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Sample records for eating disorders meta-analysis

  1. Disordered eating in male athletes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, James; Woodman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We examined the propensity for male athletes to exhibit symptoms of disordered eating. Using meta-analytic techniques, we examined overall effect size, individual effect sizes for specific sport types, standard of athletic competition and diagnostic tools from 31 studies. When all studies were considered as a homogeneous group, male athletes did not have symptoms of disordered eating that were significantly different from non-athletic controls. However, significant moderator effects emerged for sport type and measurement: (a) wrestling reported a greater incidence of disordered eating; and (b) studies that reported data from the Eating Attitudes Test yielded a significantly greater incidence of disordered eating in male athletes compared to non-athletes. Although some sports seem to present a higher risk of disordered eating compared to others, the effects are weak and heterogeneous. We make suggestions for the development of the research area, which has been severely hampered by the diagnostic tools that have been available for the study of men. PMID:25916949

  2. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and Officially Recognized Eating Disorders: Meta-Analysis and Implications for DSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),…

  3. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d = .41, p = .003; dieting (six studies), d = .68, p < .001, and negative affect (three studies), d = 1.00, p < .001. No effect emerged for bulimic symptoms (four studies), d = .22, p = .73. Findings confirmed the effect of pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. PMID:26230192

  4. Inhibitory Control in Bulimic-Type Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mudan; Hartmann, Mechthild; Skunde, Mandy; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarise data from neuropsychological studies on inhibitory control to general and disease-salient (i.e., food/eating, body/shape) stimuli in bulimic-type eating disorders (EDs). A systematic literature search was conducted to identify eligible experimental studies. The outcome measures studied included the performance on established inhibitory control tasks in bulimic-type EDs. Effect sizes (Hedges' g) were pooled using random-effects models. For inhibitory control to general stimuli, 24 studies were included with a total of 563 bulimic-type ED patients: 439 had bulimia nervosa (BN), 42 had anorexia nervosa of the binge/purge subtype (AN-b), and 82 had binge eating disorder (BED). With respect to inhibitory control to disease-salient stimuli, 12 studies were included, representing a total of 218 BN patients. A meta-analysis of these studies showed decreased inhibitory control to general stimuli in bulimic-type EDs (g = −0.32). Subgroup analysis revealed impairments with a large effect in the AN-b group (g = −0.91), impairments with a small effect in the BN group (g = −0.26), and a non-significant effect in the BED group (g = −0.16). Greater impairments in inhibitory control were observed in BN patients when confronted with disease-salient stimuli (food/eating: g = −0.67; body/shape: g = −0.61). In conclusion, bulimic-type EDs showed impairments in inhibitory control to general stimuli with a small effect size. There was a significantly larger impairment in inhibitory control to disease salient stimuli observed in BN patients, constituting a medium effect size. PMID:24391763

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between eating disorders and bone density.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L; Aldridge, V; Clark, E M; Misra, M; Micali, N

    2016-06-01

    This meta-analysis investigates the effect of an eating disorder on bone mineral density in two eating disorder subtypes. Following conflicting findings in previous literature, this study finds that not only anorexia nervosa, but also bulimia nervosa has a detrimental effect on BMD. Key predictors of this relationship are discussed. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates bone mineral density (BMD) in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). AN has been associated with low BMD and a risk of fractures and mixed results have been obtained for the relationship between BN and BMD. Deciphering the effect these two ED subtypes on BMD will determine the effect of low body weight (a characteristic of AN) versus the effects of periods of restrictive eating and malnutrition which are common to both AN and BN. We conducted a systematic search through the electronic databases MedLine, EMBASE and PsychInfo and the Cochrane Library to investigate and quantify this relationship. We screened 544 articles and included 27 studies in a random-effect meta-analysis and calculated the standardised mean difference (SMD) in BMD between women with a current diagnosis of AN (n = 785) vs HCs (n = 979) and a current diagnosis of BN (n = 187) vs HCs (n = 350). The outcome measures investigated were spinal, hip, femoral neck and whole body BMD measured by DXA or DPA scanning. A meta-regression investigated the effect of factors including age, duration since diagnosis, duration of amenorrhea and BMI on BMD. The mean BMI of participants was 16.65 kg/m(2) (AN), 21.16 kg/m(2) (BN) and 22.06 kg/m(2) (HC). Spine BMD was lowest in AN subjects (SMD, -3.681; 95 % CI, -4.738, -2.625; p < 0.0001), but also lower in BN subjects compared with HCs (SMD, -0.472; 95 % CI, -0.688, -0.255; p < 0.0001). Hip, whole body and femoral neck BMD were reduced to a statistically significant level in AN but not BN

  6. Appearance-related teasing, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Jessie E; Schaefer, Lauren M; Burke, Natasha L; Mayhew, Laura L; Brannick, Michael T; Thompson, J Kevin

    2010-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between appearance and weight-based teasing and three outcome measures: body dissatisfaction, restrictive eating, and bulimic behaviors. Four meta-analyses were conducted. Fifty effect sizes (N=10,618) resulted in a moderate effect size of .39 for the relationship between weight teasing and body dissatisfaction; 24 effect sizes (N=7190) resulted in an effect size of .32 for the relationship between appearance teasing and body dissatisfaction; 20 effect sizes (N=4792) resulted in an effect size of .35 for the relationship between weight teasing and dietary restraint; and 22 effect sizes (N=5091) resulted in an effect size of .36 for the relationship between weight teasing and bulimic behaviors. Significant moderators that emerged were teasing measure type, publication type, study type, age group, and gender. The findings offer further support for the inclusion of strategies in body image and eating disorders' prevention and intervention programs that focus on handling negative, appearance-related commentary. PMID:20655287

  7. The relationship between eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: meta-analysis and implications for DSM.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer J; Vartanian, Lenny R; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-05-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search identified 125 eligible studies (published and unpublished) appearing in the literature from 1987 to 2007. Random effects analyses indicated that whereas EDNOS did not differ significantly from AN and BED on eating pathology or general psychopathology, BN exhibited greater eating and general psychopathology than EDNOS. Moderator analyses indicated that EDNOS groups who met all diagnostic criteria for AN except for amenorrhea did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Similarly, EDNOS groups who met all criteria for BN or BED except for binge frequency did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Results suggest that EDNOS represents a set of disorders associated with substantial psychological and physiological morbidity. Although certain EDNOS subtypes could be incorporated into existing Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) categories, others-such as purging disorder and non-fat-phobic AN-may be best conceptualized as distinct syndromes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19379023

  8. The relationship between eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: Meta-analysis and implications for DSM

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. This meta-analysis aimed to inform DSM revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS to that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search identified 125 eligible studies (published and unpublished) appearing in the literature from 1987 to 2007. Random effects analyses indicated that while EDNOS did not differ significantly from AN and BED on eating pathology or general psychopathology, BN exhibited greater eating and general psychopathology than EDNOS. Moderator analyses indicated that EDNOS groups who met all diagnostic criteria for AN except for amenorrhea did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Similarly, EDNOS groups who met all criteria for BN or BED except for binge frequency did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Results suggest that EDNOS represents a set of disorders associated with substantial psychological and physiological morbidity. While certain EDNOS subtypes could be incorporated into existing DSM-IV categories, others such as purging disorder and non-fat-phobic AN—may be best conceptualized as distinct syndromes. PMID:19379023

  9. Novel methods to help develop healthier eating habits for eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Bruidegom, Kiki; Cardi, Valentina; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This paper systematically reviews novel interventions developed and tested in healthy controls that may be able to change the over or under controlled eating behaviours in eating and weight disorders. Electronic databases were searched for interventions targeting habits related to eating behaviours (implementation intentions; food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification). These were assessed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In healthy controls the implementation intention approach produces a small increase in healthy food intake and reduction in unhealthy food intake post-intervention. The size of these effects decreases over time and no change in weight was found. Unhealthy food intake was moderately reduced by food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification post-intervention. This work may have important implications for the treatment of populations with eating and weight disorders. However, these findings are preliminary as there is a moderate to high level of heterogeneity in implementation intention studies and to date there are few food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification studies. PMID:26695383

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 'Systems for Social Processes' in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Caglar-Nazali, H Pinar; Corfield, Freya; Cardi, Valentina; Ambwani, Suman; Leppanen, Jenni; Olabintan, Olaolu; Deriziotis, Stephanie; Hadjimichalis, Alexandra; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

    2014-05-01

    Social and emotional problems have been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (ED). This paper reviews the facets of social processing in ED according to the NIMH Research and Domain Criteria (NIMH RDoC) 'Systems for Social Processes' framework. Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles published by March 2013. One-hundred and fifty four studies measuring constructs of: attachment, social communication, perception and understanding of self and others, and social dominance in people with ED, were identified. Eleven meta-analyses were performed, they showed evidence that people with ED had attachment insecurity (d=1.31), perceived low parental care (d=.51), appraised high parental overprotection (d=0.29), impaired facial emotion recognition (d=.44) and facial communication (d=2.10), increased facial avoidance (d=.52), reduced agency (d=.39), negative self-evaluation (d=2.27), alexithymia (d=.66), poor understanding of mental states (d=1.07) and sensitivity to social dominance (d=1.08). There is less evidence for problems with production and reception of non-facial communication, animacy and action. PMID:24333650

  11. Inhibitory control in obesity and binge eating disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Lavagnino, Luca; Arnone, Danilo; Cao, Bo; Soares, Jair C; Selvaraj, Sudhakar

    2016-09-01

    The ability to exercise appropriate inhibitory control is critical in the regulation of body weight, but the exact mechanisms are not known. In this systematic review, we identified 37 studies that used specific neuropsychological tasks relevant to inhibitory control performance in obese participants with and without binge eating disorder (BED). We performed a meta-analysis of the studies that used the stop signal task (N=8). We further examined studies on the delay discounting task, the go/no-go task and the Stroop task in a narrative review. We found that inhibitory control is significantly impaired in obese adults and children compared to individuals with body weight within a healthy range (Standardized Mean Difference (SMD): 0.30; CI=0.00, 0.59, p=0.007). The presence of BED in obese individuals did not impact on task performance (SMD: 0.05; CI: -0.22, 0.32, p=0.419). Neuroimaging studies in obesity suggest that lower prefrontal cortex activity affects inhibitory control and BMI. In summary, impairment in inhibitory control is a critical feature associated with obesity and a potential target for clinical interventions. PMID:27381956

  12. Specificity of psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder? A meta-analysis of direct comparisons.

    PubMed

    Spielmans, Glen I; Benish, Steven G; Marin, Catherine; Bowman, Wesley M; Menster, Maria; Wheeler, Anthony J

    2013-04-01

    Treatment guidelines state that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy are the best-supported psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa (BN) and that CBT is the preferred psychological treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). However, no meta-analysis which both examined direct comparisons between psychological treatments for BN and BED and considered the role of moderating variables, such as the degree to which psychotherapy was bona fide, has previously been conducted Thus, such an analysis was undertaken. We included 77 comparisons reported in 53 studies. The results indicated that: (a) bona fide therapies outperformed non-bona fide treatments, (b) bona fide CBT outperformed bona fide non-CBT interventions by a statistically significant margin (only approaching statistical significance for BN and BED when examined individually), but many of these trials had confounds which limited their internal validity, (c) full CBT treatments offered no benefit over their components, and (d) the distribution of effect size differences between bona fide CBT treatments was homogeneously distributed around zero. These findings provide little support for treatment specificity in psychotherapy for BN and BED. PMID:23454220

  13. E-therapy in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loucas, Christina E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Whittington, Craig; Pennant, Mary E; Stockton, Sarah; Kendall, Tim

    2014-12-01

    The widespread availability of the Internet and mobile-device applications (apps) is changing the treatment of mental health problems. The aim of the present study was to review the research on the effectiveness of e-therapy for eating disorders, using the methodology employed by the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Electronic databases were searched for published randomised controlled trials of e-therapies, designed to prevent or treat any eating disorder in all age groups. Studies were meta-analysed where possible, and effect sizes with confidence intervals were calculated. The GRADE approach was used to determine the confidence in the effect estimates. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. For prevention, a CBT-based e-intervention was associated with small reductions in eating disorder psychopathology, weight concern and drive for thinness, with moderate confidence in the effect estimates. For treatment and relapse prevention, various e-therapies showed some beneficial effects, but for most outcomes, evidence came from single studies and confidence in the effect estimates was low. Overall, although some positive findings were identified, the value of e-therapy for eating disorders must be viewed as uncertain. Further research, with improved methods, is needed to establish the effectiveness of e-therapy for people with eating disorders. PMID:25461787

  14. Reward-related decision making in eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence from neuropsychological studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mudan; Brockmeyer, Timo; Hartmann, Mechthild; Skunde, Mandy; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) are serious public health concerns that share common neuropsychological features and patterns of disturbed eating. Reward-related decision making as a basic neurocognitive function may trans-diagnostically underlie both pathological overeating and restricted eating. The present meta-analysis synthesizes the evidence from N=82 neuropsychological studies for altered reward-related decision making in all ED subtypes, OW and OB. The overall effect sizes for the differences between currently-ill ED patients and OW/OB people and controls were Hedge's g=-0.49 [CI: -0.63; -0.35], and Hedge's g=-0.39 [CI: -0.53; -0.25], respectively. Decision making was found to be altered to similar degrees in all ED subtypes and OB. Effect sizes, however, diverged for the different measures of decision making. Adolescents appear to be less affected than adults. When foods were used as rewarding stimuli, decision making was found to be intact in OB. The findings support that altered general reward-related decision making is a salient neuropsychological factor across eating and weight disorders in adulthood. PMID:26698021

  15. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Eating Disorders Definition There is a commonly held view that ... can lead to stroke or heart attack Binge-eating disorder People with binge-eating disorder lose control over ...

  16. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  17. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  18. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders. PMID:27319605

  19. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Rome, Ellen S

    2003-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725

  20. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  1. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  2. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Trisović, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Gasić, Miroslava Jasović

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  3. Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5%) or bulimia (15.4 %) was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 %) among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis. PMID:15345084

  4. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  5. Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder in adults: systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of publicly available placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Solmi, Marco; Perna, Giampaolo; De Berardis, Domenico; Veronese, Nicola; Orsolini, Laura; Ganança, Licinia; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Background Preliminary placebo-controlled evidence paved the ground to the US Food and Drug Administration approval extension of lisdexamfetamine for the treatment of moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder (BED) in adults. Objectives To provide a preliminary qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) considering the efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in the acute and/or maintenance treatment of moderate-to-severe BED in adults. Methods A preliminary, yet comprehensive, systematic review was performed by accessing a broad range of resources providing publicly available data about lisdexamfetamine at the time of inquiry (March 2016). Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions were considered focusing on major clinical and functional outcomes of either efficacy or tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of moderate-to-severe BED in adults. Results Meta-analysis of data pooled from three acute RCTs significantly favored lisdexamfetamine over placebo in the reduction of binge eating days/week, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Binge Eating total score, weight, response, and remission rates (all, P≤0.01). In contrast, discontinuation rates due to treatment-emergent adverse events were significantly higher among patients in receipt of lisdexamfetamine (relative risk 2.19, P=0.04) versus placebo. Limitations Publication, selection, performance, attrition, reporting, sponsorship, and “diagnostic shift” biases. Lack of inclusion of adverse event effects other than those requiring discontinuation of the trial(s), as well as lack of information about clinically relevant psychiatric or other medical comorbidities, limits the overall generalizability of pooled results. Conclusion Across the included acute phase RCTs, lisdexamfetamine (at 30, 50, or 70 mg/day) led to significant reduction in a number of clinically relevant outcomes compared to placebo. Moreover

  6. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  7. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  8. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

  9. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  10. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  11. Neural correlates of eating disorders: translational potential

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Carrie J; Smith, Whitney

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex and serious psychiatric illnesses whose etiology includes psychological, biological, and social factors. Treatment of eating disorders is challenging as there are few evidence-based treatments and limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in sustained recovery. In the last 20 years, we have begun to identify neural pathways that are altered in eating disorders. Consideration of how these pathways may contribute to an eating disorder can provide an understanding of expected responses to treatments. Eating disorder behaviors include restrictive eating, compulsive overeating, and purging behaviors after eating. Eating disorders are associated with changes in many neural systems. In this targeted review, we focus on three cognitive processes associated with neurocircuitry differences in subjects with eating disorders such as reward, decision-making, and social behavior. We briefly examine how each of these systems function in healthy people, using Neurosynth meta-analysis to identify key regions commonly implicated in these circuits. We review the evidence for disruptions of these regions and systems in eating disorders. Finally, we describe psychiatric and psychological treatments that are likely to function by impacting these regions. PMID:26767185

  12. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  13. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from a weight-loss program that also offers treatment for eating disorders. However, some people with binge eating disorder may ... disorder should get help from a specialist in eating disorders, such as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. Treatment may include the use of behavior change therapy, ...

  14. Eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J

    2002-04-01

    Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328

  15. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  16. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and men also are vulnerable. Boys with eating disorders show the same types of ... as girls, but for a variety of reasons, boys are less likely to be diagnosed with what ...

  17. Eating Disorder Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This meta-analysis of eating disorder prevention programs found that intervention effects ranged from an absence of any effects to reductions in current and future eating pathology. Certain effects persisted as long as 2 years and were superior to minimal-intervention control conditions. Larger effects occurred for selected (vs. universal),…

  18. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Binge Eating Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Binge Eating Disorder Print A A A Text Size What's in ... takes a combination of things to develop an eating disorder — including a person's genes, emotions, and behaviors (such ...

  19. Cholinesterase Inhibitors for Lewy Body Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yasue, Ichiro; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Background: We performed a meta-analysis of cholinesterase inhibitors for patients with Lewy body disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson’s disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Methods: The meta-analysis included only randomized controlled trials of cholinesterase inhibitors for Lewy body disorders. Results: Seventeen studies (n = 1798) were assessed. Cholinesterase inhibitors significantly improved cognitive function (standardized mean difference [SMD] = −0.53], behavioral disturbances (SMD = −0.28), activities of daily living (SMD = −0.28), and global function (SMD = −0.52) compared with control treatments. Changes in motor function were not significantly different from control treatments. Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitor group had a higher all-cause discontinuation (risk ratio [RR] = 1.48, number needed to harm [NNH] = 14), discontinuation due to adverse events (RR = 1.59, NNH = 20), at least one adverse event (RR = 1.13, NNH = 11), nausea (RR = 2.50, NNH = 13), and tremor (RR = 2.30, NNH = 20). Conclusions: Cholinesterase inhibitors appear beneficial for the treatment of Lewy body disorders without detrimental effects on motor function. However, a careful monitoring of treatment compliance and side effects is required. PMID:26221005

  20. EATING DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  1. [Eating disorders in men].

    PubMed

    Bak, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Despite of being perceived as 'woman's diseases', eating disorders were described among boys and adult men. This article presents epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in men. The clinical presentation of eating disorders in men was described and compared with similar data from the female population. Moreover, a significance of selected risk factors, specifically those referring to men, was discussed. These are: the disturbance of body perception, personality traits and potential association of eating disorders with sexual orientation. Efficacy of different psychotherapy approaches aimed at eating disorders was summarized. Rules governing psychotherapy of men suffering from eating disorders were described. Specific features of eating disorders' aetiology were taken into account together with characteristic difficulties influencing treatment. PMID:19697523

  2. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Unoka, Zsolt; J Richman, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses. PMID:26708387

  3. A meta-analysis of treatments for panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Clum, G A; Clum, G A; Surls, R

    1993-04-01

    In a meta-analysis, the authors compared the effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for panic disorder. Percentage of agoraphobic subjects in the sample and duration of the illness were unrelated to effect size (ES). Type of dependent variable was generally unrelated to treatment outcome, although behavioral measures yielded significantly smaller ESs. Dependent measures of general anxiety, avoidance, and panic attacks yielded larger ESs than did depression measures. Choice of control was related to ES, with comparisons with placebo controls greater than comparisons with exposure-only or "other treatment" controls. Psychological coping strategies involving relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, and exposure yielded the most consistent ESs; flooding and combination treatments (psychological and pharmacological) yielded the next most consistent ESs. Antidepressants were the most effective pharmacological intervention. PMID:8097212

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder in peacekeepers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Figueira, Ivan; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Volchan, Eliane; Portella, Carla Marques; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2011-05-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among peacekeepers. A systematic review was carried out using Medline, Institute for Scientific Information/Web of Science and Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress databases, leading to a total of 12 studies reporting PTSD estimates. Pooled current PTSD prevalence was 5.3%, ranging from 0.05% to 25.8%, and a metaregression was used to investigate the variables that could account for the lack of homogeneity. However, none of the extracted information was capable of explaining the heterogeneity of the estimates. Peacekeeping studies presented different methodologies such as several screening instruments and different times from the deployment to the moment of PTSD assessment. The wide difference found among those estimates highlights the importance of the creation of standards for PTSD evaluation among peacekeepers. PMID:21543949

  5. Depression and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  6. Beat (Beat Eating Disorders).

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    This charity website provides a comprehensive range of information on eating disorders. There is an overview section about different types of eating disorders, which is in clear and easily understood terms, giving readers the option to seek more detailed information. PMID:26419568

  7. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  8. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  9. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  10. Identification of Pathways for Bipolar Disorder A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurnberger, John I.; Koller, Daniel L.; Jung, Jeesun; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Guella, Ilaria; Vawter, Marquis P.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Genome-wide investigations provide systematic information regarding the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE To identify biological pathways that contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP) using genes with consistent evidence for association in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS). DATA SOURCES Four independent data sets with individual genome-wide data available in July 2011 along with all data sets contributed to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Group by May 2012. A prior meta-analysis was used as a source for brain gene expression data. STUDY SELECTION The 4 published GWAS were included in the initial sample. All independent BP data sets providing genome-wide data in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were included as a replication sample. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS We identified 966 genes that contained 2 or more variants associated with BP at P < .05 in 3 of 4 GWAS data sets (n = 12 127 [5253 cases, 6874 controls]). Simulations using 10 000 replicates of these data sets corrected for gene size and allowed the calculation of an empirical P value for each gene; empirically significant genes were entered into a pathway analysis. Each of these pathways was then tested in the replication sample (n = 8396 [3507 cases, 4889 controls]) using gene set enrichment analysis for single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The 226 genes were also compared with results from a meta-analysis of gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Empirically significant genes and biological pathways. RESULTS Among 966 genes, 226 were empirically significant (P < .05). Seventeen pathways were overrepresented in analyses of the initial data set. Six of the 17 pathways were associated with BP in both the initial and replication samples: corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling, cardiac β-adrenergic signaling, phospholipase C signaling, glutamate receptor signaling, endothelin 1 signaling, and cardiac

  11. Domestic Violence and Perinatal Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Louise M.; Oram, Sian; Galley, Helen; Trevillion, Kylee; Feder, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Background Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048). Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013), hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis. Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.6). Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eating disorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality. Conclusions High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly associated with

  12. Eating Disorders: Symptoms and Warning Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... from diuretic abuse severe dehydration from purging Binge Eating Disorder frequently eating large amounts of food (binge-eating) ... can lead to more binge-eating Read More "Eating Disorders" Articles Understanding Eating Disorders: Anorexia, Bulemia, and Binge- ...

  13. Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Carolyn; Kwok, Willie; Rogic, Sanja; Pavlidis, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are clinically heterogeneous and biologically complex. In general it remains unclear, what biological factors lead to changes in the brains of autistic individuals. A considerable number of transcriptome analyses have been performed in attempts to address this question, but their findings lack a clear consensus. As a result, each of these individual studies has not led to any significant advance in understanding the autistic phenotype as a whole. Here, we report a meta-analysis of more than 1000 microarrays across twelve independent studies on expression changes in ASD compared to unaffected individuals, in both blood and brain tissues. We identified a number of known and novel genes that are consistently differentially expressed across three studies of the brain (71 samples in total). A subset of the highly ranked genes is suggestive of effects on mitochondrial function. In blood, consistent changes were more difficult to identify, despite individual studies tending to exhibit larger effects than the brain studies. Our results are the strongest evidence to date of a common transcriptome signature in the brains of individuals with ASD. PMID:25720351

  14. Eating disorders in men.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Damon B; Williams, Jeffrey

    2016-09-22

    Eating disorders are traditionally thought of as a problem specific to women, but evidence suggests the disorders also occur in men. Identifying the problem and referring patients for treatment can be difficult. Understanding the nuances of these disorders and realizing the incidence in men is important, as it is often overlooked as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27552690

  15. Eating disorders and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J F

    1999-05-01

    Eating disorders are common and characteristically affect young women at what would otherwise be their peak of reproductive functioning. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa impinge on reproduction both behaviourally and physiologically, with effects on menstruation, ovarian function, fertility, sexuality and pregnancy. This review presents a summary of current knowledge and makes suggestions for future research, along with some clinical recommendations for the management of eating disorders in pregnancy. PMID:10755771

  16. Eating disorders and bone.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  17. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  18. Efficacy of treatments for anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Borwin; Reitt, Markus; Röver, Christian; Michaelis, Sophie; Görlich, Yvonne; Wedekind, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    To our knowledge, no previous meta-analysis has attempted to compare the efficacy of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments for the three main anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia). Pre-post and treated versus control effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all evaluable randomized-controlled studies (n = 234), involving 37,333 patients. Medications were associated with a significantly higher average pre-post ES [Cohen's d = 2.02 (1.90-2.15); 28,051 patients] than psychotherapies [1.22 (1.14-1.30); 6992 patients; P < 0.0001]. ES were 2.25 for serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (n = 23 study arms), 2.15 for benzodiazepines (n = 42), 2.09 for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 62) and 1.83 for tricyclic antidepressants (n = 15). ES for psychotherapies were mindfulness therapies, 1.56 (n = 4); relaxation, 1.36 (n = 17); individual cognitive behavioural/exposure therapy (CBT), 1.30 (n = 93); group CBT, 1.22 (n = 18); psychodynamic therapy 1.17 (n = 5); therapies without face-to-face contact (e.g. Internet therapies), 1.11 (n = 34); eye movement desensitization reprocessing, 1.03 (n = 3); and interpersonal therapy 0.78 (n = 4). The ES was 2.12 (n = 16) for CBT/drug combinations. Exercise had an ES of 1.23 (n = 3). For control groups, ES were 1.29 for placebo pills (n = 111), 0.83 for psychological placebos (n = 16) and 0.20 for waitlists (n = 50). In direct comparisons with control groups, all investigated drugs, except for citalopram, opipramol and moclobemide, were significantly more effective than placebo. Individual CBT was more effective than waiting list, psychological placebo and pill placebo. When looking at the average pre-post ES, medications were more effective than psychotherapies. Pre-post ES for psychotherapies did not differ from pill placebos; this finding cannot be explained by heterogeneity, publication bias or allegiance effects. However, the decision on whether to choose

  19. Eating disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  20. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  1. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  2. Disorder-specific genetic factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comprehensive meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Much remains to be learned about the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twin studies suggest that it arises from both disorder-specific and non-specific genetic factors. To understand the etiology of OCD per se, it is necessary to identify disorder-specific factors. Previous research shows that OCD is associated with serotonin-related polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR coded as triallelic and HTR2A rs6311/rs6313) and, in males, a polymorphism involved in catecholamine modulation; COMT (rs4680). The present study is the first comprehensive meta-analysis to investigate whether these polymorphisms are specific to OCD. A meta-analysis was conducted for genetic association studies of OCD or any other psychiatric disorder, published in any language, in any country. A total of 551 studies were examined, of which 290 were included, consisting of 47,358 cases and 68,942 controls from case control studies, and 2,443 trios from family based studies. The main meta-analysis was limited to those disorders in which there were at least five datasets (studies or sub-studies) per disorder. Results confirmed that OCD is associated with polymorphisms of 5-HTTLPR, HTR2A, and, in males only, COMT. These polymorphisms were not associated with almost all other forms of psychopathology, including unipolar mood disorders, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, schizophrenia, and alcohol dependence. OCD, compared to most other disorders, had a significantly stronger association with particular alleles of each of the polymorphisms. Results did not differ across ancestral groups (Asian vs. Caucasian), designs (case control vs. family based), or diagnostic systems. Results suggest that the polymorphisms investigated in this study are relatively specific to OCD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26616111

  3. Maternal Smoking and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany N.; Lee, Brian K.; Lee, Nora L.; Yang, Yunwen; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 15 studies on maternal prenatal smoking and ASD risk in offspring. Using a random-effects model, we found no evidence of an association (summary OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93-1.12). Stratifying by study design, birth year, type of healthcare system, and adjustment for socioeconomic status or psychiatric history did not alter…

  4. Facial expression to emotional stimuli in non-psychotic disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, H; Wolz, I; Leppanen, J; Fernandez-Aranda, F; Schmidt, U; Tchanturia, K

    2016-05-01

    Facial expression of emotion is crucial to social interaction and emotion regulation; therefore, altered facial expressivity can be a contributing factor in social isolation, difficulties with emotion regulation and a target for therapy. This article provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on automatic emotional facial expression in people with non-psychotic disorders compared to healthy comparison groups. Studies in the review used an emotionally salient visual induction method, and reported on automatic facial expression in response to congruent stimuli. A total of 39 studies show alterations in emotional facial expression across all included disorders, except anxiety disorders. In depression, decreases in facial expression are mainly evident for positive affect. In eating disorders, a meta-analysis showed decreased facial expressivity in response to positive and negative stimuli. Studies in autism partially support generally decreased facial expressivity in this group. The data included in this review point towards decreased facial emotional expressivity in individuals with different non-psychotic disorders. This is the first review to synthesise facial expression studies across clinical disorders. PMID:26915928

  5. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  7. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  8. Preadolescent Disordered Eating Predicts Subsequent Eating Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children. Method Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade). Results A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls. Conclusion A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade. PMID:22961314

  9. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  10. [Adolescent eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Hagenah, Ulrich; Vloet, Timo; Holtkamp, Kristian

    2005-04-01

    Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa are common psychiatric disorders in adolescent girls. In discrepancy to ICD-10 and DSM-IV we would propose the 10th BMI percentile as weight criterium for anorexia nervosa. Both disorders have a high somatic and psychiatric comorbidity; the most severe complication at long term follow-up is osteoporosis. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders are affective disorders, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse. There is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition and a range of general and personal environmental risk factors. Treatment of adolescent eating disorders mostly requires a multimodal approach which consists of several components, e.g. weight rehabilitation, nutritional counselling, individual and family psychotherapy, and treatment of comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:15918539

  11. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  12. Beliefs about eating and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Perrin, Nancy A; Rosselli, Francine; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Debar, Lynn L; Kraemer, Helena C

    2009-08-01

    Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to agree that there are effective treatments. Two thirds of the sample reported that certain foods are addictive and also believed that strict dieting is an effective means of reducing binge eating. Therapeutic implications of these attitudes are discussed. PMID:19665098

  13. Obesity and Mental Disorders During Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Molyneaux, Emma; Poston, Lucilla; Ashurst-Williams, Sarah; Howard, Louise M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and risk of antenatal and postpartum mental disorders among obese and overweight women. Data sources Seven databases (including MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched from inception to January 7, 2013, in addition to citation tracking, hand-searches and expert recommendations. Methods of study selection Studies were eligible if antenatal or postpartum mental disorders were assessed with diagnostic or screening tools among women who were obese or overweight at the start of pregnancy. Of the 4,687 screened articles, 62 met the inclusion criteria for the review. The selected studies included a total of 540,373 women. Tabulation, integration, and results Unadjusted odds ratios were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis for antenatal depression (n=29), postpartum depression (n=16) and antenatal anxiety (n=10). Obese and overweight women had significantly higher odds of elevated depression symptoms than normal-weight women and higher median prevalence estimates. This was found both during pregnancy (obese OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.27-1.61, overweight OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.09-1.31; median prevalence: obese 33.0%, overweight 28.6%, normal-weight 22.6%) and postpartum (obese OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.20-1.42, overweight OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.05-1.13; median prevalence: obese 13.0%, overweight 11.8%, normal-weight 9.9%). Obese women also had higher odds of antenatal anxiety (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.10-1.80). The few studies identified for postpartum anxiety (n=3), eating disorders (n=2) or serious mental illness (n=2) also suggested increased risk among obese women. Conclusion Healthcare providers should be aware that women who are obese when they become pregnant are more likely to experience elevated antenatal and postpartum depression symptoms than normal-weight women, with intermediate risks for overweight women. PMID:24785615

  14. Video Modeling for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Teresa Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a meta-analysis to examine existing research studies on video modeling as an effective teaching tool for children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Study eligibility criteria included (a) single case research design using multiple baselines, alternating treatment designs,…

  15. Psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Combination for Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nikita; Reece, John

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis aims to inform clinical practice of treatment strategies for adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). The efficacy of three empirically validated treatments was compared to determine the most effective treatment. These were: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)…

  16. Writing Characteristics of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Fishman, Evan J.; Reid, Robert; Hebert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) frequently experience significant difficulty mastering basic academic skills. This meta-analysis focuses on one specific potential area of learning difficulties for these students: namely, writing. To identify the extent and depth of the potential writing challenges faced by students…

  17. Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Treatment Trials for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Hunna J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis on randomized, controlled treatment trials of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Studies were included if they employed randomized, controlled methodology and treated young people (19 years or under) with OCD. A comprehensive literature search identified 13 RCTs containing 10…

  18. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Using Mixed-Effects Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online…

  19. Anger, Hostility, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Wieland, Elias

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the available data on the strength of association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between hostility and PTSD, covering 39 studies with trauma-exposed adults. Effect sizes did not differ for anger and hostility, which could therefore be combined; effect sizes for anger expression variables…

  20. The Effectiveness of Treatment for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Whiteside, Sephen P.; Deacon, Brett J.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the number of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome.…

  1. Meta-Analysis of the Nonword Reading Deficit in Specific Reading Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Julia A.; Matyas, Tom; Pratt, Chris

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether specific reading disorder (SRD) groups demonstrate a deficit in using phonological recoding strategies. Thirty-four studies were reviewed that had compared the nonword reading performances of SRD groups with reading-level matched (RL) control groups. The average nonword reading difference…

  2. Innovative Technology-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided…

  3. Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Intimate Relationship Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Matthew E.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of evidence-based treatments is important for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the increasing number of interventions available and the prevalence of ASD. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for this population by conducting a meta-analysis of published…

  6. Meta-Analysis of Dropout in Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Zac E.; Laska, Kevin; Jakupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many patients drop out of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); some clinicians believe that trauma-focused treatments increase dropout. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of dropout among active treatments in clinical trials for PTSD (42 studies; 17 direct comparisons). Results: The average dropout rate was 18%, but it…

  7. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J. L.; Langely, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of…

  8. Eating Disorders: About More Than Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders? Where can I find more information? Share Eating Disorders: About More Than Food Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What are eating disorders? The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and ...

  9. Adolescent eating disorder: bulimia.

    PubMed

    Muuss, R E

    1986-01-01

    Bulimia, an eating disorder, recently has emerged as a major mental health problem, especially among adolescent females. The bulimic experiences periods of compulsive binge eating followed by purges to rid the body of unwanted calories. Binges are triggered by intense emotional experiences, such as loneliness, anger, rejection, or stress. Associated features of bulimia are secretiveness, depression, drug abuse, preoccupation with body image and sexual attractiveness, and an awareness that the behavior is abnormal. The physical side effects include dental problems, inflamed esophagus, EEG abnormalities, abdominal or urinary disturbances, and changes in blood sugar level. Cognitive disturbances related to binging and purging are perfectionistic, egocentric, and distorted thinking, misconceptions about nutritional requirements, unreasonable goals and expectations, and disturbed affect. Bulimics resist treatment; however, such methods as cognitive, group, family, behavior, and drug therapy, and hospitalization appear promising. PMID:3461693

  10. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions. PMID:26857889

  11. [Cognitive function in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

  12. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder. PMID:22362599

  13. Evolving eating disorder psychopathology: conceptualising muscularity-oriented disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott; Mond, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be largely confined to females, are increasingly common in males. However, the presentation of disordered eating among males is often distinct to that observed in females and this diversity is not accommodated in current classification schemes. Here, we consider the diagnostic and clinical challenges presented by these distinctive presentations. PMID:27143005

  14. Do childhood externalizing disorders predict adult depression? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Annemarie K.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Hulvershorn, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood externalizing disorders have been linked to adult affective disorders, although some studies fail to substantiate this finding. Multiple longitudinal cohort studies identifying childhood psychopathology and their association with adult psychiatric illness have been published. To examine the association between childhood externalizing symptoms or disorders and the development of adult depression across cohorts, a meta-analysis was performed. Potential studies were identified using a PubMed search through November 2013. All published, prospective, longitudinal, community-sampled cohort studies of children (≤ 13 years) with externalizing symptoms or disorders (aggression, conduct problems, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder), reassessed in adulthood (≥ 18 years) for depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, depressive disorder NOS, or dysthymic disorder) were included. A random effects model was used to summarize the pooled effect sizes. Ancillary analyses considered covariates that could account for variance among studies. Ten studies representing eight cohorts of children initially assessed at age 13 or younger (N = 17,712) were included in the meta-analysis. Childhood externalizing behavior was associated with adult depressive disorders (OR = 1.52, 95% confidence interval = 1.27–1.80, p < 0.0001). Utilizing Orwin’s Fail-safe N approach, 263 studies with a mean odds ratio of 1.0 would have to be added to the analysis before the cumulative effect would become trivial. Externalizing psychopathology in childhood is associated with the development of unipolar depressive disorders in adulthood. PMID:24652486

  15. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  16. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... though they are not hungry. Eats alone (in secret). Feels guilty, disgusted, ashamed, or depressed after eating ... large amounts of high-calorie foods, often in secret. After this binge eating, they often force themselves ...

  17. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  18. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

  19. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…

  20. Biological Therapies for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James E.; Roerig, James; Steffen, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a comprehensive review of pharmacotherapy and other biological treatments for eating disorders. Method Literature on this topic was systematically reviewed. Results The bulimia nervosa literature underscores the utility of antidepressants, particularly SSRIs, in improving the symptoms of the disorder. The literature on binge eating disorder supports efficacy on reduction in binge eating frequency for a variety of compounds. However, such compounds have only modest effects on weight. Certain antiepileptic agents such as topiramate, if tolerated, are probably more useful in terms of weight loss. The number of controlled trials in patients with anorexia nervosa in particular has been quite small, and recent meta-analyses show disappointing results using atypical antipsychotics in anorexia nervosa. Discussion The pharmacological treatment of eating disorders remains an underdeveloped field although drug therapy clearly plays a role in the treatment of those with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Other biological therapies have not been adequately studied. PMID:23658094

  1. Voxel-Based Morphometry ALE meta-analysis of Bipolar Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana, Omar; Laird, Robert

    2012-03-01

    A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.

  2. Brain lesions and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Uher, R; Treasure, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Treatments for Panic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clum, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used metanalysis to compare effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for panic disorder. Percentage of agoraphobic subjects in sample and duration of illness were unrelated to effect size (ES). Psychological coping strategies involving relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, and exposure yielded most consistent ESs;…

  4. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Figueras, Francesc; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Dadvand, Payam

    2014-09-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders can lead to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but the cause of these conditions is not well understood. We have systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December 2009 and December 2013. Combined risk estimates were calculated using random-effect models for each exposure that had been examined in ≥4 studies. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. A total of 17 articles evaluating the impact of nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOX), particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting on gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as separate or combined outcomes; there was less heterogeneity in findings of the 10 studies reporting solely on preeclampsia. Meta-analyses showed increased risks of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy for all pollutants except CO. Random-effect meta-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. PMID:24935943

  5. Eating Disorders and the Family

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sam; Sananes, Renee

    1991-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex, often chronic, biopsychosocial disorders characterized by a pursuit for control which, in interaction with familial factors, results in disturbed patterns of relating to food and its meaning. Overt and covert resistance to intervention at the family level can reflect family dynamics but can be mitigated by engaging families of adolescents with eating disorders, by using multidisciplinary teams, and by hospitalization. PMID:21228994

  6. Gait variability in people with neurological disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yaejin; Sung, JongHun; An, Ruopeng; Hernandez, Manuel E; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-06-01

    There has been growing evidence showing gait variability provides unique information about gait characteristics in neurological disorders. This study systemically reviewed and quantitatively synthesized (via meta-analysis) existing evidence on gait variability in various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebellar ataxia (CA), Huntington's disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Keyword search were conducted in PubMed, Web of science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Library. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled effect size for gait variability for each neurological group. Meta-regression was performed to compare gait variability across multiple groups with neurological diseases. Gait variability of 777 patients with AD, ALS, CA, HD, MS, or PD participating in 25 studies was included in meta-analysis. All pathological groups had increased amount of gait variability and loss of fractal structure of gait dynamics compared to healthy controls, and gait variability differentiated distinctive neurological conditions. The HD groups had the highest alterations in gait variability among all pathological groups, whereas the PD, AD and MS groups had the lowest. Interventions that aim to improve gait function in patients with neurological disorders should consider the heterogeneous relationship between gait variability and neurological conditions. PMID:27023045

  7. A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Pelham, William E; Coles, Erika K; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Connor, Briannon C

    2009-03-01

    There is currently controversy regarding the need for and the effectiveness of behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) despite years of study and multiple investigations reporting beneficial effects of the intervention. A meta-analysis was conducted by identifying relevant behavioral treatment studies in the literature. One-hundred seventy-four studies of behavioral treatment were identified from 114 individual papers that were appropriate for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes varied by study design but not generally by other study characteristics, such as the demographic variables of the participants in the studies. Overall unweighted effect sizes in between group studies (.83), pre-post studies (.70), within group studies (2.64), and single subject studies (3.78) indicated that behavioral treatments are highly effective. Based on these results, there is strong and consistent evidence that behavioral treatments are effective for treating ADHD. PMID:19131150

  8. Sudden death in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. PMID:22393299

  9. Association of HLA and post-schistosomal hepatic disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hamada, Mohamed; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Lan, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Yasunami, Michio; Zamora, Javier; Hirayama, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    Several human genetic variants, HLA antigens and alleles are reportedly linked to post-schistosomal hepatic disorder (PSHD), but the results from these reports are highly inconclusive. In order to estimate overall associations between human genetic variants, HLA antigens, HLA alleles and PSHD, we systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies in both post-schistosomal hepatic disorder and post-schistosomal non-hepatic disorder patients. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, The HuGE Published Literature database, Cochrane Library, and manual search of reference lists of articles published before July 2009 were used to retrieve relevant studies. Two reviewers independently selected articles and extracted data on study characteristics and data regarding the association between genetic variants, HLA antigens, HLA alleles and PSHD in the form of 2×2 tables. A meta-analysis using fixed-effects or random-effects models to pooled odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated only if more than one study had investigated particular variation. We found 17 articles that met our eligibility criteria. Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum were reported as the species causing PSHD. Since human genetic variants were only investigated in one study, these markers were not assessed by meta-analysis. Thus, only HLA-genes (a total of 66 HLA markers) were conducted in the meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis showed that human leucocyte antigens HLA-DQB1*0201 (OR=2.64, P=0.018), DQB1*0303 (OR=1.93, P=0.008), and DRB1*0901 (OR=2.14, P=0.002) alleles and HLA-A1 (OR=5.10, P=0.001), A2 (OR=2.17, P=0.005), B5 (OR=4.63, P=0.001), B8 (OR=2.99, P=0.02), and B12 (OR=5.49, P=0.005) serotypes enhanced susceptibility to PSHD, whereas HLA-DQA1*0501 (OR=0.29, P≤0.001) and DQB1*0301 (OR=0.58, P=0.007) were protective factors against the disease. We further suggested that the DRB1*0901-DQB1*0201, DRB1*0901-DQB1*0303 and A1-B8 haplotypes

  10. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge ...

  11. Altered resting-state functional activity in posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Junran; Zhan, Wang; Li, Lei; Wu, Min; Huang, Hua; Zhu, Hongyan; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Many functional neuroimaging studies have reported differential patterns of spontaneous brain activity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not so far been quantitatively reviewed. The present study set out to determine consistent, specific regional brain activity alterations in PTSD, using the Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping technique to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of resting-state functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD that used either a non-trauma (NTC) or a trauma-exposed (TEC) comparison control group. Fifteen functional neuroimaging studies were included, comparing 286 PTSDs, 203 TECs and 155 NTCs. Compared with NTC, PTSD patients showed hyperactivity in the right anterior insula and bilateral cerebellum, and hypoactivity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); compared with TEC, PTSD showed hyperactivity in the ventral mPFC. The pooled meta-analysis showed hypoactivity in the posterior insula, superior temporal, and Heschl’s gyrus in PTSD. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis (non-medicated subjects vs. NTC) identified abnormal activation in the prefrontal-limbic system. In meta-regression analyses, mean illness duration was positively associated with activity in the right cerebellum (PTSD vs. NTC), and illness severity was negatively associated with activity in the right lingual gyrus (PTSD vs. TEC). PMID:27251865

  12. Altered resting-state functional activity in posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Junran; Zhan, Wang; Li, Lei; Wu, Min; Huang, Hua; Zhu, Hongyan; Kemp, Graham J; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Many functional neuroimaging studies have reported differential patterns of spontaneous brain activity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not so far been quantitatively reviewed. The present study set out to determine consistent, specific regional brain activity alterations in PTSD, using the Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping technique to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of resting-state functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD that used either a non-trauma (NTC) or a trauma-exposed (TEC) comparison control group. Fifteen functional neuroimaging studies were included, comparing 286 PTSDs, 203 TECs and 155 NTCs. Compared with NTC, PTSD patients showed hyperactivity in the right anterior insula and bilateral cerebellum, and hypoactivity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); compared with TEC, PTSD showed hyperactivity in the ventral mPFC. The pooled meta-analysis showed hypoactivity in the posterior insula, superior temporal, and Heschl's gyrus in PTSD. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis (non-medicated subjects vs. NTC) identified abnormal activation in the prefrontal-limbic system. In meta-regression analyses, mean illness duration was positively associated with activity in the right cerebellum (PTSD vs. NTC), and illness severity was negatively associated with activity in the right lingual gyrus (PTSD vs. TEC). PMID:27251865

  13. Reproductive functions in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D E

    1992-08-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about the effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes on ovulation, menstruation, sexuality, fertility, pregnancy and fetal-infant health. Eating disorders may result in failure to ovulate, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, reduced sex drive, infertility, hyperemesis gravidarum, low maternal weight gain in pregnancy, small babies for gestational date, low birth weight infants, increased neonatal morbidity and problems in infant feeding. The available information suggests that clinicians should inquire about nutritional intake, a history of eating disorders and weight reducing behaviours as part of the routine assessment of patients with the disorders of reproductive function listed above. If an eating disorder is discovered before conception, the woman should be encouraged to delay pregnancy until the eating disorder is treated and effectively under control. If the woman is pregnant, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce maternal and fetal complications. The infants of eating-disordered women should be carefully followed to ensure adequate nutritional intake. Problems in reproductive function related to eating disorders offer rich opportunities for multispecialty collaboration in primary and secondary prevention programmes directed toward both mother and infant. PMID:1389091

  14. Family therapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lemmon, C R; Josephson, A M

    2001-07-01

    It is a perpetual source of debate whether dysfunctional family communication and relationship patterns cause eating disorders or the stress associated with raising a child with an eating disorder elicits such problems. Regardless, family therapy is a necessary component of any comprehensive biopsychosocial approach to the treatment of eating disorders. A careful assessment of the entire family, including the identified patient; his or her parents and siblings; the parents' marriage and families of origin; the child's emotional, social, and physical development; parental regulation of developmental stages; and communication patterns is mandatory. Family therapy for eating-disordered patients attempts to facilitate the elimination of potentially life-threatening symptoms and begin a therapeutic process of change within the entire family. Research has shown significant support for the use of family therapy in this population, but well-controlled treatment outcome research remains somewhat limited. PMID:11449810

  15. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  16. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  17. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  18. Gender identity disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Urs; Milos, Gabriella

    2002-12-01

    We report three cases of transsexual patients who are suffering from an eating disorder: a biological male patient diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN), a biological male patient with bulimia nervosa (BN), and a biological female patient with AN as well as a severe alcohol dependence. The relationship between eating behavior, gender identity, sexual orientation, and body dissatisfaction is discussed. PMID:12386912

  19. Eating disorders and the skin.

    PubMed

    Strumia, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified, are psychiatric disorders with physical complications. Several factors may contribute to the onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, including a familial predisposition to these disorders as well as individual personality characteristics. Dissatisfaction with body shape and an overwhelming desire to be thin are considered as risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugolike body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrheic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, and acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions to drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:23245978

  20. Longitudinal Stability of Binge-Eating Type in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Carol B.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.; Agras, W. Stewart; Halmi, Katherine A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Berg, Kelly C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the 2-year longitudinal stability of objective bulimic (binge eating) episodes (OBEs) and subjective bulimic (binge eating) episodes (SBEs) in a multisite eating disorders sample. Method Participants included 288 females with eating disorder symptoms who were assessed every 6 months using the Eating Disorder Examination. Results Markov modeling revealed considerable longitudinal variability between types of binge eating over 6-month time intervals with relatively higher probability estimates for consistency between OBEs and SBEs than specific transitions between types for the overall sample as well as for eating disorder diagnostic groups. Transition patterns examining all five time points indicated notable variability in binge-eating patterns among participants. Discussion These findings suggest that although longitudinal patterns of binge types are variable among individuals with eating disorders, consistency in OBEs and SBEs was the most common pattern observed. PMID:22407944

  1. Does D-cycloserine enhance exposure therapy for anxiety disorders in humans? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Helga; Figueira, Ivan; Lopes, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Raquel; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Ventura, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of anxiety is on the edge of a new era of combinations of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions. A new wave of translational research has focused on the use of pharmacological agents as psychotherapy adjuvants using neurobiological insights into the mechanism of the action of certain psychological treatments such as exposure therapy. Recently, d-cycloserine (DCS) an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis has been applied to enhance exposure-based treatment for anxiety and has proved to be a promising, but as yet unproven intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DCS in the enhancement of exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic searches were conducted in the databases ISI-Web of Science, Pubmed and PsycINFO. We included only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with humans, focusing on the role of DCS in enhancing the action of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. We identified 328 references, 13 studies were included in our final sample: 4 on obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 on panic disorder, 2 on social anxiety disorder, 2 on posttraumatic stress disorder, one on acrophobia, and 2 on snake phobia. The results of the present meta-analysis show that DCS enhances exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Cohen d =  -0.34; CI: -0.54 to -0.14), facilitating the specific process of extinction of fear. DCS seems to be effective when administered at a time close to the exposure therapy, at low doses and a limited number of times. DCS emerges as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with refractory anxiety disorders that are unresponsive to the conventional treatments available. When administered correctly, DCS is a promising strategy for augmentation of CBT and could reduce health care costs, drop-out rates and bring faster relief to patients. PMID:24991926

  2. Does D-Cycloserine Enhance Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Humans? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Helga; Figueira, Ivan; Lopes, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Raquel; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Ventura, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of anxiety is on the edge of a new era of combinations of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions. A new wave of translational research has focused on the use of pharmacological agents as psychotherapy adjuvants using neurobiological insights into the mechanism of the action of certain psychological treatments such as exposure therapy. Recently, d-cycloserine (DCS) an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis has been applied to enhance exposure-based treatment for anxiety and has proved to be a promising, but as yet unproven intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DCS in the enhancement of exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic searches were conducted in the databases ISI-Web of Science, Pubmed and PsycINFO. We included only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with humans, focusing on the role of DCS in enhancing the action of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. We identified 328 references, 13 studies were included in our final sample: 4 on obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 on panic disorder, 2 on social anxiety disorder, 2 on posttraumatic stress disorder, one on acrophobia, and 2 on snake phobia. The results of the present meta-analysis show that DCS enhances exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Cohen d =  −0.34; CI: −0.54 to −0.14), facilitating the specific process of extinction of fear. DCS seems to be effective when administered at a time close to the exposure therapy, at low doses and a limited number of times. DCS emerges as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with refractory anxiety disorders that are unresponsive to the conventional treatments available. When administered correctly, DCS is a promising strategy for augmentation of CBT and could reduce health care costs, drop-out rates and bring faster relief to patients. PMID:24991926

  3. Innovative technology-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

    2014-05-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided interventions via a desktop computer, interactive DVD, shared active surface, and virtual reality. None employed robotics. The results provide evidence for the overall effectiveness of technology-based training. The overall mean effect size for posttests of controlled studies of children with autism spectrum disorders who received technology-based interventions was significantly different from zero and approached the medium magnitude, d = 0.47 (confidence interval: 0.08-0.86). The influence of age and IQ was not significant. Differences in training procedures are discussed in the light of the negative correlation that was found between the intervention durations and the studies' effect sizes. The results of this meta-analysis provide support for the continuing development, evaluation, and clinical usage of technology-based intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24092843

  4. Treatment Programs for Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Mihandoost, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aim of this study was to determine the experimental evidence of treatment/intervention programs for deficits in social skills, attention, and behavioral disorder in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence Acquisition: Meta-analysis procedures were employed to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD exhibit deficits in attention and social skills. A total of 17 empirical research studies published between 2000 and 2013 met our inclusion criteria. Attention and social skills measures were categorized according to both modality and type of processing required. Results: Children with ADHD exhibited deficits in multiple components of attention and social skills that were not related to language-learning disorders and weaknesses in general intellectual abilities. The overall percentage effect for attention and social skills in students with ADHD was calculated (effect size = 0. 79, confidence interval = 0.57 - 1.08). This meta-analysis study showed that treatment programs reduced attention deficit and social skills in ADHD children and adolescents. Conclusions: The evidence of attention and social skills deficits in children with ADHD supports recent studies in ADHD deficits. Further research is required to explain in detail the nature, severity, and specificity of the deficits in individuals with ADHD. PMID:26576168

  5. Association of Gestational Hypertensive Disorders with Retinopathy of prematurity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Priscilla Y. L.; Tang, Shu-Min; Au, Sunny C. L.; Rong, Shi-Song; Lau, Henry H. W.; Ko, Simon T. C.; Ng, Danny S. C.; Chen, Li Jia; Yam, Jason C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The role of gestational hypertensive disorders, which includes both pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension, in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been controversial. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between gestational hypertensive disoders and ROP. Eligible studies published up to June 5, 2016 were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE that evaluated the association between the two conditions. Totally 1142 published records were retrieved for screening, 925 of them eligible for detailed evaluation. Finally 19 studies involving 45281 infants with 5388 cases of ROP met our criteria for meta-analysis. Gestational hypertensive disorders were not associated with ROP (unadjusted OR: 0.89; P = 0.38; adjusted OR: 1.35; P = 0.18). Subgroup analyses also revealed no significant association between ROP with pre-eclampsia (unadjusted OR: 0.85; P = 0.29; adjusted OR:1.29; P = 0.28) or with gestational hypertension (unadjusted OR: 1.10; P = 0.39; adjusted OR: 1.25; P = 0.60) separately. Sensitivity analysis indicated our results were robust. We concluded no significant association between gestational hypertensive disorders and ROP. More large scale well-conducted prospective cohorts on the topic are needed. PMID:27491726

  6. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schäfer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J.L.; Langely, Kate; O’Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although twin and family studies have shown Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association scans (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of existing studies to boost statistical power. Method We used data from four projects: a) the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), b) phase I of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics project (IMAGE), c) phase II of IMAGE (IMAGE II), and d) the Pfizer funded study from the University of California, Los Angeles, Washington University and the Massachusetts General Hospital (PUWMa). The final sample size consisted of 2,064 trios, 896 cases and 2,455 controls. For each study, we imputed HapMap SNPs, computed association test statistics and transformed them to Z-scores, and then combined weighted Z-scores in a meta-analysis. Results No genome-wide significant associations were found, although an analysis of candidate genes suggests they may be involved in the disorder. Conclusions Given that ADHD is a highly heritable disorder, our negative results suggest that the effects of common ADHD risk variants must, individually, be very small or that other types of variants, e.g. rare ones, account for much of the disorder’s heritability. PMID:20732625

  7. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Ptáček, R; Kuželová, H; Papežová, H; Stěpánková, T

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child diagnosis with frequent comorbidities (Quinn, 2008). According to present studies eating disorders may represent one of them (Mikami et al., 2008). Several studies reported ADHD relation to the higher predisposition to obesity (Altafas, 2002), higher values of signs of overnutrition, as body mass index (Waring and Lapane, 2008) or higher value of fat (Ptacek et al., 2009a, c). These characteristics are considered to be directly related to the disorder. They can be caused by impulsivity and probable specific feeding customs of ADHD patients. The presence of eating disorders in ADHD patients could partially explain previously described growth and weight changes. PMID:20946717

  9. Association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pu, Danhua; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is essential for DNA biosynthesis and the epigenetic process of DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and cancers. However, reports on the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the relationship of the MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and the risk of ASD by meta-analysis. Up to December 2012, eight case-control studies involving 1672 patients with ASD and 6760 controls were included for meta-analysis. The results showed that the C677T polymorphism was associated with significantly increased ASD risk in all the comparison models [T vs. C allele (frequency of allele): odds ratio (OR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.85; CT vs. CC (heterozygote): OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.00; TT vs. CC (homozygote): OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.08-3.20; CT+TT vs. CC (dominant model): OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12-2.18; and TT vs. CC+CT (recessive model): OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22], whereas the A1298C polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with reduced ASD risk but only in a recessive model (CC vs. AA+AC: OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.97). In addition, we stratified the patient population based on whether they were from a country with food fortification of folic acid or not. The meta-analysis showed that the C677T polymorphism was found to be associated with ASD only in children from countries without food fortification. Our study indicated that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to increased ASD risk, and periconceptional folic acid may reduce ASD risk in those with MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism. PMID:23653228

  10. [Current Care Guideline: Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Suokas, Jaana; Alenius, Heidi; Ebeling, Hanna; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Järvi, Leea; Koskinen, Minna; Laukkanen, Eila; Meskanen, Katarina; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Ryöppönen, Anita; Salonen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Päivi; Vuorela, Piia

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis with intervention is linked to better outcome. In primary care patients in risk for eating disorder should be screened and actively asked about eating disorder symptoms. Treatment is mainly out-patient care and should first be focused on gaining a normal nutritional status. It is important to involve the patient's family in the treatment. A confidential relationship between health care professionals and the patient is important. The patient's own motivation and readiness for recuperation are essential. Different therapeutic and psychosocial approaches are central in the treatment, as the disorders are psychiatric. Medical treatment may bring additional help in treating binge-eating disorder or bulimia nervosa, but it is seldom of help in treating anorexia nervosa. PMID:26245050

  11. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  12. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  13. The Efficacy of the Tomatis Method for Children with Learning and Communication Disorders: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmor, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Explains the Tomatis Method, a program of auditory stimulation and counseling used to assist children, adolescents, and adults with learning and communication disorders. Presents a meta-analysis of data from five research studies evaluating the efficacy of this method in assisting children with such disorders. Suggests that effect sizes favoring…

  14. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. Results From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114 009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Conclusions Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental

  15. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143

  16. Zinc deficiency and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Humphries, L; Vivian, B; Stuart, M; McClain, C J

    1989-12-01

    Decreased food intake, a cyclic pattern of eating, and weight loss are major manifestations of zinc deficiency. In this study, zinc status was evaluated in 62 patients with bulimia and 24 patients with anorexia nervosa. Forty percent of patients with bulimia and 54% of those with anorexia nervosa had biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency. The authors suggest that for a variety of reasons, such as lower dietary intake of zinc, impaired zinc absorption, vomiting, diarrhea, and binging on low-zinc foods, patients with eating disorders may develop zinc deficiency. This acquired zinc deficiency could then add to the chronicity of altered eating behavior in those patients. PMID:2600063

  17. Modified Therapeutic Community for Co-Occurring Disorders: Single Investigator Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    SACKS, STANLEY; MCKENDRICK, KAREN; SACKS, JOANN Y; CLELAND, CHARLES M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis for a single investigator examining the effectiveness of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) for clients with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders (COD). The flexibility and utility of meta-analytic tools are described, although their application in this context is atypical. The analysis includes four comparisons from three studies (retrieved N=569) for various groups of clients with COD (homeless persons, offenders, and outpatients) in substance abuse treatment, comparing clients assigned either to an MTC or a control condition of standard services. An additional study is included in a series of sensitivity tests. The overall findings increase the research base of support for the MTC program for clients with COD, as results of the meta-analysis indicate significant MTC treatment effects for 5 of the 6 outcome domains across the four comparisons. Limitations of the approach are discussed. Independent replications, clinical trials, multiple outcome domains and additional meta-analyses should be emphasized in future research. Given the need for research-based approaches, program and policy planners should consider the MTC when designing programs for co-occurring disorders. PMID:20687003

  18. Treatment of psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder with aripiprazole monotherapy: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available clinical trials concerning the usefulness of aripiprazole in the treatment of the psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder. Methods A systematic MEDLINE and repository search concerning clinical trials for aripiprazole in bipolar disorder was conducted. Results The meta-analysis of four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on acute mania suggests that the effect size of aripiprazole versus placebo was equal to 0.14 but a more reliable and accurate estimation is 0.18 for the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score. The effect was higher for the PANSS-positive subscale (0.28), PANSS-hostility subscale (0.24) and PANSS-cognitive subscale (0.20), and lower for the PANSS-negative subscale (0.12). No data on the depressive phase of bipolar illness exist, while there are some data in favour of aripiprazole concerning the maintenance phase, where at week 26 all except the total PANSS score showed a significant superiority of aripiprazole over placebo (d = 0.28 for positive, d = 0.38 for the cognitive and d = 0.71 for the hostility subscales) and at week 100 the results were similar (d = 0.42, 0.63 and 0.48, respectively). Conclusion The data analysed for the current study support the usefulness of aripiprazole against psychotic symptoms during the acute manic and maintenance phases of bipolar illness. PMID:20043829

  19. Blood Glutamate Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhen; Zhu, Tingting; Qu, Yi; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Glutamate plays an important role in brain development, neuronal migration, differentiation, survival and synaptogenesis. Recent studies have explored the relationship between blood glutamate levels and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the findings are inconsistent. We undertook the first systematic review with a meta-analysis of studies examining blood glutamate levels in ASD compared with controls. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published before March 2016. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity, and the publication bias was estimated using Egger’s tests. Results Twelve studies involving 880 participants and 446 incident cases were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis provided evidence for higher blood glutamate levels in ASD [SMD = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.58–1.40; P < 0.001] with high heterogeneity (I2 = 86%, P < 0.001) across studies. The subgroup analyses revealed higher glutamate levels in ASD compared with controls in plasma [SMD = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.58–1.50; P < 0.001] but not true in serum [SMD = 0.79, 95% CI = -0.41–1.99; P = 0.20]. Studies employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) assays also revealed higher blood glutamate levels in ASD. A sensitivity analysis found that the results were stable, and there was no evidence of publication bias. Conclusions Blood glutamate levels might be a potential biomarker of ASD. PMID:27390857

  20. Association between Asthma and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhen; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Tingting; Huang, Jichong; Qu, Yi; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies of the association between asthma and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library for studies published before February 2nd, 2016. Observational studies investigating the association between asthma and ASD were included. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates for the outcome. Subgroup analysis was used to explore potential sources of heterogeneity and publication bias was estimated using Begg's and Egger's tests. Results Ten studies encompassing 175,406 participants and 8,809 cases of ASD were included in this meta-analysis. In the cross-sectional studies, the prevalence of asthma in ASD was 20.4%, while the prevalence of asthma in controls was 15.4% (P < 0.001). The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of asthma in ASD in the cross-sectional studies was 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98–1.61) (P = 0.07), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 65.0%, P = 0.02) across studies. In the case-control studies, the pooled OR for the prevalence of asthma in ASD was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.68–1.43) (P = 0.94), and there was no evidence of an association between asthma and ASD. No evidence of significant publication bias on the association between asthma and ASD was found. Conclusions In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis do not suggest an association between asthma and ASD. Further prospective studies ascertaining the association between asthma and ASD are warranted. PMID:27257919

  1. [Eating disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Herpertz, S; von Blume, B; Senf, W

    1995-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies indicate a higher frequency of eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa in young female diabetic patients compared to the normal population. The comorbidity of the two syndromes usually leads to a continuous metabolic disorder bearing high risks of acute metabolic failure or early microangiopathic lesions. In addition to "restraint eating" as an essential element of diabetic therapy a premorbid neurotic malformation and/or poor coping strategies are further predisposing aspects for the development of an eating disorder. The inpatient treatment of a 22 year old patient suffering from both diabetes mellitus and bulimia nervosa demonstrates the association of neurotic malformation, poor coping style and the directive function of diabetic therapy. PMID:8560950

  2. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    PubMed

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  3. Psychological treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence

    2005-01-01

    Manual-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presently the most effective treatment of bulimia nervosa. Its efficacy is limited, however. Different strategies for improving upon current manual-based CBT are discussed, including combining CBT with antidepressant medication, integrating CBT with alternative psychological therapies, and expanding the scope and flexibility of manual-based CBT. CBT is underutilized in clinical practice. Dissemination of evidence-based treatment is a priority. Research on anorexia nervosa is minimal. Effective treatments have yet to be developed, although the Maudsley method of family therapy has shown the most promise in the treatment of adolescents. The most commonly seen eating disorders in clinical practice are those classified as "eating disorder not otherwise specified." With the exception of binge eating disorder (BED), however, they have been neglected by researchers. Several psychological therapies have been shown to be effective in treating BED. Controversy exists over whether treatment-specific effects have been identified. Whereas treatments have proved effective in eliminating binge eating and associated eating disorder psychopathology, achieving clinically significant weight loss remains a challenge. PMID:17716095

  4. Adding psychotherapy to antidepressant medication in depression and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials in which the effects of treatment with antidepressant medication were compared to the effects of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in adults with a diagnosed depressive or anxiety disorder. A total of 52 studies (with 3,623 patients) met inclusion criteria, 32 on depressive disorders and 21 on anxiety disorders (one on both depressive and anxiety disorders). The overall difference between pharmacotherapy and combined treatment was Hedges' g = 0.43 (95% CI: 0.31-0.56), indicating a moderately large effect and clinically meaningful difference in favor of combined treatment, which corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 4.20. There was sufficient evidence that combined treatment is superior for major depression, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The effects of combined treatment compared with placebo only were about twice as large as those of pharmacotherapy compared with placebo only, underscoring the clinical advantage of combined treatment. The results also suggest that the effects of pharmacotherapy and those of psychotherapy are largely independent from each other, with both contributing about equally to the effects of combined treatment. We conclude that combined treatment appears to be more effective than treatment with antidepressant medication alone in major depression, panic disorder, and OCD. These effects remain strong and significant up to two years after treatment. Monotherapy with psychotropic medication may not constitute optimal care for common mental disorders. PMID:24497254

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shiming; Wang, Ying; Gong, Xuan; Wang, Gaohua

    2015-01-01

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring up to 10 June 2015. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. 15 observational studies (6 cohort studies and 9 case-control studies), with 17,890 ASD cases and 1,810,258 participants were included for analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.13) comparing mothers who smoked during pregnancy with those who did not. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy is not associated with ASD risk in offspring. Further well-designed cohort studies are needed to confirm the present findings. PMID:26343689

  6. Sleep in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Román, Amparo; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in sleep between people with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and, if so, whether such differences are associated with comorbid depressive symptoms or other conditioning factors. We conducted a search for articles published until March 2013 in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Scopus, Trip Database, Dissertation Abstracts, and OpenSIGLE. We retrieved 9658 records, which were assessed against the inclusion and quality criteria. Six studies were included in the review and four were included in the meta-analysis. They were all cross-sectional studies with medium methodological quality. All studies except one were polysomnographic. The total sample of the meta-analysis consisted of 111 patients with OCD and 141 controls. The synthesis of results showed differences in sleep between people with and without OCD. The presence of comorbid depression was a key issue in the amount and type of differences found. Nevertheless, in order to support these results, longitudinal studies should be conducted with larger sample sizes and different age ranges. PMID:26298778

  7. Meta-analysis of Dropout in Treatments for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Imel, Zac E.; Laska, Kevin; Jakcupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many patients dropout of treatments for Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some clinicians believe that ‘trauma focused’ treatments increase dropout. Method We conducted a meta-analysis of dropout among active treatments in clinical trials for PTSD (42 studies; 17 direct comparisons). Results The average dropout rate was 18%, but it varied significantly across studies. Group modality and greater number of sessions, but not trauma focus, predicted increased dropout. When the meta-analysis was restricted to direct comparisons of active treatments, there were no differences in dropout. Differences in trauma focus between treatments in the same study did not predict dropout. However, trauma focused treatments resulted in higher dropout as compared to Present Centered Therapy (PCT) – a treatment originally designed as a control, but now listed as a research supported intervention for PTSD. Conclusion Dropout varies between active interventions for PTSD across studies, but differences are primarily driven by differences between studies. There do not appear to be systematic differences across active interventions when they are directly compared in the same study. The degree of clinical attention placed on the traumatic event does not appear to be a primary cause of dropout from active treatments. However comparisons of PCT may be an exception to this general pattern, perhaps due to a restriction of variability in trauma focus among comparisons of active treatments. More research is needed comparing trauma focused interventions to trauma avoidant treatments such as PCT. PMID:23339535

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cai-Yun; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Gong, Feng-Feng; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies examining the possible role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in the development of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) have provided inconclusive findings, this meta-analysis was therefore designed to get a more reliable assessment. A total of 38 articles were identified through a search of electronic databases, up to 27 February 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Meta-analysis showed that MTHFR C677T was significantly associated with SZ, the highest OR was found for the recessive model (for TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.18-1.53); a marginal association of MTHFR C677T with increased risk of BPD has also been found for the recessive model (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00-1.59). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the significant association with SZ and BPD existed among Asian and African populations, but not for the white. MTHFR A1298C was significant associated with SZ, the highest OR for the dominant model (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03-1.24). Subgroup analysis indicated a significant association with SZ existed in Asian populations, not among the white populations and no significant association was detected between the MTHFR A1298C and BPD in all groups. We conclude that MTHFR polymorphism is associated with SZ and BPD among Asian, African populations, but not the white. PMID:24938371

  9. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad

    2016-02-01

    The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a treatment for alleviating either state or trait anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies concerned panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (four studies, total n = 130), specific phobia (two studies, total n = 37), social phobia (one study, n = 16), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (one study, n = 19). Three out of four panic disorder trials qualified for pooled analyses. These meta-analyses found no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of propranolol and benzodiazepines regarding the short-term treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Also, no evidence was found for effects of propranolol on PTSD symptom severity through inhibition of memory reconsolidation. In conclusion, the quality of evidence for the efficacy of propranolol at present is insufficient to support the routine use of propranolol in the treatment of any of the anxiety disorders. PMID:26487439

  10. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van der Heijden, Geert JMG; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad

    2016-01-01

    The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a treatment for alleviating either state or trait anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies concerned panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (four studies, total n = 130), specific phobia (two studies, total n = 37), social phobia (one study, n = 16), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (one study, n = 19). Three out of four panic disorder trials qualified for pooled analyses. These meta-analyses found no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of propranolol and benzodiazepines regarding the short-term treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Also, no evidence was found for effects of propranolol on PTSD symptom severity through inhibition of memory reconsolidation. In conclusion, the quality of evidence for the efficacy of propranolol at present is insufficient to support the routine use of propranolol in the treatment of any of the anxiety disorders. PMID:26487439

  11. Eating disorders in older women.

    PubMed

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. PMID:26261037

  12. A quantitative meta-analysis of neurocognitive functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J. Cobb; Matt, Georg E.; Wrocklage, Kristen M.; Crnich, Cassandra; Jordan, Jessica; Southwick, Steven M.; Krystal, John H.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with regional alterations in brain structure and function that are hypothesized to contribute to symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. We present here the first systematic meta-analysis of neurocognitive outcomes associated with PTSD to examine a broad range of cognitive domains and describe the profile of cognitive deficits, as well as modifying clinical factors and study characteristics. This report is based on data from 60 studies totaling 4,108 participants, including 1,779with PTSD, 1,446 trauma-exposed comparison participants, and 895 healthy comparison participants without trauma exposure. Effect size estimates were calculated using a mixed-effects meta-analysis for nine cognitive domains: attention/working memory, executive functions, verbal learning, verbal memory, visual learning, visual memory, language, speed of information processing, and visuospatial abilities. Analyses revealed significant neurocognitive effects associated with PTSD, although these ranged widely in magnitude, with the largest effect sizes in verbal learning (d =−.62), speed of information processing (d =−.59), attention/working memory (d =−.50), and verbal memory (d =−.46). Effect size estimates were significantly larger in treatment-seeking than community samples and in studies that did not exclude participants with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and effect sizes were affected by between-group IQ discrepancies and the gender composition of the PTSD groups. Our findings indicate that consideration of neuropsychological functioning in attention, verbal memory, and speed of information processing may have important implications for the effective clinical management of persons with PTSD. Results are further discussed in the context of cognitive models of PTSD and the limitations of this literature. PMID:25365762

  13. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  14. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  15. Relational competence and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, F; Ostuzzi, R

    2007-06-01

    Eating Disorders are very widespread within the adolescent population. A possible interpretation and the comprehension of such forms of psychopathology may revolve around the failure to develop a well-defined personal identity, an incapacity to achieve a sense of differentiation with respect to others, an incapacity to measure oneself against others, dependence on others, the fear of rejection and a sense of inadequacy. This study explores the relational styles and behaviour of individuals suffering from eating disorders and their influence on the development of the personality, with reference being made in particular to self-valuation, dependence on others and levels of differentiation. A sample population of 90 women with eating disorders was studied. The subjects were subdivided into 3 groups (30 with restricting anorexia nervosa, 30 with binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and 30 with bulimia nervosa), overlapping in terms of age, duration of disorders and interrelation style, using the Relational Competence Test. The most significant results of this study concern the question of the definition of an autonomous personal identity. This process seems to be in progress in young women suffering from bulimia nervosa who appear to be driven towards a "definition of the self in opposition" with the consequent tendency towards relational experiences outside their own family. In women with binge-eating/purging AN moreover an awareness of the difference between the self and others and of their state of dependence would appear to be present, however behaviour aimed at the determination of an autonomous self is not evident. In women with restricting anorexia nervosa a definition of the identity is totally absent; these women develop an omnipotent self in their 'oneness' with others. These relational aspects lead to the identification of a continuum between restricting anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in an evolutionary

  16. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  17. Television, Obesity, and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dietz

    1993-10-01

    Two national survey from the early 1960s indicate that the prevalence of obesity is directly related to the amount of time spent in viewing television in young people aged 6 to 17 years. The author discusses the mechanisms by which television affects obesity and other eating disorders. PMID:10356231

  18. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  19. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  20. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  1. Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

  2. Behavioral Parent Training as a Treatment for Externalizing Behaviors and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Denita R.; Christiansen, Elizabeth; Jenson, William R.; Olympia, Daniel; Clark, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training for children and adolescents with externalizing behaviors and disruptive behavior disorders was conducted with 79 outcome studies conducted between 1966 and 2001. Separate analyses were conducted for studies employing between-subjects, within-subjects, and single-subject…

  3. Examining the Efficacy of Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna; Zablocki, Mark; Teagarden, James

    2014-01-01

    Two previous reviews have indicated that self-regulated strategy instruction (SRSD) is an evidence-based practice that can improve the writing skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to extend the findings and analytic methods of previous reviews by examining published studies regarding…

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric…

  5. Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Subjective and Objective Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 16 subjective and objective sleep studies with a sample of 722 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus a control that numbers 638 shows that the children with ADHD are significantly more impaired in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures than their counterpart.

  6. The Effects of School-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis 1996-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Vilardo, Brigid

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis evaluating the effects of school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted by examining 60 outcome studies between 1996 and 2010 that yielded 85 effect sizes. Separate analyses were performed for studies employing between-subjects, within- subjects, and single-subject experimental…

  7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with broad impairments in executive function: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Kaiser, Roselinde H.; Warren, Stacie L.; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious and often chronically disabling condition. The current dominant model of OCD focuses on abnormalities in prefrontal-striatal circuits that support executive function (EF). While there is growing evidence for EF impairments associated with OCD, results have been inconsistent, making the nature and magnitude of these impairments controversial. The current meta-analysis uses random-effects models to synthesize 110 previous studies that compared participants with OCD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. The results indicate that individuals with OCD are impaired on tasks measuring most aspects of EF, consistent with broad impairment in EF. EF deficits were not explained by general motor slowness or depression. Effect sizes were largely stable across variation in demographic and clinical characteristics of samples, although medication use, age, and gender moderated some effects. PMID:25755918

  8. Volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paulo Menezes; Wenzel, Amy; Borges, Karinne Tavares; Porto, Cristianne Ribeiro; Caminha, Renato Maiato; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis

    2009-08-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often exhibit impulsive and aggressive behavior. The hippocampus and amygdala form part of the limbic system, which plays a central role in controlling such expressions of emotional reactivity. There are mixed results in the literature regarding whether patients with BPD have smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volume relative to healthy controls. To clarify the precise nature of these mixed results, we performed a meta-analysis to aggregate data on the size of the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with BPD. Seven publications involving six studies and a total of 104 patients with BPD and 122 healthy controls were included. A significantly smaller volume was found in both the right and left hippocampi and amygdala of patients with BPD compared to healthy controls. These findings raise the possibility that reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes are biological substrates of some symptoms of BPD. PMID:19663654

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits. PMID:26575979

  10. A meta-analysis of temperament in axis I psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Miettunen, Jouko; Raevuori, Anu

    2012-02-01

    This article reports on a meta-analysis of Cloninger's temperament dimensions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) in individuals with lifetime psychiatric disorders compared with controls and on interdisorder comparisons between these disorders. Nine disorders from 75 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The most consistent feature was elevated harm avoidance: compared with the controls, harm avoidance was higher in all diagnostic groups studied except for those with alcohol use disorders. The increase in effect sizes in harm avoidance scores varied from a very large (d = 2.66) in social phobia to a small effect (effect size, d = 0.29) in alcohol use disorders. In other dimensions, differences between cases and controls were relatively small. However, in pairwise comparisons, notable differences also in other dimensions emerged: in novelty seeking, the lowest scores were in social phobia (d = -0.87) and the highest in bulimia nervosa (d = 0.33); in reward dependence, the lowest scores were in schizophrenia (d = -0.36) and the highest in social phobia (d = 0.12); and in persistence, the lowest scores were in social phobia (d = -0.30) and the highest in anorexia nervosa (d = 0.49). The provided data should be taken into account in the future studies on suggestive vulnerability markers for psychiatric morbidity. PMID:21565334

  11. Prevalence of Conduct Disorder in the Middle East: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Salmanian, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Keshtkar, Aabbas Ali; Asadian-koohestani, Fatemeh; Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Sepasi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: The global burden of conduct disorder is a major public health concern. Although there are different reports on the prevalence of conduct disorder in different Middle Eastern countries, to date, no research has reviewed them. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the literature and present the prevalence of conduct disorder among children and adolescents in Middle Eastern countries. Methods: Those cross-sectional studies with any type of random or non-random sampling, which described the prevalence of conduct disorder prior to age of 18, for at least one gender in the general or school-based populations who resided in Middle Eastern countries were included in this review. The scientific databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC), and Grey Literature including conference proceedings, and hand searching of key journals were searched from 1995 to the end of 2014. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the included studies independently and extracted the relevant data. Discussion: This review provided a picture of different frequencies of conduct disorder in Middle Eastern countries and analyzed the sources of heterogeneity. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42014014996 PMID:27006674

  12. Quantitative meta-analysis of neural activity in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played a significant role in elucidating the neural underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, a detailed understanding of the neural regions implicated in the disorder remains incomplete because of considerable variability in findings across studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify consistent patterns of neural activity across neuroimaging study designs in PTSD to improve understanding of the neurocircuitry of PTSD. Methods We conducted a literature search for PET and fMRI studies of PTSD that were published before February 2011. The article search resulted in 79 functional neuroimaging PTSD studies. Data from 26 PTSD peer-reviewed neuroimaging articles reporting results from 342 adult patients and 342 adult controls were included. Peak activation coordinates from selected articles were used to generate activation likelihood estimate maps separately for symptom provocation and cognitive-emotional studies of PTSD. A separate meta-analysis examined the coupling between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala activity in patients. Results Results demonstrated that the regions most consistently hyperactivated in PTSD patients included mid- and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and when ROI studies were included, bilateral amygdala. By contrast, widespread hypoactivity was observed in PTSD including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, decreased ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity was associated with increased amygdala activity. Conclusions These results provide evidence for a neurocircuitry model of PTSD that emphasizes alteration in neural networks important for salience detection and emotion regulation. PMID:22738125

  13. Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating1234

    PubMed Central

    Aveyard, Paul; Daley, Amanda; Jolly, Kate; Lewis, Amanda; Lycett, Deborah; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive processes such as attention and memory may influence food intake, but the degree to which they do is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine whether such cognitive processes influence the amount of food eaten either immediately or in subsequent meals. Design: We systematically reviewed studies that examined experimentally the effect that manipulating memory, distraction, awareness, or attention has on food intake. We combined studies by using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between experimental and control groups and assessing heterogeneity with the I2 statistic. Results: Twenty-four studies were reviewed. Evidence indicated that eating when distracted produced a moderate increase in immediate intake (SMD: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.53) but increased later intake to a greater extent (SMD: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.07). The effect of distraction on immediate intake appeared to be independent of dietary restraint. Enhancing memory of food consumed reduced later intake (SMD: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.68), but this effect may depend on the degree of the participants’ tendencies toward disinhibited eating. Removing visual information about the amount of food eaten during a meal increased immediate intake (SMD: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.68). Enhancing awareness of food being eaten may not affect immediate intake (SMD: 0.09; 95% CI: −0.42, 0.35). Conclusions: Evidence indicates that attentive eating is likely to influence food intake, and incorporation of attentive-eating principles into interventions provides a novel approach to aid weight loss and maintenance without the need for conscious calorie counting. PMID:23446890

  14. Eating disorder or disordered eating? Non-normative eating patterns in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Susan Z

    2004-09-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are putative eating disorders frequently seen in obese individuals. Data suggest that BED fulfills criteria for a mental disorder. Criteria for NES are evolving but at present do not require distress or functional impairment. It remains unclear whether BED and NES, as they are currently defined, are optimally useful for characterizing distinct patient subgroups. We propose that a distinction be made between "eating disorders" and "non-normative" eating patterns without associated distress or impairment. Although non-normative eating patterns may not be considered mental disorders, they may be very important in terms of their impact on body weight and health. More precise behavioral and metabolic characterization of subgroups with eating disorders and non-normative eating behaviors has important implications for understanding the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of obesity. Ultimately, better understanding of the many pathways to increased energy intake may lead to targeted strategies for prevention of overweight and obesity in at-risk individuals and populations. PMID:15483199

  15. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  16. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  17. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  18. Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders on Quality of Life: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Wu, Jade Q.; Boettcher, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective for treating anxiety disorders, little is known about its effect on quality of life. To conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders on quality of life, we searched for relevant studies in PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library, and conducted manual searches. METHOD The search identified 44 studies that included 59 CBT trials, totaling 3,326 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. We estimated the controlled and within-group random effects of the treatment changes on quality of life. RESULTS The pre-post within-group and controlled effect sizes were moderately strong, Hedges’ g = 0.54 and Hedges’ g = 0.56, respectively. Improvements were greater for physical and psychological domains of quality of life than for environmental and social domains. The overall effect sizes decreased with publication year and increased with treatment duration. Face-to-face treatments delivered individually and in groups produced significantly higher effect sizes than internet-delivered treatments. CONCLUSION Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders is moderately effective for improving quality of life, especially in physical and psychological domains. Internet-delivered treatments are less effective in improving quality of life than face-to-face treatments. PMID:24447006

  19. Effectiveness of Internet-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Leonie; Baumeister, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are highly prevalent and associated with considerable disease burden and personal and societal costs. However, they can be effectively reduced through prevention measures. The Internet as a medium appears to be an opportunity for scaling up preventive interventions to a population level. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically summarize the current state of research on Internet-based interventions for the prevention of mental disorders to give a comprehensive overview of this fast-growing field. Methods A systematic database search was conducted (CENTRAL, Medline, PsycINFO). Studies were selected according to defined eligibility criteria (adult population, Internet-based mental health intervention, including a control group, reporting onset or severity data, randomized controlled trial). Primary outcome was onset of mental disorder. Secondary outcome was symptom severity. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Meta-analytical pooling of results took place if feasible. Results After removing duplicates, 1169 studies were screened of which 17 were eligible for inclusion. Most studies examined prevention of eating disorders or depression or anxiety. Two studies on posttraumatic stress disorder and 1 on panic disorder were also included. Overall study quality was moderate. Only 5 studies reported incidence data assessed by means of standardized clinical interviews (eg, SCID). Three of them found significant differences in onset with a number needed to treat of 9.3-41.3. Eleven studies found significant improvements in symptom severity with small-to-medium effect sizes (d=0.11- d=0.76) in favor of the intervention groups. The meta-analysis conducted for depression severity revealed a posttreatment pooled effect size of standardized mean difference (SMD) =−0.35 (95% CI, −0.57 to −0.12) for short-term follow-up, SMD = −0.22 (95% CI, −0.37 to −0.07) for medium-term follow-up, and SMD = −0

  20. Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…

  1. Stigma and eating and weight disorders.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young

    2015-03-01

    Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders. PMID:25652251

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of premature mortality in bipolar affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, J. F.; Miles, J.; Walters, K.; King, M.; Osborn, D. P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review and complete meta-analysis of studies estimating standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) for all-cause and cause-specific mortalities. Method Cause-specific mortality was grouped into natural and unnatural causes. These subgroups were further divided into circulatory, respiratory, neoplastic and infectious causes, and suicide and other violent deaths. Summary SMRs were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was examined via subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Results Systematic searching found 31 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Summary SMR for all-cause mortality = 2.05 (95% CI 1.89– 2.23), but heterogeneity was high (I2 = 96.2%). This heterogeneity could not be accounted for by date of publication, cohort size, mid-decade of data collection, population type or geographical region. Unnatural death summary SMR = 7.42 (95% CI 6.43–8.55) and natural death = 1.64 (95% CI 1.47–1.83). Specifically, suicide SMR = 14.44 (95% CI 12.43–16.78), other violent death SMR = 3.68 (95% CI 2.77–4.90), deaths from circulatory disease = 1.73 (95% CI 1.54–1.94), respiratory disease = 2.92 (95% CI 2.00–4.23), infection = 2.25 (95% CI 1.70–3.00) and neoplasm = 1.14 (95% CI 1.10–1.21). Conclusion Despite considerable heterogeneity, all summary SMR estimates and a large majority of individual studies showed elevated mortality in BPAD compared to the general population. This was true for all causes of mortality studied. PMID:25735195

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

  4. Epidemiology of Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Korterink, Judith J.; Diederen, Kay; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to review the literature regarding epidemiology of functional abdominal pain disorders in children and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution including associated risk factors of developing functional abdominal pain. Methods The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases were systematically searched up to February 2014. Study selection criteria included: (1) studies of birth cohort, school based or general population samples (2) containing data concerning epidemiology, prevalence or incidence (3) of children aged 4-18 years (4) suffering from functional abdominal pain. Quality of studies was rated by a self-made assessment tool. A random-effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the prevalence of functional abdominal pain in childhood. Results A total of 58 articles, including 196,472 children were included. Worldwide pooled prevalence for functional abdominal pain disorders was 13.5% (95% CI 11.8-15.3), of which irritable bowel syndrome was reported most frequently (8.8%, 95% CI 6.2-11.9). The prevalence across studies ranged widely from 1.6% to 41.2%. Higher pooled prevalence rates were reported in South America (16.8%) and Asia (16.5%) compared to Europe (10.5%). And a higher pooled prevalence was reported when using the Rome III criteria (16.4%, 95% CI 13.5-19.4). Functional abdominal pain disorders are shown to occur significantly more in girls (15.9% vs. 11.5%, pooled OR 1.5) and is associated with the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders, stress and traumatic life events. Conclusion Functional abdominal pain disorders are a common problem worldwide with irritable bowel syndrome as most encountered abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. Female gender, psychological disorders, stress and traumatic life events affect prevalence. PMID:25992621

  5. Peer harassment and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review existing literature regarding peer harassment and its association with a range of weight-related attitudes and behaviors. We conceptualize peer harassment to include traditionally defined bullying behavior, other social and relational forms of bullying, as well as teasing and other verbal harassment. Weight-based teasing is particularly relevant to weight-related issues and has been associated with clinical eating disorders, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and weight-related attitudes, such as body dissatisfaction. Studies using both clinical samples of eating disorder patients and general samples of college students or adolescents have demonstrated these relations. Emerging issues in this field, including teasing by family members, research with males, teasing and weight-related issues in developing countries, and the measurement of teasing experience are also discussed. Interventions with healthcare providers, parents, school personnel, and policy can contribute to the prevention of teasing and its associated weight-related attitudes and behaviors. PMID:18714553

  6. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  7. Stereotactic surgery for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bomin; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    EATING DISORDERS (EDS) ARE A GROUP OF SEVERELY IMPAIRED EATING BEHAVIORS, WHICH INCLUDE THREE SUBGROUPS: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future. PMID:23682343

  8. Stereotactic surgery for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bomin; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a group of severely impaired eating behaviors, which include three subgroups: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future. PMID:23682343

  9. Skeletal Complications of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Abigail A.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  10. Pharmacologic management of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Price, W A

    1988-05-01

    Treatment of eating disorders is difficult regardless of the methods employed. Pharmacologic management in anorexia nervosa and in bulimia nervosa is especially helpful when it is part of a multimodal treatment approach that includes individual, family and behavioral therapy. Care must be taken to guard against side effects, abuse and noncompliance in a group of patients that tends to be prone to all three. PMID:3284300

  11. Eating disorders: assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W G; Schlundt, D G

    1985-09-01

    Anorexia and bulimia are eating disorders affecting a significant number of adolescent and young adult women. The core symptoms of both disorders are similar and include a fear of obesity, body image disturbance, erratic eating patterns, and purging. These symptoms produce significant physical and psychologic complications. Both anorexia and bulimia appear to have a common origin in a fear of obesity and dieting. Anorectics, being "successful" dieters, lose a significant amount of weight; whereas bulimics alternate between binges and purges. Treatment for the eating disorders is gradually evolving as clinical research experience accumulates. For anorexia, hospitalization is indicated when weight falls below 15% of ideal, and most investigators agree that therapy for the core symptoms cannot be undertaken until weight is restored. During the impatient stay, a behavior modification program can effectively organize medical, nutritional, and psychologic support, and offers the quickest and most direct route to weight restoration. The nasogastric tube and total parenteral nutrition are used primarily for those who are severely emaciated or who actively resist standard modes of therapy. Inpatient treatment is most effectively and efficiently rendered in a specialized eating disorder unit. Once weight restoration is progressing, behavior therapy for core symptoms is commenced and continued on an outpatient basis. A variety of behavioral techniques are employed, and they are designed primarily to influence anorectic assumptions and beliefs. Although there may be a brief inpatient stay for initiation of treatment, the bulk of therapy for bulimia occurs on an outpatient basis. The available literature indicates that behavioral techniques and antidepressant medication are effective for the symptoms of bulimia. Early identification of core symptoms of both disorders can lead to an initiation of treatment before the core symptoms become ingrained. A potentially more effective

  12. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

  13. Mother-daughter coping and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. PMID:25645347

  14. Eating disorders and women's health: an update.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anne Marie; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2006-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified have a significant impact on the health care and childbearing outcomes of the female population. Primary care contact for gynecologic care, childbearing, or infertility can serve as a critical entry point for the initial recognition of potentially devastating disorders that may result in permanent impairment and/or chronic debilitation. This review addresses the nature and prevalence of eating disorders and the management of pregnancy complicated by an active eating disorder or a history of an eating disorder. Genetic influences and intergenerational transmission of eating disorders are discussed. Finally, the increased risk for postpartum depression among women with a current or past eating disorder is examined. Factors critical to improving pregnancy outcome and reducing the risk for exacerbation or relapse in the postpartum period are identified. PMID:16647671

  15. Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

  16. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojing; Meng, Zhen; Huang, Guifeng; Fan, Jingyuan; Zhou, Wenwen; Ling, Weijun; Jiang, Juan; Long, Jianxiong; Su, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders (ADs) have been recognized as one of the most prevalent mental disorders in mainland China, the prevalence of ADs has not been reported until now. The lack of a consolidated and comparable review on the prevalence of ADs in mainland China necessitated this meta-analysis to measure the prevalence. To identify the relevant studies on ADs for the analysis, we searched published studies in electronic databases up to July 2015. The pooled prevalence in the overall population and the prevalences by gender and location were estimated. A total of 21 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled current/lifetime prevalences of ADs, generalized AD, non-specific AD, panic disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were 24.47‰/41.12‰, 5.17‰/4.66‰, 8.30‰/6.89‰, 1.08‰/3.44‰, 0.70‰/4.11‰, 0.19‰/2.15‰, 0.63‰/19.61‰, 0.49‰/1.83‰, and 0.90‰/3.17‰, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that compared with males, females had a consistently significantly higher prevalence of ADs. However, no difference was observed between those in urban and rural areas. The pooled prevalence of ADs was relatively lower than those of some other countries. A higher prevalence of ADs in women than in men was commonly observed, whereas the prevalences in urban and rural areas were nearly the same. PMID:27306280

  17. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojing; Meng, Zhen; Huang, Guifeng; Fan, Jingyuan; Zhou, Wenwen; Ling, Weijun; Jiang, Juan; Long, Jianxiong; Su, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders (ADs) have been recognized as one of the most prevalent mental disorders in mainland China, the prevalence of ADs has not been reported until now. The lack of a consolidated and comparable review on the prevalence of ADs in mainland China necessitated this meta-analysis to measure the prevalence. To identify the relevant studies on ADs for the analysis, we searched published studies in electronic databases up to July 2015. The pooled prevalence in the overall population and the prevalences by gender and location were estimated. A total of 21 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled current/lifetime prevalences of ADs, generalized AD, non-specific AD, panic disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were 24.47‰/41.12‰, 5.17‰/4.66‰, 8.30‰/6.89‰, 1.08‰/3.44‰, 0.70‰/4.11‰, 0.19‰/2.15‰, 0.63‰/19.61‰, 0.49‰/1.83‰, and 0.90‰/3.17‰, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that compared with males, females had a consistently significantly higher prevalence of ADs. However, no difference was observed between those in urban and rural areas. The pooled prevalence of ADs was relatively lower than those of some other countries. A higher prevalence of ADs in women than in men was commonly observed, whereas the prevalences in urban and rural areas were nearly the same. PMID:27306280

  18. Sleep, arousal, and circadian rhythms in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nota, Jacob A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Coles, Meredith E

    2015-04-01

    Findings of this meta-analysis show that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is related to disruptions in both the duration and timing of sleep. PsycINFO and Google Scholar database searches identified 12 relevant studies that compared measures of sleep in individuals with OCD to those of either a healthy control group or published norms. Sleep measures included sleep onset latency, sleep duration, awakening after sleep onset, percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, percentage of slow wave sleep, and prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Individual effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Sleep duration was found to be shorter, and the prevalence of DSPD higher, in individuals with OCD compared to controls. Further, excluding samples with comorbid depression did not meaningfully reduce the magnitude of these effects (although the results were no longer statistically significant) and medication use by participants is unlikely to have systematically altered sleep timing. Overall, available data suggest that sleep disruption is associated with OCD but further research on both sleep duration and sleep timing in individuals with OCD is needed. PMID:25603315

  19. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanqiu; Lang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychological anxiety disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective therapy for OCD, but the evaluation results from various studies are inconsistent and incomprehensive. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of CBT in treatment of OCD. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature search identified 13 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The efficacy of CBT on OCD was evaluated by comparing post-treatment and pre-treatment Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) scores. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was generated for the statistical evaluation. Heterogeneity was evaluated by I2 index. RESULTS A decrease in WMD and a statistical significance (p<0.0001) in both CY-BOCS and CGI scores between pre- and post-CBT treatment were observed in both overall database (-11.73) and USA subgroup (-11.371), which indicates a dramatic relief of OCD symptoms after CBT treatment. Heterogeneity was detected in overall database and USA subgroup, which resulted in an application of the random-effects model to both groups. Publication bias was examined by both Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test and no publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS We concluded that CBT is efficacious in treating children's OCD. PMID:27182928

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Autobiographical Memory Studies in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Berna, Fabrice; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Aouadi, Ismail; Ricarte, Jorge Javier; Allé, Mélissa C; Coutelle, Romain; Boyer, Laurent; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine Vanessa; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses and reviews on cognitive disorders in schizophrenia have shown that the most robust and common cognitive deficits are found in episodic memory and executive functions. More complex memory domains, such as autobiographical memory (AM), are also impaired in schizophrenia, but such impairments are reported less often despite their negative impact on patients' outcome. In contrast to episodic memory, assessed in laboratory tasks, memories of past personal events are much more complex and directly relate to the self. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, 571 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and 503 comparison subjects. It found moderate-to-large effect sizes with regard to the 3 parameters commonly used to assess AM: memory specificity (g = -0.97), richness of detail (g = -1.40), and conscious recollection (g = -0.62). These effect sizes were in the same range as those found in other memory domains in schizophrenia; for this reason, we propose that defective memories of personal past events should be regarded as a major cognitive impairment in this illness. PMID:26209548

  1. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanqiu; Lang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Background Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychological anxiety disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective therapy for OCD, but the evaluation results from various studies are inconsistent and incomprehensive. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of CBT in treatment of OCD. Material/Methods A literature search identified 13 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The efficacy of CBT on OCD was evaluated by comparing post-treatment and pre-treatment Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) scores. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was generated for the statistical evaluation. Heterogeneity was evaluated by I2 index. Results A decrease in WMD and a statistical significance (p<0.0001) in both CY-BOCS and CGI scores between pre- and post-CBT treatment were observed in both overall database (−11.73) and USA subgroup (−11.371), which indicates a dramatic relief of OCD symptoms after CBT treatment. Heterogeneity was detected in overall database and USA subgroup, which resulted in an application of the random-effects model to both groups. Publication bias was examined by both Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test and no publication bias was detected. Conclusions We concluded that CBT is efficacious in treating children’s OCD. PMID:27182928

  2. Treatment of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence

    2011-12-01

    The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an

  3. Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917

  4. Psychotic Disorders and Repeat Offending: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis on the risk of repeat offending in individuals with psychosis and to assess the effect of potential moderating characteristics on risk estimates. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 6 bibliographic databases from January 1966 to January 2009, supplemented with correspondence with authors. Studies that reported risks of repeat offending in individuals with psychotic disorders (n = 3511) compared with individuals with other psychiatric disorders (n = 5446) and healthy individuals (n = 71 552) were included. Risks of repeat offending were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to examine how risk estimates were affected by various study characteristics including mean sample age, study location, sample size, study period, outcome measure, duration of follow-up, and diagnostic criteria. Results: Twenty-seven studies, which included 3511 individuals with psychosis, were identified. Compared with individuals without any psychiatric disorders, there was a significantly increased risk of repeat offending in individuals with psychosis (pooled OR = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–1.8), although this was only based on 4 studies. In contrast, there was no association when individuals with other psychiatric disorders were used as the comparison group (pooled OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.7–1.3), although there was substantial heterogeneity. Higher risk estimates were found in female-only samples with psychosis and in studies conducted in the United States. Conclusions: The association between psychosis and repeat offending differed depending on the comparison group. Despite this, we found no support for the findings of previous reviews that psychosis is associated with a lower risk of repeat offending. PMID:19959703

  5. Guanfacine for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Simona; Clavenna, Antonio; Reale, Laura; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    To review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the safety and efficacy of guanfacine in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a bibliographic search up to May 2014 was performed using the Cochrane Library׳s Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Embase, PsycINFO, and Medline databases, and clinical trials registers. The search terms used were: ["guanfacine"] and ["child" or "adolescent" or "pediatrics"] and ["randomized controlled trial"] and ["Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity" or "Attention Deficit Disorder" or "Attention Hyperactivity Disorder" or "Hyperactivity" or "ADHD"]. A meta-analysis was performed using response, defined as a score ≤ 2 on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement score, as the outcome measure. In all, 7 out of 48 studies were included, for a total of 1752 participants. All studies compared guanfacine versus placebo, with a duration ranging from 6 to 16 weeks. In all, the Clinical Global Impression Improvement score was reported as a secondary measure. Overall, 694/1177 (59.0%) participants in the guanfacine group benefited from the treatment compared to 192/575 (33.3%) in the placebo group (pooled OR 3.2; 95%CI 2.4-4.1). The participants with at least one adverse event were 948 (82.4%) in the guanfacine and 376 (67.9%) in the placebo group (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6-4.4). Somnolence (OR 4.9), sedation (OR 2.8), and fatigue (OR 2.2), were the adverse events with the greatest risk of occurrence in the guanfacine versus the placebo group. On the basis of seven randomized, placebo controlled trials guanfacine resulted safe and effective in treating children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:25156577

  6. Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535

  7. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  8. [Involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mari Hotta

    2015-04-01

    This article gives an outline about involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa become common diseases in woman in Japan. Binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome are observed in men as well as women. Binge eating is characteristic of bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome. It should be noted that high energy availability observed in these diseases results in obesity and exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) can make patients to control symptoms and improve their QOL. Osteoporosis is one of chief complications and sequelae of anorexia nervosa. Low-birth weight babies born from emaciated patients with eating disorders are subject to metabolic syndrome in the future. PMID:25936153

  9. Unique contributions of individual eating disorder symptoms to eating disorder-related impairment.

    PubMed

    Hovrud, Lindsey; De Young, Kyle P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the unique contribution of individual eating disorder symptoms and related features to overall eating disorder-related impairment. Participants (N=113) from the community with eating disorders completed assessments including the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that 58.6% of variance in the CIA was accounted for by binge eating frequency, weight and shape concerns, and depression. These findings indicate that certain eating disorder symptoms uniquely account for impairment and that depression is a substantial contributor. It is possible that purging, restrictive eating, and body mass index did not significantly contribute to impairment because these features are consistent with many individuals' weight and shape goals. The results imply that eating disorder-related impairment may be more a result of cognitive features and binge eating rather than body weight and compensatory behaviors. PMID:26026614

  10. Eating Disorders in the Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Sangvai, Devdutta

    2016-06-01

    Eating disorders are a complex set of illnesses most commonly affecting white adolescent girls and young women. The most common eating disorders seen in the primary care setting are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Treatment in the primary care environment ideally involves a physician, therapist, and nutritionist, although complex cases may require psychiatric and other specialist care. Early diagnosis and treatment are associated with improved outcomes, whereas the consequences of untreated eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa, can be devastating, including death. PMID:27262009

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis of the Neural Correlates of Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sugranyes, Gisela; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos; Corrigall, Richard; Taylor, Eric; Frangou, Sophia

    2011-01-01

    Context Impaired social cognition is a cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). However, the functional neuroanatomy of social cognition in either disorder remains unclear due to variability in primary literature. Additionally, it is not known whether deficits in ASD and SZ arise from similar or disease-specific disruption of the social cognition network. Objective To identify regions most robustly implicated in social cognition processing in SZ and ASD. Data Sources Systematic review of English language articles using MEDLINE (1995–2010) and reference lists. Study Selection Studies were required to use fMRI to compare ASD or SZ subjects to a matched healthy control group, provide coordinates in standard stereotactic space, and employ standardized facial emotion recognition (FER) or theory of mind (TOM) paradigms. Data Extraction Activation foci from studies meeting inclusion criteria (n = 33) were subjected to a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation, and encompassed 146 subjects with ASD, 336 SZ patients and 492 healthy controls. Results Both SZ and ASD showed medial prefrontal hypoactivation, which was more pronounced in ASD, while ventrolateral prefrontal dysfunction was associated mostly with SZ. Amygdala hypoactivation was observed in SZ patients during FER and in ASD during more complex ToM tasks. Both disorders were associated with hypoactivation within the Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) during ToM tasks, but activation in these regions was increased in ASD during affect processing. Disease-specific differences were noted in somatosensory engagement, which was increased in SZ and decreased in ASD. Reduced thalamic activation was uniquely seen in SZ. Conclusions Reduced frontolimbic and STS engagement emerged as a shared feature of social cognition deficits in SZ and ASD. However, there were disease- and stimulus-specific differences. These findings may aid future studies on SZ

  12. The Incidence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Floods: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims, between different flood intensities, and between different time points after a flood. A search of several electronic literature databases was conducted to collect data on the incidence of PTSD after a flood. Loney criteria for research quality were used to evaluate the quality of selected search results. The combined incidence of PTSD was estimated using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Subgroup analyses were conducted on different trauma intensities and different time points after a flood. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of research quality. Fourteen articles were included in this meta-analysis, including a total of 40 600 flood victims; 3862 victims were diagnosed with PTSD. The combined incidence of PTSD was 15.74%. The subgroup analyses showed that the incidence of PTSD in victims who experienced severe and moderate flood intensity was higher than that in victims who experienced mild flood intensity. The incidence of PTSD was lower at 6 or more months after a flood (11.45%) than within 6 months (16.01%) of a flood. In conclusion, the incidence of PTSD among floods of different trauma intensities was statistically significant. PMID:25857395

  13. Psychological Group-Treatments of Social Anxiety Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wersebe, Hanna; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cuijpers, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Background A few meta-analyses have examined psychological treatments for a social anxiety disorder (SAD). This is the first meta-analysis that examines the effects of cognitive behavioural group therapies (CBGT) for SAD compared to control on symptoms of anxiety. Method After a systematic literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, PsychINFO and Embase was conducted; eleven studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The studies had to be randomized controlled studies in which individuals with a diagnosed SAD were treated with cognitive-behavioural group therapy (CBGT) and compared with a control group. The overall quality of the studies was moderate. Results The pooled effect size indicated that the difference between intervention and control conditions was 0.53 (96% CI: 0.33–0.73), in favour of the intervention. This corresponds to a NNT 3.24. Heterogeneity was low to moderately high in all analyses. There was some indication of publication bias. Conclusions It was found that psychological group-treatments CBGT are more effective than control conditions in patients with SAD. Since heterogeneity between studies was high, more research comparing group psychotherapies for SAD to control is needed. PMID:24260148

  14. Psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Rosa-Alcázar, Ángel; Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Marina; Olivares-Rodríguez, José; Parada-Navas, José L

    2015-01-01

    Although several meta-analyses have investigated the efficacy of psychological treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is not yet a consensus on the most efficacious treatment components. A meta-analysis was carried out to examine the efficacy of the different treatment techniques used in the psychological interventions of pediatric OCD. An exhaustive literature search from 1983 to February 2014 enabled us to locate 46 published articles that applied some kind of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). For each group the effect size was the standardized pretest-posttest mean change, and it was calculated for obsessive-compulsive symptoms and for other outcome measures. The results clearly showed large effect sizes for CBT in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, to a lesser extent, other outcome measures (d + = 1.860; 95% CI: 1.639; 2.081). The most promising treatments are those based on multicomponent programs comprising ERP, cognitive strategies, and relapse prevention. The analysis of other potential moderator variables and the implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25901842

  15. The heritability of alcohol use disorders: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, B.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental risk factors in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), we performed a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies and explored the impact of sex, assessment method (interview v. hospital/population records), and study design (twin v. adoption study) on heritability estimates. Method The literature was searched for all unique twin and adoption studies of AUD and identified 12 twin and five adoption studies. The data were then reconstructed and analyzed using ordinal data full information maximum likelihood in the OpenMx program. Heterogeneity was tested with likelihood ratio tests by equating the parameters across studies. Results There was no evidence for heterogeneity by study design, sex or assessment method. The best-fit estimate of the heritability of AUD was 0.49 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43–0.53], and the proportion of shared environmental variance was 0.10 (95% CI 0.03–0.16). Estimates of unique environmental proportions of variance differed significantly across studies. Conclusions AUD is approximately 50% heritable. The multiple genetically informative studies of this syndrome have produced consistent results that support the validity of this heritability estimate, especially given the different potential methodological weaknesses of twin and adoption designs, and of assessments of AUD based on personal interviews v. official records. We also found evidence for modest shared environmental effects suggesting that environmental factors also contribute to the familial aggregation of AUDs. PMID:25171596

  16. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments. PMID:25455628

  17. Statistical Learning in Specific Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rita; Brooks, Patricia J; Powers, Kasey L; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in statistical learning might be a common deficit among individuals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Using meta-analysis, we examined statistical learning in SLI (14 studies, 15 comparisons) and ASD (13 studies, 20 comparisons) to evaluate this hypothesis. Effect sizes were examined as a function of diagnosis across multiple statistical learning tasks (Serial Reaction Time, Contextual Cueing, Artificial Grammar Learning, Speech Stream, Observational Learning, and Probabilistic Classification). Individuals with SLI showed deficits in statistical learning relative to age-matched controls. In contrast, statistical learning was intact in individuals with ASD relative to controls. Effect sizes did not vary as a function of task modality or participant age. Our findings inform debates about overlapping social-communicative difficulties in children with SLI and ASD by suggesting distinct underlying mechanisms. In line with the procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman and Pierpont, 2005), impaired statistical learning may account for phonological and syntactic difficulties associated with SLI. In contrast, impaired statistical learning fails to account for the social-pragmatic difficulties associated with ASD. PMID:27602006

  18. Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Leah M; Vanmeter, John W; Marsh, Abigail A

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by social impairments, including inappropriate responses to affective stimuli and nonverbal cues, which may extend to poor face-emotion recognition. However, the results of empirical studies of face-emotion recognition in individuals with ASD have yielded inconsistent findings that occlude understanding the role of face-emotion recognition deficits in the development of ASD. The goal of this meta-analysis was to address three as-yet unanswered questions. Are ASDs associated with consistent face-emotion recognition deficits? Do deficits generalize across multiple emotional expressions or are they limited to specific emotions? Do age or cognitive intelligence affect the magnitude of identified deficits? The results indicate that ASDs are associated with face-emotion recognition deficits across multiple expressions and that the magnitude of these deficits increases with age and cannot be accounted for by intelligence. These findings suggest that, whereas neurodevelopmental processes and social experience produce improvements in general face-emotion recognition abilities over time during typical development, children with ASD may experience disruptions in these processes, which suggested distributed functional impairment in the neural architecture that subserves face-emotion processing, an effect with downstream developmental consequences. PMID:24915526

  19. Meta-analysis of technology-assisted interventions for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2016-08-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of technology-assisted interventions for individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). A systematic literature search in the databases Medline, PsychInfo, and Web of Science revealed 37 randomized controlled trials (2991 participants) that were grouped into internet delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT; 21 trials), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET; 3 trials), and cognitive bias modification (CBM; 13 trials). Patients undergoing ICBT and VRET showed significantly less SAD symptoms at postassessment than passive control conditions (g=0.84 and 0.82, respectively). Compared to active control conditions, ICBT had a small advantage (g=0.38) and VRET showed comparable effects (p>0.05). CBM was not more effective than passive control conditions, except when delivered in the laboratory (g=0.35). While the efficacy of CBM was limited, substantial evidence for ICBT and preliminary evidence for VRET suggests that both can effectively reduce SAD symptoms indicating the potential of technology-assisted interventions for SAD. PMID:27376634

  20. Statistical Learning in Specific Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Rita; Brooks, Patricia J.; Powers, Kasey L.; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in statistical learning might be a common deficit among individuals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Using meta-analysis, we examined statistical learning in SLI (14 studies, 15 comparisons) and ASD (13 studies, 20 comparisons) to evaluate this hypothesis. Effect sizes were examined as a function of diagnosis across multiple statistical learning tasks (Serial Reaction Time, Contextual Cueing, Artificial Grammar Learning, Speech Stream, Observational Learning, and Probabilistic Classification). Individuals with SLI showed deficits in statistical learning relative to age-matched controls. In contrast, statistical learning was intact in individuals with ASD relative to controls. Effect sizes did not vary as a function of task modality or participant age. Our findings inform debates about overlapping social-communicative difficulties in children with SLI and ASD by suggesting distinct underlying mechanisms. In line with the procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman and Pierpont, 2005), impaired statistical learning may account for phonological and syntactic difficulties associated with SLI. In contrast, impaired statistical learning fails to account for the social-pragmatic difficulties associated with ASD. PMID:27602006

  1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and children's emotion dysregulation: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Garcia, Alexis

    2016-06-01

    While executive functioning deficits have been central to cognitive theories of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), recent work has suggested that emotion dysregulation may also play a key role in understanding the impairments suffered by youth with ADHD. However, given the multiple processes involved in emotion dysregulation, the extent to which youth with ADHD are impaired across multiple domains of emotion dysregulation including: emotion recognition/understanding (ERU), emotion reactivity/negativity/lability (ERNL), emotion regulation (EREG), and empathy/callous-unemotional traits (ECUT) remains unclear. A meta-analysis of 77 studies (n=32,044 youths) revealed that youth with ADHD have the greatest impairment on ERNL (weighted ES d=.95) followed by EREG (weighted ES d=.80). Significantly smaller effects were observed for ECUT (weighted ES d=.68) and ERU (weighted ES d=.64). Moderation analyses indicated that the association between ADHD and ERNL was stronger among studies that had a sample containing older youth (no other demographic factors were significant). Additionally, the association between ADHD and ECUT was significantly weaker among studies that controlled for co-occurring conduct problems. Co-occurring conduct problems did not moderate the link between ADHD and any other emotion dysregulation domain. Lastly, the association between ADHD and ERNL was significantly weaker when controlling for youth's cognitive functioning. Cognitive functioning did not moderate the link between ADHD and ERU, EREG, or ECUT, respectively. Theoretical/practical implications for the study of emotional dysregulation in youth with ADHD are discussed. PMID:27180913

  2. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Hausenblas, Heather Ann; Saha, Debbie; Dubyak, Pamela Jean; Anton, Stephen Douglas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Due to safety concerns and side effects of many antidepressant medications, herbal psychopharmacology research has increased, and herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as alternatives to prescribed medications for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Of these, accumulating trials reveal positive effects of the spice saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for the treatment of depression. A comprehensive and statistical review of the clinical trials examining the effects of saffron for treatment of MDD is warranted. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials examining the effects of saffron supplementation on symptoms of depression among participants with MDD. SEARCH STRATEGY We conducted electronic and non-electronic searches to identify all relevant randomized, double-blind controlled trials. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched for relevant studies. INCLUSION CRITERIA The criteria for study selection included the following: (1) adults (aged 18 and older) with symptoms of depression, (2) randomized controlled trial, (3) effects of saffron supplementation on depressive symptoms examined, and (4) study had either a placebo control or anti-depressant comparison group. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS Using random effects modeling procedures, we calculated weighted mean effect sizes separately for the saffron supplementation vs. placebo control groups, and for the saffron supplementation vs. antidepressant groups. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using the Jadad score. The computer software Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2 was used to analyze the data. RESULTS Based on our pre-specified criteria, five randomized controlled trials (n = 2 placebo controlled trials, n = 3 antidepressant controlled trials) were included in our review. A large effect size was found for saffron supplementation vs. placebo control in treating depressive symptoms (M ES

  3. Efficacy of escitalopram in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis versus placebo.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David S; Asakura, Satoshi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Hayano, Taiji; Hagino, Atsushi; Reines, Elin; Larsen, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Escitalopram is the most selective of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. We conducted a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies where escitalopram was used to treat patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Data from all randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled studies in SAD with escitalopram from both specialist settings and general practice were used. Patients met the DSM-IV criteria for SAD, were ≥18 years old, and had a Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) ≥60. The primary outcome measure was the estimated treatment difference in LSAS total score at Week 12. Secondary outcome measures included the estimated treatment difference in the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) score at Week 12. A total of 1598 patients from 3 randomised controlled trials were included in the analyses. Escitalopram (n=1061) was superior to placebo (n=537), with an estimated treatment difference on the LSAS of -9.2 points (95%CI: [-14.4; -4.0], p<0.01) (escitalopram 5mg/day), -4.6 points (95%CI: [-8.1; -1.0], p<0.01) (escitalopram 10mg/day), -10.1 points (95%CI: [-13.7; -6.5], p<0.01) (escitalopram 20mg/day) and -7.3 points (95%CI: [-12.3; -2.2], p<0.01) (escitalopram 10-20mg/day). For the CGI-S, the corresponding values were -0.55 points (95%CI: [-0.79; -0.31], p<0.01) (escitalopram 5mg/day), -0.26 points (95%CI: [-0.42; -0.10], p<0.01) (escitalopram 10mg/day), -0.48 points (95%CI: [-0.64; -0.31], p<0.01) (escitalopram 20mg/day) and -0.29 points (95%CI: [-0.51; -0.07], p<0.05) (escitalopram 10-20mg/day). The withdrawal rate due to adverse events was 7.2% for escitalopram, compared with 4.3% for placebo (p<0.05). In this meta-analysis, all doses of escitalopram showed significant superiority in efficacy versus placebo in the treatment of patients with SAD. PMID:26971233

  4. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant for generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pae, Chi-Un; Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Praksh S; Serretti, Alessandro

    2015-05-01

    Vortioxetine has a beneficial pharmacological profile for reducing anxiety and depression. Recently, a number of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of vortioxetine have been conducted in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); however, the results from GAD RCTs are inconsistent. With an extensive search of databases and clinical trial registries, four published short-term RCTs were identified and included in the present meta-analysis. The mean change in total scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) from baseline was the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoints included the response and remission rates, as defined by a ≥50% reduction in HAMA total scores and a ≤7 change in the HAMA total score at the end of treatment. In addition, the mean change in the HAMA total score from baseline in the subgroup with a HAMA total score ≥25 at baseline was included. Vortioxetine was significantly more effective than was placebo, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.118 (95% CIs, -0.203 to -0.033, P = 0.007). In particular, those with severe GAD (HAMA total score ≥25 at baseline) had a significantly greater benefit from vortioxetine than those without (SMD = -0.338, 95% CIs = -0.552 to -0.124, p = 0.002). The odds ratios (ORs) for vortioxetine for response and remission were 1.221 (95% CIs, 1.027 to 1.452, P = 0.024) and 1.052 (95% CIs, 0.853 to 1.296, P = 0.637), respectively. Discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs) (OR = 1.560, 1.006 to 2.419, p = 0.047) was marginally higher in vortioxetine than placebo treatment, whereas discontinuation due to any reason (OR = 0.971, 0.794 to 1.187, p = 0.771) and inefficacy (OR = 0.687, 0.380 to 1.243, p = 0.215) were not significantly different among treatment groups. Although our results suggest that vortioxetine may have a potential as an another treatment option for GAD (especially for severe GAD), they should be interpreted and

  5. Binge eating onset in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Marcus, M D; Moulton, M M; Greeno, C G

    1995-01-01

    In this study we examined whether obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) reporting earlier onset binge eating differed from those with later onset binge eating on salient clinical parameters. Subjects were 112 women who sought treatment for BED. Subjects with early (< or = age 18) and later onset (> age 18) did not differ in age, weight, body mass index, or severity of binge eating. Participants were interviewed using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, and completed a weight and diet history questionnaire. Early-onset binge eaters were more likely than those with later-onset to binge-eat before dieting, to have early onset of obesity and dieting, to have longer binge-free periods, and more paternal obesity and binge eating. Early-onset binge eaters also reported more eating-disorders psychopathology, and they were more likely to report a lifetime history of bulimia nervosa and DSM-III-R mood disorder. These data suggest that there are marked differences among BED patients presenting for treatment. Further research is needed to determine whether these differences reflect a different etiology or have implications for treatment. PMID:8820527

  6. Sexual abuse and eating disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Connors, M E; Morse, W

    1993-01-01

    Studies investigating a possible relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders have reported highly discrepant results. Some variability can be accounted for by methodological issues including diagnostic criteria, study design, and assessment techniques. The heterogeneity of an eating disordered population, especially regarding the comorbidity of eating pathology and personality disorder, is also a factor. Overall results suggest that around 30% of eating disordered patients have been sexually abused in childhood, a figure that is relatively comparable to rates found in normal populations. For some patients there may be a direct link between sexual trauma and eating pathology, but in general sexual abuse is best considered a risk factor in a biopsychosocial etiological model of eating disorders. Complex associations between trauma, self-regulatory deficits, and psychopathology require further research. PMID:8477269

  7. Restless Eating, Restless Legs, and Sleep Related Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) often presents with a primary complaint of sleep initiation difficulty with only ambiguous allusions to motor symptoms. This may result in the condition being misdiagnosed as a psychophysiological insomnia. Further, nocturnal eating is common in RLS and like the classic motor symptoms, patients will describe an inability to initiate sleep until their urge (to eat) is addressed. Restless nocturnal eating arises, intensifies, and subsides in parallel to motor symptoms. Once misdiagnosed as psychophysiological insomnia, RLS patients are frequently treated with benzodiazepine receptor agonists. The CNS actions of these sedating agents, suppression of memory and executive function, unleash predisposed amnestic behaviors. In the case of RLS this would be expected to include the inappropriate ambulatory and eating behaviors of sleep related eating disorder (SRED). The evidence and implications of a link between the restless eating of RLS and SRED is presented here. PMID:26626472

  8. Eating patterns in patients with spectrum binge eating disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Kate; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to describe meal and snack frequencies of individuals with recurrent binge eating and examine the association between these eating patterns and clinical correlates. Method Data from 106 women with a minimum diagnosis of recurrent binge eating were utilized. Meal and snack frequencies were correlated with measures of weight, eating disorder features, and depression. Participants who ate breakfast every day (n=25) were compared with those who did not (n=81) on the same measures. Results Breakfast was the least, and dinner the most, commonly consumed meal. Evening snacking was the most common snacking occasion. Meal patterns were not significantly associated with clinical correlates; however, evening snacking was associated with binge eating. Discussion Our findings largely replicated those reported in earlier research. More research is needed to determine the role of breakfast consumption in binge eating. PMID:21661003

  9. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  10. Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V.; Lugtenberg, Marlies J.; Smets, Eline; van Schayck, Constant P.; Kramer, Boris W.; Mommers, Monique; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. Methods and Findings Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995–23 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated “dose–response” associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57–1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children) and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children). The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61–3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55–3.12). Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ≥3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual

  11. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. PMID:21896116

  12. [Stomatologic complications of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Nagy, Agnes

    2012-11-11

    Since the 1990s numerous international experts have reported about the somatic complications of eating disorders including those having a dental and stomatological nature. Several reports emphasised that deformations in the oral cavity resulting from this grave nutritional disease typical of the young generation could already appear in the early stage and, therefore, dentists are among the first to diagnose them. Dentists are still often unaware of the importance of their role in multidisciplinary treatment. Even if they knew what the disease was about and recognised it on the basis of deformations in the oral cavity in time, their advice that their patients should brush their teeth more often would fail to eliminate the root cause of the problem. Not only the earliest possible treatment of the complications of the bingeing-purging mechanism and the maintenance of oral hygiene are important, but controlling and curing pathological habits with active participation of psychiatrists are also required to ensure full recovery. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the disease, manifold communication is required. For this reason, publishing the dental ramifications of organic and systemic diseases at dental conferences and in technical journals, as well as providing information about oral complications of eating disorders for general practitioners and specialists are particularly important. PMID:23123325

  13. Bulimia: Growing Awareness of an Eating Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudkovitz, Elaine

    1983-01-01

    Describes bulimia, a disorder involving binge eating and purging increasingly prevalent in young women. Reviews the literature and describes symptoms, etiological factors, and treatment considerations and approaches for the disorder. (Author)

  14. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  15. Drug Abuse and Eating Disorders: Prevention Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Ellis, Anne Marie

    1992-01-01

    Explored relationship between drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders in female adolescents (n=826). Eating Disorders Risk Scale was adopted and correlated with drug and alcohol use, other forms of deviance, family and peer relationships, and depression. Findings support concept of generalized theory of addictions based on psychosocial,…

  16. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  17. American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Juleen K.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered…

  18. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  19. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  20. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

  1. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating in Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence, Screening, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hanlan, Margo E.; Griffith, Julie; Patel, Niral

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Recent research indicates higher prevalence rates of eating disorders among people with type 1 diabetes, as compared to their peers without diabetes. Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors – especially insulin omission – are associated with poorer glycemic control and serious risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin in pre-adolescence and continue through early adulthood, as many disordered eating behaviors begin during the transition to adolescence and may persist for years. Available screening tools and treatment options are reviewed. Given the complexity of diabetes management in combination with eating disorder treatment, it is imperative to screen early and often, in order to identify those most vulnerable and begin appropriate treatment in a timely manner. PMID:24022608

  2. Pharmacotherapy for eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Powers, Pauline S; Bruty, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are significant mental health problems in the adolescent population; however, there are no medications approved by the FDA for the treatment of adolescents with either of these disorders. Many medications are used off label for both the symptoms of eating disorders and their co-morbid conditions, particularly SSRIs and atypical anti-psychotics. The dosing, side effect profile, and long term effects of these medications in children and adolescents is unclear. Binge eating disorder, night eating syndrome, and sleep-related eating disorder often are associated with over-weight in adolescents. There are various pharmacological approaches to the treatment of obesity in the adolescent population some of which have FDA approval. In the article the authors discuss pharmacological approaches to guide the treatment of eating disorders and obesity in the pediatric population, including risks of treatment, monitoring of potential side effects, and recent outcomes in the literature. PMID:19014865

  3. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for posttraumatic stress disorder: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trevizol, Alisson Paulino; Barros, Mirna Duarte; Silva, Paula Oliveira; Osuch, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Quirino; Shiozawa, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising non-pharmacological intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have reported mixed results. Objective To review articles that assess the efficacy of TMS in PTSD treatment. Methods A systematic review using MEDLINE and other databases to identify studies from the first RCT available up to September 2015. The primary outcome was based on PTSD scores (continuous variable). The main outcome was Hedges' g. We used a random-effects model using the statistical packages for meta-analysis available in Stata 13 for Mac OSX. Heterogeneity was evaluated with I2 (> 35% for heterogeneity) and the χ2 test (p < 0.10 for heterogeneity). Publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot. Meta-regression was performed using the random-effects model. Results Five RCTs (n = 118) were included. Active TMS was significantly superior to sham TMS for PTSD symptoms (Hedges' g = 0.74; 95% confidence interval = 0.06-1.42). Heterogeneity was significant in our analysis (I2 = 71.4% and p = 0.01 for the χ2 test). The funnel plot shows that studies were evenly distributed, with just one study located marginally at the edge of the funnel and one study located out of the funnel. We found that exclusion of either study did not have a significant impact on the results. Meta-regression found no particular influence of any variable on the results. Conclusion Active TMS was superior to sham stimulation for amelioration of PTSD symptoms. Further RCTs with larger sample sizes are fundamental to clarify the precise impact of TMS in PTSD. PMID:27074341

  5. Multimodal Voxel-Based Meta-Analysis of White Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Radua, Joaquim; Grau, Mar; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Stein, Dan J; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Catani, Marco; Mataix-Cols, David

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or FA between patients with OCD and healthy controls in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases were retrieved. Manual searches were also conducted and authors were contacted soliciting additional data. Thirty-four data sets were identified, of which 22 met inclusion criteria (five of them unpublished; comprising 537 adult and pediatric patients with OCD and 575 matched healthy controls). Whenever possible, raw statistical parametric maps were also obtained from the authors. Peak and raw WMV and FA data were combined using novel multimodal meta-analytic methods implemented in effect-size signed differential mapping. Patients with OCD showed widespread WM abnormalities, but findings were particularly robust in the anterior midline tracts (crossing between anterior parts of cingulum bundle and body of corpus callosum), which showed both increased WMV and decreased FA, possibly suggesting an increase of fiber crossing in these regions. This finding was also observed when the analysis was limited to adult participants, and especially pronounced in samples with a higher proportion of medicated patients. Therefore, patients with OCD may have widespread WM abnormalities, particularly evident in anterior midline tracts, although these changes might be, at least in part, attributable to the effects of therapeutic drugs. PMID:24407265

  6. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeRamus, Thomas P.; Kana, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations. PMID:25844306

  7. 1H-MRS in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ipser, Jonathan C; Syal, Supriya; Bentley, Judy; Adnams, Colleen M; Steyn, Bennie; Stein, Dan J

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies comparing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients with healthy controls, with the aim of profiling ASD-associated changes in the metabolites N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and Creatine (Cr). Meta-regression models of NAA and Cr levels were employed, using data from 20 eligible studies (N = 852), to investigate age-dependent differences in both global brain and region-specific metabolite levels, while controlling for measurement method (Cr-ratio versus absolute concentrations). Decreased NAA concentrations that were specific to children were found for whole-brain grey and white matter. In addition, a significant decrease in NAA was evident across age categories in the parietal cortex, the cerebellum, and the anterior cingulate cortex. Higher levels of Cr were observed for ASD adults than children in global grey matter, with specific increases for adults in the temporal lobe and decreased Cr in the occipital lobe in children. No differences were found for either NAA or Cr in the frontal lobes. These data provide some evidence that ASD is characterized by age-dependent fluctuations in metabolite levels across the whole brain and at the level of specific regions thought to underlie ASD-associated behavioural and affective deficits. Differences in Cr as a function of age and brain region suggests caution in the interpretation of Cr-based ratio measures of metabolites. Despite efforts to control for sources of heterogeneity, considerable variability in metabolite levels was observed in frontal and temporal regions, warranting further investigation. PMID:22426803

  8. Eating and Exercise Disorders in Young College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,…

  9. Athletic amenorrhea, major affective disorders, and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Gadpaille, W J; Sanborn, C F; Wagner, W W

    1987-07-01

    While studying amenorrheic runners, the authors became aware of psychiatric differences between them. Psychiatric interviews of 13 amenorrheic and 19 regularly menstruating runners revealed that of the amenorrheic runners, 11 reported major affective disorders in themselves or in first- and second-degree relatives and eight reported eating disorders in themselves. Among the regularly menstruating runners, however, there were no eating disorders or major affective disorders, and only one had first-degree relatives with major affective disorders. These data suggest a link between athletic amenorrhea in runners, major affective disorders, and eating disorders. PMID:3474904

  10. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091