was conducted in order to examine the extent of relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in pediatric populations and whether there are differences in ADHD symptoms pre- versus post-adenotonsillectomy in pediatric populations. PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo and Cochrane databases were searched using the key words "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" or "ADHD" and "obstructive sleep apnea" or "OSA" or "sleep disordered breathing" (SDB) or "SDB". English language publications through September 2012 were surveyed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in the first part of the study, and the extent of change in ADHD symptoms before and after adenotonsillectomy in the second part. Eighteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for the first part of the study. This represented 1113 children in the clinical group (874 diagnosed with SDB who were examined for ADHD symptoms; 239 diagnosed with ADHD who were examined for SDB) and 1405 in the control-group. Findings indicate that there is a medium relationship between ADHD symptoms and SDB (Hedges' g = 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.36-0.78; p = 0.000001). A high apnea hypopnea index (AHI) cutoff was associated with lower effect sizes, while child age, gender and body mass index did not moderate the relationship between SDB and ADHD. Study quality was associated with larger effect sizes. In the second part of the study, twelve studies were identified assessing pre- versus post-surgery ADHD symptoms. Hedges' g was 0.43 (95% confidence interval = 0.30-0.55; p < 0.001; N = 529) suggesting a medium effect, as adenotonsillectomy was associated with decreased ADHD symptoms at 2-13 months post-surgery. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that ADHD symptoms are related to SDB and improve after adenotonsillectomy. Therefore, patients with ADHD symptomatology should receive SDB screening. Treatment of comorbid SDB should be considered before medicating the ADHD symptoms if present. PMID:24581717

Sedky, Karim; Bennett, David S; Carvalho, Karen S

2014-08-01

59

Genome Scan Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Part III: Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Genome scans of bipolar disorder (BPD) have not produced consistent evidence for linkage. The rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method was applied to 18 BPD genome scan data sets in an effort to identify regions with significant support for linkage in the combined data. The two primary analyses considered available linkage data for “very narrow” (i.e., BP-I and schizoaffective disorder–BP) and “narrow” (i.e., adding BP-II disorder) disease models, with the ranks weighted for sample size. A “broad” model (i.e., adding recurrent major depression) and unweighted analyses were also performed. No region achieved genomewide statistical significance by several simulation-based criteria. The most significant P values (<.01) were observed on chromosomes 9p22.3-21.1 (very narrow), 10q11.21-22.1 (very narrow), and 14q24.1-32.12 (narrow). Nominally significant P values were observed in adjacent bins on chromosomes 9p and 18p-q, across all three disease models on chromosomes 14q and 18p-q, and across two models on chromosome 8q. Relatively few BPD pedigrees have been studied under narrow disease models relative to the schizophrenia GSMA data set, which produced more significant results. There was no overlap of the highest-ranked regions for the two disorders. The present results for the very narrow model are promising but suggest that more and larger data sets are needed. Alternatively, linkage might be detected in certain populations or subsets of pedigrees. The narrow and broad data sets had considerable power, according to simulation studies, but did not produce more highly significant evidence for linkage. We note that meta-analysis can sometimes provide support for linkage but cannot disprove linkage in any candidate region.

Segurado, Ricardo; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Gill, Michael; Nurnberger, Jr., John I.; Craddock, Nick; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Baron, Miron; Gershon, Elliot S.; Ekholm, Jenny; Cichon, Sven; Turecki, Gustavo; Claes, Stephan; Kelsoe, John R.; Schofield, Peter R.; Badenhop, Renee F.; Morissette, J.; Coon, Hilary; Blackwood, Douglas; McInnes, L. Alison; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J.; Reich, Theodore; Rice, John P.; Goate, Alison; McInnis, Melvin G.; McMahon, Francis J.; Badner, Judith A.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Bennett, Phil; Willour, Virginia L.; Zandi, Peter P.; Liu, Jianjun; Gilliam, Conrad; Juo, Suh-Hang; Berrettini, Wade H.; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Peltonen, Leena; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Nothen, Markus M.; Schumacher, Johannes; Windemuth, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Propping, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Alda, Martin; Grof, Paul; Rouleau, Guy A.; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Mendlewicz, Julien; Adolfsson, Rolf; Spence, M. Anne; Luebbert, Hermann; Adams, Linda J.; Donald, Jennifer A.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Barden, Nicholas; Shink, Eric; Byerley, William; Muir, Walter; Visscher, Peter M.; Macgregor, Stuart; Gurling, Hugh; Kalsi, Gursharan; McQuillin, Andrew; Escamilla, Michael A.; Reus, Victor I.; Leon, Pedro; Freimer, Nelson B.; Ewald, Henrik; Kruse, Torben A.; Mors, Ole; Radhakrishna, Uppala; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Akarsu, Nurten

2003-01-01

60

Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part III: Bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Genome scans of bipolar disorder (BPD) have not produced consistent evidence for linkage. The rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method was applied to 18 BPD genome scan data sets in an effort to identify regions with significant support for linkage in the combined data. The two primary analyses considered available linkage data for "very narrow" (i.e., BP-I and schizoaffective disorder-BP) and "narrow" (i.e., adding BP-II disorder) disease models, with the ranks weighted for sample size. A "broad" model (i.e., adding recurrent major depression) and unweighted analyses were also performed. No region achieved genomewide statistical significance by several simulation-based criteria. The most significant P values (<.01) were observed on chromosomes 9p22.3-21.1 (very narrow), 10q11.21-22.1 (very narrow), and 14q24.1-32.12 (narrow). Nominally significant P values were observed in adjacent bins on chromosomes 9p and 18p-q, across all three disease models on chromosomes 14q and 18p-q, and across two models on chromosome 8q. Relatively few BPD pedigrees have been studied under narrow disease models relative to the schizophrenia GSMA data set, which produced more significant results. There was no overlap of the highest-ranked regions for the two disorders. The present results for the very narrow model are promising but suggest that more and larger data sets are needed. Alternatively, linkage might be detected in certain populations or subsets of pedigrees. The narrow and broad data sets had considerable power, according to simulation studies, but did not produce more highly significant evidence for linkage. We note that meta-analysis can sometimes provide support for linkage but cannot disprove linkage in any candidate region. PMID:12802785

Segurado, Ricardo; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D; Levinson, Douglas F; Lewis, Cathryn M; Gill, Michael; Nurnberger, John I; Craddock, Nick; DePaulo, J Raymond; Baron, Miron; Gershon, Elliot S; Ekholm, Jenny; Cichon, Sven; Turecki, Gustavo; Claes, Stephan; Kelsoe, John R; Schofield, Peter R; Badenhop, Renee F; Morissette, J; Coon, Hilary; Blackwood, Douglas; McInnes, L Alison; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Reich, Theodore; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison; McInnis, Melvin G; McMahon, Francis J; Badner, Judith A; Goldin, Lynn R; Bennett, Phil; Willour, Virginia L; Zandi, Peter P; Liu, Jianjun; Gilliam, Conrad; Juo, Suh-Hang; Berrettini, Wade H; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Peltonen, Leena; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Nöthen, Markus M; Schumacher, Johannes; Windemuth, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Propping, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Alda, Martin; Grof, Paul; Rouleau, Guy A; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Mendlewicz, Julien; Adolfsson, Rolf; Spence, M Anne; Luebbert, Hermann; Adams, Linda J; Donald, Jennifer A; Mitchell, Philip B; Barden, Nicholas; Shink, Eric; Byerley, William; Muir, Walter; Visscher, Peter M; Macgregor, Stuart; Gurling, Hugh; Kalsi, Gursharan; McQuillin, Andrew; Escamilla, Michael A; Reus, Victor I; Leon, Pedro; Freimer, Nelson B; Ewald, Henrik; Kruse, Torben A; Mors, Ole; Radhakrishna, Uppala; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Akarsu, Nurten

2003-07-01

61

Sudden death in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.

Jauregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

62

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

PubMed Central

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produced 36 EMA studies with N = 968 participants (89% Caucasian women). Meta-analyses examined changes in affect before and after binge eating using within-subjects standardized mean gain effect sizes (ES). Results supported greater NA preceding binge eating relative to average affect (ES = .63) and affect before regular eating (ES = .68). However, NA increased further following binge episodes (ES = .50). Preliminary findings suggested that NA decreased following purging in Bulimia Nervosa (ES = ?.46). Moderators included diagnosis (with significantly greater elevations of NA prior to bingeing in Binge Eating Disorder compared to Bulimia Nervosa) and binge definition (with significantly smaller elevations of NA before binge versus regular eating episodes for the DSM definition compared to lay definitions of binge eating). Overall, results fail to support the affect regulation model of binge eating and challenge reductions in NA as a maintenance factor for binge eating. However, limitations of this literature include unidimensional analyses of NA and inadequate examination of affect during binge eating as binge eating may regulate only specific facets of affect or may reduce NA only during the episode.

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

63

Eating Disorders: Disorders of Under and Overnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eating disorder diagnoses consist of anorexia nervosa (restricting type and binge-eating\\/purging type); bulimia nervosa (purging\\u000a and nonpurging types); and eating disorder, not otherwise specified (including binge-eating disorder, night eating syndrome,\\u000a and purging disorder).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Physical complications of anorexia nervosa affect most major systems in the body and are caused by starvation and the effects\\u000a of purging. Most physical complications

Kelly C. Allison

64

Anxiety Disorders are Associated with Reduced Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Anxiety disorders increase risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, even after controlling for confounds including smoking, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status, and irrespective of a history of medical disorders. While impaired vagal function, indicated by reductions in heart rate variability (HRV), may be one mechanism linking anxiety disorders to CVD, prior studies have reported inconsistent findings highlighting the need for meta-analysis. Method: Studies comparing resting-state HRV recordings in patients with an anxiety disorder as a primary diagnosis and healthy controls were considered for meta-analysis. Results: Meta-analyses were based on 36 articles, including 2086 patients with an anxiety disorder and 2294 controls. Overall, anxiety disorders were characterized by lower HRV [high frequency (HF): Hedges’ g?=??0.29. 95% CI: ?0.41 to ?0.17, p?disorder (n?=?447), post-traumatic stress disorder (n?=?192), generalized anxiety disorder (n?=?68), and social anxiety disorder (n?=?90), but not obsessive–compulsive disorder (n?=?40), displayed reductions in HF HRV relative to controls (all ps?disorders are associated with reduced HRV, findings associated with a small-to-moderate effect size. Findings have important implications for future physical health and well-being of patients, highlighting a need for comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction.

Chalmers, John A.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Abbott, Maree J.-Anne; Kemp, Andrew H.

2014-01-01

65

An updated meta-analysis of oxidative stress markers in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Despite its debilitating symptoms, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) remains unclear. One consistently compelling finding, however, has been the presence of oxidative stress. In the present investigation, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that measured oxidative stress markers in BD patients compared to healthy controls. Search terms and selection criteria were determined a priori to identify and include all studies that measured a marker of oxidative stress in BD compared to healthy controls. Eight markers were included: superoxide dismutase, catalase, protein carbonyl, glutathione peroxidase, 3-nitrotyrosine, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and DNA/RNA damage. A meta-analysis of standardized means was conducted using a random-effects model with generic inverse weighting. Between-study heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analyses were also examined for each marker. Twenty-seven papers were included in the meta-analysis, which comprised a total of 971 unique patients with BD and 886 healthy controls. Lipid peroxidation, DNA/RNA damage, and nitric oxide were significantly increased in BD patients compared to healthy controls. Additionally, the effect size for lipid peroxidation was very high. Publication bias was not detected for any of the markers. The main limitations in this meta-analysis are the high degree of heterogeneity between studies and the small number of studies used in the analysis of some markers. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis indicated that some results are not very robust. The results from this meta-analysis support the role of oxidative stress in bipolar disorder, especially to DNA, RNA, and lipids. PMID:24794031

Brown, Nicole C; Andreazza, Ana C; Young, L Trevor

2014-08-15

66

Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge ...

67

Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

1993-01-01

68

The genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in understanding genetic influences on eating pathology. Eating disorders aggregate in families, and twin studies reveal that additive genetic factors account for approximately 40% to 60% of liability to anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Molecular genetics studies have been undertaken to identify alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid sequence and/or gene expression that may be involved in the pathogenesis of disordered eating behaviors, symptoms, and related disorders and to uncover potential genetic variants that may contribute to variability of treatment response. This article provides an in-depth review of the scientific literature on the genetics of AN, BN, and BED including extant studies, emerging hypotheses, future directions, and clinical implications. PMID:23537489

Trace, Sara E; Baker, Jessica H; Peñas-Lledó, Eva; Bulik, Cynthia M

2013-01-01

69

Migration, social mobility and common mental disorders: critical review of the literature and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Changes in socio-economic position in people who migrate may have adverse associations with mental health. The main objective of this review was to assess the association of social mobility with common mental disorders in migrant and second-generation groups, to inform future research.Design. Systematic review and meta-analysis of English-language studies assessing the association of social mobility in migrant or second-generation

J. Das-Munshi; G. Leavey; S. A. Stansfeld; M. J. Prince

2012-01-01

70

Migration, social mobility and common mental disorders: critical review of the literature and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Changes in socio-economic position in people who migrate may have adverse associations with mental health. The main objective of this review was to assess the association of social mobility with common mental disorders in migrant and second-generation groups, to inform future research.Design. Systematic review and meta-analysis of English-language studies assessing the association of social mobility in migrant or second-generation

J. Das-Munshi; G. Leavey; S. A. Stansfeld; M. J. Prince

2011-01-01

71

Neuropsychological performance in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Meta-analysis of empirical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognized not only in children but also in adults. Neuropsychological tests are important tools to quantify the attentional and\\/or cognitive deficits of patients compared to controls. The present meta-analysis integrates 24 empirical studies reporting results of at least one of 50 standard neuropsychological tests comparing adult ADHD patients with controls. The 50 tests were

Claudia Schoechlin; Rolf R. Engel

2005-01-01

72

Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Using Mixed-Effects Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, PsychSpider, Medline). We excluded studies in which patients with diagnoses other than BPD

Sören Kliem; Christoph Kröger; Joachim Kosfelder

2010-01-01

73

The neural correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an ALE meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and com- monly studied forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Causal models of ADHD have long implicated dysfunction in fronto-striatal and frontal-parietal networks supporting executive function, a hypothesis that can now be examined systematically using functional neuroimaging. The present work provides an objective, unbiased statistically-based meta-analysis of published

Steven G. Dickstein; Katie Bannon; F. Xavier Castellanos; Michael P. Milham

2006-01-01

74

Voxel-Based Morphometry ALE meta-analysis of Bipolar Disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.

Magana, Omar; Laird, Robert

2012-03-01

75

Revisiting the affect regulation model of binge eating: a meta-analysis of studies using ecological momentary assessment.  

PubMed

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produced 36 EMA studies with N = 968 participants (89% Caucasian women). Meta-analyses examined changes in affect before and after binge eating using within-subjects standardized mean gain effect sizes (ESs). Results supported greater NA preceding binge eating relative to average affect (ES = 0.63) and affect before regular eating (ES = 0.68). However, NA increased further following binge episodes (ES = 0.50). Preliminary findings suggested that NA decreased following purging in bulimia nervosa (ES = -0.46). Moderators included diagnosis (with significantly greater elevations of NA prior to bingeing in binge eating disorder compared to bulimia nervosa) and binge definition (with significantly smaller elevations of NA before binge vs. regular eating episodes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders definition compared to lay definitions of binge eating). Overall, results fail to support the affect regulation model of binge eating and challenge reductions in NA as a maintenance factor for binge eating. However, limitations of this literature include unidimensional analyses of NA and inadequate examination of affect during binge eating, as binge eating may regulate only specific facets of affect or may reduce NA only during the episode. PMID:21574678

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Keel, Pamela K

2011-07-01

76

Smoking and thyroid disorders--a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Smoking has been associated with Graves' disease, but it remains unclear if the association is present in other thyroid disorders. Outcome variables: Graves' disease, Graves' ophthalmopathy, toxic nodular goitre, non-toxic goitre, post-partum thyroid disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or hypothyroidism. Material and methods: A search of MEDLINE identified 25 studies on the association between smoking and thyroid diseases. Results: In Graves'

Peter Vestergaard

2002-01-01

77

Lack of association between bipolar disorder and tyrosine hydroxylase: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a candidate gene extensively explored in several association studies of bipolar disorder (BD). However, because of conflicting results of independent studies and low statistical power of individual studies to detect small differences between cases and controls, reliable conclusions are difficult to formulate. A method to obtain more reliable conclusions about the involvement of the TH locus in the etiology of BD is meta-analysis. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies that investigated the association between BD and TH genetic markers. The studies were identified by means of computerized searches of several databases, and the scanning of review articles and the reference lists of the primary articles identified. More than 60 publications were reviewed, and 9 relevant articles were included in this meta-analysis, with an overall sample of 1,069 subjects (547 cases and 522 normal controls). The overall odds ratio (and confidence interval) based on combining the results of the studies was 1.02 (0.68-1.54). Test of the null hypothesis that the mean log odds ratio equals zero (chi2 = 0.11; 5 df; P > 0.05) indicated that there was no overall association between bipolar disorder and tyrosine hydroxylase. PMID:9259367

Turecki, G; Rouleau, G A; Mari, J; Joober, R; Morgan, K

1997-07-25

78

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

79

[Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].  

PubMed

Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

2000-02-01

80

Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143

Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

2010-02-01

81

Trastornos de la Alimentacion (Eating Disorders).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

82

Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies  

PubMed Central

Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation.

Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

2012-01-01

83

Treatment of binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire

Wilson, G Terence

2011-12-01

84

Reports of Stress: A Comparison Between Eating Disordered and Non-Eating Disordered Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilizes a unique method to examine reports of stressful life events provided by eating disordered and non-eating disordered adolescents. Subjects (all females) participated in a standardized procedure to obtain reports of stressful life events. The Life Events and Coping Inventory (LECI) was used to categorize reported stressors. Eating disorder subjects discussed more stressors than non-eating disorder subjects only

Tamara M. Sharpe; Erika Ryst; Stephen P. Hinshaw; Hans Steiner

1997-01-01

85

Female Distance Runners and Disordered Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review aims to discern patterns among empirical research regarding the association between distance running and disordered eating among females. The findings show that female distance runners share certain characteristics with eating disordered non-athletes, such as low BMI, perfectionist tendencies, and menstrual dysfunction. These characteristics, indicative of disordered eating among non-athletic females, do not indicate a similar risk among

Brittany Morse

2008-01-01

86

Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

2011-01-01

87

Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

2000-01-01

88

Relational competence and eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating Disorders are very widespread within the adolescent population. A possible interpretation and the comprehension of such forms of psychopathology may revolve around the failure to develop a well-defined personal identity, an incapacity to achieve a sense of differentiation with respect to others, an incapacity to measure oneself against others, dependence on others, the fear of rejection and a sense of inadequacy. This study explores the relational styles and behaviour of individuals suffering from eating disorders and their influence on the development of the personality, with reference being made in particular to self-valuation, dependence on others and levels of differentiation. A sample population of 90 women with eating disorders was studied. The subjects were subdivided into 3 groups (30 with restricting anorexia nervosa, 30 with binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and 30 with bulimia nervosa), overlapping in terms of age, duration of disorders and interrelation style, using the Relational Competence Test. The most significant results of this study concern the question of the definition of an autonomous personal identity. This process seems to be in progress in young women suffering from bulimia nervosa who appear to be driven towards a "definition of the self in opposition" with the consequent tendency towards relational experiences outside their own family. In women with binge-eating/purging AN moreover an awareness of the difference between the self and others and of their state of dependence would appear to be present, however behaviour aimed at the determination of an autonomous self is not evident. In women with restricting anorexia nervosa a definition of the identity is totally absent; these women develop an omnipotent self in their 'oneness' with others. These relational aspects lead to the identification of a continuum between restricting anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in an evolutionary perspective regarding the self-with-others. PMID:17615495

Cozzi, F; Ostuzzi, R

2007-06-01

89

Does D-Cycloserine Enhance Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Humans? A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The treatment of anxiety is on the edge of a new era of combinations of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions. A new wave of translational research has focused on the use of pharmacological agents as psychotherapy adjuvants using neurobiological insights into the mechanism of the action of certain psychological treatments such as exposure therapy. Recently, d-cycloserine (DCS) an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis has been applied to enhance exposure-based treatment for anxiety and has proved to be a promising, but as yet unproven intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DCS in the enhancement of exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic searches were conducted in the databases ISI-Web of Science, Pubmed and PsycINFO. We included only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with humans, focusing on the role of DCS in enhancing the action of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. We identified 328 references, 13 studies were included in our final sample: 4 on obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 on panic disorder, 2 on social anxiety disorder, 2 on posttraumatic stress disorder, one on acrophobia, and 2 on snake phobia. The results of the present meta-analysis show that DCS enhances exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Cohen d?=? ?0.34; CI: ?0.54 to ?0.14), facilitating the specific process of extinction of fear. DCS seems to be effective when administered at a time close to the exposure therapy, at low doses and a limited number of times. DCS emerges as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with refractory anxiety disorders that are unresponsive to the conventional treatments available. When administered correctly, DCS is a promising strategy for augmentation of CBT and could reduce health care costs, drop-out rates and bring faster relief to patients.

Rodrigues, Helga; Figueira, Ivan; Lopes, Alessandra; Goncalves, Raquel; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Ventura, Paula

2014-01-01

90

Innovative technology-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided interventions via a desktop computer, interactive DVD, shared active surface, and virtual reality. None employed robotics. The results provide evidence for the overall effectiveness of technology-based training. The overall mean effect size for posttests of controlled studies of children with autism spectrum disorders who received technology-based interventions was significantly different from zero and approached the medium magnitude, d = 0.47 (confidence interval: 0.08-0.86). The influence of age and IQ was not significant. Differences in training procedures are discussed in the light of the negative correlation that was found between the intervention durations and the studies' effect sizes. The results of this meta-analysis provide support for the continuing development, evaluation, and clinical usage of technology-based intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24092843

Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

2014-05-01

91

Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

2005-01-01

92

Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

Muuss, Rolf E.

1985-01-01

93

Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and

Sandra Sassaroli; Leonor J. Romero Lauro; Giovanni Maria Ruggiero; Massimo C. Mauri; Piergiuseppe Vinai; Randy Frost

2008-01-01

94

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for panic disorder in the Japanese population  

PubMed Central

Panic disorder (PD) is a moderately heritable anxiety disorder whose pathogenesis is not well understood. Due to the lack of power in previous association studies, genes that are truly associated with PD might not be detected. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in two independent data sets using the Affymetrix Mapping 500K Array or Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. We obtained imputed genotypes for each GWAS and performed a meta-analysis of two GWAS data sets (718 cases and 1717 controls). For follow-up, 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 329 cases and 861 controls. Gene ontology enrichment and candidate gene analyses were conducted using the GWAS or meta-analysis results. We also applied the polygenic score analysis to our two GWAS samples to test the hypothesis of polygenic components contributing to PD. Although genome-wide significant SNPs were not detected in either of the GWAS nor the meta-analysis, suggestive associations were observed in several loci such as BDKRB2 (P=1.3 × 10?5, odds ratio=1.31). Among previous candidate genes, supportive evidence for association of NPY5R with PD was obtained (gene-wise corrected P=6.4 × 10?4). Polygenic scores calculated from weakly associated SNPs (P<0.3 and 0.4) in the discovery sample were significantly associated with PD status in the target sample in both directions (sample I to sample II and vice versa) (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that large sets of common variants of small effects collectively account for risk of PD.

Otowa, T; Kawamura, Y; Nishida, N; Sugaya, N; Koike, A; Yoshida, E; Inoue, K; Yasuda, S; Nishimura, Y; Liu, X; Konishi, Y; Nishimura, F; Shimada, T; Kuwabara, H; Tochigi, M; Kakiuchi, C; Umekage, T; Miyagawa, T; Miyashita, A; Shimizu, E; Akiyoshi, J; Someya, T; Kato, T; Yoshikawa, T; Kuwano, R; Kasai, K; Kato, N; Kaiya, H; Tokunaga, K; Okazaki, Y; Tanii, H; Sasaki, T

2012-01-01

95

[Eating disorders in the workplace].  

PubMed

The prevalence of eating disorders (ED) has increased and these are intractable disorders that require prolonged treatment. The workplace is an important life scene for the patients, but there are few reports available about the current status and correspondence to ED in workplace. Based on a survey of 1248 enterprises, we discuss the cognition of each form of ED. In addition, the background, eating behaviors, and job stress of 2004 workers were also surveyed. Based on these responses, workers who were supposed to demonstrate anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or night eating syndrome (NES) were identified. The same survey was conducted among outpatients with ED, and the findings were compared with those of a healthy control group. The terms ED, AN, and BN were highly acknowledged in the workplace, but recognition of NES was low. In addition, the prevalence of workers suspected of AN, BN, or NES were 0.27%, 0.21%, and 12.9%, respectively. Based on comparisons of job stress in working ED patients with job stress in workers without ED, and comparisons of job stress in NES workers with job stress in workers without eating problems, specific job stressors were supposed to be associated with ED. These findings indicate the importance of learning appropriate techniques for coping with job stress and the necessity of recognizing abnormal eating behaviors in the workplace. PMID:20976967

Inoue, Koki; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamauchi, Tsuneo; Kiriike, Nobuo

2010-01-01

96

Efficacy of exposure versus cognitive therapy in anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for a wide range of psychological disorders. There is a continued controversy about whether challenging maladaptive thoughts rather than use of behavioural interventions alone is associated with the greatest efficacy. However little is known about the relative efficacy of various components of CBT. This review aims to compare the relative efficacy of Cognitive Therapy (CT) versus Exposure (E) for a range of anxiety disorders using the most clinically relevant outcome measures and estimating the summary relative efficacy by combining the studies in a meta-analysis. Methods Psych INFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the first available year to May 2010. All randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of exposure with cognitive therapy were included. Odds ratios (OR) or standardised means' differences (Hedges' g) for the most clinically relevant primary outcomes were calculated. Outcomes of the studies were grouped according to specific disorders and were combined in meta-analyses exploring short-term and long-term outcomes. Results 20 Randomised Controlled Trials with (n = 1,308) directly comparing the efficacy of CT and E in anxiety disorders were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference in the relative efficacy of CT and E was revealed in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and in Panic Disorder (PD). There was a statistically significant difference favouring CT versus E in Social Phobia both in the short-term (Z = 3.72, p = 0.0002) and the long-term (Z = 3.28, p = 0.001) outcomes. Conclusions On the basis of extant literature, there appears to be no evidence of differential efficacy between cognitive therapy and exposure in PD, PTSD and OCD and strong evidence of superior efficacy of cognitive therapy in social phobia

2011-01-01

97

Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. Results From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114?009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Conclusions Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental studies are required to confirm a potentially beneficial effect of chocolate consumption.

2011-01-01

98

The Efficacy of the Tomatis Method for Children with Learning and Communication Disorders: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the Tomatis Method, a program of auditory stimulation and counseling used to assist children, adolescents, and adults with learning and communication disorders. Presents a meta-analysis of data from five research studies evaluating the efficacy of this method in assisting children with such disorders. Suggests that effect sizes favoring…

Gilmor, Tim

1999-01-01

99

Modified Therapeutic Community for Co-Occurring Disorders: Single Investigator Meta Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis for a single investigator examining the effectiveness of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) for clients with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders (COD). The flexibility and utility of meta-analytic tools are described, although their application in this context is atypical. The analysis includes four comparisons from three studies (retrieved N=569) for various groups of clients with COD (homeless persons, offenders, and outpatients) in substance abuse treatment, comparing clients assigned either to an MTC or a control condition of standard services. An additional study is included in a series of sensitivity tests. The overall findings increase the research base of support for the MTC program for clients with COD, as results of the meta-analysis indicate significant MTC treatment effects for 5 of the 6 outcome domains across the four comparisons. Limitations of the approach are discussed. Independent replications, clinical trials, multiple outcome domains and additional meta-analyses should be emphasized in future research. Given the need for research-based approaches, program and policy planners should consider the MTC when designing programs for co-occurring disorders.

SACKS, STANLEY; MCKENDRICK, KAREN; SACKS, JOANN Y; CLELAND, CHARLES M.

2010-01-01

100

Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.  

PubMed Central

Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secondary to major depression. A disturbance in interoceptive awareness exists independently in bulimia nervosa and in MAD providing a common diathesis from which bulimia may arise given family and social pressure. Bulimics with MAD do not respond to treatment as readily as those without MAD. It is recomended that these two groups be treated separately.

Wold, P N

1991-01-01

101

[Interactional treatment of eating behavior disorders].  

PubMed

The Eating Disorders Center (EDC), is a clinical-research project of the Mental Research Institute (MRI) centered in the study and treatment of Anorexia Nervosa (Self Starvation), Bulimia (binge-eating and purging) and weight/diet obsessions/compulsions. This paper presents: a) A brief description of the Center, both in its research and clinical aspects. The clinical program is centered in the application of the MRI's brief interactional approach to the treatment of eating disorders. The research project is being developed. b) A definition of terms, taken from the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III) and how these eating disorders have shown an increase in recent years. c) A brief discussion of theories of etiology and maintenance in the field of eating disorders. This point includes the perspective on eating disorders of several theoretical models, and how we believe that it is the societal model the one that can account for the recent increase of eating disorders. PMID:6596869

Moley, V A; Schlanger, C

1984-09-01

102

Eating Disorders: Facts About Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pamphlet presents facts about eating disorders such as: binge-eating disorder; anorexia nervosa; and bulimia nervosa - and the search for solutions to these disorders. It also discusses treatments and research directions.

2001-01-01

103

Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Cognitive processes such as attention and memory may influence food intake, but the degree to which they do is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine whether such cognitive processes influence the amount of food eaten either immediately or in subsequent meals. Design: We systematically reviewed studies that examined experimentally the effect that manipulating memory, distraction, awareness, or attention has on food intake. We combined studies by using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between experimental and control groups and assessing heterogeneity with the I2 statistic. Results: Twenty-four studies were reviewed. Evidence indicated that eating when distracted produced a moderate increase in immediate intake (SMD: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.53) but increased later intake to a greater extent (SMD: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.07). The effect of distraction on immediate intake appeared to be independent of dietary restraint. Enhancing memory of food consumed reduced later intake (SMD: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.68), but this effect may depend on the degree of the participants’ tendencies toward disinhibited eating. Removing visual information about the amount of food eaten during a meal increased immediate intake (SMD: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.68). Enhancing awareness of food being eaten may not affect immediate intake (SMD: 0.09; 95% CI: ?0.42, 0.35). Conclusions: Evidence indicates that attentive eating is likely to influence food intake, and incorporation of attentive-eating principles into interventions provides a novel approach to aid weight loss and maintenance without the need for conscious calorie counting.

Aveyard, Paul; Daley, Amanda; Jolly, Kate; Lewis, Amanda; Lycett, Deborah; Higgs, Suzanne

2013-01-01

104

Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

2004-01-01

105

Eating Disorders among Adolescents: Patterns and Prevalence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined disordered eating habits and feelings of psychosocial constraint using a questionnaire completed by 2,004 high school students. Disordered eating was found in two percent of all subjects. Dieting and compulsive eating were both related to feelings of failure. (JAC)

Kagan, Dona M.; Squires, Rose L.

1984-01-01

106

Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

1993-01-01

107

Sleep-related eating disorder: a case report of a progressed night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders. PMID:22930387

Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Shoar, Nasrin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Khorgami, Zhamak; Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin

2012-01-01

108

[Definition and classification of eating disorders].  

PubMed

This paper describes definition and classification of Eating Disorders which centered on the atypical cases. Eating disorders in DSM-IV were further classified into 3 groups. Three groups were Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified. Binge Eating Disorders frequently transfer to obese patient. This disease entity become independent of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Body weight changing trend evaluated not only cross section but also longitudinal observation. There are some experience cases which Anorexia Nervosa cause by diet therapy of obesity patient. A lot of Eating Disorder patients revealed atypical courses during clinical treatment. The symptom of disturbances in the way in which their body weight and sharp could not easy to confirm routine history taking. One type of eating disorders eat throughout the day with no planned mealtimes. PMID:11268603

Nakano, K; Nakajima, H

2001-03-01

109

Innegligible musculoskeletal disorders caused by zoledronic acid in adjuvant breast cancer treatment: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is widely used for preventing bone loss in early breast cancer patients. However, the adverse effects caused by ZOL itself should not be neglected. Musculoskeletal disorders were common after ZOL administration and distressing to the patients. Up to now, no precise estimation of musculoskeletal disorders has been made. Methods Relevant randomized clinical trials were selected by searching the electronic database PubMed, and a meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four trials reported musculoskeletal disorders of ZOL treatment versus no ZOL, including 2684 patients treated with ZOL and 2712 patients without ZOL treatment. Compared to patients without ZOL treatment, patients treated with ZOL had a significantly higher risk of arthralgia (risk ratio (RR): 1.162, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.096-1.232, P = 0.466 for heterogeneity) and bone pain (RR: 1.257, 95% CI: 1.149-1.376, P = 0.193 for heterogeneity). Three clinical trials reported the complications of upfront versus delayed ZOL treatment, including 1091 patients with upfront ZOL and 1110 patients with delayed ZOL. The rate of bone pain in upfront group (119/824) was significantly higher than that in delayed group (74/836) (RR: 1.284, 95% CI: 1.135-1.453, P = 0.460 for heterogeneity). Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggested that treatment with ZOL was significantly associated to the occurrence of arthralgia and bone pain. Moreover, higher rate of bone pain was observed in patients treated with upfront ZOL compared with delayed ZOL treatment. More attentions should be paid to patients treated with ZOL, especially for immediate ZOL. For patients with low risk of osteoporosis, immediate ZOL may be not needed due to additional musculoskeletal disorders and little benefit. Or it can be stopped after the occurrence of these adverse events.

2011-01-01

110

Meta-analysis of Dropout in Treatments for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Many patients dropout of treatments for Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some clinicians believe that ‘trauma focused’ treatments increase dropout. Method We conducted a meta-analysis of dropout among active treatments in clinical trials for PTSD (42 studies; 17 direct comparisons). Results The average dropout rate was 18%, but it varied significantly across studies. Group modality and greater number of sessions, but not trauma focus, predicted increased dropout. When the meta-analysis was restricted to direct comparisons of active treatments, there were no differences in dropout. Differences in trauma focus between treatments in the same study did not predict dropout. However, trauma focused treatments resulted in higher dropout as compared to Present Centered Therapy (PCT) – a treatment originally designed as a control, but now listed as a research supported intervention for PTSD. Conclusion Dropout varies between active interventions for PTSD across studies, but differences are primarily driven by differences between studies. There do not appear to be systematic differences across active interventions when they are directly compared in the same study. The degree of clinical attention placed on the traumatic event does not appear to be a primary cause of dropout from active treatments. However comparisons of PCT may be an exception to this general pattern, perhaps due to a restriction of variability in trauma focus among comparisons of active treatments. More research is needed comparing trauma focused interventions to trauma avoidant treatments such as PCT.

Imel, Zac E.; Laska, Kevin; Jakcupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L.

2013-01-01

111

Hyperintense MRI lesions in bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis and review  

PubMed Central

Background Cortical and subcortical hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are thought to represent areas of ischemic damage to brain tissue. Researchers have focused on the possible role these lesions may have in psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder. In 1997, the proposed ‘vascular mania’ diagnosis suggested utilizing not only the presence of strokes, but also confluent hyperintensities in its diagnostic criteria. This study was conducted to use meta-analytic techniques to investigate the association of hyperintensities and bipolar illness and to evaluate the current state of the literature. Methods Using the PubMed and MEDLINE databases, we conducted a systematic literature search of studies investigating hyperintensities in subjects with bipolar disorder and controls or other psychiatric illnesses. We identified 44 publications from which 35 studies were included for review and 27 were selected for meta-analysis. Summary statistics of the prevalence were estimated through odds-ratios and confidence interval. Heterogeneity of the results across studies was tested using Q-statistics. Results Meta-analysis identified an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% CI 1.9, 3.3) for hyperintensities in bipolar subjects compared to controls; however, there was significant heterogeneity among the studies (Q-statistics =32; p =0.04). This finding was most prominent for adolescents and children where the odds ratio was 5.7 (95% CI 2.3, 13.7). Deep white matter hyperintensities (odd ratio 3.2; 95% CI 2.2, 4.5) and subcortical grey matter hyperintensities (odds ratio 2.7; 95% CI 1.3, 2.9) were more strongly associated with bipolar subjects. There were no differences between bipolar subjects and controls for perivascular hyperintensities (odds ratio 1.3; 95% CI 0.8, 1.9). Though hyperintensities were numerically greater in bipolar subjects, meta-analysis did not demonstrate any significant differences between bipolar subjects and unipolar depression subjects (OR 1.6; 95% CI 0.9, 2.7) nor subjects with schizophrenia (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9, 2.7). Conclusions This meta-analysis continues to support the association of bipolar disorder and hyperintensities, especially in the deep white matter and subcortical grey matter. It also highlights the increased incidence in children and adolescence with bipolar disorder. However, hyperintensities are not specific to bipolar disorder, but appear at similar rates in unipolar depression and schizophrenia. Thus, the role of hyperintensities in the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and treatment of bipolar disorder remains unclear. Further studies are required that are large enough to decrease the heterogeneity of the samples and MRI techniques, assess size and location of hyperintensities, and the impact on treatment response. Coordination with newer imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be especially helpful in understanding the pathology of these lesions.

BEYER, JOHN L.; YOUNG, ROBERT; KUCHIBHATLA, MARAGATHA; KRISHNAN, K. RANGA R.

2014-01-01

112

Stereotactic surgery for eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders (EDs) are a group of severely impaired eating behaviors, which include three subgroups: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future.

Sun, Bomin; Liu, Wei

2013-01-01

113

Association of parental Communication Deviance with offspring's psychiatric and thought disorders. A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Elevated number of parental Communication Deviance (CD) has been connected with psychiatric and thought disorders in their offspring. However, no earlier systematic efforts have been made to review this issue. The aim of this study was to survey the existing literature systematically and perform a meta-analysis of this association. A literature search for published and unpublished observational studies on the association of parental Communication Deviance with psychopathology in the offspring was conducted. Multiple electronic databases were searched (from 1960 to 2012) and the reference lists of the resulting publications were scanned. The findings were pooled using random effect meta-analysis. A total of 19 relevant papers were found and accessed. The results showed that a high level of parental CD is associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the offspring. A large overall effect size (0.79) was found in the meta-analysis. No meta-analysis could be performed on the association of parental CD with an offspring's thought disorders, but the results suggest that such an association may exist. Parental Communication Deviance is associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the offspring. High parental CD could be treated as an indicator of a risk of developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, at least among high-risk groups. PMID:23849397

Roisko, R; Wahlberg, K-E; Miettunen, J; Tienari, P

2014-01-01

114

Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

2011-01-01

115

Perfect Illusions: Eating Disorders and the Family  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to the PBS documentary of the same name, which aired February 24, 2003, as part of Eating Disorders Awareness Week. With this "hidden epidemic" affecting millions of people in the US alone, especially young women, this site provides a valuable resource for those wishing to learn more about three common eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. In addition to presenting detailed information for each disorder -- including symptoms, health consequences, and prevention -- the Web site supplies information for seeking help, and other resources such as personal stories from eating disorder sufferers and survivors.

2003-01-01

116

Clusters of personality disorder cognitions in the eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study examined whether comorbid personality disorder pathology in the eating disorders clusters into broader patterns, and whether those clusters have clinical validity in terms of levels of eating pathology and axis 1 comorbidity. The sample consisted of 214 eating-disordered women who completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, eating pathology and axis 1 pathology at assessment. Three clusters of eating disorder patients emerged-low levels of personality pathology overall, high levels of cognitions underpinning anxiety-based personality pathology, and high levels of all of the dimensions of personality pathology. These groups were validated by differences in levels of eating cognitions and axis 1 pathology. Personality disorder cognitions are clinically relevant to the eating disorders, but they might best be understood as broader sets of cognitions ('anxiety-centred' and 'general'), rather than in terms of individual personality disorder comorbidity or existing DSM personality disorder clusters. PMID:23080210

Waller, Glenn; Ormonde, Lisa; Kuteyi, Yemi

2013-01-01

117

A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric…

Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

2011-01-01

118

A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Social Skills Interventions for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social skills deficits are a central feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis of 55 single-subject design studies examined the effectiveness of school-based social skills interventions for children and adolescents with ASD. Intervention, maintenance, and generalization effects were measured by computing the percentage of…

Bellini, Scott; Peters, Jessica K.; Benner, Lauren; Hopf, Andrea

2007-01-01

119

The Effects of School-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis 1996-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis evaluating the effects of school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted by examining 60 outcome studies between 1996 and 2010 that yielded 85 effect sizes. Separate analyses were performed for studies employing between-subjects, within- subjects, and single-subject experimental…

DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Vilardo, Brigid

2012-01-01

120

Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Subjective and Objective Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of 16 subjective and objective sleep studies with a sample of 722 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus a control that numbers 638 shows that the children with ADHD are significantly more impaired in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures than their counterpart.

Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

2009-01-01

121

Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies, there has been limited replications between the various independent datasets. The current study gathered the results from all seven of the ADHD linkage scans and performed a Genome Scan Meta Analysis (GSMA) to identify the genomic region with most consistent linkage evidence across the studies. Genome-wide significant linkage (P(SR) = 0.00034, P(OR) = 0.04) was identified on chromosome 16 between 64 and 83 Mb. In addition there are nine other genomic regions from the GSMA showing nominal or suggestive evidence of linkage. All these linkage results may be informative and focus the search for novel ADHD susceptibility genes. PMID:18988193

Zhou, Kaixin; Dempfle, Astrid; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Bakker, Steven C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan; Castellanos, F Xavier; Doyle, Alysa; Ebstein, Richard P; Ekholm, Jenny; Forabosco, Paola; Franke, Barbara; Freitag, Christine; Friedel, Susann; Gill, Michael; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke; Jacob, Christian; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Loo, Sandra K; Lopera, Francisco; McCracken, James T; McGough, James J; Meyer, Jobst; Mick, Eric; Miranda, Ana; Muenke, Maximilian; Mulas, Fernando; Nelson, Stanley F; Nguyen, T Trang; Oades, Robert D; Ogdie, Matthew N; Palacio, Juan David; Pineda, David; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J; Roeyers, Herbert; Romanos, Marcel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Schäfer, Helmut; Sergeant, Joseph; Sinke, Richard J; Smalley, Susan L; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; van der Meulen, Emma; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Lewis, Cathryn M; Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip

2008-12-01

122

Antiepileptic medications in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and topiramate. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference between medication and placebo in four studies targeting irritability/agitation and three studies investigating global improvement, although limitations include lack of power and different medications with diverse actions. Across all seven studies, there was no significant difference in discontinuation rate between two groups. AEDs do not appear to have a large effect size to treat behavioral symptoms in ASD, but further research is needed, particularly in the subgroup of patients with epileptiform abnormalities. PMID:24077782

Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

2014-04-01

123

Gray Matter Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Anatomic Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Many voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have found abnormalities in gray matter density (GMD) in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of VBM studies contrasting OCD patients with healthy controls (HC). A literature search identified 10 articles that included 343 OCD patients and 318 HC. Anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analyses were performed to assess GMD changes in OCD patients relative to HC. GMD was smaller in parieto-frontal cortical regions, including the supramarginal gyrus, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, and greater in the basal ganglia (putamen) and the anterior prefrontal cortex in OCD patients relative to HC. No significant differences were found between children and adults. Our findings indicate differences in GMD in parieto-frontal areas and the basal ganglia between OCD patients and HC. We conclude that structural abnormalities within the prefrontal-basal ganglia network are involved in OCD pathophysiology.

Rotge, Jean-Yves; Langbour, Nicolas; Guehl, Dominique; Bioulac, Bernard; Jaafari, Nematollah; Allard, Michele; Aouizerate, Bruno; Burbaud, Pierre

2010-01-01

124

Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs.

Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

2014-01-01

125

Eating Disorders in Pregnancy and the Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are most often diagnosed during the childbearing years. Pregnancy and postpartum issues for women with eating\\u000a disorders are discussed with regard to symptoms, complications, course of pregnancy, delivery, breast-feeding, and postpartum\\u000a depression (PPD). Research findings indicate that women with eating disorders during pregnancy may be at risk for a variety\\u000a of pregnancy and obstetric complications. Moreover, there appears

Debra L. Franko

126

Perplexities of treatment resistence in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed. Description The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the eating disorders. Conclusion Treatment resistance in eating disorders is usually predicted by the severity of the core eating disorder psychopathology which develops from an interaction between environmental risk factors with genetic traits and a vulnerable neurobiology. Future investigations of the biological features and neurocircuitry of the core eating disorders psychopathology and behaviors may provide information for more successful treatment interventions.

2013-01-01

127

Social Anxiety and Self-consciousness in Binge Eating Disorder: Associations with Eating Disorder Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Objective Research has consistently shown that anxiety disorders are common among individuals with eating disorders. Although social phobia has been found to be highly associated with eating disorders, less is known about social anxiety in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). The present study examined associations between social anxiety and self-consciousness with BMI and eating-disorder psychopathology in BED. Methods Participants were 113 overweight or obese treatment seeking men and women with BED. Participants were administered semi-structural diagnostic clinical interviews and completed a battery of self-report measures. Results Social anxiety was positively and significantly correlated with shape- and weight-concerns, and binge eating frequency. After accounting for depressive levels, social anxiety and self-consciousness accounted for significant variance in eating-, shape-, and weight-concerns and overall eating-disorder global severity scores (Eating Disorder Examination). Social anxiety also accounted for significant variance in binge eating frequency after co-varying for depressive levels. Social anxiety and self-consciousness were not significantly associated with BMI or dietary restraint. Discussion Our findings suggest that greater social anxiety and heightened self-consciousness are associated with greater eating disorder psychopathology, most notably with greater shape- and weight-concerns and binge eating frequency in patients with BED. Social anxiety and self-consciousness do not appear to be merely functions of excess weight, and future research should examine whether they contribute to the maintenance of binge eating and associated eating-disorder psychopathology.

Sawaoka, Takuya; Barnes, Rachel D.; Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2011-01-01

128

Disordered eating and gender identity disorder: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The association between disordered eating and gender identity was examined in a sample of 20 (11 female-to-male, 9 male-to-female) transgender Finnish adults, aged 21-62 years. Using semi-structured interviews, participants' own understanding of the underlying causes of their disordered eating was analyzed, as well as the effect of gender reassignment on eating behaviors and cognitions. A majority of the participants reported current or past disordered eating. Participants most frequently described strive for thinness as an attempt to suppress features of one's biological gender, or accentuate features of one's desired gender. Gender reassignment was primarily perceived as alleviating symptoms of disordered eating. PMID:22703571

Ålgars, Monica; Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

2012-01-01

129

Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

2014-01-01

130

Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.

Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Aina Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Goncalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

2014-01-01

131

Assessment of Eating Disordered Behaviors in Middle School Students Using the Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders commonly develop during adolescence. In order to devise a prevention\\/education program, it is necessary to assess the presence of eating disordered behaviors in this population. The Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS) was used to gather data on body dissatisfaction, exercise and eating habits and restricting\\/purging behaviors. School and health professionals administered the self-report questionnaire to eighth grade students

S. G. Affenito; E. J. Khu; K. Carroll

1998-01-01

132

Parenting styles and eating disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and ?(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. PMID:21896116

Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

2011-10-01

133

[Stomatologic complications of eating disorders].  

PubMed

Since the 1990s numerous international experts have reported about the somatic complications of eating disorders including those having a dental and stomatological nature. Several reports emphasised that deformations in the oral cavity resulting from this grave nutritional disease typical of the young generation could already appear in the early stage and, therefore, dentists are among the first to diagnose them. Dentists are still often unaware of the importance of their role in multidisciplinary treatment. Even if they knew what the disease was about and recognised it on the basis of deformations in the oral cavity in time, their advice that their patients should brush their teeth more often would fail to eliminate the root cause of the problem. Not only the earliest possible treatment of the complications of the bingeing-purging mechanism and the maintenance of oral hygiene are important, but controlling and curing pathological habits with active participation of psychiatrists are also required to ensure full recovery. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the disease, manifold communication is required. For this reason, publishing the dental ramifications of organic and systemic diseases at dental conferences and in technical journals, as well as providing information about oral complications of eating disorders for general practitioners and specialists are particularly important. PMID:23123325

Resch, Mária; Nagy, Agnes

2012-11-11

134

Binge eating disorder in extreme obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extremely obese binge eating disorder (BED) subjects (BED defined by the Eating Disorder Examination) differ from their extremely obese non-BED counterparts in terms of their eating disturbances, psychiatric morbidity and health status.DESIGN: Prospective clinical comparison of BED and non-BED subjects undergoing gastric bypass surgery (GBP).SUBJECTS: Thirty seven extremely obese (defined as BMI ?40 kg\\/m2) subjects (31

LKG Hsu; B Mulliken; B McDonagh; S Krupa Das; W Rand; CG Fairburn; B Rolls; MA McCrory; E Saltzman; S Shikora; J Dwyer; S Roberts

2002-01-01

135

Bulimia: Growing Awareness of an Eating Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes bulimia, a disorder involving binge eating and purging increasingly prevalent in young women. Reviews the literature and describes symptoms, etiological factors, and treatment considerations and approaches for the disorder. (Author)

Yudkovitz, Elaine

1983-01-01

136

Factors Associated with Eating Disorders in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various factors associated with eating disorders have been studied, no comprehensive source of research findings was identified in this review. The purpose of this study was to identify and synthesize research findings of factors associated with eating disorders in women published from 1992-2008. These findings may be useful to nurses, other professionals, families, and the public to facilitate the

Christina Knowles; Faculty Mentor; Frances Smith

137

Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

2006-01-01

138

Alexithymia and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing amount of evidence indicates an association between alexithymia and eating disorder symptoms. This possible association was evaluated in a non-clinical sample of late adolescents. Seven hundred and twenty nine adolescents completed the questionnaire and formed the final sample. Alexithymia was measured using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale and eating disorder symptoms were assessed using the SCOFF questionnaire. The

Max Karukivi; Lea Hautala; Jan Korpelainen; Kirsi-Maria Haapasalo-Pesu; Pirjo-Riitta Liuksila; Matti Joukamaa; Simo Saarijärvi

2010-01-01

139

Eating disorders in adolescence and their sequelae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are prevalent in adolescents and are associated with significant medical and psychiatric morbidity. Amenorrhoea, one of the cardinal features of anorexia nervosa, is the most likely reason for consulting the gynaecologist. Amenorrhoea in a young woman should alert the gynaecologist to the possibility of an underlying eating disorder. Osteopenia is a potentially irreversible complication of prolonged amenorrhoea and

2003-01-01

140

Sleep and Dreams in Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of several studies on sleep EEG and dreams in patients with eating disorders are presented and compared with the data obtained in patients with a major depression. The sleep pattern, which is characteristic of depression, could not be found in the eating disorder group. Regarding the cholinergic REM induction test, the depressives displayed a pronounced shortening of REM

Bertram Dippel; Christoph Lauer; Dieter Riemann; Katrin Majer-Trendel; Jürgen-Christian Krieg; Mathias Berger

1987-01-01

141

Sleep changes in the disorder of insomnia: a meta-analysis of polysomnographic studies.  

PubMed

Insomnia is a highly prevalent health problem worldwide. Primary insomnia (PI), i.e., insomnia not due to another disorder or substance use, represents a model to elucidate the pathophysiology of sleep. However, prior research in patients with PI has failed to demonstrate consistent abnormalities in the state-of-the-art assessment of sleep (polysomnography). The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify whether there are identifiable polysomnographic sleep changes that correspond to the subjective complaints of patients with PI. Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched from 1994 to 2012. Effects were calculated as standardized mean differences. Studies were pooled with the random-effects metaanalytic model. Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. In total, 582 patients with PI and 485 good sleeper controls (GSC) were evaluated. The results showed that patients with PI present a disruption of sleep continuity and a significant reduction of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared to GSC. The observed changes in sleep architecture, i.e., reductions in SWS and REM sleep, hitherto did not count among the typical polysomnographic findings in patients with PI. An advanced knowledge of the polysomnographic changes in PI may add to foster the understanding of the pathophysiology of sleep and its bi-directional relationships with somatic and mental disorders. PMID:23809904

Baglioni, Chiara; Regen, Wolfram; Teghen, Armand; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Riemann, Dieter

2014-06-01

142

Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Mindfulness- based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a meditation program based on an integration of Cognitive behavioural therapy and Mindfulness-based stress reduction. The aim of the present work is to review and conduct a meta-analysis of the current findings about the efficacy of MBCT for psychiatric patients. A literature search was undertaken using five electronic databases and references of retrieved articles. Main findings included the following: 1) MBCT in adjunct to usual care was significantly better than usual care alone for reducing major depression (MD) relapses in patients with three or more prior depressive episodes (4 studies), 2) MBCT plus gradual discontinuation of maintenance ADs was associated to similar relapse rates at 1year as compared with continuation of maintenance antidepressants (1 study), 3) the augmentation of MBCT could be useful for reducing residual depressive symptoms in patients with MD (2 studies) and for reducing anxiety symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder in remission (1 study) and in patients with some anxiety disorders (2 studies). However, several methodological shortcomings including small sample sizes, non-randomized design of some studies and the absence of studies comparing MBCT to control groups designed to distinguish specific from non-specific effects of such practice underscore the necessity for further research. PMID:20846726

Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro

2011-05-30

143

Animal Models of Eating Disorder Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex\\u000a interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits\\u000a related to eating disorders may provide a way to functionally and systematically study neurobiological mechanisms underlying\\u000a these disorders. Interspecies trait genetics may offer opportunities to identify common neurobiological

Martien J. H. Kas; Roger A. H. Adan

144

Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules.  

PubMed

Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eating disorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exacerbates risk for developing eating disorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a battery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disordered eating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implications for designing early interventions for disordered eating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disordered eating who also report high levels of perfectionism. PMID:23121786

Brown, Amanda Joelle; Parman, Kortney M; Rudat, Deirdre A; Craighead, Linda W

2012-12-01

145

Eating Disorders in a Nonclinical Adolescent Population: Implications for Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated prevalence of adolescent eating disorders across gender, cultural groupings, and socioeconomic status. Administered Eating Attitudes Test, Binge-Eating Questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire to 1,261 high school students. Results indicated high rate of eating disorders in nonclinical adolescent population. Eating disorders

Lachenmeyer, Juliana Rasic; Muni-Brander, Paulette

1988-01-01

146

Behavioral management of night eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed.

Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C

2013-01-01

147

Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995-2012  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.

Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2013-01-01

148

Impulse control disorders in women with eating disorders.  

PubMed

We compared symptom patterns, severity of illness, and comorbidity in individuals with eating disorders with and without impulse control disorders (ICD), and documented the temporal pattern of illness onset. Lifetime ICD were present in 16.6% of 709 women with a history of eating disorders. The most common syndromes were compulsive buying disorder and kleptomania. ICD occurred more in individuals with binge eating subtypes, and were associated with significantly greater use of laxatives, diuretics, appetite suppressants and fasting, and with greater body image disturbance, higher harm avoidance, neuroticism, cognitive impulsivity, and lower self-directedness. In addition, individuals with ICD were more likely to have obsessive-compulsive disorder, any anxiety disorder, specific phobia, depression, cluster B personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and to use psychoactive substances. Among those with ICD, 62% reported the ICD predated the eating disorder and 45% reported the onset of both disorders within the same 3-year window. The presence of a lifetime ICD appears to be limited to eating disorders marked by binge eating and to be associated with worse eating-related psychopathology, more pathological personality traits, and more frequent comorbid Axis I and II conditions. Untreated ICD may complicate recovery from eating disorders. PMID:17961717

Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Pinheiro, Andréa Poyastro; Thornton, Laura M; Berrettini, Wade H; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

2008-01-15

149

The emotional Stroop task and posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant impairment and lowered quality of life. The emotional Stroop task (EST) has been one means of elucidating some of the core deficits in PTSD, but this literature has remained inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of EST studies in PTSD populations in order to synthesize this body of research. Twenty-six studies were included with 538 PTSD participants, 254 non-trauma exposed control participants (NTC), and 276 trauma exposed control participants (TC). PTSD-relevant words impaired EST performance more among PTSD groups and TC groups compared to NTC groups. PTSD groups and TC groups did not differ. When examining within-subject effect sizes, PTSD-relevant words and generally threatening words impaired EST performance relative to neutral words among PTSD groups, and only PTSD-relevant words impaired performance among the TC groups. These patterns were not found among the NTC groups. Moderator analyses suggested that these effects were significantly greater in blocked designs compared to randomized designs, toward unmasked compared to masked stimuli, and among samples exposed to assaultive traumas compared to samples exposed to non-assaultive traumas. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21545780

Cisler, Josh M; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Adams, Thomas G; Babson, Kimberly A; Badour, Christal L; Willems, Jeffrey L

2011-07-01

150

The Emotional Stroop Task and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant impairment and lowered quality of life. The emotional Stroop task (EST) has been one means of elucidating some of the core deficits in PTSD, but this literature has remained inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of EST studies in PTSD populations in order to synthesize this body of research. Twenty-six studies were included with 538 PTSD participants, 254 non-trauma exposed control participants (NTC), and 276 trauma exposed control participants (TC). PTSD-relevant words impaired EST performance more among PTSD groups and TC groups compared to NTC groups. PTSD groups and TC groups did not differ. When examining within-subject effect sizes, PTSD-relevant words and generally threatening words impaired EST performance relative to neutral words among PTSD groups, and only PTSD-relevant words impaired performance among the TC groups. These patterns were not found among the NTC groups. Moderator analyses suggested that these effects were significantly greater in blocked designs compared to randomized designs, towards unmasked compared to masked stimuli, and among samples exposed to assaultive traumas compared to samples exposed to non-assaultive traumas. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

Cisler, Josh M.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Adams, Thomas G.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Badour, Christal L.; Willems, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

151

Epidemiology of Major Depressive Disorder in Iran: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: There are a large number of primary researches on the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Iran; however, their findings are varied considerably. A systematic review was performed in order to summarize the findings. Methods: Electronic and manual searches in international and Iranian journals were conducted to find relevant studies reporting MDD prevalence. To maximize the sensitivity of the search, the references of relevant papers were also explored. We explored the potential sources of heterogeneity such as diagnostic tools, gender and other characteristics using meta-regression model. The combined mean prevalence rates were calculated for genders, studies using each type of instruments and for each province using meta-analysis method. Results: From 44 articles included in the systematic review, 24 reported current prevalence and 20 reported lifetime prevalence of MDD. The overall estimation of current prevalence of MDD was 4.1% (95% CI: 3.1-5.1). Women were 1.95 (95% CI: 1.55-2.45) times more likely to have MDD. The current prevalence of MDD in urban inhabitants was not significantly different from rural inhabitants. The analysis identified the variations in diagnostic tools as an important source of heterogeneity. Conclusions: Although there is not adequate information on MDD prevalence in some areas of Iran, the overall current prevalence of MDD in the country is high and females are at the greater risk of disease.

Sadeghirad, Behnam; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Ananloo, Esmaeil Shahsavand; Ghaeli, Padideh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Talebian, Elham; Pourkhandani, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Barooti, Esmat

2010-01-01

152

Facial emotion processing in borderline personality disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A body of work has developed over the last 20 years that explores facial emotion perception in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). We identified 25 behavioural and functional imaging studies that tested facial emotion processing differences between patients with BPD and healthy controls through a database literature search. Despite methodological differences there is consistent evidence supporting a negative response bias to neutral and ambiguous facial expressions in patients. Findings for negative emotions are mixed with evidence from individual studies of an enhanced sensitivity to fearful expressions and impaired facial emotion recognition of disgust, while meta-analysis revealed no significant recognition impairments between BPD and healthy controls for any negative emotion. Mentalizing studies indicate that BPD patients are accurate at attributing mental states to complex social stimuli. Functional neuroimaging data suggest that the underlying neural substrate involves hyperactivation in the amygdala to affective facial stimuli, and altered activation in the anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal sulcus particularly during social emotion processing tasks. Future studies must address methodological inconsistencies, particularly variations in patients' key clinical characteristics and in the testing paradigms deployed. PMID:24574071

Mitchell, Amy E; Dickens, Geoffrey L; Picchioni, Marco M

2014-06-01

153

Night eating patterns of individuals with eating disorders: implications for conceptualizing the night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

The prevalence, correlates, and symptom coherence of night eating syndrome (NES) in individuals seeking inpatient treatment for eating disorders were assessed. Inpatients (n=68; M age=29.8 years; % female=94.1; % diagnosed with anorexia nervosa [AN]=47.1; % diagnosed with bulimia nervosa [BN]=47.1) were interviewed with the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory. Additionally, medical charts were reviewed and participants completed measures of eating behavior and quality of life. NES was diagnosed in 25% of patients; significantly more patients diagnosed with BN meet criteria for NES compared to those diagnosed with AN. In general, patients with NES did not differ from patients without NES on eating behaviors, attitudes, or quality of life; symptoms of NES frequently co-occurred. This study supports previous research finding that night eating behavior is common in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:20826005

Lundgren, Jennifer D; McCune, Ashley; Spresser, Carrie; Harkins, Paula; Zolton, Lauren; Mandal, Konoy

2011-03-30

154

Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

1988-01-01

155

Cognitive Behavior Therapy of Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of uncontrollable eating, even when not hungry, until uncomfortably full, occurring at least twice a week for a 6-month period. This is differentiated from bulimia nervosa (BN) by the lack of compensatory mechanisms such as purging\\/laxative abuse. There are significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptoms in patients with BED as compared

V. Vaidya

2006-01-01

156

Risk factors for eating disorders in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify psychopathological, social and family variables that, measured at the age of 13, might predict the development of eating disorders 2 years later, using a standardized interview and controlling the effect of initially abnormal eating behavior. Method: At age 13 and 15, 1076 adolescents completed questionnaires for the screening of psychiatric morbidity,

Luis Beato-Fernández; Teresa Rodríguez-Cano; Antonia Belmonte-Llario; Cristóbal Martínez-Delgado

2004-01-01

157

School Counselors' Knowledge of Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from 337 school counselors revealed 11 percent rated themselves as very competent in helping students with eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), 49 percent considered themselves moderately competent, 40 percent believed they were not very competent; 75 percent did not believe it was their role to treat students with eating

Price, Joy A.; And Others

1990-01-01

158

Ghrelin and Eating Disturbances in Psychiatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Appetite and eating behavior are frequently altered in psychiatric patients. The newly discovered gut-derived neuropeptide ghrelin simulates hunger and weight gain. Therefore, it might be involved in appetite regulation during psychiatric disorders. Methods: In 83 depressed, 42 schizophrenic patients and 46 healthy controls plasma ghrelin levels were measured, and the psychometric scores on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) were

A. Schanze; U. Reulbach; M. Scheuchenzuber; M. Gröschl; J. Kornhuber; T. Kraus

2008-01-01

159

Culture and the Development of Eating Disorders: A Tripartite Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are often conceptualized as “culture-bound problems;” however, the processes by which culture contributes to eating disorders have yet to be elucidated by researchers. This manuscript moves beyond research's current emphasis on evaluating the prevalence rates of eating disorders among ethnic groups, and presents a tripartite model to aid in understanding how cultural processes influence eating disorders. Cultural influences

CHARLOTTE N. MARKEY

2004-01-01

160

Help-Seeking for Eating Disorders in Female Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents an exploratory analysis of the factors preventing females from seeking counseling for eating disorder symptoms. High school junior and senior females (N = 238) completed assessments of eating disorders, attitudes toward counseling, and reasons for avoiding counseling for eating disordered behaviors. Results indicated that participants with moderate to high levels of eating disorder symptoms (49% of the

Dinah F. Meyer

2001-01-01

161

The effect of parent involvement in the treatment of anxiety disorders in children: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Among clinicians, it is common practice to include parents in treatment, and it has been taken for granted that parents' involvement in their children's treatment is beneficial for therapy outcome, although research on this issue is far from clear. A meta-analysis was carried out in order to investigate whether parent involvement potentiates the outcome for children with anxiety disorders when treated with cognitive-behavior therapy. Sixteen studies, which directly compared parent-involved treatments with child-only treatments, were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed a small, nonsignificant effect size of - 0.10 in favor of the child-only treatments. There was no indication of publication bias in the analysis. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:24950054

Thulin, Ulrika; Svirsky, Liv; Serlachius, Eva; Andersson, Gerhard; Ost, Lars-Göran

2014-09-01

162

The offspring of mothers with eating disorders.  

PubMed

There is good evidence that children of parents with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of disturbances in their development. There is considerable research on disorders such as depression and alcohol abuse, but research on the children of parents with eating disorders has only recently emerged. This paper reviews evidence in a number of domains, including genetic factors; pregnancy; the perinatal and postpartum period; followed by infancy, and the early years, focusing on feeding and mealtimes, general parenting functions and growth. Psychopathology in the children, parental attitudes to children's weight and shape, and adolescence are then considered. While numerous case reports and series have been published, there are very few systematic controlled studies, and virtually no reports of the influence of fathers with eating disorders or the male partners of mothers with eating disorders. The available evidence suggests that children of mothers with eating disorders are themselves at increased risk of disturbance in a variety of domains. This risk depends on a range of factors, and it should be noted that difficulties in the offspring of mothers with an eating disorder are far from invariable. Finally, based on current evidence, five types of mechanisms by which eating disturbance in parents can influence child development are summarised. PMID:12567222

Park, Rebecca J; Senior, Rob; Stein, Alan

2003-01-01

163

Men with Eating Disorders Often Ignore Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Men With Eating Disorders Often Ignore Symptoms British study finds that too many males associate anorexia, bulimia as only a woman's issue (*this news item ...

164

Surfing for Thinness: A Pilot Study of Pro-Eating Disorder Web Site Usage in Adolescents With Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Pro- eating disorder Web sites are communities of individuals who engage in disordered eating and use the Internet to discuss their activities. Pro-recovery sites, which are less numerous, express a recovery-oriented perspective. This pilot study investigated the awareness and usage of pro- eating disorder Web sites among adolescents with eating disorders and their parents and explored associa- tions with

Jenny L. Wilson; Rebecka Peebles; Kristina K. Hardy; Iris F. Litt

2010-01-01

165

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

2011-01-01

166

Genome Scan Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Part II: Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a common disorder with high heritability and a 10-fold increase in risk to siblings of probands. Replication has been inconsistent for reports of significant genetic linkage. To assess evidence for linkage across studies, rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) was applied to data from 20 schizophrenia genome scans. Each marker for each scan was assigned to 1 of 120 30-cM bins, with the bins ranked by linkage scores (1 = most significant) and the ranks averaged across studies (Ravg) and then weighted for sample size (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\sqrt{N[affected cases]}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}). A permutation test was used to compute the probability of observing, by chance, each bin’s average rank (PAvgRnk) or of observing it for a bin with the same place (first, second, etc.) in the order of average ranks in each permutation (Pord). The GSMA produced significant genomewide evidence for linkage on chromosome 2q (PAvgRnk<.000417). Two aggregate criteria for linkage were also met (clusters of nominally significant P values that did not occur in 1,000 replicates of the entire data set with no linkage present): 12 consecutive bins with both PAvgRnk and Pord<.05, including regions of chromosomes 5q, 3p, 11q, 6p, 1q, 22q, 8p, 20q, and 14p, and 19 consecutive bins with Pord<.05, additionally including regions of chromosomes 16q, 18q, 10p, 15q, 6q, and 17q. There is greater consistency of linkage results across studies than has been previously recognized. The results suggest that some or all of these regions contain loci that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia in diverse populations.

Lewis, Cathryn M.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Wise, Lesley H.; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Straub, Richard E.; Hovatta, Iiris; Williams, Nigel M.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Pulver, Ann E.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Kaufmann, Charles A.; Garver, David L.; Gurling, Hugh M. D.; Lindholm, Eva; Coon, Hilary; Moises, Hans W.; Byerley, William; Shaw, Sarah H.; Mesen, Andrea; Sherrington, Robin; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Walsh, Dermot; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Ekelund, Jesper; Paunio, Tiina; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Owen, Michael J.; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Nestadt, Gerald; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Crowe, Raymond R.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Tsuang, Ming T.; Malaspina, Dolores; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Bassett, Anne S.; Holcomb, Jennifer; Kalsi, Gursharan; McQuillin, Andrew; Brynjolfson, Jon; Sigmundsson, Thordur; Petursson, Hannes; Jazin, Elena; Zoega, Tomas; Helgason, Tomas

2003-01-01

167

Multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis of white matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or FA between patients with OCD and healthy controls in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases were retrieved. Manual searches were also conducted and authors were contacted soliciting additional data. Thirty-four data sets were identified, of which 22 met inclusion criteria (five of them unpublished; comprising 537 adult and pediatric patients with OCD and 575 matched healthy controls). Whenever possible, raw statistical parametric maps were also obtained from the authors. Peak and raw WMV and FA data were combined using novel multimodal meta-analytic methods implemented in effect-size signed differential mapping. Patients with OCD showed widespread WM abnormalities, but findings were particularly robust in the anterior midline tracts (crossing between anterior parts of cingulum bundle and body of corpus callosum), which showed both increased WMV and decreased FA, possibly suggesting an increase of fiber crossing in these regions. This finding was also observed when the analysis was limited to adult participants, and especially pronounced in samples with a higher proportion of medicated patients. Therefore, patients with OCD may have widespread WM abnormalities, particularly evident in anterior midline tracts, although these changes might be, at least in part, attributable to the effects of therapeutic drugs. PMID:24407265

Radua, Joaquim; Grau, Mar; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Stein, Dan J; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Catani, Marco; Mataix-Cols, David

2014-06-01

168

The offspring of mothers with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is good evidence that children of parents with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of disturbances in their development. There is considerable research on disorders such as depression and alcohol abuse, but research on the children of parents with eating disorders has only recently emerged. This paper reviews evidence in a number of domains, including genetic factors; pregnancy; the

Rebecca J. Park; Rob Senior; Alan Stein

2003-01-01

169

The Children of Mothers with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is good evidence that children of parents with psychological disorders are themselves at increased risk of disturbances in their development. Although there has been considerable research on a variety of disorders such as depression and alcohol, research on the children of parents with eating disorders has been relatively recent. This paper aims to review the evidence and covers a

Priti Patel; Rebecca Wheatcroft; Rebecca J. Park; Alan Stein

2002-01-01

170

The co-occurrence of major depressive disorder among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Although co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with greater distress, impairment, and health care utilization than PTSD alone, the magnitude of this problem is uncertain. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the mean prevalence of current MDD co-occurrence among individuals with PTSD and examine potential moderating variables (U.S. nationality, gender, trauma type, military service, referral type) that may influence the rate of PTSD and MDD co-occurrence. Meta-analytic findings (k = 57 studies; N = 6,670 participants) revealed that 52%, 95% confidence interval [48, 56], of individuals with current PTSD had co-occurring MDD. When outliers were removed, military samples and interpersonal traumas demonstrated higher rates of MDD among individuals with PTSD than civilian samples and natural disasters, respectively. U.S. nationality, gender, and referral type did not significantly account for differences in co-occurrence rates. This high co-occurrence rate accentuates the importance of routinely assessing MDD among individuals with PTSD and continuing research into the association between these disorders. PMID:23696449

Rytwinski, Nina K; Scur, Michael D; Feeny, Norah C; Youngstrom, Eric A

2013-06-01

171

Using Meta-analysis to Compare the Efficacy of Medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Youths  

PubMed Central

Medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been well researched, but comparisons among agents are hindered by the absence of head-to-head clinical trials. By using meta-analysis, we sought to compare the efficacy of these medications for the symptoms of ADHD. We analyzed published literature on the pharmacotherapy of ADHD to describe the variability of drug–placebo effect sizes and conducted a literature search to identify double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of youths with ADHD that were published after 1979. Meta-analysis regression was used to assess the influence of the medication type on drug effects. We also assessed for publication bias. Thirty-two trials met our criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. These trials involved 16 drugs using 20 different outcome measures of ADHD behaviors. The effect sizes for immediate-release stimulants and long-acting stimulants were similar and were greater than the effect sizes for non-stimulants. There was no evidence of publication bias. Although nearly all of the ADHD medications had significant effects, we found substantial variability. When translated into the costs of treating large numbers of patients, these effect sizes have implications for formulary medication choices.

Faraone, Stephen V.

2009-01-01

172

Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable than Autistic Disorder? A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as…

Rondeau, Emelie; Klein, Leslie S.; Masse, Andre; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

2011-01-01

173

Social Story[TM] Interventions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of single-subject research was conducted, examining the use of Social Stories[TM] and the role of a comprehensive set of moderator variables (intervention and participant characteristics) on intervention outcomes. While Social Stories had low to questionable overall effectiveness, they were more effective when addressing…

Kokina, Anastasia; Kern, Lee

2010-01-01

174

Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness- based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a meditation program based on an integration of Cognitive behavioural therapy and Mindfulness-based stress reduction. The aim of the present work is to review and conduct a meta-analysis of the current findings about the efficacy of MBCT for psychiatric patients. A literature search was undertaken using five electronic databases and references of retrieved articles.

Alberto Chiesa; Alessandro Serretti

2011-01-01

175

Disordered eating among Brazilian female college students.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic and nutritional factors associated with disordered eating among Brazilian female college students (n = 2,489). Prevalence ratios of risk factors were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance based on responses to selected questions from the Eating Attitude Test and Disordered Eating Attitude Scale. It was found that 40.7% of students were dieting, 35.6% were using diet or compensatory methods, 23.9% skipping meals, 12.6% not eating or just drinking liquids, and 3.3%, vomiting to lose weight. A positive association was found between not eating or just drinking liquids and skipping meals and nutritional status after adjustment for age and region. A positive association was found between compensatory methods and dieting and education level of the head of the family. Disordered eating behaviors were frequent, and not eating and skipping meals were more prevalent among overweight/obese students; compensatory methods and dieting were less prevalent among students from families whose head had up to only four years of education. Prevention strategies and food education are necessary in order to decrease the prevalence of these behaviors. PMID:23702994

Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

2013-05-01

176

Implicit Family Process Rules in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…

Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.

2009-01-01

177

Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

Klasey, Nicole

2009-01-01

178

Is migraine related to the eating disorders?  

PubMed

Migraine and the eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, share some common demographics, phenomenology, psychopathology, and treatments. Bulimics also appear to be more sensitive to the induction of severe migrainous headaches than controls following challenge with the 5-HT agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), but not placebo or L-tryptophan. This supports a common pathophysiological relationship involving postsynaptic 5-HT dysfunction between these disorders. In order to further explore the possible relationship between eating disorders and migraine, we administered a modified version of the Diagnostic Survey of the Eating Disorders (DSED) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) to a group of female migraine patients attending the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Neurology Clinic (n = 34). Of the 34 migraine patients surveyed, 88% reported dieting behavior, 59% reported binge eating, and 26% reported self-induced vomiting during their lifetimes. Compared to the responses of a group of normal female controls (n = 577), patients with migraine had elevated scores on four of the eight subscales of the EDI: Body Dissatisfaction (p < or = .02), Perfectionism (p < or = .01), Interpersonal Distrust (p < or = .02), and Ineffectiveness (p < or = .06). These findings support the hypothesis that common pathophysiological mechanisms, perhaps involving 5-HT dysregulation, may be involved in these two disorders. PMID:8339102

Brewerton, T D; George, M S

1993-07-01

179

The multimodal treatment of eating disorders  

PubMed Central

The treatment of eating disorders is based on a multimodal model, recognizing that these disorders do not have a single cause or a predictable course. The treatment strategy is determined by the severity of illness and the specific eating disorder diagnosis. For the treatment of anorexia nervosa, the key elements are medical management, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and family therapy, while pharmacotherapy is at best an adjunct to other therapies. In bulimia nervosa, the treatment of choice is cognitive-behavioral therapy, but a greater improvement in mood and anxiety occurs when antidepressant therapy is added. In binge eating disorder, cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy produce substantial and long-lasting changes and pharmacological treatment has often a useful role.

HALMI, KATHERINE A.

2005-01-01

180

Aggressiveness, Anger and Eating Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eating disorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,

Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca

2006-01-01

181

Eating Disorders: Could They be Autoimmune Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent research on Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) has shown an increasing understanding of the biological and physiological abnormalities that underlie the development of an eating disorder. Cultural pressures, individual and family experiences, along with physiological and genetic systems all appear to contribute to the onset of these disorders. There is significant evidence for genetic factors in

Melissa Stevenson

2006-01-01

182

Partial eating disorders among adolescents: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeMany adolescents do not fulfill all the DSM-IV criteria’s for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, but do nevertheless suffer from partial eating disorders (EDs). This review focuses on the definition, epidemiology and clinical aspects of these disorders.

Catherine Chamay-Weber; Françoise Narring; Pierre-André Michaud

2005-01-01

183

Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.  

PubMed

The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (p<0.001). For DEAS total score, AN and BN patients were similar and all other were different (p<0.001). Similarities suggested between BN and BED were true just for the "Relationship with food" and "Idea of normal eating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes. PMID:24768646

Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

2014-05-28

184

Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered

Bryla, Karen Y.

2003-01-01

185

Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eating disorders,…

Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

2003-01-01

186

Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population:An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although eating disorders often begin during adolescence, characteristics of this population can complicate early detection by clinicians. The purpose of this article is to selectively review the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) and International Classification of Diseases (10th

Jori H. Reijonen; Helen D. Pratt; Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus

2003-01-01

187

Effect of Orlistat in Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Binge eating disorder represents a significant public health problem, with up to 50% of weight loss program participants displaying this disorder. In previous studies with orlistat, patients with binge eating disorder were excluded. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of orlistat in obese patients with binge eating disorder.Research Methods and Procedures: Eighty-nine patients with clinically

Alain Golay; Anne Laurent-Jaccard; Frank Habicht; Jean-Pierre Gachoud; Mireille Chabloz; Anne Kammer; Yves Schutz

2005-01-01

188

Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

2007-01-01

189

Eating Disorders Among College Women: Prevention, Education, and Treatment Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses eating disorders in college females, recommending use of the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified framework to identify and target various eating concerns for intervention. The paper also suggests using a multiple-level, developmental-intervention model to conceptualize preventive, educational, and remedial responses to eating

Schwitzer, Alan M.; Bergholz, Kim; Dore, Terri; Salimi, Lamieh

1998-01-01

190

A Preliminary Investigation of the Eating Disorder Continuum with Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Men largely are neglected in research on eating disturbances, including research on the eating disorder continuum. This research explored whether the eating disorder continuum provides an accurate representation for men of characteristics related to disturbed eating in women. Results for a sample of 166 men were mixed, offering limited support for…

Tylka, Tracey L.; Subich, Linda Mezdlo

2002-01-01

191

Behavioral management of night eating disorders.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. PMID:23569400

Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C

2013-01-01

192

Animal models of eating disorder traits.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functionally and systematically study neurobiological mechanisms underlying these disorders. Interspecies trait genetics may offer opportunities to identify common neurobiological mechanisms underlying eating disorder characteristics relevant to the initiation, progression, and/or maintenance of the disease, such as cognitive rigidity, increased anxiety levels, and behavioral hyperactivity. These can subsequently be tested directly by studying allelic variation in mice and human subjects and by applying methods that can modify gene expression levels in rodent models. Increasing our knowledge about these traits and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms will be relevant to develop new therapies for patients within the heterogeneous eating disorder populations. Novel mouse genetic and phenotyping tools offer a way to study these neurobehavioral traits under controlled environmental and genetic background conditions. PMID:21243478

Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

2011-01-01

193

Prevalence of eating disorders in the general population: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The estimated prevalence of eating disorders reported in community surveys from different parts of the world varies widely but there has been no systematic attempt to identify the reasons for these differences. Objective Use meta-analysis methods to pool data from community surveys about the prevalence of eating disorders in different locations and to identify the factors that are associated with the reported prevalence of eating disorders. Methods Based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, studies were identified from the following databases: PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI web of knowledge, Ovid, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, WANFANG DATA, and Chinese Biological Literature Service System. Statistical analysis was conducted using R software. Results Among the 9315 unduplicated reports reviewed (one-fourth of which were published in Chinese) only 15 – with a pooled sample size of 72,961 individuals – met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. None of the included studies were from China and only one Asian country (South Korea) was included in the analysis. The estimated lifetime prevalence, 12-month prevalence, and 4-week prevalence of any eating disorder was 1.01% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.89), 0.37% (CI, 0.22-0.63), and 0.21% (CI, 0.15-0.28), respectively. Estimated lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder was 0.21% (CI, 0.11-0.38), 0.81% (CI, 0.59-1.09), and 2.22% (CI, 1.78-2.76), respectively. The estimated female-male ratio for lifetime prevalence of any eating disorder was 4.2. The lifetime prevalence of any eating disorder reported from studies conducted in Western countries was 6.1-fold greater than that reported in a single study from South Korea. Over time there has been a non-significant increase in reported prevalence of any eating disorder and a significant increase in reported prevalence of anorexia nervosa. Conclusions Eating disorders are common in the general population, more common in women than men, and more common in Western countries than in Asian countries.The reported prevalence is increasing over time, but this may be due to changes in diagnostic criteria. There are serious limitations in the available epidemiological data, primarily differences in the conditions included among eating disorders and the lack of acceptable epidemiological studies from low- and middle-income countries (including China).

Qian, Jie; Hu, Qiang; Wan, Yumei; Li, Ting; Wu, Mudan; Ren, Zhiqun; Yu, Dehua

2013-01-01

194

Comparative Linkage Meta-Analysis Reveals Regionally-Distinct, Disparate Genetic Architectures: Application to Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

New high-throughput, population-based methods and next-generation sequencing capabilities hold great promise in the quest for common and rare variant discovery and in the search for ”missing heritability.” However, the optimal analytic strategies for approaching such data are still actively debated, representing the latest rate-limiting step in genetic progress. Since it is likely a majority of common variants of modest effect have been identified through the application of tagSNP-based microarray platforms (i.e., GWAS), alternative approaches robust to detection of low-frequency (1–5% MAF) and rare (<1%) variants are of great importance. Of direct relevance, we have available an accumulated wealth of linkage data collected through traditional genetic methods over several decades, the full value of which has not been exhausted. To that end, we compare results from two different linkage meta-analysis methods—GSMA and MSP—applied to the same set of 13 bipolar disorder and 16 schizophrenia GWLS datasets. Interestingly, we find that the two methods implicate distinct, largely non-overlapping, genomic regions. Furthermore, based on the statistical methods themselves and our contextualization of these results within the larger genetic literatures, our findings suggest, for each disorder, distinct genetic architectures may reside within disparate genomic regions. Thus, comparative linkage meta-analysis (CLMA) may be used to optimize low-frequency and rare variant discovery in the modern genomic era.

Tang, Brady; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Askland, Kathleen D.

2011-01-01

195

Detection, evaluation, and treatment of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a MEDLINE search on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating\\u000a disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and

Judith M. E. Walsh; Mary E. Wheat; Karen Freund

2000-01-01

196

Assessing Object Relations and Social Cognitive Correlates of Eating Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relation between eating disorder and disturbances in object relations and cognitive structure in undergraduate female college students (n=183). Results indicated that eating disorder was predicted by measures of object relations disturbance and cognitive structure. (Author/ABL)

Heesacker, Roberta S.; Neimeyer, Greg J.

1990-01-01

197

Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Binge Eating Disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided Self Help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and cost-effective than existing, efficacious BED specialty treatments which are limited in public health utility and impact given their time and expense demands. No existing BED GSH treatment has incorporated affect regulation models of binge eating, which appears warranted given research linking negative affect and binge eating. Integrative Response Therapy (IRT), a new group-based guided self-help treatment, based on the affect regulation model of binge eating, that has shown initial promise in a pilot sample of adults meeting DSM IV criteria for BED, is described. Fifty-four% and 67% of participants were abstinent at post-treatment and three month follow-up respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of binge days over the previous 28 days from baseline to post-treatment [14.44 (±7.16) to 3.15 (±5.70); t=7.71, p<.001; d=2.2] and from baseline to follow-up [14.44 (±7.16) to 1.50 (±2.88); t=5.64, p<.001; d=1.7]. All subscales from both the Eating Disorder Examination – Questionnaire and Emotional Eating Scale were significantly lower at post-treatment compared to baseline. 100% of IRT participants would recommend the program to a friend or family member in need. IRT’s longer-term efficacy and acceptability are presently being tested in a National Institute of Mental Health funded randomized controlled trial.

Robinson, Athena

2014-01-01

198

A Meta-Analysis of Differences in IQ Profiles Between Individuals with Asperger's Disorder and High-Functioning Autism.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did individuals with HFA; (b) individuals with AspD had significantly higher VIQ than PIQ; and (c) VIQ was similar to PIQ in individuals with HFA. These findings seem to suggest that AspD and HFA are two different subtypes of Autism. The implications of the present findings to DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder are discussed. PMID:24362849

Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

2014-07-01

199

Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

2006-01-01

200

Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder

Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

2010-01-01

201

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

202

Exploring the Construct Validity of the Eating Disorder Continuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specific psychological, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics known to be related to clinical eating disorders were examined in two studies undertaken to explore whether these characteristics vary by eating-disorder-continuum placement. Results of these two studies support the construct validity of the eating-disorder continuum. Implications…

Tylka, Tracy L.; Subich, Linda Mezydlo

1999-01-01

203

Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population:Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents become vulnerable to developing eating disorders as they mature. Very little is known about the prevalence, etiology, assessment, treatment, and outcome of eating disorders among adolescents. In general, research on eating disorders continues to be plagued with design flaws. Future studies need to be prospective research based on larger, more diverse samples of adolescents that represent all developmental stages

Helen D. Pratt; Elaine L. Phillips; Donald E. Greydanus; Dilip R. Patel

2003-01-01

204

Barriers to treatment for eating disorders among ethnically diverse women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined barriers to treatment in an ethnically diverse com- munity sample of women with eating disorders. Method: Participants were 61 women (22 Hispanics, 8 Asians, 12 Blacks, 19 Whites) with eating disorders. Diagnosis was determined using the Eating Disorder Examination. Treatment-seeking history, barriers to treatment seek- ing, ethnic identity, and acculturation were assessed. Results: Although 85% of

Fary M. Cachelin; Ramona Rebeck; Catherine Veisel; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore

2001-01-01

205

College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

2010-01-01

206

Competing on all fronts: Achievement orientation and disordered eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strikingly high prevalence rates of symptoms of disordered eating among college women have been documented. The question arises as to whether one aspect of the college experience, achievement orientation, is associated with disordered eating. Competing hypotheses may be generated regarding the relationship between achievement orientation and disordered eating, with arguments for either a positive or negative relationship. The Work and

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Lisa R. Silberstein; Neil E. Grunberg; Judith Rodin

1990-01-01

207

An Empirically Supported Eating Disorder Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An eating disorder prevention program was completed with middle school, high school, and college females. Some successful outcomes included: (1) facilitating an acknowledgement of pressures to attain a model skeletal look; (2) changing attitudes about standards of beauty; and (3) altering the participants' current and future intentional use of…

Phelps, LeAdelle; Sapia, Jennifer; Nathanson, David; Nelson, Linda

2000-01-01

208

Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

Hamilton, Kristin L.

209

Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

Halmi, Katherine A.

2009-01-01

210

Ego-State Therapy for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author elaborates on the uses of ego-state therapy for patients with eating disorders. The concept of ego states and their origins is reviewed. Methods for the activation of ego states using hypnotic and nonhypnotic techniques are presented in detail. This is followed by a clear and specific elaboration on the therapeutic communication with hidden ego states. The goals of

Moshe S. Torem

1987-01-01

211

Disordered eating behaviors and reward sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated the extent to which reward sensitivity demonstrated associations with binge and purge behavior frequency. A verbal operant conditioning task designed to assess conditionability to reward cues was administered to a sample of 34 women who exhibited disordered eating patterns for at least 1 month prior to study participation. Reward sensitivity significantly correlated with the average weekly frequency

Richard F. Farmer; Heather M. Nash; Clint E. Field

2001-01-01

212

Eating disorders: a teen-age epidemic.  

PubMed

This article presents a personal and professional view of two eating disorders that are presently affecting large numbers of adolescents and young adults throughout the country. Bulimia and anorexia nervosa may be prevented and treated if the public receives sufficient and appropriate education. PMID:6587206

Brockopp, D Y; Hall, S Y

1984-04-01

213

Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

2013-01-01

214

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)  

MedlinePLUS

... also touched by media influence. Steroid abuse and body image to create the strong, cut male physic results in many short and long term effects, but falls off under the radar in terms of indicating distorted body image and eating disorders. Advocacy groups are also engaged ...

215

Diagnosis and Treatment of Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper was designed to provide professional counselors with a comprehensive but concise method of accurately evaluting, interviewing, and planning for treatment of eating disorder clients. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section, Diagnosis, compares, contrasts, and offers clear explanations of the diagnostic criteria for…

Neuman, Patricia; And Others

216

Eating Disorders among Women: A Feminist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study and treatment of eating disorders has long been associated with psychoanalytic concepts of rejection of femininity and fear of oral impregnation. Although a theoretical reformulation emphasizing feminist analysis began a decade ago, the extension and application of these ideas has not solidified into a comprehensive treatment…

Watts, Deborah L.

217

Gender, sexual orientation, and disordered eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most patients with bulimia nervosa are heterosexual women, a significant number of men with bulimia nervosa are gay males, suggesting that gay men, more than heterosexual men, may be at risk for developing eating disorders. This study compared the food-related attitudes and behaviors of heterosexual men and women in contrast with those of lesbians and gay men, attempting to

John A. Schneider; Ann Oleary; Sharon Rae Jenkins

1995-01-01

218

How Frequent Are Eating Disturbances in the Population? Norms of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is a self-report instrument assessing the specific psychopathology and key behaviors of eating disorders. This study sought to determine the prevalence of eating disturbances, and to provide psychometric properties and norms of the EDE-Q, in a representative German population sample.MethodsA total of 2520 individuals (1166 men, 1354 women) were assessed with the EDE-Q.ResultsEating disorder psychopathology

Anja Hilbert; Martina de Zwaan; Elmar Braehler

2012-01-01

219

A review on eating disorders and adolescence.  

PubMed

Eating disorders in adolescence are a public health concern with both personal costs and a financial burden for the community health services. This paper is a review of incidence and gender differences of eating disorders; comorbid psychopathology, including substance abuse, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and personality disorders; developmental and intellectual factors; family, socio-cultural functioning and birth order; self-injury and suicidal behaviour with health outcome and therapy success rate. We have also asked several questions from our clinical experience and tried to answer them with our clinical knowledge and based on literature review. Overall, there is an indication that therapy success is significantly correlated with (low) manifestation, specifically for social problems and aggressivity. Due to the complexity of factors involved in the manifestation of eating disorders, the inclusion of cognitive-behavioural therapy as well as family-oriented therapeutic concepts coupled with medical treatment would appear to offer an intervention inventory, which would be most effective in offering adolescents optimal treatment programmes. The implications of our review is discussed in terms of psychotherapeutic treatment plans for adolescents in clinical care. PMID:17519869

Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Kandel, I; Merrick, J

2007-06-01

220

A Risk Model for Pre-Adolescent Disordered Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective This study tested this risk model for disordered eating in pre-adolescent girls: pubertal onset is associated with increases in negative urgency (the personality tendency to act rashly when distressed); negative urgency influences eating disorder symptoms by shaping psychosocial learning (expectancy formation), thus indirectly influencing symptom levels; and many influences on purging are mediated by binge eating. Method 905 fifth grade girls completed questionnaire measures of eating pathology, negative urgency, and dieting/thinness and eating expectancies. Results Binge eating and purging behaviors were present in 5th grade girls. As anticipated, pubertal status was associated with higher levels of negative urgency, negative urgency was associated with each expectancy measure, quadratic dieting/thinness and eating expectancies were associated with binge eating, and binge eating was associated with purging. Discussion It is important and feasible to develop risk models for pre-adolescent eating disordered behaviors. Our model that integrates puberty, personality, and psychosocial learning appears promising.

Combs, Jessica L.; Pearson, Carolyn M.; Smith, Gregory T.

2010-01-01

221

Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers  

PubMed Central

We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referral by student participants were found.

Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

2013-01-01

222

Perceptions of social support and eating disorder characteristics.  

PubMed

Poor social support is a risk factor for the development of eating disorders (Ghaderi, 2003). We designed this study to investigate the relationship between social support and eating disorder symptomatology among a female, nonclinical population. The work is of international interest because disordered eating behavior is common across many nations. The results of this research should help build a better understanding of the links between social support and participants at risk of developing an eating disorder. In this study, family support was not correlated with disordered eating, but satisfaction with social support was. PMID:20390644

Limbert, Caroline

2010-02-01

223

Eating disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the causes of eating disorders remain unclear, epidemiological evidence suggests that peripubertal changes in body\\u000a shape and weight predispose young women to develop unhealthy eating attitudes. A psychiatric diagnosis of an eating disorder\\u000a can be made in up to 10% of young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes). Eating disorders, anorexia\\u000a nervosa and bulimia nervosa, pose a

A. Verrotti; M. Catino; F. A. De Luca; G. Morgese; F. Chiarelli

1999-01-01

224

Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2014-07-01

225

A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Reading Instruction on the Reading Skills of Students with or at Risk of Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of a meta-analysis of the effect of reading instruction on the reading skills of students with or at risk of behavioral disorders (BD) are reported. The goal of the synthesis was to extend the work of Coleman and Vaughn by (a) detailing independent variables and outcome measures for each study, (b)including studies sampling from…

Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.; Mooney, Paul

2010-01-01

226

Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Communication and Speech for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular communication-training program for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis reviews the current empirical evidence for PECS in affecting communication and speech outcomes for children with ASD. Method: A systematic review of the literature on PECS…

Flippin, Michelle; Reszka, Stephanie; Watson, Linda R.

2010-01-01

227

Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Elevated blood serotonin (5-HT) levels were the first biomarker identified in autism research. Many studies have contrasted blood 5-HT levels in autistic patients and controls, but different measurement protocols, technologies, and biomaterials have been used through the years. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and between-study heterogeneity, while verifying whether and to what extent different methodological approaches influence the strength of this association. Our literature search strategy identified 551 papers, from which 22 studies providing patient and control blood 5-HT values were selected for meta-analysis. Significantly higher 5-HT levels in autistic patients compared to controls were recorded both in whole blood (WB) [O.R.=4.6; (3.1-5.2); P=1.0×10(-12]), and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) [O.R.=2.6 (1.8-3.9); P=2.7×10(-7)]. Predictably, studies measuring 5-HT levels in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) yielded no significant group difference [O.R.=0.54 (0.2-2-0); P=0.36]. Altogether, elevated 5-HT blood levels were recorded in 28.3% in WB and 22.5% in PRP samples of autistic individuals, as reported in 15 and 4 studies, respectively. Studies employing HPLC vs fluorometric assays yield similar cumulative effect sizes, but the former display much lower variability. In summary, despite some limitations mainly due to small study sample sizes, our results significantly reinforce the reliability of elevated 5-HT blood levels as a biomarker in ASD, providing practical indications potentially useful for its inclusion in multi-marker diagnostic panels for clinical use. PMID:24613076

Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Persico, Antonio M

2014-06-01

228

Pharmacotherapy of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological treatment of adult ADHD based on data from controlled clinical trials. We used the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify relevant clinical trials. Short-term studies with double-blind parallel-group design were selected for the analysis. Altogether, we identified 11 trials that met the criteria, and investigated a total of 1991 subjects, 694 and 1297 of whom were treated with placebo or active medication, respectively. In order to pool efficacy data from studies with different characteristics, including different number of participants, different trial duration and measures of efficacy, the statistical effect sizes for each study had to be calculated. Our findings showed that the pooled effect size across all treatments was in the medium-to-high range (Cohen's d=0.65, p<0.0001 vs. placebo), and the effect size for stimulants (Cohen's d=0.67, p<0.0001 vs. placebo) was somewhat higher than for non-stimulant medications (Cohen's d=0.59, p<0.0001 vs. placebo). The current database of controlled trials for adult ADHD is relatively small, and does not include data for many of the potentially important agents. In addition, effect-size estimates for different classes of medications (i.e. stimulant and non-stimulant medications) were based on separate studies; head-to-head comparisons of various agents are severely lacking. Nonetheless, results of this meta-analysis across all ADHD medications in adult subjects demonstrated statistically significant and clinically robust improvement in symptom severity compared to placebo treatment. PMID:19580697

Mészáros, Agnes; Czobor, Pál; Bálint, Sára; Komlósi, Sarolta; Simon, Viktória; Bitter, István

2009-09-01

229

An investigation of Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in eating disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine how far Goodman's addictive disorder criteria were met by individuals with eating disorders according to subtypes. The study provided a cross-sectional comparison among three samples of eating disorders [restricting anorexia nervosa (R-AN), N?=?68; purging anorexia nervosa (P-AN), N?=?42; and bulimia nervosa (BN), N?=?66], a sample of substance-related disorders (SRDs, N?=?48) and a sample of matched controls (N?=?201). Diagnosis of addictive disorder was made following Goodman's criteria. Addictive personality traits were assessed with the Addiction Potential Scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 and with the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale. Results showed that individuals with BN met Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in the same proportion as drug-addicted individuals (65% vs 60%, p?=?NS). They both showed higher rates than R-AN individuals (35%; R-AN versus BN: F?=?11.9, p?disorders compared with P-AN, differences were not significant. Scores on the Sensation Seeking and on the Addictive Potential scales paralleled the distribution of addictive disorders, with individuals with BN and with P-AN showing higher levels than individuals with R-AN. Results showed that a subgroup of individuals with an eating disorder experiences their disorder as an addiction and may deserve specific therapeutic attention. PMID:21834026

Speranza, Mario; Revah-Levy, Anne; Giquel, Ludovic; Loas, Gwenolé; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Jeammet, Philippe; Corcos, Maurice

2012-05-01

230

Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

2001-01-01

231

Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study.Research Methods and Procedures: The Eating Disorders Examination–Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone interviews were conducted using the EDE for those who reported at least eight

Kelly C. Allison; Scott J. Crow; Rebecca R. Reeves; Delia Smith West; John P. Foreyt; Vicki G. DiLillo; Thomas A. Wadden; Robert W. Jeffery; Brent Van Dorsten; Albert J. Stunkard

2007-01-01

232

Efficacy of transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published outcome studies.  

PubMed

Transdiagnostic approaches to cognitive behaviour therapy (TCBT) of anxiety disorders have drawn increasing interest and empirical testing over the past decade. In this paper, we review evidence of the overall efficacy of TCBT for anxiety disorders, as well as TCBT efficacy compared with wait-list, treatment-as-usual, and diagnosis-specific cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) controls. A total of 11 studies reporting 12 trials (n = 1933) were included in the systematic review. Results from the meta-analysis of 11 trials suggest that TCBT was generally associated with positive outcome; TCBT patients did better than wait-list and treatment-as-usual patients, and treatment gains were maintained through follow-up. The pooled estimate showed a moderate treatment effect, however with large heterogeneity suggesting differences in treatment effects between the studies. Also, all the included trials, apart from one, were judged to be associated with a high risk of bias. Only one study compared TCBT with diagnosis-specific CBT suggesting treatment effect of TCBT to be as strong as diagnosis-specific CBT. This study not only cautiously supports evidence for the efficacy of TCBT, but also suggests the need for more high-quality, large-scaled studies in this area. Transdiagnostic treatments offer great clinical promise as an affordable and pragmatic treatment for anxiety disorders and as a specialized treatment for co-morbid and other-specified anxiety disorders. PMID:24646219

Reinholt, Nina; Krogh, Jesper

2014-09-01

233

Effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders on quality of life: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Objective: Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for treating anxiety disorders, little is known about its effect on quality of life. To conduct a meta-analysis of CBT for anxiety disorders on quality of life, we searched for relevant studies in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library and conducted manual searches. Method: The search identified 44 studies that included 59 CBT trials, totaling 3,326 participants receiving CBT for anxiety disorders. We estimated the controlled and within-group random effects of the treatment changes on quality of life. Results: The pre-post within-group and controlled effect sizes were moderately strong (Hedges's g = 0.54 and Hedges's g = 0.56, respectively). Improvements were greater for physical and psychological domains of quality of life than for environmental and social domains. The overall effect sizes decreased with publication year and increased with treatment duration. Face-to-face treatments delivered individually and in groups produced significantly higher effect sizes than Internet-delivered treatments. Conclusion: CBT for anxiety disorders is moderately effective for improving quality of life, especially in physical and psychological domains. Internet-delivered treatments are less effective than face-to-face treatments in improving quality of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24447006

Hofmann, Stefan G; Wu, Jade Q; Boettcher, Hannah

2014-06-01

234

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were measured in a consecutive series of new referrals with anorexia nervosa (n = 29) and bulimia nervosa (n = 77). In contrast with previous reports, there was no significant difference on MOCI scores between eating disorder groups and normal controls. A consecutive series of 38 patients with bulimia nervosa then entered a structured treatment programme. Poor outcome cases had a higher score on the MOCI-doubting sub-scale. However, there was no significant difference in obsessive-compulsive scores between those who were binge-free and those who were bingeing daily at the end of treatment and there was no significant in outcome between high and low-scorers on the MOCI. This study fails to support the view that the eating disorders are a subtype of OCD. Previous conflicting results are attributed to selection bias and the effects of low body weight. PMID:2021372

Fahy, T A

1991-01-01

235

Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

2014-01-01

236

Organic diseases mimicking atypical eating disorders.  

PubMed

The authors present three case studies of patients referred to Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, for evaluation of possible eating disorders. The atypical manifestations of the cases warranted further investigation, which revealed an organic basis for their weight loss. The authors summarize the typical findings of bulimia and anorexia nervosa and discuss the clues from the case studies that mandated further evaluation. PMID:2361340

Wright, K; Smith, M S; Mitchell, J

1990-06-01

237

A Multidimensional Meta-Analysis of Treatments for Depression, Panic, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Empirical Examination of the Status of Empirically Supported Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a meta-analysis of high-quality studies published from 1990–1998 on the efficacy of manualized psychotherapies for depression, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) that bear on the clinical utility and external validity of empirically supported therapies. The results suggest that a substantial proportion of patients with panic improve and remain improved; that treatments for depression and GAD

Drew Westen; Kate Morrison

2001-01-01

238

Effect of comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder on responses to atomoxetine in children with ADHD: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trial data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Up to 60% of children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from comorbid affective or behavioral impairments, the most common condition being oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), which occurs in 40–60% of children with ADHD.Objectives  This post hoc meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of the presence of comorbid ODD symptoms on clinical outcomes among pediatric and adolescent subjects being treated for

Joseph Biederman; Thomas J. Spencer; Jeffrey H. Newcorn; Haitao Gao; Denái R. Milton; Peter D. Feldman; Michael M. Witte

2007-01-01

239

Eating disorder symptomatology in normal-weight vs. obese individuals with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and ?(2) analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity. PMID:21331066

Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura L; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, Jim E

2011-07-01

240

Validation of the Barcelona Bipolar Eating Disorder Scale for Bipolar Patients with Eating Disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating disturbances are frequent in bipolar disorder and are associated with poor outcome. Our objective is to assess the psychometric properties of a specific scale for the evaluation of eating disturbances in bipolar patients. Sampling and Methods: Validation study of 2 groups with a 6-month follow-up (90 patients diagnosed with bipolar and eating disturbances and 40 healthy controls). Results:

Carla Torrent; Eduard Vieta; Margarida Garcia-Garcia

2008-01-01

241

Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower…

Tylka, Tracy L.; Wilcox, Jennifer A.

2006-01-01

242

Novel treatment options of binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major problem of modern societies that sometimes, but not necessarily, is associated with binge-eating disorder (BED), a relatively new disorder characterized by binge eating without purging. The purpose of this article is to review the rationale for the potential use of pharmacological treatments in BED, and the potential use of the recently proposed compounds. Therefore, a careful medline of published articles from 1980 to December 2010 was carried out using the following keywords: BED and treatment, topiramate, zonisamide, sibutramine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, ghrelin, opiate blockers. Single case reports, observational studies, opinion articles, and studies concerning adults with syndromes resulting in BED (i.e., night eating syndrome) were also reviewed. All examined papers would indicate that the pharmacological treatment of BED is still heterogenous and poorly established, mainly for the lack of controlled studies in large samples of patients. In any case, the data on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and on novel anticonvulsants seem quite promising in terms of efficacy and tolerability. In addition, the preliminary findings on the possibility of modulating appetite through the interference with the ghrelin system suggest new and intriguing ways of intervention in BED. PMID:22050761

Marazziti, D; Rossi, L; Baroni, S; Consoli, G; Hollander, E; Catena-Dell'Osso, M

2011-01-01

243

Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media  

PubMed Central

Introduction This paper provides a review of the role of the media in the development, maintenance, prevention, and treatment of eating disorders. Method The literature on gambling in youth on the internet was reviewed. It explores: (1) the role of the media in providing a social context for the development of eating disorders, (2) the role of the media in the etiology of eating disorder pathology, (3) the ways in which the media is used by patients suffering from eating disorders, and (4) the role that awareness of the media can have in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Results This review demonstrates that the media does contribute to the development of eating disorders. Conclusion This review highlights the need for media literacy and media activism to help change the current normative body discontent of women in the Western world.

Spettigue, Wendy; Henderson, Katherine A.

2004-01-01

244

Four Simple Questions Can Help Screen for Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Current screening instruments for eating disorders are cumbersome to administer and have not been validated in primary care populations. We compared the performance characteristics of 2 screening tools, the SCOFF clinical prediction guide, and a new set of questions, the Eating disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP), using the Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis as the independent standard, in 104 consecutive patients from a primary care practice and 129 university students. Twelve percent of the combined population had an eating disorder. One or no abnormal responses to the ESP ruled out an eating disorder (likelihood ratio [LR] 0.0), whereas 3 or more abnormal responses ruled one in (LR 11). The SCOFF questions were less sensitive than predicted (1 or no abnormal responses, LR 0.25), but were as effective at ruling in an eating disorder (3 or more abnormal responses, LR 11).

Cotton, Mary-Anne; Ball, Christopher; Robinson, Paul

2003-01-01

245

Race, ethnicity, and eating disorder recognition by peers.  

PubMed

We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition and health care referrals after subjects read a vignette concerning a patient of a different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4?×?3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorders across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referrals by student participants were found. [Supplemental files are available for this article. Go to the publishers's online edition of Eating Disorders for the following free supplemental resource: online appendix containing vignettes 1-3, as described in the "Methods" section]. PMID:24044598

Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M; Bardone-Cone, Anna

2013-01-01

246

Health-Related Quality of Life in Women with Eating Disorders: Association with Subjective and Objective Binge Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined health-related quality of life (QOL) and its association with different forms of binge eating in 53 women\\u000a with eating disorders. Participants had enrolled in treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder,\\u000a or other eating disorders not otherwise specified and completed measures of QOL, eating-related psychopathology, and mood\\u000a disturbance. Eating- and mood-related psychopathology, and to a

Janet D. Latner; Joanna K. Vallance; Geoffrey Buckett

2008-01-01

247

Efficacy of Modafinil on Fatigue and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Associated with Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting agent approved by the FDA ameliorating excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in three disorders: narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing trials of modafinil for fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders provided inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess drug safety and effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted in order to identify published studies assessing the effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders. Primary outcomes included fatigue and EDS. Secondary outcomes included depression and adverse effects. Findings Ten randomized controlled trials were identified including 4 studies of Parkinson’s disease (PD), 3 of multiple sclerosis (MS), 2 of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 1 of post-polio syndrome (PPS). A total of 535 patients were enrolled. Our results suggested a therapeutic effect of modafinil on fatigue in TBI (MD -0.82 95% CI -1.54 - -0.11 p=0.02, I2=0%), while a beneficial effect of modafinil on fatigue was not confirmed in the pooled studies of PD or MS. Treatment results demonstrated a clear beneficial effect of modafinil on EDS in patients with PD (MD -2.45 95% CI -4.00 - -0.91 p=0.002 I2=14%), but not with MS and TBI. No difference was seen between modafinil and placebo treatments in patients with PPS. Modafinil seemed to have no therapeutic effect on depression. Adverse events were similar between modafinil and placebo groups except that more patients were found with insomnia and nausea in modafinil group. Conclusions Existing trials of modafinil for fatigue and EDS associated with PD, MS, TBI and PPS provided inconsistent results. The majority of the studies had small sample sizes. Modafinil is not yet sufficient to be recommended for these medical conditions until solid data are available.

Wang, Xiaowen; Huang, Chengguang; Yu, Mingkun; Han, Xi; Dong, Yan

2013-01-01

248

Binge eating disorder: response to naltrexone.  

PubMed

Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by a bulimic binge eating pattern without the compensatory behaviors of purging or laxative abuse. It is often associated with obesity. The treatment response characteristics are more like bulimia than other forms of obesity. We have shown the opiate antagonist naltrexone to attenuate bulimia nervosa in controlled clinical trials. We report here a response to naltrexone in a subject with BED similar to that previously reported for the larger population of bulimic subjects. Three consecutive periods of drug, placebo and double dose drug were used, with the order of the first two periods double blind until after the data analysis. Symptoms were reduced in the naltrexone compared to placebo period. Statistical significance was demonstrated using time series analysis for this 'n of one' study. Psychotherapy was carried out throughout all periods. Naltrexone plus psychotherapy may be more efficient than psychotherapy alone. PMID:7735342

Marrazzi, M A; Markham, K M; Kinzie, J; Luby, E D

1995-02-01

249

Relations among posttraumatic stress disorder, comorbid major depression, and HPA function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Exposure to traumatic stress is associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) function. Research linking traumatic stress with HPA function in PTSD has been inconsistent, however, in part due to (a) the inclusion of trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD (TE) in control groups and (b) a failure to consider comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and moderating variables. This meta-analysis of 47 studies (123 effect sizes, N=6008 individuals) revealed that daily cortisol output was lower for PTSD (d=-.36, SE=.15, p=.008) and PTSD+MDD (d=-.65, SE=.25, p=.008) groups relative to no trauma controls (NTC); TE and NTC groups did not differ significantly from each other. Afternoon/evening cortisol was lower in TE (d=-.25, SE=.09, p=.007) and PTSD (d=-.27, SE=.12, p=.021) groups and higher in PTSD+MDD groups (d=.49, SE=.24, p=.041) relative to NTC. Post-DST cortisol levels were lower in PTSD (d=-.40, SE=.12, p<.001), PTSD+MDD (d=-.65, SE=.14, p<.001), and TE groups (d=-.53, SE=.14, p<.001) relative to NTC. HPA effect sizes were moderated by age, sex, time since index event, and developmental timing of trauma exposure. These findings suggest that enhanced HPA feedback function may be a marker of trauma-exposure rather than a specific mechanism of vulnerability for PTSD, whereas lower daily cortisol output may be associated with PTSD in particular. PMID:22459791

Morris, Matthew C; Compas, Bruce E; Garber, Judy

2012-06-01

250

Relations among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Comorbid Major Depression, and HPA Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Exposure to traumatic stress is associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) function. Research linking traumatic stress with HPA function in PTSD has been inconsistent, however, in part due to (a) the inclusion of trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD (TE) in control groups and (b) a failure to consider comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and moderating variables. This meta-analysis of 47 studies (123 effect sizes, N=6,008 individuals) revealed that daily cortisol output was lower for PTSD (d=?.36, SE=.15, p=.008) and PTSD+MDD (d=?.65, SE=.25, p=.008) groups relative to no trauma controls (NTC); TE and NTC groups did not differ significantly from each other. Afternoon/evening cortisol was lower in TE (d=?.25, SE=.09, p=.007) and PTSD (d=?.27, SE=.12, p=.021) groups and higher in PTSD+MDD groups (d=.49, SE=.24, p=.041) relative to NTC. Post-DST cortisol levels were lower in PTSD (d=?.40, SE=.12, p<.001), PTSD+MDD (d=?.65, SE=.14, p<.001), and TE groups (d=?.53, SE=.14, p<.001) relative to NTC. HPA effect sizes were moderated by age, sex, time since index event, and developmental timing of trauma exposure. These findings suggest that enhanced HPA feedback function may be a marker of trauma-exposure rather than a specific mechanism of vulnerability for PTSD, whereas lower daily cortisol output may be associated with PTSD in particular.

Morris, Matthew C.; Compas, Bruce E.; Garber, Judy

2012-01-01

251

Family and parenting interventions for conduct disorder and delinquency: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine whether family and parenting interventions benefit children and adolescents with conduct disorder and delinquency. Methods: Meta-analysis of eight randomised controlled trials involving 749 children and adolescents (aged 10–17 years) with conduct disorder and/or delinquency. Criminality, academic performance, future employment, problem behaviour, family functioning, parental mental health, and peer relations were evaluated. Results: Family and parenting interventions significantly reduced the time spent by juvenile delinquents in institutions (weighted mean difference 51.34 days). There was also a significant reduction in the risk of a juvenile delinquent being rearrested (relative risk 0.66) and in their rate of subsequent arrests at 1–3 years (standardised mean difference -0.56). Conclusions: The evidence suggests that family and parenting interventions for juvenile delinquents and their families have beneficial effects on reducing time spent in institutions and their criminal activity. In addition to the obvious benefit to the participant and their family, this may result in a cost saving for society.

Woolfenden, S; Williams, K; Peat, J

2002-01-01

252

The relationship of eating disorders and substance abuse.  

PubMed

Initial interest in the relationship between eating disorders, which occur primarily in women, and substance abuse, which is much more frequent in men than women, stemmed from the observations of Crisp (1968) who noted that chronic anorexics who developed bulimic behavior often abused alcohol. More recently, cross-sectional studies of women with eating disorders have documented prevalences of alcohol and other substance abuse in these women that are much higher than those reported in the general female population. Conversely, women with substance abuse disorders report eating-disordered behavior more often than the general population. This article first presents a definition of eating disorders and then addresses (1) the rate of coprevalence of eating disorders and substance abuse; (2) the mechanism of the coprevalence of these disorders; (3) the clinical similarities of these disorders; and (4) future directions. PMID:1821283

Krahn, D D

1991-01-01

253

Reduced number of taste papillae in patients with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Taste affects dietary behavior and in turn taste response and food preferences are altered in eating disorders. Fungiform\\u000a papillae on the tongue are the first line of the gustatory apparatus to provide information about taste. Aim of this study\\u000a is determination of their number in patients with eating disorders. Twenty-seven female adolescents with eating disorders\\u000a and 16 age-matched healthy female

L. Wöckel; A. Jacob; M. Holtmann; F. Poustka

2008-01-01

254

Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

1999-01-01

255

Eating Disorders in Childhood: Prevention and Treatment Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders (EDs) are chronic clinical mental disorders that are disruptive to the psychological and social development of children and adolescents. They can be difficult to prevent and treat and are considered among the most chronic and medically lethal of mental disorders. Research suggests that the incidence and prevalence of eating

Cook-Cottone, Catherine

2009-01-01

256

Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training for Treating Binge Eating Disorder: The Conceptual Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food

Jean L. Kristeller; Ruth Q. Wolever

2010-01-01

257

Intrauterine testosterone exposure and risk for disordered eating  

PubMed Central

Summary Previous research has suggested that prenatal testosterone exposure masculinises disordered eating by comparing opposite- and same-gender twins. The objective of the current study is to replicate this finding using a sample of 439 identical and 213 fraternal females, 461 identical and 344 fraternal males, and 361 males and 371 females from opposite-gender twin pairs. Disordered eating was compared across twin types using the Eating Disorder Inventory–2. Inconsistent with previous findings, a main effect of co-twin gender was not found. Our results raise questions about the validity of prior evidence of the impact of prenatal testosterone exposure on patterns of disordered eating.

Baker, Jessica H.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2014-01-01

258

Perfectionism and sense of coherence among patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: There is a substantial body of research on eating disorders and perfectionism. Also there are several studies on eating disorders and sense of coherence (SOC), but studies regarding all three subjects are sparse. Perfectionism and the degree of SOC are considered central and aggravating aspects of psychiatric conditions, not least in relation to eating disorders. Aims: The present study aimed to describe the relationship between perfectionism as operationalized by Garner in the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and SOC as defined by Antonovsky in the SOC-29 scale. The hypothesis was that SOC should be negatively associated with perfectionism. Methods: Data from the two self-measuring instruments collected from 95 consecutively recruited eating disorder outpatients were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The patients in the present study scored consistently with other Swedish eating disorder samples on the Perfectionism subscale in the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-P) and on the SOC-29, indicating a higher degree of perfectionism and weaker SOC than normal population groups. Perfectionism was significantly correlated to SOC. The correlation was negative, confirming the study hypothesis. The hypothesis was further confirmed in a subgroup analysis comparing patients with different degrees of SOC related to their EDI-P scores. Conclusions: Perfectionism is associated with SOC in patients with eating disorders. Clinical implications: The clinical implications derived from the study could be a recommendation to focus on the SOC in patients with an eating disorder with the hope of lowering the patients' perfectionism as well. PMID:24228777

Petersson, Suzanne; Perseius, Kent-Inge; Johnsson, Per

2014-08-01

259

Mindfulness and Acceptance in the Treatment of Disordered Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches to the treatment of clinical problems are accruing substantial empirical support. This article examines the application of these approaches to disordered eating. Theoretical bases for the importance of mindfulness and acceptance in the treatment of eating problems are reviewed, and interventions for eating problems that incorporate mindfulness and acceptance skills are briefly described. Empirical data are

Ruth A. Baer; Sarah Fischer; Debra B. Huss

2005-01-01

260

Disordered Eating in Southwestern Pueblo Indians and Hispanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated incidence of eating disorders in Pueblo Indian and Hispanic high school students (N=95). Found no ethnic differences. Majority of girls reported wanting to lose weight, being worried about weight, and indulging in binge eating. Nine girls reported eating habits consistent with bulimia. Few boys indicated concerns about weight or…

Snow, Janeanne T.; Harris, Mary B.

1989-01-01

261

Research Report Individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence: An analysis of associated eating disorder factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and the likelihood of developing an eating disorder (ED) later in life. The sample comprised 261 eating disorder patients (33.5% (N ¼ 88) anorexia nervosa (AN), 47.2% (N ¼ 123) with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19.3% (N ¼ 50) with Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified

Fernando Fernandez-Aranda; Isabel Krug; Roser Granero; Jose M. Ramona; Anna Badia; Laura Gimenez; Raquel Solano; David Collier; Andreas Karwautze; Janet Treasure

262

Eating disorder behavior and early maladaptive schemas in subgroups of eating disorders.  

PubMed

To examine relationship between Eating Disorder Behaviors (EDB) and Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) across eating disorder (ED) subgroups. EMS and ED behaviors were measured by Young Schema Questionnaire and Eating Behavior Severity Scale, respectively, among patients diagnosed with Restrictive or Binge/purging Anorexia, or bulimia nervosa. Canonical component analysis showed significant association between ED behaviors and EMSs. Canonical factor-pairs (EDB and EMS) revealed specific associations between certain patterns of EDBs, including binge-purging and physical exercise, and certain patterns of maladaptive cognitive schema, including Emotional deprivation, Abandonment, Enmeshments, Subjugation, and Emotional inhibition. ED subgroups significantly differred between the EMS and EDB canonical factors, respectively. Our findings indicate that EMS and EDB are associated, and that the factors that potentially mediate the association differ significantly among ED subgroups. These results are consistent with the notion that EMSs play a specific role in the development and maintenance of ED behaviors. PMID:20531121

Unoka, Zsolt; Tölgyes, Tamás; Czobor, Pál; Simon, Lajos

2010-06-01

263

Psychosocial preventive interventions for obesity and eating disorders in youths.  

PubMed

Abstract The rates of paediatric obesity have risen dramatically. Given the challenge of successful weight loss and maintenance, preventive interventions are sorely needed. Furthermore, since a substantial proportion of individuals do not respond to traditional behavioural weight loss therapy, alternative approaches are required. Psychological treatments for binge eating disorder have been generally effective at reducing binge episodes and producing weight maintenance or modest weight loss in obese adults. Given the strong link between loss of control eating and obesity in youths, binge eating disorder treatment may serve as a viable form of excess weight gain prevention. An adapted version of interpersonal psychotherapy for binge eating disorder is one such intervention that we have considered. A description of the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism is described. Adaptations of interpersonal psychotherapy and other established therapies for binge eating disorder may serve as platforms from which to develop and disseminate obesity and eating disorder prevention programs in children and adolescents. PMID:22724648

Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

2012-06-01

264

Regimented and Lifestyle Restraint in Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective This study tested the psychometric properties of two commonly used measures of dietary restraint, the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Method Restraint data from 512 overweight/obese participants with binge eating disorder (BED) were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results Factor analyses of the restraint variables indicated a two-factor solution, interpreted as “Regimented” and “Lifestyle” restraint. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that Regimented restraint was more predictive of eating pathology, whereas Lifestyle restraint appeared to be protective of eating problems. Neither type of restraint was related to binge eating. Cluster analysis of the restraint dimensions yielded three distinct subgroups of patients who differed significantly on several important eating- and weight-related features. Discussion Future research is needed to test the significance of these restraint constructs over time in both the development of obesity and binge eating problems as well as their treatment.

White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2009-01-01

265

Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at\\u000a the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the\\u000a association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating\\u000a cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates

Akihiko Masuda; Matthew Price; Robert D. Latzman

266

[Psychopathology in eating disorders: new trends].  

PubMed

Self-starvation as well as binge eating appears to be far more complex than the uniformity of eating disorders clinical features let us predict. One reason is that these "body-centred" behaviours generate severe biological effects, the complications playing a great part in the recovery process. Furthermore, these disorders which origins are likely to be multi-factorial seem to arise from physiological (ephebic modifications, gene pool...), family and sociocultural factors, psychological features predominating in a synergy always leading to a specificity that cannot be ignored. The progression towards mixed forms made the distinction between anorexia and bulimia nervosa, insufficiently accurate, leading to examine the addictive dimension these troubles have in common. Despite different theoretical surroundings, it has been suggested that an insecure style of attachment may be highly implicated in the disorders occurring. Moreover, a great number of surveys insisted on identity disturbance, and predisposition to intemperate dependency, resulting from the poor quality of internalized relationships. From that viewpoint, both fasting and binge eating appear as a form of addiction meant to mitigate the defense mechanisms failure and the flaws of the psychological organization. Impulsivity appears as a way to avoid processing affects, acting-out being here to balance the ego weakness deriving from the lack of inner security. The fluctuations in the sense of self lead them to self-damaging behaviours meant to vent their pervasive, chronic feeling of emptiness. Occurring whereas the subject still depends on his parents, puberty reactivates a vivid anguish of passivity, and generates attempts to take the control back. Therefore, these patients re-enact in their dealings with food and their body dissatisfaction the pattern of unstable relationships established with their kin, characterized by alternating between merging and rejection, engulfment and remoteness. PMID:18361275

Dupont, Marie-Estelle; Corcos, Maurice

2008-01-31

267

Meta-Analysis of the Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity to the Depressive and Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…

Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

2010-01-01

268

The economics of eating disorder treatment.  

PubMed

Illness-associated costs are a major concern in eating disorders (ED). Economic aspects of (ED) have been an area receiving research attention. In the last three years a number of studies have been completed, including studies examining national costs of ED; third party payer costs for ED treatment; societal costs of ED; and cost effectiveness analysis of specific treatments. Additionally, some work has been done to model costs associated with ED prevention efforts. A number of further cost effectiveness analyses are planned. This area will be a fertile one for continued study. PMID:24817201

Crow, Scott

2014-07-01

269

Eating disorders in adolescents: Correlations between symptoms and central control of eating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between eating disorders (binge eating and bulimia nervosa) and body image dissatisfaction with BMI, anorexigenic and orexigenic factors in adolescents. Thirty-two adolescents, (13 obese [BMI=36.65±5.68] and 19 non-obese [BMI=22.18±3.11]), aged between 14 and 19y, were recruited. Symptoms of eating disorders were measured by self-report questionnaires (BSQ, BITE and BES). Hormones,

Mara Cristina Lofrano-Prado; Wagner Luiz do Prado; Aline de Piano; Lian Tock; Danielle Arisa Caranti; Claudia Maria Oller do Nascimento; Lila Missae Oyama; Sergio Tufik; Marco Túlio de Mello; Ana Raimunda Dâmaso

2011-01-01

270

A meta-analysis and scoping review of social cognition performance in social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Social cognition deficits are observed in a variety of psychiatric illnesses. However, data concerning anxiety disorders are sparse and difficult to interpret. This meta-analysis aims at determining if social cognition is affected in social phobia (SP) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to non-clinical controls and the specificity of such deficits relatively to other anxiety disorders. The scoping review aims to identify research gaps in the field. Forty studies assessing mentalizing, emotion recognition, social perception/knowledge or attributional style in anxiety disorders were included, totalizing 1417 anxious patients and 1321 non-clinical controls. Results indicate distinct patterns of social cognition impairments: people with PTSD show deficits in mentalizing (effect size d = -1.13) and emotion recognition (d = -1.6) while other anxiety disorders including SP showed attributional biases (d = -0.53 to d = -1.15). The scoping review identified several under investigated domains of social cognition in anxiety disorders. Some recommendations are expressed for future studies to explore the full range of social cognition in anxiety disorders and allow direct comparisons between different disorders. PMID:24239443

Plana, India; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Battaglia, Marco; Achim, Amélie M

2014-03-01

271

Lack of association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Panic Disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Panic Disorder (PD). METHODS: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies with unrelated individuals of any ethnic origin examining the role of the 5-HTTLPR in PD according to standard diagnostic criteria (DSM or ICD). Articles published in any

Carolina Blaya; Giovanni A Salum; Maurício S Lima; Sandra Leistner-Segal; Gisele G Manfro

2007-01-01

272

Physiotherapy rehabilitation for whiplash associated disorder II: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate effectiveness of physiotherapy management in patients experiencing whiplash associated disorder II, on clinically relevant outcomes in the short and longer term. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently searched information sources, assessed studies for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias and extracted data. A third reviewer mediated disagreement. Assessment of risk of bias was tabulated across included trials. Quantitative synthesis was conducted on comparable outcomes across trials with similar interventions. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes, with random effects as primary analyses. Data sources Predefined terms were employed to search electronic databases. Additional studies were identified from key journals, reference lists, authors and experts. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English before 31 December 2010 evaluating physiotherapy management of patients (>16?years), experiencing whiplash associated disorder II. Any physiotherapy intervention was included, when compared with other types of management, placebo/sham, or no intervention. Measurements reported on ?1 outcome from the domains within the international classification of function, disability and health, were included. Results 21 RCTs (2126 participants, 9 countries) were included. Interventions were categorised as active physiotherapy or a specific physiotherapy intervention. 20/21 trials were evaluated as high risk of bias and one as unclear. 1395 participants were incorporated in the meta-analyses on 12 trials. In evaluating short term outcome in the acute/sub-acute stage, there was some evidence that active physiotherapy intervention reduces pain and improves range of movement, and that a specific physiotherapy intervention may reduce pain. However, moderate/considerable heterogeneity suggested that treatments may differ in nature or effect in different trial patients. Differences between participants, interventions and trial designs limited potential meta-analyses. Conclusions Inconclusive evidence exists for the effectiveness of physiotherapy management for whiplash associated disorder II. There is potential benefit for improving range of movement and pain short term through active physiotherapy, and for improving pain through a specific physiotherapy intervention.

Wright, Chris; Heneghan, Nicola; Eveleigh, Gillian; Calvert, Melanie; Freemantle, Nick

2011-01-01

273

World Trade Center Disaster Exposure-Related Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Responders and Civilians: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts.

Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun

2014-01-01

274

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

2008-01-01

275

Genome-wide association and meta-analysis of bipolar disorder in individuals of European ancestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar disorder (BP) is a disabling and often life-threatening disorder that affects ≈1% of the population worldwide. To identify genetic variants that increase the risk of BP, we genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 Beadchip 2,076 bipolar cases and 1,676 controls of European ancestry from the National Institute of Mental Health Human Genetics Initiative Repository, and the Prechter Repository and samples

Laura J. Scott; Pierandrea Muglia; Xiangyang Q. Kong; Weihua Guan; Matthew Flickinger; Ruchi Upmanyu; Federica Tozzi; Jun Z. Li; Margit Burmeister; Devin Absher; Robert C. Thompson; Clyde Francks; Fan Meng; Athos Antoniades; Audrey M. Southwick; Alan F. Schatzberg; William E. Bunney; Jack D. Barchas; Edward G. Jones; Richard Day; Keith Matthews; Peter McGuffin; John S. Strauss; James L. Kennedy; Lefkos Middleton; Allen D. Roses; Stanley J. Watson; John B. Vincent; Richard M. Myers; Ann E. Farmer; Huda Akil; Daniel K. Burns; Michael Boehnke

2009-01-01

276

A meta-analysis of the influence of comorbidity on treatment outcome in the anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Although psychiatric comorbidity is common among patients with anxiety disorders, its impact on treatment outcome remains unclear. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the relationship between diagnostic comorbidity and treatment outcome for patients with anxiety disorders. One hundred forty-eight anxiety-disordered treatment samples (combined N=3534) were examined for post-treatment effects from the PsychINFO database. Samples consisted of those exposed to both active (CBT, dynamic therapy, drug treatment, CBT+drug treatment, mindfulness) and inactive treatments (placebo/attention control, wait-list). All treatments were associated with significant improvement at post-treatment, and active treatments were associated with greater effects than were inactive treatments. However, overall comorbidity was generally unrelated to effect size at post-treatment or at follow-up. A significant negative relationship between overall comorbidity and treatment outcome was found for mixed or "neurotic" anxiety samples when examining associations between comorbidity and specific diagnoses. Conversely, there was a significant positive relationship between overall comorbidity and treatment outcome for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and PTSD or sexual abuse survivors. These findings suggest that while diagnostic comorbidity may not impact the effects of specific anxiety disorder treatments, it appears to differentially impact outcome for specific anxiety disorder diagnoses. PMID:20510492

Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cisler, Josh M; Tolin, David F

2010-08-01

277

Comparison of white matter integrity between autism spectrum disorder subjects and typically developing individuals: a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging tractography studies  

PubMed Central

Background Aberrant brain connectivity, especially with long-distance underconnectivity, has been recognized as a candidate pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders. However, a number of diffusion tensor imaging studies investigating people with autism spectrum disorders have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To test the long-distance underconnectivity hypothesis, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. Diffusion tensor imaging studies comparing individuals with autism spectrum disorders with typically developing individuals were searched using MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE from 1980 through 1 August 2012. Standardized mean differences were calculated as an effect size of the tracts. Results A comprehensive literature search identified 25 relevant diffusion tensor imaging studies comparing autism spectrum disorders and typical development with regions-of-interest methods. Among these, 14 studies examining regions of interest with suprathreshold sample sizes were included in the meta-analysis. A random-effects model demonstrated significant fractional anisotropy reductions in the corpus callosum (P = 0.023, n = 387 (autism spectrum disorders/typically developing individuals: 208/179)), left uncinate fasciculus (P = 0.011, n = 242 (117/125)), and left superior longitudinal fasciculus (P = 0.016, n = 182 (96/86)), and significant increases of mean diffusivity in the corpus callosum (P = 0.006, n = 254 (129/125)) and superior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally (P = 0.031 and 0.011, left and right, respectively, n = 109 (51/58)), in subjects with autism spectrum disorders compared with typically developing individuals with no significant publication bias. Conclusion The current meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies in subjects with autism spectrum disorders emphasizes important roles of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and corpus callosum in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders and supports the long-distance underconnectivity hypothesis.

2013-01-01

278

A description of disordered eating behaviors in Latino males  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (ED) in Latino males. Participants 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) system. Method Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus. Self report instruments were used to explore ED symptoms (EAT-26 & BULIT-26) and depression (BDI). Results Overall, 2.26% scored above the cut-off point on the BULIT-R and 5.08% score above the cut-off point on the EAT-26. Of the males, 4.43% reported sufficient frequency and severity to approximate DSM-IV criteria for BN. Depression symptomatology was found in those who scored above the cut-off point on both instruments of ED. Conclusion College health practitioners should be aware of disordered eating in Latino males and include them in efforts to detect disordered eating behaviors in college students.

Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

2011-01-01

279

Are Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Neuroanatomically Distinct? An Anatomical Likelihood Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: There is renewed debate on whether modern diagnostic classification should adopt a dichotomous or dimensional approach to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study synthesizes data from voxel-based studies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to estimate the extent to which these conditions have a common neuroanatomical phenotype. Methods: A post-hoc meta-analytic estimation of the extent to which bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or both conditions contribute to brain gray matter differences compared to controls was achieved using a novel application of the conventional anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) method. 19 schizophrenia studies (651 patients and 693 controls) were matched as closely as possible to 19 bipolar studies (540 patients and 745 controls). Result: Substantial overlaps in the regions affected by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder included regions in prefrontal cortex, thalamus, left caudate, left medial temporal lobe, and right insula. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia jointly contributed to clusters in the right hemisphere, but schizophrenia was almost exclusively associated with additional gray matter deficits (left insula and amygdala) in the left hemisphere. Limitation: The current meta-analytic method has a number of constraints. Importantly, only studies identifying differences between controls and patient groups could be included in this analysis. Conclusion: Bipolar disorder shares many of the same brain regions as schizophrenia. However, relative to neurotypical controls, lower gray matter volume in schizophrenia is more extensive and includes the amygdala. This fresh application of ALE accommodates multiple studies in a relatively unbiased comparison. Common biological mechanisms may explain the neuroanatomical overlap between these major disorders, but explaining why brain differences are more extensive in schizophrenia remains challenging.

Yu, Kevin; Cheung, Charlton; Leung, Meikei; Li, Qi; Chua, Siew; McAlonan, Grainne

2010-01-01

280

Eating disorders, trauma, PTSD, and psychosocial resources.  

PubMed

The frequency of traumatic events and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women with eating disorders (ED) was assessed. Also, patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) were compared; post-traumatic symptomatology and the role of psychosocial resources were analyzed. One hundred three ED patients (29.1±10.5 years) were studied through the use of standardized questionnaires. We found that 23.1% of AN and 25.5% of BN patients fulfilled the study definition for a current diagnosis of PTSD. Cumulative traumatization led to more severe symptomatology. Psychosocial resources were found to have strong associations with symptomatology. These findings provide additional support for the association between traumatization and ED. Clinical interventions for traumatized ED patients may benefit from a focus on post-traumatic stress symptomatology and personal resources. PMID:24365526

Tagay, Sefik; Schlottbohm, Ellen; Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Repic, Nevena; Senf, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

281

Efficacy of turmeric in the treatment of digestive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Digestive disorders pose significant burdens to millions of people worldwide in terms of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Turmeric has been traditionally used for conditions associated with the digestive system, and its therapeutic benefits were also confirmed in clinical studies. However, rigorous systematic review on this topic is severely limited. Our study aims to systematically review the therapeutic and adverse effects of turmeric and its compounds on digestive disorders, including dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods/Design This study will include both randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of turmeric or its compounds in comparison to a placebo or any other active interventions for digestive disorders without any restrictions on participant age or language of publication. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients that have experienced treatment success. Secondary outcomes are the prevalence of an individual symptom of digestive disorders, the proportion of patients who experienced relapse, the number of physician visits/hospitalization due to digestive disorders, health-related quality of life and the proportion of patients who experienced adverse events. Relevant studies will be identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, Dissertations & Theses Database and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials from their inception to August 31, 2013. In addition, grey literature such as information published on drug regulatory agencies websites and abstracts/proceedings from conferences will also be reviewed. A calibration exercise will be conducted in a process of study screening, whereby two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts from the literature search. Any conflicts will be resolved through a subsequent team discussion. The same process will be adopted in data abstraction and methodological quality appraisal by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We will describe study and patient characteristics, risk of bias/methodological quality results, and outcomes of the included studies. If we have sufficient data and homogeneity, a random effects meta-analysis will be performed. Discussion Our results will help patients and healthcare practitioners to make informed decisions when considering turmeric as an alternative therapy for digestive disorders. Trial registration PROSPERO registry number: CRD42013005739.

2014-01-01

282

The efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for primary sleep disorders a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exogenous melatonin has been increasingly used in the management of sleep disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in the management of primary sleep disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DATA SOURCES: A number of electronic databases were searched. We reviewed the bibliographies of included studies and relevant reviews and\\u000a conducted hand-searching.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled

Nina Buscemi; Ben Vandermeer; Nicola Hooton; Rena Pandya; Lisa Tjosvold; Lisa Hartling; Glen Baker; Terry P. Klassen; Sunita Vohra

2005-01-01

283

Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The excessive influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation--referred to as overvaluation--is considered by some a central feature across eating disorders but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined shape/weight overvaluation in 399 consecutive patients with BED. Participants completed semistructured…

Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2007-01-01

284

Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

2006-01-01

285

Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

2004-01-01

286

A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.…

Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

2011-01-01

287

Positive Psychology in the Prevention of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally the identification of, and treatment for, eating disorders has been based on developmental psychopathology theory and research, thereby emphasizing risk factors and the elimination of maladaptive behaviors. This article seeks to reconceptualize the prevention of, and protective factors for, eating disordered behavior from the…

Steck, Erin L.; Abrams, Laura M.; Phelps, LeAdelle

2004-01-01

288

EATING DISORDERS IN ADOLESCENCE: INFORMATION FOR PARENTS AND EDUCATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview An eating disorder is a psychiatric illness characterized by an all-consuming desire to be thin and an intense fear of weight gain. Eating disorders can cause dangerous medical problems. The fear of weight gain is so great that the person may feel compelled to either limit food intake to dangerously small amounts or to use other compensatory methods (laxatives,

Janine Keca; Indian Prairie

289

Acculturation and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…

Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr

1999-01-01

290

Are cavum septum pellucidum abnormalities more common in schizophrenia spectrum disorders? A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have reported a variety of brain abnormalities in association with schizophrenia. These include a higher incidence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), which is consistent with a neurodevelopmental model for this disorder. In this meta-analytic review, we describe and discuss the main CSP MRI findings in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) to date. We adopted as keywords cavum and schizophrenia or psychosis, and the inclusion criteria were articles in English, with samples of SSD patients compared to healthy subjects, which used MRI to assess CSP, without time limit. From 18 potential reports, fifteen were eligible to be part of the current review. These studies included 1054 patients with SSD and 866 healthy volunteers. Six out of 15 studies pointed to a higher prevalence of CSP of any size in SSD patients, while five out of 15 showed that subjects with SSD had a greater occurrence of a large CSP than healthy individuals. However, the meta-analysis demonstrated that only the incidence of a large CSP was significantly higher in SSD relative to healthy comparisons (odds ratio=1.59; 95%CI 1.07-2.38; p=0.02). Overall our results suggest that only a large CSP is associated with SSD while a small CSP may be considered a normal neuroanatomical variation. Our review revealed a large degree of variability in the methods employed across the MRI studies published to date, as well as evidence of publication bias. Studies in large, community-based samples with greater standardization of methods should clarify the true significance of CSP in SSD. PMID:20965698

Trzesniak, Clarissa; Oliveira, Irismar R; Kempton, Matthew J; Galvão-de Almeida, Amanda; Chagas, Marcos H N; Ferrari, Maria Cecília F; Filho, Alaor S; Zuardi, Antonio W; Prado, Daniel A; Busatto, Geraldo F; McGuire, Phillip K; Hallak, Jaime E C; Crippa, José Alexandre S

2011-01-01

291

Pharmacologic Treatments for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: A growing body of literature has documented pediatric bipolar disorder to be a severely impairing form of psychopathology. However, concerns remain as to the inadequacy of the extant literature on its pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, treatment studies have not been systematically reviewed for treatment effects on core and associated…

Liu, Howard Y.; Potter, Mona P.; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Yorks, Dayna M.; Petty, Carter R.; Wozniak, Janet R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

2011-01-01

292

Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies, there has been limited replications between the various independent datasets. The current study gathered the results from all

Kaixin Zhou; Astrid Dempfle; Mauricio Arcos-Burgos; Steven C. Bakker; Tobias Banaschewski; Joseph Biederman; Jan Buitelaar; F. Xavier Castellanos; Alysa Doyle; Richard P. Ebstein; Jenny Ekholm; Paola Forabosco; Barbara Franke; Christine Freitag; Susann Friedel; Michael Gill; Johannes Hebebrand; Anke Hinney; Christian Jacob; Klaus Peter Lesch; Sandra K. Loo; Francisco Lopera; James T. McCracken; James J. McGough; Jobst Meyer; Eric Mick; Ana Miranda; M. Muenkel; Fernando Mulas; Stanley F. Nelson; T. Trang Nguyen; Robert D. Oades; Matthew N. Ogdie; Juan David Palacio; David Pineda; Andreas Reif; Tobias J. Renner; Herbert Roeyers; Marcel Romanos; Aribert Rothenberger; Helmut Schäfer; Joseph Sergeant; Richard J. Sinke; Susan L. Smalley; Edmund Sonuga-Barke; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Emma van der Meulen; Susanne Walitza; Andreas Warnke; Cathryn M Lewis; Stephen V. Faraone; Philip Asherson

2008-01-01

293

Meta-Analysis of Math Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) struggle in the area of academics as well as behavior, and these academic difficulties manifest a great deal in mathematics. The number of children with EBD served in general education settings is increasing, and mathematics curriculum is expanding to include additional content areas and more…

Templeton, Tran Nguyen; Neel, Richard S.; Blood, Erika

2008-01-01

294

The Neural Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An ALE Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and commonly studied forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Causal models of ADHD have long implicated dysfunction in fronto-striatal and frontal-parietal networks supporting executive function, a hypothesis that can now be examined…

Dickstein, Steven G.; Bannon, Katie; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

2006-01-01

295

Child-Parent Interventions for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…

Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.

2014-01-01

296

Motor Coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are motor coordination deficits an underlying cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Database searches identified 83 ASD studies focused on motor coordination, arm movements, gait, or postural stability deficits. Data extraction involved between-group comparisons for ASD and typically developing controls (N = 51). Rigorous…

Fournier, Kimberly A.; Hass, Chris J.; Naik, Sagar K.; Lodha, Neha; Cauraugh, James H.

2010-01-01

297

Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison with Pharmacotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of (cognitive) behavioral therapy ([C]BT) for generalized anxiety disorder was investigated and compared with the efficacy of pharmacological therapy using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 65 (C)BT studies and pharmacological studies were included. (C)BT was more effective than control conditions. The results of the comparison…

Mitte, Kristin

2005-01-01

298

Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

2008-01-01

299

Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872

Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

2014-06-30

300

Negative emotion and disordered eating among obese college students.  

PubMed

The present study examined the relationship between negative emotions, body dissatisfaction, exercise, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among obese college students. It also examined whether there were gender differences in these variables. A total of 88 males and 102 females, who reported a BMI score above 30, completed a survey. Females reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and more frequent dieting than males and as predicted, males reported higher levels of exercise behaviors. Body dissatisfaction, anger discomfort, and self dissatisfaction all correlated with drive for thinness for both genders. Anger discomfort was the only variable to predict disordered eating for both genders. The results support numerous studies that have found that females are at greater risk of disordered eating than males, and also suggest that anger management may be an important component in treatment of disordered eating among obese young adults. PMID:16257804

Edman, Jeanne L; Yates, Alayne; Aruguete, Mara S; DeBord, Kurt A

2005-12-01

301

Risk factors and patterns of onset in binge eating disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study examined risk factors in women with binge eating disorder (BED) who began binging before dieting (binge-first [BF]) compared with women with BED who began dieting before binging (diet-first [DF]). It further aimed to replicate findings regarding eating disorder and general psychopathology among BF versus DF subtypes. Method One hundred fifty-five women with BED completed the Oxford Risk Factor Interview to retrospectively assess risk factors occurring before eating disturbance onset. Clinical interview assessed eating disorder and general psychopathology. Results Overall, no significant differences in risk factors emerged between the groups. The BF group had a significantly earlier onset of BED than the DF group. In contradistinction to previous studies, the DF group endorsed more eating disorder psychopathology and lifetime diagnosis of any substance use disorder. Conclusion Limited support was seen for different risk factors in BF versus DF women, suggesting similar etiologic pathways in both subtypes. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Manwaring, Jamie L; Hilbert, Anja; Wilfley, Denise E; Pike, Kathleen M; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

2006-01-01

302

Childhood Eating and Weight in Eating Disorders: A Multi-Centre European Study of Affected Women and Their Unaffected Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have suggested that childhood eating and weight problems may be risk factors for eating disorders. Robust evidence is still lacking. Aims: To investigate whether childhood eating and weight problems increase the risk of eating disorders in affected women compared to their unaffected sisters. Methods: Women (150) with anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from clinical and

N. Micali; J. Holliday; A. Karwautz; M. Haidvogl; G. Wagner; F. Fernandez-Aranda; A. Badia; L. Gimenez; R. Solano; M. Brecelj-Anderluh; R. Mohan; D. Collier; J. L. Treasure

2007-01-01

303

Linking "big" personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

We performed a quantitative review of associations between the higher order personality traits in the Big Three and Big Five models (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, disinhibition, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness) and specific depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD) in adults. This approach resulted in 66 meta-analyses. The review included 175 studies published from 1980 to 2007, which yielded 851 effect sizes. For a given analysis, the number of studies ranged from three to 63 (total sample size ranged from 1,076 to 75,229). All diagnostic groups were high on neuroticism (mean Cohen's d = 1.65) and low on conscientiousness (mean d = -1.01). Many disorders also showed low extraversion, with the largest effect sizes for dysthymic disorder (d = -1.47) and social phobia (d = -1.31). Disinhibition was linked to only a few conditions, including SUD (d = 0.72). Finally, agreeableness and openness were largely unrelated to the analyzed diagnoses. Two conditions showed particularly distinct profiles: SUD, which was less related to neuroticism but more elevated on disinhibition and disagreeableness, and specific phobia, which displayed weaker links to all traits. Moderator analyses indicated that epidemiologic samples produced smaller effects than patient samples and that Eysenck's inventories showed weaker associations than NEO scales. In sum, we found that common mental disorders are strongly linked to personality and have similar trait profiles. Neuroticism was the strongest correlate across the board, but several other traits showed substantial effects independent of neuroticism. Greater attention to these constructs can significantly benefit psychopathology research and clinical practice. PMID:20804236

Kotov, Roman; Gamez, Wakiza; Schmidt, Frank; Watson, David

2010-09-01

304

Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison With Pharmacotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of (cognitive) behavioral therapy ([C]BT) for generalized anxiety disorder was investigated and compared with the efficacy of pharmacological therapy using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 65 (C)BT studies and pharmacological studies were included. (C)BT was more effective than control conditions. The results of the comparison between (C)BT and pharmacotherapy varied according to the meta-analytic methods used. Conclusions about

Kristin Mitte

2005-01-01

305

Intimate Partner Violence as a Risk Factor for Mental Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews literature on the prevalence of mental health problems among women with a history of intimate partner violence. The weighted mean prevalence of mental health problems among battered women was 47.6% in 18 studies of depression, 17.9% in 13 studies of suicidality, 63.8% in 11 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 18.5% in 10 studies of alcohol abuse,

Jacqueline M. Golding

1999-01-01

306

Limits of meta-analysis: methylphenidate in the treatment of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractGuidelines for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults advocate methylphenidate as first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methylphenidate treatment of adult ADHD and to examine the influence of methods on meta-analytic results. Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical trials comparing methylphenidate with placebo in the treatment of adult ADHD.

M Koesters; T Becker; R Kilian; JM Fegert; S Weinmann

2009-01-01

307

Eating Disorder Symptomatology: Prevalence among Latino College Freshmen Students  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in first-year students at the University of Puerto Rico. Method Responses to the Bulimia Test Revised (BULIT-R), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were analyzed in a sample of 2,163 freshman students. Results The percentage of students at or above the clinical cut-off points was 3.24% for the BULIT-R, 9.59% for the EAT-26 and 1.88% met the cut-off point for both instruments. The 36.44% of the students who screen positive on eating disorders measures scored 18 or more on the BDI and 5.93% on this group presented high suicidal risk based on their responses to BDI items assessing suicidal thoughts. Discussion Eating disorder symptoms occur frequently in Puerto Rican college students, and prevention, detection, and treatment efforts are needed.

Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Franko, Debra L.; Matos-Lamourt, Anguelique; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Von Holle, Ann; Camara-Fuentes, Luis R.; Rodriguez-Anglero, Dianisa; Cervantes-Lopez, Sarah; Suarez-Torres, Alba

2010-01-01

308

Teasing History, Onset of Obesity, Current Eating Disorder Psychopathology, Body Dissatisfaction, and Psychological Functioning in Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary goal of this study was to examine associations among teasing history, onset of obesity, current eating disorder psychopathology, body dissatisfaction, and psychological functioning in women with Binge Eating Disorder (BED).Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects were 115 female adults who met DSM-IV criteria for BED. Measurements assessing teasing history (general appearance [GAT] and weight and size [WST] teasing),

Tamara D. Jackson; Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb

2000-01-01

309

Acupuncture for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment option for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The literatures were searched using 15 databases, including MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Central\\u000a Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, six Korean medical databases and two Chinese databases\\u000a without language restritions. Prospective controlled clinical studies of any type

Myeong Soo Lee; Tae-Young Choi; Jong-In Kim; Lakhyung Kim; Edzard Ernst

2011-01-01

310

Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours?  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of this body of research, most studies have weaknesses in their designs (e.g. observational design, no control groups, or small sample sizes). The basic tenets of yoga, anecdotal reports of its effectiveness, its high accessibility and low cost, and initial research findings suggest that yoga may offer promise for the field of eating disorders. Two options are suggested for prevention: (1) eating disorder prevention can be integrated into ongoing yoga classes and (2) yoga can be integrated into eating disorder prevention programmes. Regarding treatment, it is important to examine the effectiveness of different teaching styles and practices for different eating disorders. Potential harms of yoga should also be explored. Further research, using stronger study designs, such as randomised, controlled trials, is needed.

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2013-01-01

311

Genetic modulation of borderline personality disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality. Early theories ascribed an environmental etiology of BPD, but growing evidence supports a genetic vulnerability as well. The primary aim of this study was to systematically review genetic association studies focused on BPD. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies published until December 2012. Meta-analyses were also performed when three or more studies reported genetic data on the same polymorphism. Data were analyzed with Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software (RevMan, version 5.0). Quality and publication bias were assessed. The systematic review of association studies examining genetic polymorphisms and BPD produced conflicting results. Meta-analyses were performed for three serotonergic polymorphisms: two common polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the promoter insertion/deletion (5-HTTLPR) and the intron 2 VNTR (STin2 VNTR), and the rs1800532 (A218C) polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene (TPH1), all showing no association. No direct role of genetic polymorphisms was found in BPD. However, a few studies only are present in literature to draw definite conclusions. Further studies focusing on gene × gene and gene × environment interactions are needed to more deeply dissect the genetic role in the modulation of BPD. PMID:23810197

Calati, Raffaella; Gressier, Florence; Balestri, Martina; Serretti, Alessandro

2013-10-01

312

Does feminism serve a protective function against eating disorders?  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Two hundred seventeen women completed the Kinsey Sexual Orientation Scale, the Feminist Identity Scale, and three questionnaires that measured eating attitudes and behaviors. Lesbian participants were significantly more likely than heterosexual participants to work actively to improve the status of women, and they were less likely than heterosexuals to report attitudes and behaviors that are associated with eating disorders. Older women were more committed to feminist activism than younger women. Although feminist identity scores did not directly predict eating attitudes and behaviors, evidence suggests that feminism may serve a protective function against eating disorders in lesbians. PMID:24786436

Guille, C; Chrisler, J C

1999-01-01

313

The Canadian Eating Disorder Program Survey - Exploring Intensive Treatment Programs for Youth with Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore and describe philosophies and characteristics of intensive eating disorder (ED) treatment programs based in tertiary care institutions across Canada. Method: A ninety-item survey examining ED services for adolescents was developed, piloted, and completed by 11 programs across Canada. Information pertaining to program characteristics and components, governance, staffing, referrals, assessments, therapeutic modalities in place, nutritional practices, and treatment protocols were collected. Results: The results highlight the diversity of programming available but also the lack of a unified approach to intensive eating disorder treatment in youth. Conclusions: This report provides important baseline data that offers a framework that programs can use to come together to establish assessment and treatment protocols as well as a process for outcome evaluation. Continued collaboration will be essential moving forward to ensure Canadian youth, regardless of geographic location, receive the necessary treatment required to attain and sustain recovery.

Norris, Mark; Strike, Melanie; Pinhas, Leora; Gomez, Rebecca; Elliott, April; Ferguson, Patricia; Gusella, Joanne

2013-01-01

314

Placebo group improvement in trials of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders: A multivariate meta-analysis examining change over time  

PubMed Central

Objective Placebo group improvement in pharmacotherapy trials has been increasing over time across several pharmacological treatment areas. However, it is unknown to what degree increasing improvement has occurred in pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorders or what factors may account for placebo group improvement. This meta-analysis of 47 alcohol pharmacotherapy trials evaluated (1) the magnitude of placebo group improvement, (2) the extent to which placebo group improvement has been increasing over time, and (3) several potential moderators that might account for variation in placebo group improvement. Method Random-effects univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted that examined the magnitude of placebo group improvement in the 47 studies and several potential moderators of improvement: (a) publication year, (b) country in which the study was conducted, (c) outcome data source/type, (d) number of placebo administrations, (e) overall severity of study participants, and (f) additional psychosocial treatment. Results Substantial placebo group improvement was found overall and improvement was larger in more recent studies. Greater improvement was found on moderately subjective outcomes, with more frequent administrations of the placebo, and in studies with greater participant severity of illness. However, even after controlling for these moderators, placebo group improvement remained significant, as did placebo group improvement over time. Conclusion Similar to previous pharmacotherapy placebo research, substantial pre- to post-test placebo group improvement has occurred in alcohol pharmacotherapy trials, an effect that has been increasing over time. However, several plausible moderator variables were not able to explain why placebo group improvement has been increasing over time.

Del Re, AC; Maisel, Natalya; Blodgett, Janet; Wilbourne, Paula; Finney, John

2014-01-01

315

Family involvement in the psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Psychological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are increasingly aimed at improving outcomes by directly incorporating family members to address family disruption, dysfunction, or symptom accommodation. Much remains to be learned about the pooled effects of "family inclusive treatment" (FIT) for OCD and factors that may explain variation in response. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures were conducted to empirically evaluate the overall effect of FITs on OCD, and treatment moderators. Study search criteria yielded 29 studies examining FIT response in 1,366 OCD patients. Outcome variables included OCD symptoms and global functioning. Examined moderators included age group, gender, minority status, treatment length and format, and inclusion of specific family focused treatment elements. FITs for OCD demonstrated a large overall effect on OCD symptoms (pooled d = 1.68, SE = 0.14) and global functioning (pooled d = 0.98, SE = 0.14). Moderator analyses found that individual family treatments (vs. group) and FITs targeting family accommodation of symptoms (vs. those that did not target accommodation) were associated with greater improvements in patient functioning. Results indicate a robust overall response to FITs for OCD and clarify key moderators that inform optimal circumstances for effective treatment. Findings underscore the need for continued momentum in the development, evaluation, and dissemination of FITs for OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24798816

Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Edson, Aubrey; Tompson, Martha C; Comer, Jonathan S

2014-06-01

316

Detecting disease-associated genes with confounding variable adjustment and the impact on genomic meta-analysis: With application to major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Detecting candidate markers in transcriptomic studies often encounters difficulties in complex diseases, particularly when overall signals are weak and sample size is small. Covariates including demographic, clinical and technical variables are often confounded with the underlying disease effects, which further hampers accurate biomarker detection. Our motivating example came from an analysis of five microarray studies in major depressive disorder (MDD), a heterogeneous psychiatric illness with mostly uncharacterized genetic mechanisms. Results We applied a random intercept model to account for confounding variables and case-control paired design. A variable selection scheme was developed to determine the effective confounders in each gene. Meta-analysis methods were used to integrate information from five studies and post hoc analyses enhanced biological interpretations. Simulations and application results showed that the adjustment for confounding variables and meta-analysis improved detection of biomarkers and associated pathways. Conclusions The proposed framework simultaneously considers correction for confounding variables, selection of effective confounders, random effects from paired design and integration by meta-analysis. The approach improved disease-related biomarker and pathway detection, which greatly enhanced understanding of MDD neurobiology. The statistical framework can be applied to similar experimental design encountered in other complex and heterogeneous diseases.

2012-01-01

317

White matter volume in alcohol use disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Atrophy of brain white matter (WM) often is considered a signature injury of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, investigations into AUD-related changes in WM volume have yielded complex findings that are difficult to synthesize in a narrative review. The objective of this study was to obtain an averaged effect size (ES) for WM volume reduction associated with AUD diagnosis and to test potential moderators of ES. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) English language; (2) peer reviewed; (3) published before December 2011; (4) use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (5) human participants; (6) inclusion of AUD group; (7) inclusion of non-AUD comparison group; and (8) reporting or testing of total or cerebral WM volume. Moderators included study design, MRI methodology and AUD characteristics. Nineteen studies with a total of 1302 participants (70% male) were included, and calculated ESs were confirmed by the corresponding author for 12 studies. The magnitude of the averaged ES adjusted for small sample bias (Hedges' g) for WM reduction in AUDs was 0.304 (standard error?=?0.134, range?=?-0.57-1.21). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that the overall ES differed significantly from 0, t(18)?=?2.257, P?=?0.037, and that the distribution of the 19 ESs showed significant heterogeneity beyond sampling error, ?(2) (18)?=?52.400, P?

Monnig, Mollie A; Tonigan, J Scott; Yeo, Ronald A; Thoma, Robert J; McCrady, Barbara S

2013-05-01

318

Anxiety disorders in subjects seeking treatment for eating disorders: a DSM-IV controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who were referred with an eating disorder (ED) were compared with a matched normal control group to answer the following questions: What are the frequencies of anxiety disorders in cases of anorexia and bulimia nervosa diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria? Are anxiety disorders significantly more frequent among women with an eating disorder than among women from the community? We

Nathalie T. Godart; Martine F. Flament; Florence Curt; Fabienne Perdereau; François Lang; Jean Luc Venisse; Olivier Halfon; Paul Bizouard; Gwenolé Loas; Maurice Corcos; Philippe Jeammet; Jacques Fermanian

2003-01-01

319

Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive literature search was performed to collate evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with two primary objectives. First, features of mitochondrial dysfunction in the general population of children with ASD were identified. Second, characteristics of mitochondrial dysfunction in children with ASD and concomitant mitochondrial disease (MD) were compared with published literature of two general populations: ASD children without MD, and non-ASD children with MD. The prevalence of MD in the general population of ASD was 5.0% (95% confidence interval 3.2, 6.9%), much higher than found in the general population (?0.01%). The prevalence of abnormal biomarker values of mitochondrial dysfunction was high in ASD, much higher than the prevalence of MD. Variances and mean values of many mitochondrial biomarkers (lactate, pyruvate, carnitine and ubiquinone) were significantly different between ASD and controls. Some markers correlated with ASD severity. Neuroimaging, in vitro and post-mortem brain studies were consistent with an elevated prevalence of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. Taken together, these findings suggest children with ASD have a spectrum of mitochondrial dysfunction of differing severity. Eighteen publications representing a total of 112 children with ASD and MD (ASD/MD) were identified. The prevalence of developmental regression (52%), seizures (41%), motor delay (51%), gastrointestinal abnormalities (74%), female gender (39%), and elevated lactate (78%) and pyruvate (45%) was significantly higher in ASD/MD compared with the general ASD population. The prevalence of many of these abnormalities was similar to the general population of children with MD, suggesting that ASD/MD represents a distinct subgroup of children with MD. Most ASD/MD cases (79%) were not associated with genetic abnormalities, raising the possibility of secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment studies for ASD/MD were limited, although improvements were noted in some studies with carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and B-vitamins. Many studies suffered from limitations, including small sample sizes, referral or publication biases, and variability in protocols for selecting children for MD workup, collecting mitochondrial biomarkers and defining MD. Overall, this evidence supports the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with ASD. Additional studies are needed to further define the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD.

Rossignol, D A; Frye, R E

2012-01-01

320

Effectiveness of programs for reducing the stigma associated with mental disorders. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

The stigma associated with mental disorders is a global public health problem. Programs to combat it must be informed by the best available evidence. To this end, a meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of existing programs. A systematic search of PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases yielded 34 relevant papers, comprising 33 randomized controlled trials. Twenty-seven papers (26 trials) contained data that could be incorporated into a quantitative analysis. Of these trials, 19 targeted personal stigma or social distance (6,318 participants), six addressed perceived stigma (3,042 participants) and three self-stigma (238 participants). Interventions targeting personal stigma or social distance yielded small but significant reductions in stigma across all mental disorders combined (d=0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.39, p<0.001) as well as for depression (d=0.36, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60, p<0.01), psychosis (d=0.20, 95% CI: 0.06-0.34, p<0.01) and generic mental illness (d=0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.50, p<0.01). Educational interventions were effective in reducing personal stigma (d=0.33, 95% CI: 0.19-0.42, p<0.001) as were interventions incorporating consumer contact (d=0.47, 95% CI: 0.17-0.78, p<0.001), although there were insufficient studies to demonstrate an effect for consumer contact alone. Internet programs were at least as effective in reducing personal stigma as face-to-face delivery. There was no evidence that stigma interventions were effective in reducing perceived or self-stigma. In conclusion, there is an evidence base to inform the roll out of programs for improving personal stigma among members of the community. However, there is a need to investigate methods for improving the effectiveness of these programs and to develop interventions that are effective in reducing perceived and internalized stigma.

Griffiths, Kathleen M; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Parsons, Alison; Reid, Russell

2014-01-01

321

Effectiveness of programs for reducing the stigma associated with mental disorders. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

The stigma associated with mental disorders is a global public health problem. Programs to combat it must be informed by the best available evidence. To this end, a meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of existing programs. A systematic search of PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases yielded 34 relevant papers, comprising 33 randomized controlled trials. Twenty-seven papers (26 trials) contained data that could be incorporated into a quantitative analysis. Of these trials, 19 targeted personal stigma or social distance (6,318 participants), six addressed perceived stigma (3,042 participants) and three self-stigma (238 participants). Interventions targeting personal stigma or social distance yielded small but significant reductions in stigma across all mental disorders combined (d=0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.39, p<0.001) as well as for depression (d=0.36, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60, p<0.01), psychosis (d=0.20, 95% CI: 0.06-0.34, p<0.01) and generic mental illness (d=0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.50, p<0.01). Educational interventions were effective in reducing personal stigma (d=0.33, 95% CI: 0.19-0.42, p<0.001) as were interventions incorporating consumer contact (d=0.47, 95% CI: 0.17-0.78, p<0.001), although there were insufficient studies to demonstrate an effect for consumer contact alone. Internet programs were at least as effective in reducing personal stigma as face-to-face delivery. There was no evidence that stigma interventions were effective in reducing perceived or self-stigma. In conclusion, there is an evidence base to inform the roll out of programs for improving personal stigma among members of the community. However, there is a need to investigate methods for improving the effectiveness of these programs and to develop interventions that are effective in reducing perceived and internalized stigma. PMID:24890069

Griffiths, Kathleen M; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Parsons, Alison; Reid, Russell

2014-06-01

322

Pathological organizations and psychic retreats in eating disorders.  

PubMed

A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed. PMID:22489814

Kadish, Yael Adira

2012-04-01

323

Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

2006-01-01

324

Cardiac parasympathetic regulation in obese women with binge eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Obese individuals with a binge eating disorder (BED) differ from obese non-binge eaters (NBED) with respect to (a) eating behaviour, (b) psychiatric comorbidity and (c) level of psychosocial distress. The aim of the study was to explore whether these three factors have an influence on cardiac parasympathetic function, that is independent of obesity: as alterations in cardiac parasympathetic function may

H-C Friederich; S Schild; D Schellberg; A Quenter; C Bode; W Herzog; S Zipfel

2006-01-01

325

Differences in Caloric Utilization in Eating Disordered Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caloric utilization is an important aspect of the clinical management of eating disorders. Caloric intake and body weight of 32 inpatient bulimic and anorectic girls and 30 normal adolescents were measured. Normal weight bulimics ate fewer calories while anorectics ate more calories per kilogram body weight compared with the control group. Anorectics have greater difficulty to eat sufficient calories to

Afsaneh Nasserbakht; Sigrid Brantner-Inthaler; Grace Shih; Hans Steiner

1998-01-01

326

Legislative BriefH.R. 26, The Eating Disorders Awareness, Prevention, and Education Act of 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are a widespread problem that is often overlooked. Almost 11 million suffer from anorexia or bulimia, and approximately 25 million more suffer from binge-eating disorder. Eating disorders are a complex and devastating condition that have serious consequences to a person's health, productivity, and relationships. If left untreated, an eating disorder can lead to death. The US government has

Suzanne Yu

2009-01-01

327

Individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence: An analysis of associated eating disorder factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and the likelihood of developing an eating disorder (ED) later in life. The sample comprised 261 eating disorder patients [33.5% [N=88] anorexia nervosa (AN), 47.2% [N=123] with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19.3% [N=50] with Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)] and 160 healthy controls from

Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Isabel Krug; Roser Granero; Jose M. Ramón; Anna Badia; Laura Giménez; Raquel Solano; David Collier; Andreas Karwautz; Janet Treasure

2007-01-01

328

Parental bonding and eating disorders: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This article systematically reviewed studies of parental bonding in people with eating disorders. MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched to identify studies that compared parental bonding in people diagnosed with an eating disorder relative to non-clinical controls. Twenty-four studies were identified. Women with eating disorders typically reported lower parental care and higher parental protection compared to non-clinical, but not psychiatric, controls. Interestingly, a modest number of studies found that these relationships were mediated by avoidant problem solving style and several schemas from the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ; Schmidt, Joiner, Young, & Telch, 1995). While there are methodological limitations associated with the reviewed studies, they do offer some support for the proposal that difficulties in parent-child relationships predispose women to eating disorders and other psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:24411750

Tetley, Amanda; Moghaddam, Nima G; Dawson, David L; Rennoldson, Mike

2014-01-01

329

Obesity, Disordered Eating, and Eating Disorders in a Longitudinal Study of Adolescents: How Do Dieters Fare 5 Years Later?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine if adolescents who report dieting and different weight-control behaviors are at increased or decreased risk for gains in body mass index, overweight status, binge eating, extreme weight-control behaviors, and eating disorders 5 years later.

Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Melanie Wall; Jia Guo; Mary Story; Jess Haines; Marla Eisenberg

2006-01-01

330

Why Do Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Co-Occur?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders.

Pollack, Lauren O.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

2013-01-01

331

Prevalence of eating disorders in adults with celiac disease.  

PubMed

Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

Passananti, V; Siniscalchi, M; Zingone, F; Bucci, C; Tortora, R; Iovino, P; Ciacci, C

2013-01-01

332

Bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder in adolescents.  

PubMed

Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are separate entities with the common denominator of binge eating. In this chapter, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria for BN are reviewed, including both recurrent episodes of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain in one whose self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body weight and shape. Two percent of adolescent females and 0.3% of adolescent males fulfill criteria for BN. Risk factors, medical complications of binge eating (vomiting, use of ipecac, diet pills, diuretics, and laxatives), physical and laboratory findings, and treatment options and outcome are discussed. BED is seen in 1-2% of adolescents. The DSM-IV lists BED under Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. DSM-IV research criteria for BED is reviewed, including binge eating, distress over binge eating, and absence of regular extreme compensatory behaviors. The mean age of onset is 17.2 years. Up to 30% of obese patients have BED. Risk factors are discussed. Because most patients with BED are obese, medical evaluation is similar to that for obesity. Treatment goals must be geared not only toward decreased binge eating but toward weight loss. Outcome is discussed. PMID:12529196

Schneider, Marcie

2003-02-01

333

Group therapy for eating disorders: A step-wise approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group therapy is emerging as a favored treatment for eating disorders. Open-ended psychodynamic group therapy is an effective treatment for the underlying conflicts in eating-disordered patients, yet these groups are difficult to form. The authors suggest a specific sequence using time-limited psychoeducational groups initially for symptom control, then offering an open-ended group for patients who are ready to address deeper

Helen Riess; J. Scott Rutan

1992-01-01

334

Mentalization and psychopharmacotherapy in patients with personality and eating disorders.  

PubMed

Contemporary psychiatry pays more and more attention to the patient's capacity regarding acceptance of psychiatric drugs. Understanding the basis of our treatment's effectiveness becomes more challenging. To understand psychiatric treatment psychiatrists must pay full attention to mentalizing and the conditions under which this basic human capacity becomes impaired especially in those suffering from personality and eating disorders. This paper discusses the meaning and clinical applications of the mentalizing related to psychopharmacotherapy for personality and eating disorders patients, including suicidality. PMID:24048405

Mar?inko, Darko; Jakši?, Nenad; Sko?i?, Milena; Frani?, Tomislav

2013-09-01

335

Eating disorders, gene–environment interactions and epigenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the various subtypes of eating disorders and examines factors associated with the risk of illness. It considers evidence that the development and maintenance of eating disorders is due to gene–environment interactions (GxE) that alter genetic expression via epigenetic processes. It describes how environmental factors such as those associated with nutrition and\\/or stress may cause epigenetic changes which

Iain C. Campbell; Jonathan Mill; Rudolf Uher; Ulrike Schmidt

2011-01-01

336

Night eating syndrome in young adults: delineation from other eating disorders and clinical significance.  

PubMed

The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a recently described disordered eating style whose status in current diagnostic systems needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the clinical features of NES in a sample of 1514 young adults aged 18-26 years from the general population who participated in an anonymous Internet survey. We first examined characteristics of NES and tried to delineate it from healthy controls as well as from other eating disorders in terms of socio-demography, eating disorder pathology and general psychopathology. Second, we attempted to further clarify the clinical utility of the NES by assessing the degree of distress as well as impairment. Twenty (1.3%) participants with NES were identified and there was only modest overlap between NES and both Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Bulimia nervosa (BN) according to questionnaire-based DSM-IV criteria. Compared to healthy controls, NES individuals reported more pronounced eating disorder pathology as well as general psychopathology (depressive symptoms, chronic social stress). NES seems to be associated with considerable distress and impairment. Implications for the validity and classification of NES are discussed. PMID:22883837

Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Hermann, Ernst; Tuch, Alex; Munsch, Simone

2012-12-30

337

[Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].  

PubMed

Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

2010-01-01

338

Eating disorder examination questionnaire: norms for young adolescent girls.  

PubMed

This paper reports young adolescent female norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The standardization sample was comprised of 808 girls aged between 12 and 14 years from three single-sex schools (one private and two state schools). Means, standard deviations and percentile ranks for raw EDE-Q subscale scores are presented. Prevalence figures for key eating disorder behaviors over the previous two weeks were as follows: 4% self-induced vomiting; 1% laxative misuse; 0.4% diuretic misuse; and 8% regular binge eating. PMID:11341255

Carter, J C; Stewart, D A; Fairburn, C G

2001-05-01

339

Eating disorders: implications for the 1990's.  

PubMed

In the past decade much has been learned about the clinical features, diagnosis and understanding of people with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In order to provide the next level of improvement in our care for these patients, our understanding of certain problems must be addressed by empirical research. Areas which require further study include the definition of high risk groups, the refinement of diagnoses, understanding factors which result in chronicity, determining the complications of chronicity and comparative evaluations of different treatments. These five areas are outlined in this article. Populations at risk for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa may be those who must be thin and achieve according to career choice, those with a particular family and personal psychiatric history; obesity and chronic medical illnesses may be further risks. Improved diagnostic understanding has occurred by the differentiation of bulimic from restricting subtypes of anorexia nervosa. Further work must determine the relationship between the bulimic subtype of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in normal weight women and to further clarify the relationship between eating disorders and affective disorders. A number of factors may result in a chronic illness. These have been described on a variety of levels. The consequences of starvation in altering an individual's thinking, feeling and behaviour do play a role. It is not clear what factors at a neurochemical level contribute to this. Elevated endogenous opiates decreased noradrenergic function and decreased serotonin may be important. Information about the chronic complications is required for clinicians to understand the broad range of difficulties that may develop over time so that clinicians may use this information in planning treatment strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3315172

Garfinkel, P E; Garner, D M; Goldbloom, D S

1987-10-01

340

Non-eating disorders psychopathology in children and adolescents with eating disorders: Implications for malnutrition and symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo compare the general psychopathology in an eating disorders (ED) and a child mental health outpatient sample and investigate the implications of comorbidity on psychological and physical measures of ED severity.

Brett McDermott; David Forbes; Chris Harris; Julie McCormack; Peter Gibbon

2006-01-01

341

A meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders following vaccines administered from 1994 through 2000 in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Thimerosal is an ethylmercury-containing compound (49.6% mercury by weight) used as at the preservative level in vaccines (0.005% to 0.01%). METHODS: Statistical modeling in a meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for neurodevelopment dis- orders (NDs) reported following Diphtheria-Tetanus-whole-cell-Pertussis (DTP) vaccines in comparison to Diphtheria-Tetanus-whole-cell-Pertussis-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (DTPH) vaccines (administered: 1994-1997) and following

David A. Geier; Mark R. Geier

342

The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project: development and debut of a paediatric clinical eating disorder registry  

PubMed Central

Background The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project is an ongoing registry study made up of a sequential cross-sectional sample prospectively recruited over 17 years, and is designed to answer empirical questions about paediatric eating disorders. This paper introduces the HOPE Project, describes the registry sample to-date, and discusses future directions and challenges and accomplishments. The project and clinical service were established in a tertiary academic hospital in Western Australia in 1996 with a service development grant. Research processes were inbuilt into the initial protocols and data collection was maintained in the following years. Recognisable progress with the research agenda accelerated only when dedicated research resources were obtained. The registry sample consists of consecutive children and adolescents assessed at the eating disorder program from 1996 onward. Standardised multidisciplinary data collected from family intake interview, parent and child clinical interviews, medical review, parent, child and teacher psychometric assessments, and inpatient admission records populate the HOPE Project database. Results The registry database to-date contains 941 assessments, of whom 685 met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder at admission. The majority of the sample were females (91%) from metropolitan Perth (83%). The cases with eating disorders consist of eating disorders not otherwise specified (68%), anorexia nervosa (25%) and bulimia nervosa (7%). Among those with eating disorders, a history of weight loss since illness onset was almost universal (96%) with fear of weight gain (71%) common, and the median duration of illness was 8 months. Conclusions Over the next five years and more, we expect that the HOPE Project will make a strong scientific contribution to paediatric eating disorders research and will have important real-world applications to clinical practice and policy as the research unfolds.

2013-01-01

343

Attachment insecurity, personality, and body dissatisfaction in eating disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is assessing interactions between attachment style and personality in predicting body dissatisfaction (BD). A total of 586 outpatients with eating disorders (EDs) were recruited: 101 with anorexia nervosa, restricting type; 52 with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; 184 with bulimia nervosa, purging type; and 249 with an eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed Temperament and Character Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attachment Style Questionnaire. An insecure attachment was found in all EDs, as well as in eating disorder not otherwise specified. In all diagnostic groups, need for approval, as measured by the Attachment Style Questionnaire and depressive symptomatology, was found to be the best predictor of BD. Personality traits are weaker predictors of BD. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment insecurity is directly correlated with BD, core element in predicting and perpetuating EDs, independently of personality. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:20611057

Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Gramaglia, Carla; Amianto, Federico; Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo

2010-07-01

344

Is decision making really impaired in eating disorders?  

PubMed Central

Objective Decision-making has been reported to be reduced in eating disorders. However, studies are sparse and have been carried out in various selected populations. The current study was arranged to confirm previous observations and to assess the relationship between decision-making and dimensions relevant to eating disorders. Method Patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (n=49), bulimia nervosa (n=38), and healthy controls (n=83) were assessed using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). All patients were euthymic and free of psychotropic medication. Self-questionnaires (EDI-2 and EAT) were used to assess clinical dimensions relevant to eating disorders. Results No significant differences in IGT performance were observed between patients and healthy controls, or between restrictive and purging types of anorexia nervosa. No correlations were found between IGT performance and eating disorder questionnaires. Conclusion These results do not support reduced decision-making in patients with eating disorders, and suggest that previously reported alterations could be related to other clinical characteristics. This should stimulate new topic-related studies designed to reach a firm conclusion.

Guillaume, Sebastien; Sang, Caroline Ngo Ton; Jaussent, Isabelle; Raingeard, Isabelle; Bringer, Jacques; Jollant, Fabrice; Courtet, Philippe

2010-01-01

345

Integrating messages from the eating disorders field into obesity prevention.  

PubMed

Weight-related problems, including unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating, overweight and obesity, and eating disorders, are prevalent in youth. Furthermore, many young people exhibit more than one of these problems. Therefore, it is essential to consider how to simultaneously work toward the prevention of a broad range of weight-related problems in youth. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, weight talk, and weight-related teasing are commonly addressed risk factors within eating disorder prevention interventions, whereas low levels of physical activity and high intakes of foods high in fat and sugar are commonly addressed within interventions aimed at obesity prevention. Empirical data to be presented in this article demonstrate why risk factors such as dieting and body dissatisfaction, which are typically addressed within the eating disorder field, need to also be addressed within the obesity field. Although dieting and body dissatisfaction strongly predict weight gain over time, these findings are not always taken into account in the design of obesity interventions for youth. Possible reasons as to why risk factors such as dieting, body dissatisfaction, and weight stigmatization may be not adequately addressed within interventions addressing obesity are discussed. Suggestions for how physicians and other nonphysician clinicians might link messages from the fields of both eating disorders and obesity into their work with youth are provided. Finally, the potential for work on mindfulness and yoga to decrease risk factors for both eating disorders and obesity are explored. PMID:23437686

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-12-01

346

Filaggrin gene defects and risk of developing allergic sensitisation and allergic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether filaggrin gene defects, present in up to one in 10 western Europeans and North Americans, increase the risk of developing allergic sensitisation and allergic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, ISI Science Citation Index, BIOSIS, ISI Web of Knowledge, UK National Research Register, clinical trials.gov, the Index to Theses and Digital dissertations, and grey literature using OpenSIGLE. Study selection Genetic epidemiological studies (family, case-control) of the association between filaggrin gene defects and allergic sensitisation or allergic disorders. Data extraction Atopic eczema or dermatitis, food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and anaphylaxis, along with relevant immunological variables relating to the risk of allergic sensitisation as assessed by either positive skin prick testing or increased levels of allergen specific IgE. Data synthesis 24 studies were included. The odds of developing allergic sensitisation was 1.91 (95% confidence interval 1.44 to 2.54) in the family studies and 1.57 (1.20 to 2.07) in the case-control studies. The odds of developing atopic eczema was 1.99 (1.72 to 2.31) in the family studies and 4.78 (3.31 to 6.92) in the case-control studies. Three studies investigated the association between filaggrin gene mutations and allergic rhinitis in people without atopic eczema: overall odds ratio 1.78 (1.16 to 2.73). The four studies that investigated the association between filaggrin gene mutations and allergic rhinitis in people with atopic eczema reported a significant association: pooled odds ratio from case-control studies 2.84 (2.08 to 3.88). An overall odds ratio for the association between filaggrin gene mutations and asthma in people with atopic eczema was 2.79 (1.77 to 4.41) in case-control studies and 2.30 (1.66 to 3.18) in family studies. None of the studies that investigated filaggrin gene mutations and asthma in people without atopic eczema reported a significant association; overall odds ratio was 1.30 (0.7 to 2.30) in the case-control studies. The funnel plots suggested that publication bias was unlikely to be an explanation for these findings. No studies investigated the association between filaggrin gene mutations and food allergy or anaphylaxis. Conclusions Filaggrin gene defects increase the risk of developing allergic sensitisation, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis. Evidence of the relation between filaggrin gene mutations and atopic eczema was strong, with people manifesting increased severity and persistence of disease. Filaggrin gene mutations also increased the risk of asthma in people with atopic eczema. Restoring skin barrier function in filaggrin deficient people in early life may help prevent the development of sensitisation and halt the development and progression of allergic disease.

2009-01-01

347

A cross-cultural study of disordered eating attitudes among Filipino and Caucasian Americans.  

PubMed

The present study examines the symptom levels of eating disorders among Filipino and Caucasian college students residing in Hawaii. The study also examines what variables are associated with disordered eating. A self-report questionnaire that included measures of anger discomfort, self-dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and symptoms of eating disorders was administered to Filipino and Caucasian college students. As predicted, females reported higher eating disorder symptom scores than males. However, Filipino males reported higher levels of disordered eating, dieting, and body dissatisfaction than Caucasian males. No association was found between disordered eating and anger discomfort among Filipinos. The results support previous findings of females reporting higher disordered eating attitudes than males, however, Filipino males reported higher disordered attitudes than Caucasian males. Anger discomfort was not associated with disordered eating among Filipinos, supporting past studies that suggest anger management may not be an appropriate treatment for disordered eating among some Asian groups. PMID:16864533

Edman, Jeanne L; Yates, Alayne

2005-01-01

348

A Measure of Dysfunctional Eating-Related Cognitions in People with Psychotic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity and binge eating disorder are common in individuals with psychotic disorders. Eating and weight-related cognitions\\u000a are known to influence eating behaviors. The study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of the Mizes Anorectic\\u000a Cognitions Questionnaire (MAC-R) in patients with psychotic disorders. Binge eating disorder (BED), body mass index (BMI),\\u000a the MAC-R and the three factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ)

Yasser Khazaal; Joël Billieux; Emmanuelle Fresard; Philippe Huguelet; Martial Van der Linden; Daniele Zullino

2010-01-01

349

Eating patterns and breakfast consumption in obese patients with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

This study examined eating patterns and breakfast consumption, and their relationships to weight and binge eating, in obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). One-hundred seventy-three consecutively evaluated men (n=46) and women (n=127) with BED were administered semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess the frequency of meals and snacks eaten, as well as binge eating and eating disorder features. Overall, those who consumed more frequent meals, particularly breakfast, and snacks, weighed less. Breakfast, which was eaten on a daily basis by less than half of participants (n=74; 43%), was the least frequently eaten meal of the day. Participants (n=56; 32%) who ate three meals per day weighed significantly less, and had significantly fewer binges, than participants (n=117; 68%) who did not regularly eat three meals per day. Thus, eating more frequently, having breakfast and consuming three meals every day, have potentially important clinical applications for the treatment of BED given that the effectiveness of specific interventions within treatments for BED are unknown, and that weight loss outcome for BED has been poor. PMID:16376851

Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

2006-11-01

350

Correcting the eating disorder in anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess whether direct informational feedback using videotape recordings would improve abnormal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. Eight inpatients participated in the study. A statistically significant improvement was noted in the occurrence of obsessional eating behaviour and in table manners. However, there was no change in the speed of eating, disposal of food or behaviours which reduce caloric intake. The implications of these findings for the treatment and prognosis of anorexia nervosa are discussed. PMID:4045758

Wilson, A J; Touyz, S W; O'Connor, M; Beumont, P J

1985-01-01

351

Meta-analysis of association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and the 3' region of neuronal glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1.  

PubMed

The neuronal glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 is a candidate gene for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on linkage studies and convergent evidence implicating glutamate in OCD etiology. The 3' end of SLC1A1 is the only genomic region with consistently demonstrated OCD association, especially when analyzing male-only probands. However, specific allele associations have not been consistently replicated, and recent OCD genome-wide association and meta-analysis studies have not incorporated all previously associated SLC1A1 SNPs. To clarify the nature of association between SLC1A1 and OCD, pooled analysis was performed on all available relevant raw study data, comprising a final sample of 815 trios, 306 cases and 634 controls. This revealed weak association between OCD and one of nine tested SLC1A1 polymorphisms (rs301443; uncorrected P?=?0.046; non-significant corrected P). Secondary analyses of male-affecteds only (N?=?358 trios and 133 cases) demonstrated modest association between OCD and a different SNP (rs12682807; uncorrected P?=?0.012; non-significant corrected P). Findings of this meta-analysis are consistent with the trend of previous candidate gene studies in psychiatry and do not clarify the putative role of SLC1A1 in OCD pathophysiology. Nonetheless, it may be important to further examine the potential associations demonstrated in this amalgamated sample, especially since the SNPs with modest associations were not included in the more highly powered recent GWAS or in a past meta-analysis including five SLC1A1 polymorphisms. This study underscores the need for much larger sample sizes in future genetic association studies and suggests that next-generation sequencing may be beneficial in examining the potential role of rare variants in OCD. PMID:23606572

Stewart, S E; Mayerfeld, C; Arnold, P D; Crane, J R; O'Dushlaine, C; Fagerness, J A; Yu, D; Scharf, J M; Chan, E; Kassam, F; Moya, P R; Wendland, J R; Delorme, R; Richter, M A; Kennedy, J L; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J; Samuels, J; Greenberg, B D; McCracken, J T; Knowles, J A; Fyer, A J; Rauch, S L; Riddle, M A; Grados, M A; Bienvenu, O J; Cullen, B; Wang, Y; Shugart, Y Y; Piacentini, J; Rasmussen, S; Nestadt, G; Murphy, D L; Jenike, M A; Cook, E H; Pauls, D L; Hanna, G L; Mathews, C A

2013-06-01

352

Eating disorder symptoms among Japanese female students in 1982, 1992 and 2002.  

PubMed

To study transcultural differences in eating disorders, we examined eating disorder symptoms and point prevalence of eating disorders among Japanese female students in 1982, 1992 and 2002. In 1982, 1992 and 2002, a total of 10,499 Japanese female students, aged 16-23 years, were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Diagnosis of an eating disorder was made on the basis of DSM-IV criteria. On almost all measures, there were significant increases of a disordered attitude about fear of gaining weight, body perception disturbance and problematic eating behaviors over time. The point prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified significantly increased over time. These results suggest that the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms and the point prevalence of eating disorders were increasing among Japanese female students in 2002. Changing socio-cultural factors in Japan may explain the dramatic increase of eating disorders over time. PMID:24889844

Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Nin, Kazuko; Noma, Shunichi

2014-09-30

353

A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between Self-Reported Presence and Anxiety in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.  

PubMed

In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r?=?.28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r?=?.50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r?=?.001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors. PMID:24801324

Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

2014-01-01

354

A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between Self-Reported Presence and Anxiety in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r?=?.28; 95% CI: 0.18–0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r?=?.50; 95% CI: 0.30–0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r?=?.001; 95% CI: ?0.19–0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors.

Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

2014-01-01

355

I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do?  

MedlinePLUS

... on eating binges (overeat to excess, known as "binge eating"). And others may purge their bodies of the ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Binge Eating Disorder Body Image and Self-Esteem Female Athlete ...

356

Current and Emerging Directions in the Treatment of Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are a significant source of psychiatric morbidity in young women and demonstrate high comorbidity with mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Thus, clinicians may encounter eating disorders in the context of treating other conditions. This review summarizes the efficacy of current and emerging treatments for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Treatment trials were identified using electronic and manual searches and by reviewing abstracts from conference proceedings. Family based therapy has demonstrated superiority for adolescents with AN but no treatment has established superiority for adults. For BN, both 60 mg fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have well-established efficacy. For BED, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, CBT, and interpersonal psychotherapy have demonstrated efficacy. Emerging directions for AN include investigation of the antipsychotic olanzapine and several novel psychosocial treatments. Future directions for BN and BED include increasing CBT disseminability, targeting affect regulation, and individualized stepped-care approaches.

Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2012-01-01

357

Dyadic view of expressed emotion, stress, and eating disorder psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevailing models of the association between expressed emotion (EE) and relapse conceptualize EE as a form of stress for patients. In eating disorders (ED), there is no research addressed to evaluate the degree to which patients feel stress due to their relatives’ EE. It has been neither investigated how the EE and the subsequent stress relate to disordered behaviours and

Cristina Medina-Pradas; J. Blas Navarro; Steven. R. López; Antoni Grau; Jordi E. Obiols

2011-01-01

358

Aetiology of eating disorders in the 21 st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the aetiology of the eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, which is generally thought of as multi-factorial in nature. In recent years with the advent of new bio-technologies interest in the exploration of the contribution of biological, in particular genetic factors to the origins of these disorders has been revived. The challenge for the future is

Ulrike Schmidt

2003-01-01

359

A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between anxiety and cannabis use/cannabis use disorders in the general population. Methods A total of N?=?267 studies were identified from a systematic literature search (any time- March 2013) of Medline and PsycInfo databases, and a hand search. The results of 31 studies (with prospective cohort or cross-sectional designs using non-institutionalised cases) were analysed using a random-effects meta-analysis with the inverse variance weights. Lifetime or past 12-month cannabis use, anxiety symptoms, and cannabis use disorders (CUD; dependence and/or abuse/harmful use) were classified according to DSM/ICD criteria or scores on standardised scales. Results There was a small positive association between anxiety and either cannabis use (OR?=?1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p?=?.006; N?=?15 studies) or CUD (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.23-2.31, p?=?.001; N?=?13 studies), and between comorbid anxiety?+?depression and cannabis use (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40, p?=?.004; N?=?5 studies). The positive associations between anxiety and cannabis use (or CUD) were present in subgroups of studies with ORs adjusted for possible confounders (substance use, psychiatric illness, demographics) and in studies with clinical diagnoses of anxiety. Cannabis use at baseline was significantly associated with anxiety at follow-up in N?=?5 studies adjusted for confounders (OR?=?1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54, p?=?.01). The opposite relationship was investigated in only one study. There was little evidence for publication bias. Conclusion Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalised members of the general population of 10 countries.

2014-01-01

360

Examining the Relationship Between Soda Consumption and Eating Disorder Pathology  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to compare diet soda drinkers, regular soda drinkers, and individuals who do not regularly consume soda on clinically significant eating disorder psychopathology, including binge eating, overeating, and purging. Method Participants (n=2077) were adult community volunteers who completed an online survey that included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and questions regarding binge eating behaviors, purging, current weight status, and the type and frequency of soda beverages consumed. Results Diet soda drinkers (34%, n=706) reported significantly higher levels of eating, shape, and weight concerns than regular soda drinkers (22%, n=465), who in turn reported higher levels on these variables than non-soda drinkers (44%, n=906). Diet soda drinkers were more likely to report binge eating and purging than regular soda drinkers, who were more likely to report these behaviors than non-soda drinkers. Consumption of any soda was positively associated with higher BMI, though individuals who consumed regular soda reported significantly higher BMI than diet soda drinkers, who in turn reported higher weight than those who do not consume soda regularly. Conclusions Individuals who consume soda regularly reported higher BMI and more eating psychopathology than those who do not consume soda. These findings extend previous research demonstrating positive associations between soda consumption and weight.

Bragg, M.A.; White, M. A.

2013-01-01

361

[Prevalence of eating disorders among female Israel defence force recruits].  

PubMed

It is assumed that the incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in the general population has been increasing. Medical personnel in the IDF also believe this to be true with regard to their female soldiers. We administered the eating attitude test (EAT) to 1112 female soldiers at the beginning of their military service and determined weight and height for each. Those whose EAT scores were high or whose weights were low were then interviewed by the study psychiatrist and the author. 2 of them (0.2%) were found to be suffering from anorexia nervosa. Both were identified by their low weights; their EAT scores were both normal. 27 (2.4%) were diagnosed as having a partial eating disorder syndrome, in a third of whom it was severe. The severe cases were also identified by their weights and not by EAT scores. In addition, 4 (0.5%) had bulimia nervosa, all of whom were identified from their EAT scores. These findings are similar to those of some of the most recent studies in the field. The deficiencies of the EAT scale were more apparent in this than in other studies. Because of its relatively low PPV as well as the apparent reluctance of many subjects to answer truthfully, the scale is not effective by itself for screening purposes. As was shown in this study, measuring weight and height in addition considerably improved accuracy of screening. PMID:1516869

Scheinberg, Z; Bleich, A; Koslovsky, M; Apter, A; Mark, M; Kotler, B M; Danon, Y L

1992-08-01

362

Characteristics of Eating Disorders among Young Ballet Dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied in ballet dancers in full-time training and compared with other young women at school. Dancers had higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test. Dancers were more likely to have an eating disorder when strict modified DSM-3-R criteria were applied. Currently 1 dancer (1.6%) and no student had anorexia nervosa, 1

Suzanne Abraham

1996-01-01

363

Do DSM-5 Eating Disorder Criteria Overpathologize Normative Eating Patterns among Individuals with Obesity?  

PubMed Central

Background. DSM-5 revisions have been criticized in the popular press for overpathologizing normative eating patterns—particularly among individuals with obesity. To evaluate the evidence for this and other DSM-5 critiques, we compared the point prevalence and interrater reliability of DSM-IV versus DSM-5 eating disorders (EDs) among adults seeking weight-loss treatment. Method. Clinicians (n = 2) assigned DSM-IV and DSM-5 ED diagnoses to 100 participants via routine clinical interview. Research assessors (n = 3) independently conferred ED diagnoses via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a DSM-5 checklist. Results. Research assessors diagnosed a similar proportion of participants with EDs under DSM-IV (29%) versus DSM-5 (32%). DSM-5 research diagnoses included binge eating disorder (9%), bulimia nervosa (2%), subthreshold binge eating disorder (5%), subthreshold bulimia nervosa (2%), purging disorder (1%), night eating syndrome (6%), and other (7%). Interrater reliability between clinicians and research assessors was “substantial” for both DSM-IV (? = 0.64, 84% agreement) and DSM-5 (? = 0.63, 83% agreement). Conclusion. DSM-5 ED criteria can be reliably applied in an obesity treatment setting and appear to yield an overall ED point prevalence comparable to DSM-IV.

Eddy, Kamryn T.; Murray, Helen B.; Gorman, Mark J.

2014-01-01

364

Eating disorders and attachment: a contemporary psychodynamic perspective.  

PubMed

Abstract A contemporary psychodynamic framework can add much to our understanding of eating disorders. Eating disorders are associated with complex comorbidities, high levels of mortality, and therapist countertransferences that can complicate psychological treatments. Mainstream models currently focus on cognitive, biological, or cultural factors to the near exclusion of attachment functioning, and the individual's dynamics. As such, standard models appear to exclude person-centred and developmental considerations when providing treatments. In this article, we describe a contemporary psychodynamic model that understands eating disorder symptoms as a consequence of vulnerability to social pressures to be thin and biological predispositions to body weight. Individual vulnerabilities are rooted in unmet attachment needs causing negative affect, and subsequent maladaptive defenses and eating disorder symptoms as a means of coping. We describe how this model can inform transdiagnostic eating disorder treatment that focuses on symptoms as well as specific attachment functions including: interpersonal style, affect regulation, reflective functioning, and coherence of mind. Two clinical examples are presented to illustrate case formulations and psychological treatments informed by these conceptualizations. PMID:24828595

Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise

2014-01-01

365

[Nighttime eating disorders--clinical symptoms and treatment].  

PubMed

Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or the sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). Both diseases are often connected with an increase of the body mass, obesity, and with psychiatric disturbances. NES is characterized by evening hyperphagia, abnormally increased food intake after the evening meal, nocturnal awakings with ingestions, morning anorexia, and insomnia. Patients suffering from NES are aware of their nocturnal ingestions. It is suggested that NES is an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing that occurs in people with normal circadian rhythm of sleep. Other factors underlying NES include genetic predispositions, hormonal and neurochemical disturbances, and mood disorders. SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating or drinking after arousal from nighttime sleep, unaware in tight the most cases, with adverse consequences. The distinctive features of SRED are amnesia of night eating episodes and consumption of non-typical food or dangerous articles. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, e.g., restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, and somnambulism. It can be also induced by medicines applied by a patient (e.g. zolpidem). It is hypothesized that the syndrome represents a variation of somnambulism. In the treatment of NES both non-pharmacological methods (psychotherapy, phototherapy) as well as the pharmacotherapy (aimed to increase serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, predominantly by sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) are used. SRED can be treated by controlling comorbid sleep disorders and eliminating provocative sedative hypnotics. PMID:21387771

Zawilska, Jolanta B; Santorek-Strumi??o, Edyta J; Kuna, Paulina

2010-01-01

366

Subclinical eating disorders and their comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders in adolescent girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assesses the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders and examines their comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders in a sample of adolescent girls. A DSM-III-R computerized self-reported interview was administered to 833 adolescent girls (mean age=15.7±0.5years) from a population sample to assess the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders, major depression, dysthymia, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorders. The

Evelyne Touchette; Adina Henegar; Nathalie T. Godart; Laura Pryor; Bruno Falissard; Richard E. Tremblay; Sylvana M. Côté

2011-01-01

367

Change in Binge Eating and Binge Eating Disorder Associated with Migration from Mexico to the US  

PubMed Central

Exposure to Western popular culture is hypothesized to increase risk for eating disorders. This study tests this hypothesis with respect to the proposed diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) in an epidemiological sample of people of Mexican origin in Mexico and the US. Data come from the Mexico National Comorbidity Survey, National Comorbidity Survey Replication, and National Latino and Asian American Survey (N=2268). Diagnoses were assessed with the WMH-CIDI. Six groups were compared: Mexicans with no migrant family members, Mexicans with at least one migrant family member, Mexican return-migrants, Mexican-born migrants in the US, and two successive generations of Mexican-Americans in the US. The lifetime prevalence of BED was 1.6% in Mexico and 2.2% among Mexican-Americans. Compared with Mexicans in families with migrants, risk for BED was higher in US-born Mexican-Americans with two US-born parents (aHR=2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.93). This effect was attenuated by 24% (aHR=1.97, 95% CI 0.84-4.62) with adjustment for prior-onset depressive or anxiety disorder. Adjustment for prior-onset conduct disorder increased the magnitude of association (aHR=2.75, 95% CI 1.22-6.20). A similar pattern was observed for binge eating. Among respondents reporting binge eating, onset in the US (vs. Mexico) was not associated with prevalence of further eating disorder symptoms. Migration from Mexico to the US is associated with an increased risk for BED that may be partially attributable to non-specific influences on internalizing disorders. Among respondents reporting binge eating in either country, similar levels of further symptoms were endorsed, suggesting some cross-cultural generalizability of criteria.

Swanson, Sonja A.; Saito, Naomi; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

2011-01-01

368

Eating disorders among female athletes: The role of feminist orientation and coaching messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are a serious problem among women in Western culture. The overrepresentation of women suffering from these disorders suggests a socio-cultural component that places women at far greater risk for the development of an eating disorder. A particular sub-group of women who seem to be at risk for eating disorders are female athletes. Moreover, the role of the coach

Gretchen Louise Doninger

2003-01-01

369

Prevention of Obesity and Eating Disorders: A Consideration of Shared Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among youth, researchers in both the obesity and eating disorders fields have proposed using an integrated approach to prevention that addresses the spectrum of weight-related disorders within interventions. The identification of risk factors that are…

Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2006-01-01

370

Disordered Eating in Female Alcohol-Dependent Inpatients: Prevalence and Associated Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study's aims were twofold: to examine the prevalence rate of eating disorders in women hospitalized for substance abuse treatment and to analyze differences in psychopathology of three patient groups: 25 alcohol-dependent women without comorbid eating disorders, 15 alcohol-dependent women with partial syndromes of eating disorders, and 41 eating-disordered women without comorbid psychoactive substance use disorders. A higher prevalence rate

Ann E. Goebel; Karl E. Scheibe; Shade C. Grahling; Ruth H. Striegel-moore

1995-01-01

371

Frequency of Binge Eating Episodes in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Diagnostic Considerations  

PubMed Central

Objective In DSM-IV, to be diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or the provisional diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), an individual must experience episodes of binge eating is “at least twice a week” on average, for three or six months respectively. The purpose of this review was to examine the validity and utility of the frequency criterion for BN and BED. Method Published studies evaluating the frequency criterion were reviewed. Results Our review found little evidence to support the validity or utility of the DSM-IV frequency criterion of twice a week binge eating; however, the number of studies available for our review was limited. Conclusion A number of options are available for the frequency criterion in DSM-V, and the optimal diagnostic threshold for binge eating remains to be determined.

Wilson, G. Terence; Sysko, Robyn

2013-01-01

372

Risk for Eating Disorders in a School-Based Twin Sample: Are Twins Representative of the General Population for Eating Disordered Behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the validity of the representativeness assumption in twin studies of eating pathology by examining whether twins are representative of the general population for eating disorder behavior. Eating disorder behaviors were quantified by a 21-item risk measure in two school-based female adolescent samples:

Kelly L. Klump; Pamela K. Keel; Gloria R. Leon; Jayne A. Fulkerson

1999-01-01

373

In Search of the Trauma Memory: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Symptom Provocation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  

PubMed Central

Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping) were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients’ attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being involved in associative learning and priming, the retrosplenial cortex may have an important function in relation to trauma memory, in particular, the intrusive reexperiencing of the traumatic event.

Sartory, Gudrun; Cwik, Jan; Knuppertz, Helge; Schurholt, Benjamin; Lebens, Morena; Seitz, Rudiger J.; Schulze, Ralf

2013-01-01

374

Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed with a Current Episode of an Anxiety or Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can reduce risk of depressive relapse for people with a history of recurrent depression who are currently well. However, the cognitive, affective and motivational features of depression and anxiety might render MBIs ineffective for people experiencing current symptoms. This paper presents a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of MBIs where participants met diagnostic criteria for a current episode of an anxiety or depressive disorder. Method Post-intervention between-group Hedges g effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model. Moderator analyses of primary diagnosis, intervention type and control condition were conducted and publication bias was assessed. Results Twelve studies met inclusion criteria (n?=?578). There were significant post-intervention between-group benefits of MBIs relative to control conditions on primary symptom severity (Hedges g?=??0.59, 95% CI?=??0.12 to ?1.06). Effects were demonstrated for depressive symptom severity (Hedges g?=??0.73, 95% CI?=??0.09 to ?1.36), but not for anxiety symptom severity (Hedges g?=??0.55, 95% CI?=?0.09 to ?1.18), for RCTs with an inactive control (Hedges g?=??1.03, 95% CI?=??0.40 to ?1.66), but not where there was an active control (Hedges g?=?0.03, 95% CI?=?0.54 to ?0.48) and effects were found for MBCT (Hedges g?=??0.39, 95% CI?=??0.15 to ?0.63) but not for MBSR (Hedges g?=??0.75, 95% CI?=?0.31 to ?1.81). Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis of RCTs of MBIs where all studies included only participants who were diagnosed with a current episode of a depressive or anxiety disorder. Effects of MBIs on primary symptom severity were found for people with a current depressive disorder and it is recommended that MBIs might be considered as an intervention for this population.

Strauss, Clara; Cavanagh, Kate; Oliver, Annie; Pettman, Danelle

2014-01-01

375

Eating disorder in a young active duty male.  

PubMed

Eating disorders can have atypical presentations, be challenging to diagnose, and often result in treatment delay, as illustrated here. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors, and is ten times more common in females. Studies show increased prevalence over the past decade, with similar prevalence in young military members and civilians. Risk factors include dieting, gender preference, life-altering events, and history of a psychiatric condition. Relatively little research has focused on eating disorders among military males, but factors unique to this group include rigid weight standards, mandatory semiannual personal fitness assessments, and extended deployments. Bulimia and other eating disorders can have subtle or atypical presentations and are often overlooked in males. Other diagnostic obstacles include career concerns and stigma avoidance, along with provider time constraints, inexperience, or discomfort with the issue. Serious medical complications of bulimia are uncommon, but delayed diagnosis can lead to hospitalization and significant morbidity. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough history and wide differential when faced with an unusual presentation. Recognizing risk factors and incorporating simple screening tools can aid the timely identification and treatment of service members with disordered eating before unit and mission effectiveness are compromised. PMID:23820372

Staten, Robert A

2013-07-01

376

Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on sport performance.

El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

2013-01-01

377

Plasma Ghrelin in Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating Disorder: Relations with Eating Patterns and Circulating Concentrations of Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in

Alfonso Troisi; Giorgio Di Lorenzo; Ilaria Lega; Manfredi Tesauro; Aldo Bertoli; Roberto Leo; Micaela Iantorno; Chiara Pecchioli; Stefano Rizza; Mario Turriziani; Renato Lauro; Alberto Siracusano

2005-01-01

378

The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders  

PubMed Central

What we eat, when and how much, all are influenced by brain reward mechanisms that generate ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for foods. As a corollary, dysfunction in reward circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain mechanisms known to generate ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for foods, and evaluate their interaction with regulatory mechanisms of hunger and satiety, relevant to clinical issues. ‘Liking’ mechanisms include hedonic circuits that connect together cubic-millimeter hotspots in forebrain limbic structures such as nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum (where opioid/endocannabinoid/orexin signals can amplify sensory pleasure). ‘Wanting’ mechanisms include larger opioid networks in nucleus accumbens, striatum, and amygdala that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots, as well as mesolimbic dopamine systems, and corticolimbic glutamate signals that interact with those systems. We focus on ways in which these brain reward circuits might participate in obesity or in eating disorders.

Berridge, Kent C.; Ho, Chao-Yi; Richard, Jocelyn M.; DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G.

2010-01-01

379

The relative efficacy of bona fide psychotherapies for treating post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons.  

PubMed

Psychotherapy has been found to be an effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but meta-analyses have yielded inconsistent results on relative efficacy of psychotherapies in the treatment of PTSD. The present meta-analysis controlled for potential confounds in previous PTSD meta-analyses by including only bona fide psychotherapies, avoiding categorization of psychotherapy treatments, and using direct comparison studies only. The primary analysis revealed that effect sizes were homogenously distributed around zero for measures of PTSD symptomology, and for all measures of psychological functioning, indicating that there were no differences between psychotherapies. Additionally, the upper bound of the true effect size between PTSD psychotherapies was quite small. The results suggest that despite strong evidence of psychotherapy efficaciousness vis-à-vis no treatment or common factor controls, bona fide psychotherapies produce equivalent benefits for patients with PTSD. PMID:18055080

Benish, Steven G; Imel, Zac E; Wampold, Bruce E

2008-06-01

380

Attention-deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder in eating disorder inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis in women admitted for treat- ment of an eating disorder. Method: One hundred eighty-nine in- patient women with an eating disorder were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disor- ders (SCID-I) and ADHD interview

William R. Yates; Brian C. Lund; Craig Johnson; Jeff Mitchell; Patrick McKee

2009-01-01

381

ESPECTRA: Searching the Bipolar Spectrum in Eating Disorder patients  

PubMed Central

Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating Disorder Patients) is a single-site cross-sectional study involving a comparison group, designed to evaluate the prevalence of bipolar spectrum in an eating disorder sample. Women aged 18-45 years will be evaluated using the SCID-P and Zurich criteria for diagnosis and the HAM-D, YOUNG, SCI-MOODS, HCL-32, BIS-11, BSQ, WHOQoL and EAS instruments for rating symptoms and measuring clinical correlates. Discussion The classificatory systems in psychiatry are based on categorical models that have been criticized for simplifying the diagnosis and leading to an increase in comorbidities. Some dimensional approaches have been proposed aimed at improving the validity and reliability of psychiatric disorder assessments, especially in conditions with high rates of comorbidity such as BD and Eating Disorder (ED). The Bipolar Spectrum (BS) remains under-recognized in clinical practice and its definition is not well established in current diagnostic guidelines. Broader evaluation of psychiatric disorders combining categorical and dimensional views could contribute to a more realistic understanding of comorbidities and help toward establishing a prognosis.

2011-01-01

382

Psychiatric Disorders Associated With Risk for the Development of Eating Disorders During Adolescence and Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal data were used to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, disruptive, personality, or substance use disorders are associated with risk for the development of eating disorders during adolescence or early adulthood. Psychiatric disorders were assessed among 726 youths from a random community sample during adolescence and early adulthood. Depressive disorders during early adolescence were associated with elevated risk for the onset

Jeffrey G. Johnson; Patricia Cohen; Lisa Kotler; Stephanie Kasen; Judith S. Brook

2002-01-01

383

Parent and Child Report of Family Functioning in a Clinical Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate parent and self-report of family dysfunction in children and adolescents with eating disorders. Further, to investigate family functioning differences across the eating disorders diagnostic groups; anorexia nervosa, eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and bulimia nervosa, and between the restricting and binge-purge eating disorders behavioural subtypes.Methods: The Family Adjustment Device General Functioning Scale (FAD-GFS) was administered to

Brett M Mcdermott; Mary Batik; Lynne Roberts; Peter Gibbon

2002-01-01

384

Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Complicated by Comorbid Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occur, but there is little data for how to treat these complex cases. To address this gap, we examined the naturalistic outcome of 56 patients with both disorders, who received a multimodal treatment program designed to address both problems simultaneously. Methods A residential treatment program developed a cognitive-behavioral approach for patients with both OCD and an eating disorder by integrating exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment for OCD with ERP strategies targeting eating pathology. Patients also received a supervised eating plan, medication management, and social support. At admission and discharge, patients completed validated measures of OCD severity (the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale—Self Report [Y-BOCS-SR]), eating disorder severity (the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire), and depressive severity (the Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). Body mass index (BMI) was also measured. Paired-sample t-tests examined change on these measures. Main Results Between 2006 and 2011, 56 individuals completed all study measures at admission and discharge. Mean length of stay was 57 days (SD = 27). Most (89%) were on psychiatric medications. Significant decreases were observed in OCD severity, eating disorder severity, and depression. Those with bulimia nervosa showed more improvement than those with anorexia nervosa. BMI significantly increased, primarily among those underweight at admission. Conclusion Simultaneous treatment of OCD and eating disorders using a multimodal approach that emphasizes ERP techniques for both OCD and eating disorders can be an effective treatment strategy for these complex cases.

Simpson, H. Blair; Wetterneck, Chad T.; Cahill, Shawn P.; Steinglass, Joanna E.; Franklin, Martin E.; Leonard, Rachel C.; Weltzin, Theodore E.; Riemann, Bradley C.

2014-01-01

385

Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder complicated by comorbid eating disorders.  

PubMed

Purpose: Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occur, but there is little data for how to treat these complex cases. To address this gap, we examined the naturalistic outcome of 56 patients with both disorders, who received a multimodal treatment program designed to address both problems simultaneously. Methods: A residential treatment program developed a cognitive-behavioral approach for patients with both OCD and an eating disorder by integrating exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment for OCD with ERP strategies targeting eating pathology. Patients also received a supervised eating plan, medication management, and social support. At admission and discharge, patients completed validated measures of OCD severity (the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Self Report [Y-BOCS-SR]), eating disorder severity (the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire), and depressive severity (the Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). Body mass index (BMI) was also measured. Paired-sample t-tests examined change on these measures. Main Results: Between 2006 and 2011, 56 individuals completed all study measures at admission and discharge. Mean length of stay was 57 days (SD = 27). Most (89%) were on psychiatric medications. Significant decreases were observed in OCD severity, eating disorder severity, and depression. Those with bulimia nervosa showed more improvement than those with anorexia nervosa. BMI significantly increased, primarily among those underweight at admission. Conclusion: Simultaneous treatment of OCD and eating disorders using a multimodal approach that emphasizes ERP techniques for both OCD and eating disorders can be an effective treatment strategy for these complex cases. PMID:23316878

Simpson, H Blair; Wetterneck, Chad T; Cahill, Shawn P; Steinglass, Joanna E; Franklin, Martin E; Leonard, Rachel C; Weltzin, Theodore E; Riemann, Bradley C

2013-01-01

386

Binge eating, binge eating disorder and loss of control eating: effects on weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that patients who have problems with binge eating (BE) or BE disorder (BED) are quite common among the severely obese, including bariatric surgery candidates. The literature suggests that in many cases such eating behaviours improve after bariatric surgery, although this is not uniformly true. The current paper reviews the data on the development of BE, BED and loss of control (LOC) eating after bariatric surgery and the impact of these problems on long-term weight outcome. A search was made of various databases regarding evidence of BE, BED and LOC eating post-operatively in bariatric surgery patients. The data extracted from the literature suggests that 15 research studies have now examined this question. Fourteen of the available 15 studies suggest that the development of problems with BE, BED or LOC eating post-bariatric surgery is associated with less weight loss and/or more weight regain post-bariatric surgery. These data suggests that it is important to identify individuals at high risk for these problems, to follow them post-operatively, and, if appropriate interventions can be developed if such behaviours occur in order to maximize weight loss outcomes. PMID:24347539

Meany, Gavin; Conceição, Eva; Mitchell, James E

2014-03-01

387

The Role of Spirituality in the Treatment of Trauma and Eating Disorders: Recommendations for Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among trauma, eating disorders, and spirituality are complex. Both trauma and eating disorders can distance women from their own spirituality, which undermines a potentially important treatment resource. In this article, we offer suggestions based on our clinical experience for helping eating disorder patients who have suffered trauma to rediscover their faith and spirituality. We describe how spirituality can

Michael E. Berrett; Randy K. Hardman; Kari A. OGrady; P. Scott Richards

2007-01-01

388

Enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Single Treatment for All Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses affecting a significant proportion of women and a smaller number of men. Approximately half of those with an eating disorder (ED) will not meet the criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and will be diagnosed with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Until recently, there were no…

Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Sharon; Watson, Hunna; La Puma, Michelle; Allen, Karina; Byrne, Susan

2012-01-01

389

The Continuum Versus Categorical Debate on Eating Disorders: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors summarize a study by D. A. Williamson et al. (2002) in which clinical groups with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified, and binge eating disorder were contrasted with nonclinical groups of participants (i.e., obese and normal weight). The eating disorder groups were qualitatively different. Also,…

Perosa, Linda M.; Perosa, Sandra L.

2004-01-01

390

Psychological Correlates of Help Seeking for Eating-Disorder Symptoms in Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychological correlates of treatment seeking for eating disorders in female college students. Results indicated that 56% of the 106 participants with eating-disorder symptomatology did not believe their behaviors warranted therapy. Women with eating-disorder symptoms who did not believe their behaviors warranted…

Meyer, Dinah F.

2005-01-01

391

Comparability of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Between Women and Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers studying eating disorders in men often use eating-disorder risk and symptom measures that have been validated only on women. Using a sample of 215 college women and 214 college men, this article reports on the validity the Eating Disorder Inventory2 (EDI-2), one of the best-validated among women and the most widely used risk and…

Spillane, Nichea S.; Boerner, Laura M.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Smith, Gregory T.

2004-01-01

392

Disordered Eating Behavior and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in College Students: Cognitive and Affective Similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the psychological similarities between disordered eating behavior and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. The present study examined relationships among disordered eating, OC symptoms, and three cognitive and affective variables (perfectionism, obsessive beliefs, and negative affect). The cognitive and affective variables were significantly associated with disordered eating and with OC symptoms in a sample of 160 college women. Results

Joy D. Humphreys; James R. Clopton; Darcy A. Reich

2007-01-01

393

Body image and eating disorders amongst Japanese adolescents. A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors as well as factors influencing body image disturbance amongst Japanese adolescents and compares the prevalence and trends with those of Westernized countries. Although eating disorders have been previously regarded as peculiar to Western society, they are now a more global issue with reports of non-Western countries including Japan

Naomi Chisuwa; Jennifer A. O’Dea

2010-01-01

394

Preliminary Report on Dietitians’ Views and Confidence Related to Nutrition Care for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that nutrition professionals have gaps in knowledge and skills related to prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating, thus inhibiting effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore registered dietitians’ (RDs’) views and confidence levels regarding nutrition care across the spectrum of eating disorders. An online survey management tool was used to collect data

Amy D. Ozier; Beverly W. Henry

2010-01-01

395

Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the predictors of new eating disorders in an adolescent cohort. Design Cohort study over 3 years with six waves. Subjects Students, initially aged 14›15 years, from 44 secondary schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. Outcome measures Weight (kg), height (cm), dieting (adolescent dieting scale), psychiatric morbidity (revised clinical interview schedule), and eating disorder (branched eating disorders

G C Patton; R Selzer; C Coffey; J B Carlin; R Wolfe; Parkville Victoria

396

The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the ?-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors.

2012-01-01

397

Internet-Based Motivation Program for Women With Eating Disorders: Eating Disorder Pathology and Depressive Mood Predict Dropout  

PubMed Central

Background One of the main problems of Internet-delivered interventions for a range of disorders is the high dropout rate, yet little is known about the factors associated with this. We recently developed and tested a Web-based 6-session program to enhance motivation to change for women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or related subthreshold eating pathology. Objective The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of dropout from this Web program. Methods A total of 179 women took part in the study. We used survival analyses (Cox regression) to investigate the predictive effect of eating disorder pathology (assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q), depressive mood (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale; URICA), and participants’ age at dropout. To identify predictors, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. Results The dropout rate was 50.8% (91/179) and was equally distributed across the 6 treatment sessions. The LASSO analysis revealed that higher scores on the Shape Concerns subscale of the EDE-Q, a higher frequency of binge eating episodes and vomiting, as well as higher depression scores significantly increased the probability of dropout. However, we did not find any effect of the URICA or age on dropout. Conclusions Women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood had a higher likelihood of dropping out from a Web-based motivational enhancement program. Interventions such as ours need to address the specific needs of women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood and offer them additional support to prevent them from prematurely discontinuing treatment.

Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Rieger, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kosfelder, Joachim; Hechler, Tanja; Schulte, Dietmar; Vocks, Silja

2014-01-01

398

Eating disorders and personality: a methodological and empirical review.  

PubMed

Methodological approaches utilized to evaluate models of the relationship between personality and eating disorders, as well as empirical support for each model, are reviewed. Limited prospective research suggests that negative emotionality, perfectionism, drive for thinness, poor interoceptive awareness, ineffectiveness, and obsessive-compulsive personality traits are likely predisposing factors. Limited family study research suggests that obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and anorexia nervosa share a common familial liability. Potential pathoplastic personality factors include Cluster B personality disorders and OCPD, which predict a poorer course and/or outcome, and histrionic personality traits and self-directedness, which predict a more favorable course and/or outcome. Future research should focus upon sophisticated prospective and family study research in order to best evaluate competing models of the eating disorder-personality relationship. PMID:16330138

Lilenfeld, Lisa R R; Wonderlich, Stephen; Riso, Lawrence P; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James

2006-05-01

399

Gender, General Strain Theory, Negative Emotions, and Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal--especially violent--activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally…

Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R.; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul

2010-01-01

400

Adolescent Eating Disorders: Who's at Risk and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a culture glorifying thinness and beauty, most females (especially adolescents) carry some risk of developing eating disorders. A recent survey of 280 South Carolina middle school students disclosed significant female/male differences. About 70% of the girls felt fat; many used various weight-loss techniques, including dieting, fasting,…

Glovinsky, Diane M.

1993-01-01

401

Chocolate craving among children: Implications for disordered eating patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to test the validity of a multidimensional model of chocolate craving among children, and to examine if the dimensions underlying the model predict consumption and eating disordered symptoms. Participants were 602 children (53% female) aged 11, 12, and 13 from 11 schools in Western Australia. Measures included the Orientation to Chocolate Questionnaire (OCQ) designed to assess three

Fiona Cartwright; Werner G. K. Stritzke; Kevin Durkin; Stephen Houghton; Valerie Burke; Lawrie J. Beilin

2007-01-01

402

Stress, Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiopathogenesis of eating disorders (ED) is complex and poorly understood. Biological, psychological and environmental factors have all been considered to be involved in the onset and the persistence of these syndromes, often with conflicting results. The recent literature focused on the possible role of hormonal pathways, in particular the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as a relevant factor capable of influencing

Carolina Lo Sauro; Claudia Ravaldi; Pier Luigi Cabras; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca

2008-01-01

403

Group Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Retrospective Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing amount of research supports group therapy as an effective treatment option for eating disorders (Moreno, 1994). In an attempt to further delineate therapeutic factors associated with productive group work, this study represents an exploratory, descriptive analysis of client and therapist perspectives on group process and outcome. Specifically, this retrospective study investigated what clients and their therapist considered important,

Janine Wanlass; J. Kelly Moreno; Hannah M. Thomson

2005-01-01

404

Assessment of Eating Disorders: Review and Recommendations for Clinical Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioners have come under increasing pressure to provide objective data on assessment and treatment outcome of clients. This article provides a brief summary of assessment of eating disorders for the practicing clinician, with an emphasis on well-validated assessment instruments. The critical domains that should be covered in a thorough…

Anderson, Drew A.; Lundgren, Jennifer D.; Shapiro, Jennifer R.; Paulosky, Carrie A.

2004-01-01

405

Recognizing and Preventing Adolescent Eating Disorders and Muscularity Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important for adults who work with youth to know how to address the issues of eating disorders and steroid use. This article provides signs and symptoms for both, and then gives practical suggestions for talking with youth about a potential problem. It ends with prevention strategies for adults who work with youth. (Contains 3 tables.)

Smolak, Linda; Levine, Michael P.

2007-01-01

406

Hiding in Plain Sight: The Sibling Connection in Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author argues that sibling relationships are a missing piece of the eating disorder puzzle. She notes that disturbing relationships with siblings have been present all along in the literature, but have not been included as a separate area of study. They have thus been hiding in plain sight, present but not accounted for in our…

Blessing, Deborah

2007-01-01

407

Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

Richards, Kaye

1999-01-01

408

The Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the hypothesis of an association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and eating disorders (EDs). A population of young females affected by AIS has been interviewed for a possible diagnosis of EDs. The proportion of individuals with EDs resulted significantly larger than normative epidemiological data: Prevalences were 9.2% for anorexia nervosa (AN), 7.7% for bulimia nervosa (BN) and

Amelia Alborghetti; Giuseppe Scimeca; Giuseppe Costanzo; Stefano Boca

2007-01-01

409

Publications on cross-cultural aspects of eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of eating disorders in the non-Western world appears to be increasing and much research into the cross-cultural aspects of eating disorders is needed. This bibliometric study analyses the profile of cross-cultural studies into eating disorders published from 1970 through to 2011. Results 1,417 articles were indexed by Medline and PsychInfo from 1970 to 2011. There has been an exponential increase in publications in this field. Four articles were published in 1970–74 and this increased to 427 in 2004–9. Comparative and empirical studies were the most common types of publications. Of all the ethnic groups studied, Africans and African Americans were subject of the most publications. Pacific Islanders and South Europeans had the fewest publications. Conclusion It is heartening that there has been a large increase in published studies about eating disorders across cultures. This suggests greater awareness and interest in the field. However, the results from one particular ethnic group cannot always be applied directly to another. Some ethnic and cultural groups have been poorly studied and warrant more research attention. As more patients from such backgrounds present for treatment, more research is needed to provide culturally appropriate and acceptable care.

2013-01-01

410

Peer Sexual Harassment and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…

Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.

2013-01-01

411

Suicidality in eating disorders: Occurrence, correlates, and clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the published studies on suicide and suicide attempts in individuals with eating disorders, highlighting rates of occurrence, clinical correlates, and implications for practitioners. Multiple studies find high rates of suicide in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) [Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for suicide range from 1.0 to 5.3], whereas suicide rates do not appear to be elevated in

Debra L. Franko; Pamela K. Keel

2006-01-01

412

Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

Radford, Benjamin

413

Eating Disorders and Eating Problems Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: Exploring Relationships With Temperament and Character  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine temperament and character among adolescents with type 1 diabetes with and without disordered eating. Method A clinical sample of 199 adolescents from multiple centers with a mean age of 14.1 (SD, 2.5) years were screened and diagnosed for eating disorders. Assessed were temperament and character as conceptualized by Cloninger, glycemic control, and depression. Results Adolescent patients with

Vasileia Grylli; Andrea Hafferl-Gattermayer; Gudrun Wagner; Edith Schober; Andreas Karwautz

2005-01-01

414

An Evaluation of the Reliability and Construct Validity of Eating Disorder Measures in White and Black Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most measures of eating disorder symptoms and risk factors were developed in predominantly White female samples. Yet eating disorders affect individuals of all racial and ethnic backgrounds. Black women appear more vulnerable to certain forms of eating pathology, such as binge eating, and less susceptible to other eating disorder symptoms and risk…

Kelly, Nichole R.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Lydecker, Janet A.; Bair, Carrie E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne

2012-01-01

415

Smoking behavior characteristics of non-selected smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) history: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether adult smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder history (CH) have more severe smoking behavior than non-CH smokers, while it is clearly suggested that CH adolescents have more severe smoking behavior than CH adolescents. The aim of the present comprehensive meta-analysis is to determine whether CH smokers have more severe smoking behavior characteristics than those without and the effect of age on the association between CH and smoking behavior. We included all case-control studies and first round data collection of observational studies addressing the difference in smoking behavior characteristics of CH smokers versus non-CH smokers, with validated scales or structured interviews, without any language or date restriction. Nine studies (including 365 smokers with CH and 1,708 smokers without) were included. Compared to non-CH smokers, CH smokers smoked significantly more cigarettes [standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.15, 95 % CI 0.01-0.28, p = 0.04] and began to regularly smoke earlier (SMD = -0.28, 95 % CI -0.49; -0.07, p = 0.01) but were not significantly more nicotine dependent (SMD = 0.23, 95 % CI -0.04 to 0.48, p = 0.08). After removing the single adolescent study, the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared, and subgroups analyses confirmed that the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared as age increased. Our meta-analysis illustrates a clinically important link between CH and tobacco smoking in adolescence but not later in life. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm this finding, as only two studies included participants with a mean age below 20 years. PMID:24619241

Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Guillaume, Sebastien; Quantin, Xavier; Macgregor, Alexandra; Lopez, Régis; Courtet, Philippe; Bernard, Paquito; Bailly, Daniel; Abbar, Mocrane; Leboyer, Marion; Boyer, Laurent

2014-08-01

416

Suicide related events and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treatments in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of atomoxetine and methylphenidate comparator clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is becoming an increasingly commonly diagnosed and treated childhood illness. Untreated ADHD is recognised as an independent risk factor for suicide-related events and deliberate self-harm and is reported more commonly in these populations. With the treatment of ADHD it is thus crucial to understand further any associations between pharmacological treatments and suicide-related events. Specific data for suicide-related events with stimulants have not been publically reported. Suicidal tendencies are, however, a contraindication to the treatment of patients with methylphenidate. Clinicians and patients may be helped by a meta-analytic comparison of suicide-related events in comparative randomised double-blind atomoxetine and methylphenidate clinical trials. Methods Suicide-related events retrospectively mapped to the suicide-related event assessment instrument recommended by the FDA, the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment (C-CASA), were evaluated in five double-blind placebo controlled comparative studies of atomoxetine and methylphenidate (n?=?1024) of 6 to 9 weeks duration. The Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio and Mantel-Haenszel incidence differences have been calculated. Results In total there were 5 suicide-related events, atomoxetine (ATX) 3/559 and methylphenidate (MPH) 2/465. There were no suicide attempts nor completed suicides. Meta-analysis finds no difference of a difference in risk between ATX and MPH with a Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio of 0.52 (95% CI; 0.06, 4.54). Conclusion In the only reported meta-analysis of comparative suicide-related events between atomoxetine and methylphenidate, no significant evidence of a difference in risk has been found. These data may be informative to clinicians and patients when developing clinical guidelines.

2013-01-01

417

Thought-shape fusion and body image in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF), specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods. Patients and methods The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men). After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q). Results Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001), Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT) (P < 0.0001), and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD) (P < 0.0001). The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001). With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI. Conclusion The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.

Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolanos-Rios, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

2012-01-01

418

Order and disorder: Temporal organization of eating  

PubMed Central

Feeding behavior is described from an evolutionary perspective, and implications for modern neurobiological studies are suggested. In particular, it is argued that meals may have evolved more for sociocultural reasons than physiological imperatives, and that biological approaches to the study of feeding episodes should adopt a more flexible model that is founded in economic or cost-benefit considerations. Specific examples of flexibility in mouse feeding behavior are given. It is further argued that the modern human food environment is so immoderate that physiological manipulations designed to restrain eating have little hope of achieving this goal.

Rowland, Neil E.

2012-01-01

419

Development and validation of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: A brief self-report measure of anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development and validation of a brief self-report scale for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Study 1 used a panel of eating-disorder experts and provided evidence for the content validity of this scale. Study 2 used data from female participants with and without eating disorders (N = 367) and suggested that the diagnoses from

Eric Stice; Christy F. Telch; Shireen L. Rizvi

2000-01-01

420

[Eating disorders in obese individuals--a psychiatric or internal medicine issue?].  

PubMed

Many relations are connecting obesity and eating disorders--one disease is often modifying the other. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa are mostly treated by psychiatrists. Internal medicine specialists are mostly involved only in complications (e.g. malnutrition, ion disorders). Obesity is mostly treated only by internists. Psychiatrists are only involved in some depressive patients. Obese patients with eating disorders are mostly not sent to psychiatric diagnostics. In this article an overview of eating disorder symptoms and classification is given--binge eating disorder, night eating syndrome and grazing. These symptoms are defined and possibilities of diagnosis and treatment are described. PMID:21105459

Kravarová, E; Slabá, S; Svacina, S

2010-10-01

421

Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls' Eating Disorder Risk  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls.

Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

2013-01-01

422

Eating and emotional disorders in adolescent obese girls with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study eating and emotional disorders in adolescent insulin-dependent (IDDM) girls. METHODS: 98 adolescent girls, aged 13-19 years, were studied: 15 obese and 37 non-obese IDDM girls, 22 obese non-diabetic and 24 non-obese girls, DSM-III-R eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders NOS) and eating habits (snacking, sweet compulsions) were evaluated by a semi-structured diagnostic interview (Kiddie-SADS-E and

Gilbert Vila; Jean-Jacques Robert; Chantal Nollet-Clemencon; Luis Vera; Helene Crosnier; Gilles Rault; Joseph Jos; Marie-Christine Mouren-Simeoni

1995-01-01

423

Symptom profile of major depressive disorder in women with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Based on the well-documented association between eating disorders (EDs) and affective disorders, the patterns of comorbidity of EDs and major depressive disorder (MDD) were investigated. The temporal relation between EDs and MDD onset was analyzed to determine differences in the course and nature of MDD when experienced prior to versus after the onset of the ED. Method: Lifetime MDD

Fernando Fernandez-Aranda; Andrea Poyastro Pinheiro; Federica Tozzi; Maria La Via; Laura M. Thornton; Katherine H. Plotnicov; Walter H. Kaye; Manfred M. Fichter; Katherine A. Halmi; Allan S. Kaplan; D. Blake Woodside; Kelly L. Klump; Michael Strober; Scott Crow; James Mitchell; Alessandro Rotondo; Pamela Keel; Wade H. Berrettini; Karl E. Rickels; Steven F. Crawford; Harry Brandt; Craig Johnson; Cynthia M. Bulik

2007-01-01

424

[Eating disorders and type 1 diabetes: about 4 clinical reports].  

PubMed

Type 1 Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, often diagnosed in youth and associated with important psychological, familial and social disorders. Its intensive treatment with insulin and dietary changes is an extra stress factor in a stage of life already complicated. This vulnerability, coupled with low self-esteem and psychological factors typical of the youth, makes eating disorders twice as common in young girls with type 1 diabetes. The omission of insulin is the sole purging behavior used to lose weight, culminating in a poor glycemic control and increased acute and chronic complications. The treatment seeks to achieve specific objectives, depending on the associated psychiatric pathology. Because of its frequency, the clinician should be alert to early manifestations of this association. We present four clinical cases of young people with type 1 diabetes and eating disorders, which show the complexity of the approach and monitoring of these patients. PMID:22856403

Alves, Márcia; Rodrigues, Dírcea; Gouveia, José Pinto; Bastos, Margarida; Carvalheiro, Manuela

2011-12-01

425

Brief Screening Tool for Disordered Eating in Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To update and validate a diabetes-specific screening tool for disordered eating (the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey [DEPS]) in contemporary youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 112 youth with type 1 diabetes, ages 13–19 years, completed the DEPS. Higher scores on the DEPS indicate more disordered eating behaviors. Youth and their parents also completed additional surveys to examine diabetes-specific family conflict, negative affect related to blood glucose monitoring, youth quality of life, and diabetes burden. Clinicians provided data on height, weight, A1C, and insulin dosing. The DEPS was revised into a shorter, updated measure and validated. RESULTS The revised 16-item DEPS (DEPS-R) displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0.86). Construct validity was demonstrated by positive correlations with zBMI (P = 0.01), A1C (P = 0.001), diabetes-specific family conflict (P < 0.005), youth negative affect around blood glucose monitoring (P = 0.001), parental diabetes-specific burden (P = 0.0005), and negative correlations with frequency of blood glucose monitoring (P = 0.03) and quality of life (P ? 0.002). External validity was confirmed against clinician report of insulin restriction. CONCLUSIONS The DEPS-R is a 16-item diabetes-specific self-report measure of disordered eating that can be completed in <10 min. It demonstrated excellent internal consistency, construct validity, and external validity in this contemporary sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. Future studies should focus on using the DEPS-R to identify high-risk populations for prevention of and early intervention for disordered eating behaviors.

Markowitz, Jessica T.; Butler, Deborah A.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Antisdel, Jeanne E.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Laffel, Lori M.B.

2010-01-01

426

A review of eating disorders research in Mexico.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to summarize research findings on eating disorders and the current state of the field in Mexico. Papers published in indexed journals and graduate dissertations were retrieved, using "eating disorders," "anorexia nervosa," "bulimia nervosa," "body image," "binge eating," "restrained eating," "weight and shape concern," and "dieting" as keywords. These were combined with the Boolean operator "AND" with "Mexico" and "Latin America." Findings are presented for epidemiology, the validity of assessment instruments, comorbidity, and risk factors. A national representative survey found a prevalence of 1.8% for bulimia nervosa, and no cases of anorexia nervosa. However, the lack of studies with confirmatory clinical interview and other national or regional representative samples makes it difficult to reach conclusions about the actual prevalence. A number of instruments for the detection of eating disorders and disordered eating have been validated for the Mexican population. The comorbidity of eating disorders in Mexico includes drug and alcohol abuse, obesity, and borderline personality disorder. Risk factors found included body weight and cultural pressure to be thin. Future lines of research should include epidemiological studies with representative samples and diagnosis confirmation, longitudinal studies, and the exploration of protective and risk factors specific to this population. We want to acknowledge Dr Richard A. Gordon's encouragement to write this manuscript and his accurate comments on its preliminary and final versions. We also want to thank the participants of the seminar on publications held at the Office of Epidemiological and Psychosocial Studies of the National Institute of Psychiatry for the comments they made to this article. El objetivo de este trabajo es el de resumir los hallazgos de investigación sobre los trastornos alimentarios y el estado actual del campo en México. Se recuperó la obra publicada en revistas indizadas y tesis de grado, mediante los descriptores "trastorno alimentario," anorexia nervosa," bulimia nervosa," "imagen corporal," "atracones," "restricción alimentaria," "preocupación por el peso y la figura," y "conducta de dieta." Éstos se combinaron con el operador Booleano "AND" con "México" y "América Latina." Se presentan los hallazgos para la epidemiología, la validez de los instrumentos de medición, comorbilidad, y factores de riesgo. Una encuesta nacional representativa encontró una prevalencia de 1.8% para la bulimia nervosa, y ningún caso de anorexia nervosa. No obstante, la carencia de estudios con una entrevista clínica confirmatoria y de otras muestras nacionales o regionales dificulta el arribo a conclusiones acerca de la prevalencia real. Varios instrumentos para la detección de los trastornos alimentarios y de la alimentación desordenada se han validado en población mexicana. La comorbilidad de los trastornos alimentarios en México incluye el uso y abuso de alcohol, la obesidad y el trastorno de personalidad limítrofe. Los factores de riesgo referidos incluyen el peso corporal y la presión cultural para estar delgado. Las líneas de investigación futuras deberán incluir estudios epidemiológicos con muestras representativas y la confirmación del diagnóstico, estudios longitudinales, y la exploración de factores de riesgo y protectores específicos a esta población. L'objectif de cet article est de résumer les résultats de recherche et l'état actuel des connaissances sur les troubles alimentaires au Mexique. Les articles publiés dans des revues indexées et les thèses de doctorat ont été recensés en utilisant les mots-clés « eating disorders », « anorexia nervosa », « bulimia nervosa », « body image », « binge eating », « restrained eating », « weight and shape concern » et « dieting ». Ceu

Unikel, Claudia; Bojorquez, Ietza

2007-02-01