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1

Quality of life in eating disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Eating disorders (EDs) comprise a variety of symptoms and have a profound impact on everyday life. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse published data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in EDs so as to compare the results to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and binge eating disorder (BED) and used the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a measure of HRQoL. Of the 102 citations identified, 85 abstracts were reviewed and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. AN patients were included in five studies (n=227), BN in four studies (n=216), EDNOS in two studies (n=166) and BED in four studies (n=148). We tested for between-study variation and significant differences between the diagnostic groups. The results confirmed a significantly lower level of HRQoL in all EDs compared to a population mean. It was not possible to establish any differences between the diagnostic groups. PMID:24857566

Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hansen, Nina Beck; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinkby

2014-09-30

2

Tooth Erosion and Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? Methods An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders) vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. Results Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR?=?12.4, 95%CI?=?4.1–37.5). Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR?=?19.6, 95%CI?=?5.6–68.8). Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR?=?11.6, 95%CI?=?3.2–41.7). Conclusion The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion. PMID:25379668

Hermont, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Patrícia A. D.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Auad, Sheyla M.

2014-01-01

3

The Relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and Officially Recognized Eating Disorders: Meta-Analysis and Implications for DSM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),…

Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2009-01-01

4

Eating disorder prevention research: a meta-analysis  

E-print Network

-analysis was used to conduct a comprehensive and systematic analysis of data across 46 studies. Effect size estimates were grouped into outcome sets based on the following variables: knowledge, general eating pathology, dieting, thin-ideal internalization, body...

Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

2005-08-29

5

Central coherence in eating disorders: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. A bias towards local information over the global "gist" (weak central coherence, WCC), has been identified as a possible contributing and maintaining factor in eating disorders (ED). The present study aimed to provide an updated review of the WCC literature and examine the hypothesis that individuals with ED have WCC. Methods. The new search found 12 eligible studies. Meta-analyses were performed on nine of these 12 studies, the remaining three were commented on individually. Data were combined with data from the previous 2008 review, and meta- analyses were performed on 16 studies (nine studies from the new search and seven studies from 2008 review). Results. Meta-analysis of the Group Embedded Figures Task provided evidence of superior local processing across all ED subtypes (pooled effect size of d = -0.62 (95% CI = -0.94, -0.31), P < 0.001). Evidence of poorer global processing in ED groups was found from meta-analyses of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figures task (d = -0.63 (95% CI = -0.77, -0.49, P < 0.001), and the Object Assembly Task (d = -0.65 (95% CI = -0.94, -0.37), P < 0.0001). Conclusions. As well as supporting the results of previous studies by providing evidence of inefficient global processing, this review has provided evidence of superior local processing, which supports the WCC hypothesis in ED. PMID:24882144

Lang, Katie; Lopez, Carolina; Stahl, Daniel; Tchanturia, Kate; Treasure, Janet

2014-12-01

6

Set-shifting ability across the spectrum of eating disorders and in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Background. In this meta-analysis we review the findings from neuropsychological studies on set-shifting in people with eating disorders (EDs) or overweight/obesity. Method. Four databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Web of Science) were searched for eligible studies. Effect sizes (ESs) were pooled using random-effects models. Moderator analyses were conducted for ED and overweight/obese subgroups, adult/adolescent samples and measures of set-shifting. Results. Sixty-four studies with a total of 1825 ED patients [1394 anorexia nervosa (AN), 376 bulimia nervosa (BN) and 55 binge eating disorder (BED)] and 10 studies with a total of 449 overweight/obese individuals were included. The meta-analysis revealed a small to medium ES for inefficient set-shifting across all three ED diagnoses (Hedges' g = -0.45). Subgroup analyses yielded small to medium ESs for each ED subtype (g = -0.44 for AN, -0.53 for BED, -0.50 for BN), which did not differ significantly. There was a medium ES for restricting type AN (ANR; g = -0.51) but no significant ES for binge/purge type AN (AN/BP; g = -0.18). A medium ES was found across obesity studies (g = -0.61). The ES across overweight studies was not significant (g = -0.07). Adult samples did not differ from adolescent samples in either ED or overweight/obesity studies. The different set-shifting measures were associated with largely varying ESs. Conclusions. The meta-analysis provides strong support that inefficient set-shifting is a salient neuropsychological phenomenon across ED subtypes and obesity, but is less prominent in AN/BP and overweight. Compulsivity seems to be a common underlying factor supporting a dimensional and transdiagnostic conceptualization of EDs and obesity. PMID:25066267

Wu, M; Brockmeyer, T; Hartmann, M; Skunde, M; Herzog, W; Friederich, H-C

2014-12-01

7

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and/or maintain an imaginary appearance. Related information Anorexia nervosa fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet ... your area. Eating disorders are serious medical problems. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder are ...

8

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are illnesses in which the people experience severe disturbances in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Those suffering from eating disorders typically become obsessed with food and their body ...

9

Eating Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

10

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

11

Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study  

E-print Network

I used reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and the Bulimia Test (BULIT). Reliability generalization is a type of meta-analysis used...

Pearson, Crystal Anne

2009-05-15

12

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

13

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.

Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart

2004-01-01

14

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a survey to characterize dietitians’ involvement in the treatment of eating disorders and to determine the appropriateness of current training. The survey was mailed to 601 Florida Registered Dietitians. Completed surveys were returned by 170 dietitians. Respondents were asked to place themselves in one of three categories: Category A: participates in the identification\\/diagnosis of eating disorders (n=l 10);

A. P. Wittkowsky; R. E. Turner; L. B. Bobroff; G. D. Evans

1999-01-01

15

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 ? 4 ? 5 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC The Deal With Diets Female Athlete Triad I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do? Anemia Body Image and Self-Esteem Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Binge Eating ...

16

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders and obesity are problems that dramatically impact psychological and medical well-being. These disorders carry some of the highest mortality rates in psychiatry. At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to 1. Describe the medical approach to a patient presenting with an eating disorder 2. Compare the epidemiology, pathophysiology, DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, clinical course, treatment,

Hy Gia Park; Cathy K. Bell

17

Eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behaviour. Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries like India. As Western sociocultural ideals become more widespread one may expect to see an increase in number of cases of eating disorders in non-Western societies. Etiological theories suggest a complex interaction among psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors. Patients with anorexia nervosa manifest weight loss, fear of becoming fat, and disturbances in how they experience their body weight and shape. Patients with bulimia nervosa present with recurrent episodes of binge eating and inappropriate methods of weight control such as self-induced vomiting, and abuse of diuretics and laxatives. Major complications of eating disorders include severe fluid and electrolyte disturbances and cardiac arrhythmias. The most common cause of death in anorexia nervosa is suicide. Management requires a team approach in which different professionals work together. Individual and family psychotherapy are effective in patients with anorexia nervosa and cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in bulimia nervosa. Pharmacotherapy is not universally effective by itself. Patients with eating disorders suffer a chronic course of illness. The pediatrician plays important role in early diagnosis, management of medical complications, and psychological support to the patient and the family. PMID:10773895

Patel, D R; Phillips, E L; Pratt, H D

1998-01-01

18

Eating Disorders About eating disorders  

E-print Network

-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes). It is accompanied by feeling of being out of control, guilt and shame. Bulimia also involves being overly concerned with body weight and shape. Binge eating disorder (BED) is a condition that resembles bulimia nervosa

Leistikow, Bruce N.

19

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Research was conducted to obtain a profile of nutrition therapy currently in practice for patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia\\/bulimia (mixed diagnosis) and to identify the areas of dietetics education and research regarding eating disorders that need more attention.Design A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted by mailing a questionnaire composed of open- and closed-ended questions to US

SHERYL L WHISENANT; BARBARA A SMITH

1995-01-01

20

Eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Eating disorders (EDs) are an important public health problem in developed countries. Despite the amount of epidemiological\\u000a studies and causal theories, there is a great disparity of estimates and many questions remain still unclear. The aim of this\\u000a study was to estimate the prevalence of the population at risk of developing EDs and describe the risk profiles among adolescents\\u000a and

Agustín Tomás Vega Alonso; María Ángeles Rasillo Rodríguez; José Eugenio Lozano Alonso; Gloria Rodríguez Carretero; Manuel Franco Martín

2005-01-01

21

Psychotherapy of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study compared the efficacy of psychotherapy for childhood anxiety disorders (excluding trials solely treating post-traumatic stress disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder). Methods: The meta-analysis included studies that met the basic CONSORT (consolidated standards of reporting trials) criteria. Several outcome variables (e.g. effect sizes, percentage of recovery) were analyzed using completer and intent-to-treat analyses during post-treatment and follow-up assessment.

Tina In-Albon; Silvia Schneider

2007-01-01

22

EATING DISORDERS AWARENESS Eating Disorders Among Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ome athletes spend hours of intense training for their sport while practicing dangerous eating pat- terns in an attempt to lose weight. This practice often leads to eating disorders among athletes. This fact sheet will give signs and symptoms of eating disorders. Parents, coaches, and trainers need to recognize ath- letes with disordered eating patterns and refer them to appropriate

Annie King; Bonnie Sutherly

23

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... to overeat. Continue How It Differs From Other Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are all considered eating disorders because they involve unhealthy patterns of eating. Both ...

24

Loneliness and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the link between loneliness and eating disorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eating disorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eating disorders—including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder—are challenging health issues. Each

Martha Peaslee Levine

2012-01-01

25

Kids and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... withdrawing from social activities Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ... own appearance or body. Can Somebody Catch an Eating Disorder? You can't catch an eating disorder from ...

26

African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

O'Neill, Shannon K.

2003-01-01

27

Eating Disorders in Children  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... hand corner of the player. Eating Disorders in Children HealthDay July 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Eating ... Health Teen Health Transcript When it comes to children most at risk for an eating disorder, focus ...

28

Genetic risk factors in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa involve complex and interacting mechanisms. Formal genetic studies suggest that there is a substantial genetic influence for these disorders. Animal models of eating disorders are scarce. Candidate gene studies have initially focused on the serotonergic and other central neurotransmitter systems and on genes involved in body weight regulation. Most of the studies, including meta-analysis, have yielded negative results; only a single positive finding has been replicated independently. Recently, systematic genome-wide scans based on families with two or more individuals with an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) revealed initial linkage regions on chromosomes 1, 3, and 4 (anorexia nervosa) and 10p (bulimia nervosa). Fine mapping of one of these regions led to the identification of genes where an association with anorexia nervosa was detected. Currently treatment of patients with eating disorders can not rely on results of molecular genetic studies. PMID:15287815

Hinney, Anke; Friedel, Susann; Remschmidt, Helmut; Hebebrand, Johannes

2004-01-01

29

EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

ANXIETY DEPRESSION EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS GENERAL CONCERNS INTERPERSONAL DIFFICULTIES.946.5117 Counselling and Cyber Counselling Services to Help With: · Anxiety · Depression · Eating disorders · Family

Toronto, University of

30

Males and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

31

Psychological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen a near-doubling of the number of studies examining the effects of psychotherapies for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults. The present article integrates this new evidence with the older literature through a quantitative meta-analysis. A total of 41 studies (with 2132 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for GAD) were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases, and were included in the meta-analysis. Most studies examined the effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The majority of studies used waiting lists as control condition. The pooled effect of the 38 comparisons (from 28 studies) of psychotherapy versus a control group was large (g=0.84; 95% CI: 0.71-0.97) with low to moderate heterogeneity. The effects based on self-report measures were somewhat lower than those based on clinician-rated instruments. The effects on depression were also large (g=0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.82). There were some indications for publication bias. The number of studies comparing CBT with other psychotherapies (e.g., applied relaxation) or pharmacotherapy was too small to draw conclusions about comparative effectiveness or the long-term effects. There were some indications that CBT was also effective at follow-up and that CBT was more effective than applied relaxation in the longer term. PMID:24487344

Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander; Huibers, Marcus; Berking, Matthias; Andersson, Gerhard

2014-03-01

32

Understanding eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome in eating disorders remains poor and commonly used methods of treatment have little, if any effect. It is suggested that this situation has emerged because of the failure to realize that the symptoms of eating disorder patients are epiphenomena to starvation and the associated disordered eating. Humans have evolved to cope with the challenge of starvation and the

Per Södersten; Cecilia Bergh; Michel Zandian

2006-01-01

33

Prevention of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathological eating attitudes and behaviors. Many people engage\\u000a in pathological weight-control behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa and\\u000a may be regarded as having subclinical eating disorders. As described by Fairburn and Beglin (1), a broad spectrum of eating disorders appears to exist in

Cheryl L. Rock

34

Structural brain change in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder identified by meta-analysis  

E-print Network

Abstract Background The authors sought to map gray matter changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using a novel technique incorporating neuro-imaging and genetic meta-analysis methods. Methods A systematic search was conducted...

Ellison-Wright, Ian; Ellison-Wright, Zoe; Bullmore, Ed

2008-06-30

35

Identifying eating disorders.  

PubMed

While most nurses are familiar with anorexia and bulimia, how many nurses have heard of compulsive overeating, also known as binge eating? This is not a new condition but the medical profession has been very slow to recognize it as a problem, let alone as an eating disorder. This article looks at the different types of eating disorders, their differences, how to identify sufferers and where to refer them. Identifying patients with eating disorders is a very hard task since sufferers have learned the art of secrecy, denial and deception. PMID:16301950

Jenkins, Alison

36

Personality and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews research findings from 2005 and 2006 regarding dimensional personality traits, categorical personality disorders and dimensional personality pathology, and categorical person- ality subtypes in eating disorders. Summary of recent findings. Approaches linking specific personality traits to eating pathology have demonstrated the predictive validity of perfec- tionism and impulsiveness. Impulsive behaviors are associated with com- pulsivity

Kristin M von Ranson

37

Boys with Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

Hatmaker, Grace

2005-01-01

38

Eating Disorders among Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

Fairbanks, George

1987-01-01

39

Eating disorders across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of the body ideal and promotion of thinness values in fashion, media and the diet industry have been repeatedly shown to account for the increased prevalence of eating disorders. It is evident in women in certain sub-cultures where the demand for thinness for career advancement is endemic. There is also a correlation between eating disorders and the level

Mervat Nasser

2009-01-01

40

Eating disorders across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many publications have been produced recently from centres across the world dealing with the prevalence of eating disorders in their cultures. This type of research suggests that eating disorders are no longer limited to the western culture and have now assumed a worldwide dimension. A number of global cultural forces have been implicated in this spread including the power of

Mervat Nasser

2006-01-01

41

Meta-analysis of P300 waveform in panic disorder.  

PubMed

The P300 waveform has been inconsistently linked to the maladaptive information-processing characterized in panic disorder (PD). The purpose of this study was to synthesize previous event-related potential (ERP) findings and determine whether patients with PD have significant abnormalities in the P300 wave compared to controls. We performed a systematic literature search for studies published between 1980 and 2013 that reported P300 measurements in patients with PD and controls. Effect size estimates were computed using the restricted maximum likelihood model. We identified 14 ERP studies that analyzed P300 amplitude (461 PD and 355 controls), and 11 ERP studies that analyzed latency (320 PD and 282 controls). Patients with PD had reduced P300 amplitudes compared to controls, but this difference was non significant at midline electrodes (n = 14, ES -0.16; z = -1.55, p = 0.122). However, P300 amplitude was significantly reduced when analyzing the Pz electrode independently (n = 7, ES -0.48, z = -3.92, p < 0.001). No significant differences between cases and controls in P300 latency were observed at the midline electrodes (n = 11, ES 0.11, z = 0.64, p = 0.524). This meta-analysis included non-peer reviewed literature and ERP stimuli with varying levels of emotional salience, which may have introduced bias into the analysis. There is no robust evidence that P300 latency alterations are present in patients with PD; however, there are indications of reduced amplitude at Pz relative to controls. Reductions in amplitude may be associated with reduced neural resources allocated to contextual updating, selective attention, and neural inhibition mechanisms. PMID:24942701

Howe, Aaron S; Pinto, Antonio; De Luca, Vincenzo

2014-10-01

42

Understanding eating disorders.  

PubMed

The outcome in eating disorders remains poor and commonly used methods of treatment have little, if any effect. It is suggested that this situation has emerged because of the failure to realize that the symptoms of eating disorder patients are epiphenomena to starvation and the associated disordered eating. Humans have evolved to cope with the challenge of starvation and the neuroendocrine mechanisms that have been under this evolutionary pressure are anatomically versatile and show synaptic plasticity to allow for flexibility. Many of the neuroendocrine changes in starvation are responses to the externally imposed shortage of food and the associated neuroendocrine secretions facilitate behavioral adaptation as needed rather than make an individual merely eat more or less food. A parsimonious, neurobiologically realistic explanation why eating disorders develop and why they are maintained is offered. It is suggested that the brain mechanisms of reward are activated when food intake is reduced and that disordered eating behavior is subsequently maintained by conditioning to the situations in which the disordered eating behavior developed via the neural system for attention. In a method based on this framework, patients are taught how to eat normally, their physical activity is controlled and they are provided with external heat. The method has been proven effective in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:16890228

Södersten, Per; Bergh, Cecilia; Zandian, Michel

2006-11-01

43

Boys with eating disorders.  

PubMed

Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a growing boy's risk of developing an eating disorder. Issues of body image and sexual development can complicate and can distort previously normal eating habits. Students may use powerful and dangerous drugs readily available via the Internet, including growth hormone, creatine, testosterone, and aminophylline, to build muscle and to eliminate fat, potentially causing serious health consequences. School nurses can partner with health and physical education teachers, coaches, school staff, parents, and students to identify and to support boys with eating disorders PMID:16419341

Hatmaker, Grace

2005-12-01

44

Ghrelin in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is the only known circulating hormone that acts on peripheral and central targets to increase food intake and promote adiposity. The present review focuses on the possible clinical relevance of ghrelin in the regulation of human feeding behavior in individuals with obesity and other eating disorders such as Prader-Willi syndrome, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating. PMID:21453750

Yi, Chun-Xia; Heppner, Kristy; Tschöp, Matthias H

2011-06-20

45

Spotlight on Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Spotlight on Eating Disorders Subscribe to Blog Recent Posts Depression, Daughters, and Cellular Aging October 23, 2014 ... Beyond - Services Research for ASD September 11, 2014 Posts by Year 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 ...

46

A meta-analysis of treatment outcome for panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effectiveness of pharmacological, cognitive-behavioral, and combined pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments in a meta-analysis of 43 controlled studies that included 76 treatment interventions. Cognitive-behavioral treatments yielded the highest mean effect sizes (ES = 0.68) relative to pharmacological (ES = 0.47) and combination treatments (ES = 0.56). In addition, the proportion of subjects who dropped out of cognitive-behavioral treatments

Robert A. Gould; Michael W. Ott; Mark H. Pollack

1995-01-01

47

Ghrelin and Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

2012-01-01

48

Couples Eating Disorder Prevention Program  

E-print Network

Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are more prevalent in today's society than ever. As a result, several prevention programs targeting the common eating disorder risk factors have been developed. The purpose of the current study...

Ramirez-Cash, Ana L.

2010-07-14

49

Meta-Analysis of the Nonword Reading Deficit in Specific Reading Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether specific reading disorder (SRD) groups demonstrate a deficit in using phonological recoding strategies. Thirty-four studies were reviewed that had compared the nonword reading performances of SRD groups with reading-level matched (RL) control groups. The average nonword reading difference…

Herrmann, Julia A.; Matyas, Tom; Pratt, Chris

2006-01-01

50

Anger, Hostility, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analysis synthesizes the available data on the strength of association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between hostility and PTSD, covering 39 studies with trauma-exposed adults. Effect sizes did not differ for anger and hostility, which could therefore be combined; effect sizes for anger expression variables were analyzed separately. The analyses revealed large effects. The weighted mean

Ulrich Orth; Elias Wieland

2006-01-01

51

Anger, Hostility, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis synthesizes the available data on the strength of association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between hostility and PTSD, covering 39 studies with trauma-exposed adults. Effect sizes did not differ for anger and hostility, which could therefore be combined; effect sizes for anger expression variables…

Orth, Ulrich; Wieland, Elias

2006-01-01

52

A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of evidence-based treatments is important for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the increasing number of interventions available and the prevalence of ASD. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for this population by conducting a meta-analysis of published…

Roth, Matthew E.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

2014-01-01

53

Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…

Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

2012-01-01

54

Innovative Technology-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided…

Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

2014-01-01

55

Effectiveness of the Wraparound Process for Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wraparound is a team-based service planning and coordination process intended to improve outcomes for children and youth with serious emotional and behavioral disorders and support them in their homes, schools, and communities. Given the substantial resources devoted to implementing wraparound, a meta-analysis of outcome studies was conducted to…

Suter, Jesse C.; Bruns, Eric J.

2009-01-01

56

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

Ray, Shannon L.

2004-01-01

57

Molecular genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comprehensive meta-analysis of genetic association studies.  

PubMed

Twin studies indicate that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is strongly influenced by additive genetic factors. Yet, molecular genetic association studies have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of differences across studies in statistical power. Meta-analysis can yield greater power. This study reports the first comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between OCD and all previously examined polymorphisms for which there was sufficient information in the source studies to compute odds ratios (ORs). A total of 230 polymorphisms from 113 genetic association studies were identified. A full meta-analysis was conducted for 20 polymorphisms that were examined in 5 or more data sets, and a secondary meta-analysis (limited to the computation of mean effect sizes) was conducted for 210 polymorphisms that were examined in fewer than 5 data sets. In the main meta-analysis, OCD was associated with serotonin-related polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and HTR2A) and, in males only, with polymorphisms involved in catecholamine modulation (COMT and MAOA). Nonsignificant trends were identified for two dopamine-related polymorphisms (DAT1 and DRD3) and a glutamate-related polymorphism (rs3087879). The secondary meta-analysis identified another 18 polymorphisms with significant ORs that merit further investigation. This study demonstrates that OCD is associated with multiple genes, with most having a modest association with OCD. This suggests a polygenic model of OCD, consistent with twin studies, in which multiple genes make small, incremental contributions to the risk of developing the disorder. Future studies, with sufficient power to detect small effects, are needed to investigate the genetic basis of OCD subtypes, such as early vs late onset OCD. PMID:22665263

Taylor, S

2013-07-01

58

Inaccessibility in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details some different manifestations of inaccessibility encountered in working with eating disorders. Using clinical material relating to anorexia and bulimia, the destructive and defensive measures that make it so difficult to reach, understand and change such pathologies are explored. The main hypothesis is that the degree of inaccessibility is a salient prognostic indicator and marker of the severity

Alexandra Willner

2009-01-01

59

Preadolescent Disordered Eating Predicts Subsequent Eating Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Objective?This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children.?Method?Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade).?Results?A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls.?Conclusion?A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade. PMID:22961314

Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

2013-01-01

60

Structural brain change in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder identified by meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The authors sought to map gray matter changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using a novel technique incorporating neuro-imaging and genetic meta-analysis methods. Methods A systematic search was conducted for voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging studies of patients with ADHD (or with related disorders) in relation to comparison groups. The authors carried out meta-analyses of the co-ordinates of gray matter differences. For the meta-analyses they hybridised the standard method of Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) with the rank approach used in Genome Scan Meta-Analysis (GSMA). This system detects three-dimensional conjunctions of co-ordinates from multiple studies and permits the weighting of studies in relation to sample size. Results For gray matter decreases, there were 7 studies including a total of 114 patients with ADHD (or related disorders) and 143 comparison subjects. Meta-analysis of these studies identified a significant regional gray matter reduction in ADHD in the right putamen/globus pallidus region. Four studies reported gray matter increases in ADHD but no regional increase was identified by meta-analysis. Conclusion In ADHD there is gray matter reduction in the right putamen/globus pallidus region. This may be an anatomical marker for dysfunction in frontostriatal circuits mediating cognitive control. Right putamen lesions have been specifically associated with ADHD symptoms after closed head injuries in children. PMID:18590567

Ellison-Wright, Ian; Ellison-Wright, Zoe; Bullmore, Ed

2008-01-01

61

Genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Disordered eating behavior is the core symptom of the complex disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Twin and family studies derive high heritability estimates. Hence, substantial genetic influences on the etiology can be assumed for both. Initially, candidate gene studies pertaining to the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems and to body weight regulation comprised the core of the genetic analyses. Unfortunately, confirmed, solid findings substantiated in meta-analyses are rare, so that eventually none of these associations is unequivocal. Thus, systematic, genome-wide approaches emerged to identify genes with no a priori evidence for their involvement in eating disorders. Genome-wide association studies have hinted to formerly unknown genetic regions. However, significant genome-wide findings have not yet been reported. PMID:24202964

Hinney, Anke; Volckmar, Anna-Lena

2013-12-01

62

Eating Disorders among College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, eating disorders among adolescent females have become of increasing concern. To assess the prevalence of eating disorders, unusual eating-related behaviors and attitudes, and psychological states among college women, 677 women, from three private northeastern United States colleges, completed a questionnaire assessing…

Basow, Susan A.; Schneck, Renae

63

Anxiety Disorders are Associated with Reduced Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Anxiety disorders increase risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, even after controlling for confounds including smoking, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status, and irrespective of a history of medical disorders. While impaired vagal function, indicated by reductions in heart rate variability (HRV), may be one mechanism linking anxiety disorders to CVD, prior studies have reported inconsistent findings highlighting the need for meta-analysis. Method: Studies comparing resting-state HRV recordings in patients with an anxiety disorder as a primary diagnosis and healthy controls were considered for meta-analysis. Results: Meta-analyses were based on 36 articles, including 2086 patients with an anxiety disorder and 2294 controls. Overall, anxiety disorders were characterized by lower HRV [high frequency (HF): Hedges’ g?=??0.29. 95% CI: ?0.41 to ?0.17, p?disorder (n?=?447), post-traumatic stress disorder (n?=?192), generalized anxiety disorder (n?=?68), and social anxiety disorder (n?=?90), but not obsessive–compulsive disorder (n?=?40), displayed reductions in HF HRV relative to controls (all ps?disorders are associated with reduced HRV, findings associated with a small-to-moderate effect size. Findings have important implications for future physical health and well-being of patients, highlighting a need for comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:25071612

Chalmers, John A.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Abbott, Maree J.-Anne; Kemp, Andrew H.

2014-01-01

64

Do childhood externalizing disorders predict adult depression? A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Childhood externalizing disorders have been linked to adult affective disorders, although some studies fail to substantiate this finding. Multiple longitudinal cohort studies identifying childhood psychopathology and their association with adult psychiatric illness have been published. To examine the association between childhood externalizing symptoms or disorders and the development of adult depression across cohorts, a meta-analysis was performed. Potential studies were identified using a PubMed search through November 2013. All published, prospective, longitudinal, community-sampled cohort studies of children (? 13 years) with externalizing symptoms or disorders (aggression, conduct problems, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder), reassessed in adulthood (? 18 years) for depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, depressive disorder NOS, or dysthymic disorder) were included. A random effects model was used to summarize the pooled effect sizes. Ancillary analyses considered covariates that could account for variance among studies. Ten studies representing eight cohorts of children initially assessed at age 13 or younger (N?=?17,712) were included in the meta-analysis. Childhood externalizing behavior was associated with adult depressive disorders (OR?=?1.52, 95 % confidence interval?=?1.27-1.80, p?disorders in adulthood. PMID:24652486

Loth, Annemarie K; Drabick, Deborah A G; Leibenluft, Ellen; Hulvershorn, Leslie A

2014-10-01

65

Assessment of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper examines diagnostic agreement between interview and questionnaire assessments of women participating in a long-term follow-up study of bulimia nervosa. Methods: Women (N=162) completed follow-up evaluations comprising questionnaires and either face-to-face or telephone interviews. Results: Consistent with previous research, rates of eating disorders were higher when assessed by questionnaire than when assessed by interview; however, rates of full

Pamela K. Keel; Scott Crow; Traci L. Davis; James E. Mitchell

2002-01-01

66

Candidate gene polymorphisms in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are complex disorders characterized by disordered eating behaviour. Attitudes towards weight and shape as well as the perception of body shape are disturbed. A substantial genetic influence on these disorders has been suggested by formal genetic studies. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour, perfectionism and anxious personality traits seem to occur premorbidly in several patients. Disturbances of neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and neuroendocrine systems have been reported in acutely ill and followed-up patients. Hence, these systems might be involved in the etiology of these eating disorders.Genetic studies on candidate genes have mainly focussed on the serotonergic system and on genes involved in body weight regulation. Up to now, polymorphisms and variations in various genes (e.g. genes for 5-HT receptors, leptin gene, melanocortin MC(4) receptor gene) have been assessed for association and transmission disequilibrium pertaining to anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia nervosa. Most of the studies yielded negative results. Four studies of a polymorphism (-1438 G/A) within the promoter of the 5-HT(2A) gene (5-HT(2A)) revealed an association of the A-allele to anorexia nervosa. However, three studies could not confirm this result. Furthermore, a meta-analysis did not support the positive association. Currently, combined efforts within the European Union will answer the question of whether or not the A-allele is involved in the predisposition to anorexia nervosa. A transmission disequilibrium test is being performed in about 300 trios consisting of a patient with anorexia nervosa and both parents. As candidate gene approaches did not unequivocally identify susceptibility genes (alleles) for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, systematic model-free genome-wide screenings should also be performed in order to identify currently unknown genes involved in eating disorders. This kind of approach has already been initiated for anorexia nervosa. Genetic research on eating disorders will hopefully lead to new pharmacological treatment strategies. PMID:11134666

Hinney, A; Remschmidt, H; Hebebrand, J

2000-12-27

67

Binge eating disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Eats even though not hungry. Eats alone (in secret). Feels guilty, disgusted, ashamed, or depressed after eating ... large amounts of high-calorie foods, often in secret. After this binge eating, they often force themselves ...

68

The neural correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an ALE meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and com- monly studied forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Causal models of ADHD have long implicated dysfunction in fronto-striatal and frontal-parietal networks supporting executive function, a hypothesis that can now be examined systematically using functional neuroimaging. The present work provides an objective, unbiased statistically-based meta-analysis of published

Steven G. Dickstein; Katie Bannon; F. Xavier Castellanos; Michael P. Milham

2006-01-01

69

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Bipolar Disorder: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the prevalence of null hypothesis significance testing, cognitive-behavioral therapy's effect on depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder is not fully understood in the absence of effect size statistics. The present study discusses the disadvantages associated with null hypothesis significance testing and seeks to overcome these shortcomings via conducting a meta-analysis which examines cognitive-behavioral therapy for depressive symptoms in persons with

Virgil L. Gregory Jr

2010-01-01

70

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances in understanding the etiology of eating disorders require

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Cynthia M. Bulik

2007-01-01

71

Animal models of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating, is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

Kim, S F

2012-06-01

72

Candidate genes in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Environmental influences, as well as biological and genetic factors influence risk for eating disorders. Family and twin studies have shown that eating disorders are familial and suggest the influence of genetic factors on their etiology. Positive associations have been observed for some candidate genes that have been studied (such as 5HT2A receptor gene); however, the field has been plagued by nonreplications. In this paper we review the extant association studies of eating disorders. PMID:12769810

Tozzi, Federica; Bulik, Cynthia M

2003-02-01

73

A Meta-Analysis of Treatments for Panic Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used metanalysis to compare effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for panic disorder. Percentage of agoraphobic subjects in sample and duration of illness were unrelated to effect size (ES). Psychological coping strategies involving relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, and exposure yielded most consistent ESs;…

Clum, George A.; And Others

1993-01-01

74

Reelin gene variants and risk of autism spectrum disorders: an integrated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurological disorder with a high degree of heritability. Reelin gene (RELN), which plays a crucial role in the migration and positioning of neurons during brain development, has been strongly posed as a candidate gene for ASD. Genetic variants in RELN have been investigated as risk factors of ASD in numerous epidemiologic studies but with inconclusive results. To clearly discern the effects of RELN variants on ASD, the authors conducted a meta-analysis integrating case-control and transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) studies published through 2001 to 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between three RELN variants (rs736707, rs362691, and GGC repeat variant) and ASD. In overall meta-analysis, the summary ORs for rs736707, rs362691, and GGC repeat variant were 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80-1.54], 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.86), and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.97-1.23), respectively. Besides, positive result was also obtained in subgroup of broadly-defined ASD for rs362691 (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52-0.86). Our meta-analysis revealed that the RELN rs362691, rather than rs736707 or GGC repeat variant, might contribute significantly to ASD risk. PMID:24453138

Wang, Zhenling; Hong, Yuan; Zou, Li; Zhong, Rong; Zhu, Beibei; Shen, Na; Chen, Wei; Lou, Jiao; Ke, Juntao; Zhang, Ti; Wang, Weipeng; Miao, Xiaoping

2014-03-01

75

Males and Eating Disorders: Gender-Based Therapy for Eating Disorder Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health professionals may wonder how males with eating disorders differ from females with eating disorders and how best to treat males with eating disorders. The eating disorder literature largely focuses on females. Limited research has examined assessment and treatment of eating disorders in males. This article offers a unique view of eating disorder treatment for males by integrating it

Stefanie Teri Greenberg; Eva G. Schoen

2008-01-01

76

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

PubMed Central

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produced 36 EMA studies with N = 968 participants (89% Caucasian women). Meta-analyses examined changes in affect before and after binge eating using within-subjects standardized mean gain effect sizes (ES). Results supported greater NA preceding binge eating relative to average affect (ES = .63) and affect before regular eating (ES = .68). However, NA increased further following binge episodes (ES = .50). Preliminary findings suggested that NA decreased following purging in Bulimia Nervosa (ES = ?.46). Moderators included diagnosis (with significantly greater elevations of NA prior to bingeing in Binge Eating Disorder compared to Bulimia Nervosa) and binge definition (with significantly smaller elevations of NA before binge versus regular eating episodes for the DSM definition compared to lay definitions of binge eating). Overall, results fail to support the affect regulation model of binge eating and challenge reductions in NA as a maintenance factor for binge eating. However, limitations of this literature include unidimensional analyses of NA and inadequate examination of affect during binge eating as binge eating may regulate only specific facets of affect or may reduce NA only during the episode. PMID:21574678

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

77

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

2008-01-01

78

Eating disorders in men: update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eating disorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eating disorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than

Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean

2005-01-01

79

Eating disorders: The cultural dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The role of socio-cultural factors in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia has been the object of recent interest. The phenomena, mainly described in the West, were partly attributed to the idealisation of thinness in Western culture. The paper reviews published epidemiological research from non-western countries in the area of eating disorders to elucidate the difference

Mervat Nasser

1988-01-01

80

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent athletes are especially vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviors. Risk factors include participation in sports where weight and lean body type are important, high-intensity training, pressure from coaches, and training and dieting beginning at an early age. Medical complications associated with these unhealthy dietary and weight-control practices and eating disorders can be potentially dangerous. Prevention strategies include minimizing the

Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus; Helen D. Pratt; Elaine L. Phillips

2003-01-01

81

Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

2007-01-01

82

Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

2010-01-01

83

Sociocultural influences on eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews articles published in 2005 and 2006 on the influence of culture, ethnicity and gender on eating disorders. Specific social environmental factors, including media portrayals of body ideals and peer and family environment, are also reviewed. Summary of recent findings. Certain non-Western values may increase the risk of eating disorders. Ethnicity and gender may moderate

Pamela K Keel; Julie A Gravener

84

The genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas for future research. PMID:21191522

Berrettini, Wade

2004-11-01

85

The Genetics of Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas for future research. PMID:21191522

Berrettini, Wade

2004-01-01

86

Are Eating Disorders Culture-Bound Syndromes? Implications for Conceptualizing Their Etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explore the extent to which eating disorders, specifically anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), represent culture-bound syndromes and discuss implications for conceptualizing the role genes play in their etiology. The examination is divided into 3 sections: a quantitative meta-analysis of changes in incidence rates since the formal recognition of AN and BN, a qualitative summary of historical

Pamela K. Keel; Kelly L. Klump

2003-01-01

87

Brain lesions and eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

Uher, R; Treasure, J

2005-01-01

88

Eating disorders and disordered eating in Israel: an updated review.  

PubMed

Israel presents a unique opportunity to study the role of socio-cultural parameters in the development of mental disturbances because of the exceptional diversity of the Israeli society. In the present review, we aimed to analyse the current state of disordered eating in Israel by means of an extensive literature review. The following are the main findings of our review: The frequency of maladaptive eating among female and male Israeli Jewish adolescents is higher in comparison to many other Westernized countries. Among different Jewish sub-populations, Kibbutz women have been found until recently to show higher rates of disordered eating in comparison to other Israeli samples. Recent studies show no such difference between Kibbutz members and the general Israeli population. No clear-cut findings emerge with respect to the influence of immigration and degree of Jewish religious affiliation on the occurrence of disordered eating. In contrast, disordered eating is less prevalent in Israeli-Arabs compared with Israeli-Jews. Moreover, diverse Israeli-Arab groups show different rates of disordered eating. We discuss the high rate of disordered eating in Israeli youth in light of Israel being a culture in transition that is constantly exposed to the risk of terrorism. The changes in the rates of disordered eating in the Kibbutzim are discussed in light of the dramatic societal changes occurring in these communities within a relatively brief period of time. The low rates of disordered eating in Israeli-Arabs reflect the traditional non-Westernized characteristics of their society, whereas the differences between diverse Arab sub-populations depend upon the degree of exposure to Westernized influences and the presence of conflicts between modern and traditional values. PMID:18613253

Latzer, Yael; Witztum, Eliezer; Stein, Daniel

2008-09-01

89

Eating Disorder or Disordered Eating? Non-normative Eating Patterns in Obese Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are putative eating disorders frequently seen in obese individuals. Data suggest that BED fulfills criteria for a mental disorder. Criteria for NES are evolving but at present do not require distress or functional impairment. It remains unclear whether BED and NES, as they are currently defined, are optimally useful for characterizing

Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Susan Z. Yanovski

2004-01-01

90

Sudden death in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. PMID:22393299

Jauregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

91

Innovative technology-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided interventions via a desktop computer, interactive DVD, shared active surface, and virtual reality. None employed robotics. The results provide evidence for the overall effectiveness of technology-based training. The overall mean effect size for posttests of controlled studies of children with autism spectrum disorders who received technology-based interventions was significantly different from zero and approached the medium magnitude, d = 0.47 (confidence interval: 0.08-0.86). The influence of age and IQ was not significant. Differences in training procedures are discussed in the light of the negative correlation that was found between the intervention durations and the studies' effect sizes. The results of this meta-analysis provide support for the continuing development, evaluation, and clinical usage of technology-based intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24092843

Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

2014-05-01

92

Eating Disorders: Disorders of Under and Overnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eating disorder diagnoses consist of anorexia nervosa (restricting type and binge-eating\\/purging type); bulimia nervosa (purging\\u000a and nonpurging types); and eating disorder, not otherwise specified (including binge-eating disorder, night eating syndrome,\\u000a and purging disorder).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Physical complications of anorexia nervosa affect most major systems in the body and are caused by starvation and the effects\\u000a of purging. Most physical complications

Kelly C. Allison

93

[Genetic etiology of eating disorders].  

PubMed

Most twin studies suggest a heritability of SO to 80% for liability to eating disorders. At least moderate heritability is further supported by family and adoption studies. Polymorphisms of the 5-HT2A and BDNF genes appear robust candidates for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, while linkage studies suggest loci for anorexia nervosa in chromosome 1 and a locus in chromosome 10 for bulimia nervosa. Contemporary Western culture has a salient role in the rising incidence of eating disorders, and epigenetic mechanisms are suggested to be involved. In the near future, GWAS will likely provide compelling new data of genetic etiology and mechanisms of eating disorders. PMID:24340712

Raevuori, Anu

2013-01-01

94

A meta-analysis of quantitative EEG power associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis was performed on quantitative EEG (QEEG) studies that evaluated attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the criteria of the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition). The nine eligible studies (N = 1498) observed QEEG traits of a theta power increase and a beta power decrease, summarized in the theta/beta ratio with a pooled effect size of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 2.90, 3.26) for ADHD versus controls (normal children, adolescents, and adults). By statistical extrapolation, an effect size of 3.08 predicts a sensitivity and specificity of 94%, which is similar to previous results 86% to 90% sensitivity and 94% to 98% specificity. It is important to note that the controlled group studies were often with retrospectively set limits, and that in practice the sensitivity and specificity results would likely be more modest. The literature search also uncovered 32 pre-DSM-IV studies of ADHD and EEG power, and 29 of the 32 studies demonstrated results consistent with the meta-analysis. The meta-analytic results are also supported by the observation that the theta/beta ratio trait follows age-related changes in ADHD symptom presentation (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.996, P = 0.004). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports that a theta/beta ratio increase is a commonly observed trait in ADHD relative to normal controls. Because it is known that the theta/beta ratio trait may arise with other conditions, a prospective study covering differential diagnosis would be required to determine generalizability to clinical applications. Standardization of the QEEG technique is also needed, specifically with control of mental state, drowsiness, and medication. PMID:17016156

Snyder, Steven M; Hall, James R

2006-10-01

95

Efficacy of exposure versus cognitive therapy in anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for a wide range of psychological disorders. There is a continued controversy about whether challenging maladaptive thoughts rather than use of behavioural interventions alone is associated with the greatest efficacy. However little is known about the relative efficacy of various components of CBT. This review aims to compare the relative efficacy of Cognitive Therapy (CT) versus Exposure (E) for a range of anxiety disorders using the most clinically relevant outcome measures and estimating the summary relative efficacy by combining the studies in a meta-analysis. Methods Psych INFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the first available year to May 2010. All randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of exposure with cognitive therapy were included. Odds ratios (OR) or standardised means' differences (Hedges' g) for the most clinically relevant primary outcomes were calculated. Outcomes of the studies were grouped according to specific disorders and were combined in meta-analyses exploring short-term and long-term outcomes. Results 20 Randomised Controlled Trials with (n = 1,308) directly comparing the efficacy of CT and E in anxiety disorders were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference in the relative efficacy of CT and E was revealed in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and in Panic Disorder (PD). There was a statistically significant difference favouring CT versus E in Social Phobia both in the short-term (Z = 3.72, p = 0.0002) and the long-term (Z = 3.28, p = 0.001) outcomes. Conclusions On the basis of extant literature, there appears to be no evidence of differential efficacy between cognitive therapy and exposure in PD, PTSD and OCD and strong evidence of superior efficacy of cognitive therapy in social phobia PMID:22185596

2011-01-01

96

Association Between Antidepressants Use During Pregnancy and Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Antidepressants have been reported in several studies in the literature to be associated with the development of autistic disorder symptoms in children exposed to them during the time of their mothers’ pregnancies. There have also been reports of neurodevelopment delays associated with exposure to antidepressants in the same conditions. Design: We searched the PUBMED, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, and ERIC for original articles published between January 1983 and May 2013 to identify studies on the association between autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurodevelopment delays in children and exposure to antidepressants during pregnancy. Conclusion: At the end of our preliminary work, we retained only three articles that were pertinent to the purpose of our study. We extracted the available data in Excel files and then did a meta-analysis. The final results showed a positive association between the exposure to antidepressants in utero and autistic spectrum disorders. PMID:25152842

Rais, Alexandra

2014-01-01

97

Eating Disorders: No Longer Trapped by Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to document disordered eating patterns and prevalence rates to assess the current extent of the problem among college students. The Undergraduate Student Health Risk Appraisal Survey, with a Disordered Eating Subscale, generated such information. A randomized stratified study (n=320) of students at a major university ascertained disordered eating patterns, documented diagnosed eating disorders, and

Sara Oswalt; Helen M. Welle-Graf

98

Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. Results From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114?009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Conclusions Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental studies are required to confirm a potentially beneficial effect of chocolate consumption. PMID:21875885

2011-01-01

99

A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (PBD). We found that individuals with PBD suffer from cognitive deficits (e.g.,

Rebeca García Nieto; F. Xavier Castellanos

2011-01-01

100

Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge ...

101

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

2003-01-01

102

The genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in understanding genetic influences on eating pathology. Eating disorders aggregate in families, and twin studies reveal that additive genetic factors account for approximately 40% to 60% of liability to anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Molecular genetics studies have been undertaken to identify alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid sequence and/or gene expression that may be involved in the pathogenesis of disordered eating behaviors, symptoms, and related disorders and to uncover potential genetic variants that may contribute to variability of treatment response. This article provides an in-depth review of the scientific literature on the genetics of AN, BN, and BED including extant studies, emerging hypotheses, future directions, and clinical implications. PMID:23537489

Trace, Sara E; Baker, Jessica H; Peñas-Lledó, Eva; Bulik, Cynthia M

2013-01-01

103

Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Background. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly being applied to psychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depression and anorexia nervosa. Double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of active versus sham treatment have been limited to small numbers. We therefore undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of DBS in psychiatric conditions to maximize study power. Method. We conducted a systematic literature search for double-blind, RCTs of active versus sham treatment using Pubmed/Medline and EMBASE up to April 2013. Where possible, we combined results from studies in a meta-analysis. We assessed differences in final values between the active and sham treatments for parallel-group studies and compared changes from baseline score for cross-over designs. Results. Inclusion criteria were met by five studies, all of which were of OCD. Forty-four subjects provided data for the meta-analysis. The main outcome was a reduction in obsessive symptoms as measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Patients on active, as opposed to sham, treatment had a significantly lower mean score [mean difference (MD) -8.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) -13.35 to -5.76, p < 0.001], representing partial remission. However, one-third of patients experienced significant adverse effects (n = 16). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of other outcomes. Conclusions. DBS may show promise for treatment-resistant OCD but there are insufficient randomized controlled data for other psychiatric conditions. DBS remains an experimental treatment in adults for severe, medically refractory conditions until further data are available. PMID:25066053

Kisely, S; Hall, K; Siskind, D; Frater, J; Olson, S; Crompton, D

2014-12-01

104

Adding psychotherapy to antidepressant medication in depression and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials in which the effects of treatment with antidepressant medication were compared to the effects of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in adults with a diagnosed depressive or anxiety disorder. A total of 52 studies (with 3,623 patients) met inclusion criteria, 32 on depressive disorders and 21 on anxiety disorders (one on both depressive and anxiety disorders). The overall difference between pharmacotherapy and combined treatment was Hedges' g?=?0.43 (95% CI: 0.31-0.56), indicating a moderately large effect and clinically meaningful difference in favor of combined treatment, which corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 4.20. There was sufficient evidence that combined treatment is superior for major depression, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The effects of combined treatment compared with placebo only were about twice as large as those of pharmacotherapy compared with placebo only, underscoring the clinical advantage of combined treatment. The results also suggest that the effects of pharmacotherapy and those of psychotherapy are largely independent from each other, with both contributing about equally to the effects of combined treatment. We conclude that combined treatment appears to be more effective than treatment with antidepressant medication alone in major depression, panic disorder, and OCD. These effects remain strong and significant up to two years after treatment. Monotherapy with psychotropic medication may not constitute optimal care for common mental disorders. PMID:24497254

Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F

2014-01-01

105

Disordered eating among mothers of Polish patients with eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating as measured by the Eating Attitude Test (EAT26) among mothers of girls diagnosed with various types of eating disorders, in comparison with mothers of depressive girls and their relationship with daughters’ results 14 years after the beginning of the Polish political and cultural transformation of 1989. Material/Methods The data of 68 mothers and their daughters were used in statistical analysis (anorexia nervosa restrictive type: 18, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type: 12, bulimia: 14, depression: 24). The mean age in the group of mothers was 43.5 (SD 5.3), daughters: 16.7 (SD 1.4). Results In the group of mothers, the results of EAT26 test were lower than results of the general population of Polish females or patients’ mothers obtained in a different cultural context. Results from girls with an eating disorder diagnosis considerably exceed the mean result of Polish population studies of teenagers. There were no statistically significant differences between the EAT26 results of mothers of girls with various types of eating disorders and mothers of depressive girls. Sociocultural variables such as education and place of residence of mothers also did not differentiate the studied groups and did not have a significant influence on attitudes towards weight and body shape presented by the studied mothers. Conclusions The obtained results may suggest that in the studied population, the social background of mothers and disturbances of their own mothers’ attitudes towards weight and body shape were not an important and specific risk factor in the development of their daughters’ eating disorders. PMID:23197240

Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Jozefik, Barbara; Salapa, Kinga

2012-01-01

106

Obsessive compulsive disorders in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study is to explore current and lifetime prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) in eating disorder (ED) subgroups and subtypes defined by the DSM-IV and to study the chronology of appearance of these disorders taking into account the role played by denutrition. Method: Current and lifetime prevalence were investigated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview

Mario Speranza; Maurice Corcos; Nathalie Godart; Gwenael Loas; Olivier Guilbaud; Philippe Jeammet; Martine Flament

2001-01-01

107

The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Variation in the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene has been hypothesized to affect risk for PTSD. With the aim of investigating this association, we conducted a meta-analysis to shed light on prior controversial results and increase statistical power to detect smaller effect sizes. PubMed and ISI databases were searched for studies published until December 2012. Twelve studies have been included, all based on trauma-exposed samples. Data were analyzed with Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software (Version 5). Quality and publication bias were assessed. Metaregressions were performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, Version 2. Taking into account all studies, no association was found between 5-HTTLPR and PTSD (p = .10), with evidence of between-study heterogeneity, which could be partly explained by gender differences. In sensitivity analyses, we found an association between SS genotype and PTSD in high trauma-exposed participants (p < .001). To be a carrier of the SS genotype seems to represent a risk factor for PTSD in high trauma exposure. Further studies focusing on Gene × Environment interactions are needed to better understand the role of this polymorphism in PTSD. PMID:24222274

Gressier, Florence; Calati, Raffaella; Balestri, Martina; Marsano, Agnese; Alberti, Siegfried; Antypa, Niki; Serretti, Alessandro

2013-12-01

108

[Meta-analysis of candidate genes in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder].  

PubMed

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder observed during childhood, detected in 3% to 5% of school-age children. The disorder is characterised by marked inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. In most cases, symptoms can be treated by catecholamine-releasing drugs, such as methylphenidate. Children with ADHD are at higher risk for substance abuse and oppositional, conduct and mood disorders. Familial and adoption studies shed light on the genetic vulnerability of ADHD. Twin studies estimated the broad heritability to range between 40% and 90%. The mode of transmission is yet unknown, but is likely polygenic. Molecular genetic studies in ADHD should contribute to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder (genetics of the vulnerability), and could help to select a more rational type of treatment (pharmacogenetic). Family-based association studies already performed are reviewed in this manuscript. Association studies, using haplotype relative risk (HRR) or transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) have focused on candidate genes which code for proteins potentially involved in the etiopathogenesis of the disorder. Genes involved in dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenalin systems have thus been assessed for their role in core features of ADHD, such as motor overactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness. According to a meta-analysis, the DAT1 gene, an obvious candidate gene in ADHD vulnerability, does not appear to be involved (OR = 1.13, p = 0.21). On the other hand, DRD4 (OR = 1.26, p = 0.01) and DRD5 (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01) are significantly associated to ADHD according to the present meta-analysis, confirming previous ones. Recent studies showed a trend for an association between one allele of the 5-HTT (considering case-control studies) and DBH (OR = 1.27, p = 0.06) genes and ADHD, but these positive findings have to be replicated. ADHD is a complex disorder with potentially many different risk factors. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity could explain why some association studies are positive, whereas others are negative. For instance, different developmental pathways are likely to lead to similar clinical outcomes. More clear-cut phenotypes, such as ADHD with conduct disorder, or ADHD with bipolar disorder, could be more homogenous, the genes involved being therefore more easy to detect. These phenotypes are beginning to be specifically studied in molecular genetics. In addition, the development of pharmacogenetics could help to identify predictors of clinical response for a specific type of treatment, which would be clearly helpful in clinical practice. PMID:16389711

Wohl, M; Purper-Ouakil, D; Mouren, M C; Adès, J; Gorwood, P

2005-01-01

109

We Are Family - eating disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forty-third monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Eating disorders often begin in adolescence and can last a lifetime. They are psychiatric disorders and their treatment is very difficult. New clinical experience points to a crucial component - family.

2010-12-01

110

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

111

Antiepileptic medications in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and topiramate. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference between medication and placebo in four studies targeting irritability/agitation and three studies investigating global improvement, although limitations include lack of power and different medications with diverse actions. Across all seven studies, there was no significant difference in discontinuation rate between two groups. AEDs do not appear to have a large effect size to treat behavioral symptoms in ASD, but further research is needed, particularly in the subgroup of patients with epileptiform abnormalities. PMID:24077782

Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

2014-04-01

112

Mindfulness-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent and standard treatments are often unsatisfactory. Mindfulness-based therapy has shown benefit in conditions including chronic pain, mood, and somatization disorders. Objectives. To assess the quality and effectiveness reported in existing literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of mindfulness-based therapy in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods. Pubmed, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Study inclusion criteria included randomized, controlled studies of adults using mindfulness-based therapy in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias. Effect sizes were calculated and pooled to achieve a summary effect for the intervention on symptom severity and quality of life. Results. Of 119 records, eight articles, describing seven studies, met inclusion criteria. In six studies, significant improvements were achieved or maintained at the end of intervention or follow-up time points. The studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Pooled effects were statistically significant for IBS severity (0.59, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.86) and quality of life (0.56, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.79). Conclusion. Studies suggest that mindfulness based interventions may provide benefit in functional gastrointestinal disorders; however, substantial improvements in methodological quality and reporting are needed. PMID:25295066

2014-01-01

113

Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

2014-01-01

114

Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Subjective and Objective Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of 16 subjective and objective sleep studies with a sample of 722 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus a control that numbers 638 shows that the children with ADHD are significantly more impaired in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures than their counterpart.

Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

2009-01-01

115

Quantitative meta-analysis of neural activity in posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played a significant role in elucidating the neural underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, a detailed understanding of the neural regions implicated in the disorder remains incomplete because of considerable variability in findings across studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify consistent patterns of neural activity across neuroimaging study designs in PTSD to improve understanding of the neurocircuitry of PTSD. Methods We conducted a literature search for PET and fMRI studies of PTSD that were published before February 2011. The article search resulted in 79 functional neuroimaging PTSD studies. Data from 26 PTSD peer-reviewed neuroimaging articles reporting results from 342 adult patients and 342 adult controls were included. Peak activation coordinates from selected articles were used to generate activation likelihood estimate maps separately for symptom provocation and cognitive-emotional studies of PTSD. A separate meta-analysis examined the coupling between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala activity in patients. Results Results demonstrated that the regions most consistently hyperactivated in PTSD patients included mid- and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and when ROI studies were included, bilateral amygdala. By contrast, widespread hypoactivity was observed in PTSD including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, decreased ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity was associated with increased amygdala activity. Conclusions These results provide evidence for a neurocircuitry model of PTSD that emphasizes alteration in neural networks important for salience detection and emotion regulation. PMID:22738125

2012-01-01

116

A meta-analysis of the relation of intolerance of uncertainty to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been suggested to reflect a specific risk factor for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but there have been no systematic attempts to evaluate the specificity of IU to GAD. This meta-analysis examined the cross-sectional association of IU with symptoms of GAD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Random effects analyses were conducted for two

Emily L. Gentes; Ayelet Meron Ruscio

2011-01-01

117

PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN  

E-print Network

PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN A FAMILY GUIDE TO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF EATING TO DO WITH THE BRAIN? Although people with eating disorders struggle to eat normally, this is only now believe that part of the problem has to do with how our brains process information about

Squire, Larry R.

118

Trastornos de la Alimentacion (Eating Disorders).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

119

Impact of Physical Exercise on Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine whether long-term physical exercise could be a potential effective treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Methods The PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, CNKI and China Info were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies in regards to the effects of physical exercise on SUD between the years 1990 and 2013. Four main outcome measures including abstinence rate, withdrawal symptoms, anxiety, and depression were evaluated. Results Twenty-two studies were integrated in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that physical exercise can effectively increase the abstinence rate (OR?=?1.69 (95% CI: 1.44, 1.99), z?=?6.33, p<0.001), ease withdrawal symptoms (SMD?=??1.24 (95% CI: ?2.46, ?0.02), z?=??2, p<0.05), and reduce anxiety (SMD?=??0.31 (95% CI: ?0.45, ?0.16), z ?=? ?4.12, p<0.001) and depression (SMD ?=? ?0.47 (95% CI: ?0.80, ?0.14), z?=??2.76, p<0.01). The physical exercise can more ease the depression symptoms on alcohol and illicit drug abusers than nicotine abusers, and more improve the abstinence rate on illicit drug abusers than the others. Similar treatment effects were found in three categories: exercise intensity, types of exercise, and follow-up periods. Conclusions The moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercises, designed according to the Guidelines of American College of Sports Medicine, and the mind-body exercises can be an effective and persistent treatment for those with SUD. PMID:25330437

Wang, Dongshi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yingying; Li, Rena; Zhou, Chenglin

2014-01-01

120

Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…

Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

2013-01-01

121

Treatment of binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire

Wilson, G Terence

2011-12-01

122

PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine  

E-print Network

PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine NEWTON-WELLESLEY EATING DISORDERS & BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE (www.nwedbmed.com) seeks a Massachusetts licensed Psychologist. Massachusetts licensure required and supervised training in eating disorders treatment, CBT, Cognitive Therapy

Patel, Aniruddh D.

123

Systematic review and meta-analysis of psychiatric disorder and the perpetration of partner violence.  

PubMed

Backgrounds. The extent to which psychiatric disorders are associated with an increased risk of violence to partners is unclear. This review aimed to establish risk of violence against partners among men and women with diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Methods. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of eleven electronic databases were supplemented by hand searching, reference screening and citation tracking of included articles, and expert recommendations. Results. Seventeen studies were included, reporting on 72 585 participants, but only three reported on past year violence. Pooled risk estimates could not be calculated for past year violence against a partner and the three studies did not consistently report increased risk for any diagnosis. Pooled estimates showed an increased risk of having ever been physically violent towards a partner among men with depression (odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.5-3.3), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.4) and panic disorder (OR 2.5, 95% CI C% 1.7-3.6). Increased risk was also found among women with depression (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.1-2.8), GAD (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0) and panic disorder (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5). Conclusions. Psychiatric disorders are associated with high prevalence and increased odds of having ever been physically violent against a partner. As history of violence is a predictor of current violence, mental health professionals should ask about previous partner violence when assessing risk. PMID:23962668

Oram, S; Trevillion, K; Khalifeh, H; Feder, G; Howard, L M

2014-12-01

124

[Dance training and eating disorders].  

PubMed

Medical history, eating habits, weight, current symptomatology and EDI (Eating Disorders Inventory)-scores of 41 bulimic female patients with and without past training in dancing, who came for treatment to an outpatient clinic, were compared. It was found that both groups of patients were not different for age, age at beginning of bulimia, actual as well as minimal and maximal BMI (Body mass index), length and severity of symptomatology, frequency of bulimic behaviors, and scores on the subscales of the EDI, but it should be noted that these similarities might be in relationship with some methodological shortcomings. Considering the prevalence of bulimia nervosa in women and the high frequency of ballet and sports training in teenagers, some hypotheses about the possible influence of strenuous physical exercise in childhood on the symptomatology and some psychological traits in adults with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eating disorder are presented. Further studies, including standardized scales and larger samples, are necessary. PMID:7526458

Archinard, M; Scherer, U; Reverdin, N; Rouget, P; Allaz, A F

1994-01-01

125

Eating Disorders and Diabetes: Current Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 20 to 25 years, a significant amount of research has been directed toward diabetes and eating disorders. Evidence from the literature suggests that subclinical eating disorders and bulimia nervosa are prevalent in patients with type 1 diabetes, while subclinical and clinical binge eating disorders are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Although the determination of

Karen M. Davison

2003-01-01

126

Somatoform dissociation in eating-disordered patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of somatoform dissociation in eating disorders and pathological eating behaviour, relative to the established association of eating pathology with psychological dissociation. The participants were 131 women with DSM-IV diagnoses of anorexic or bulimic disorders and 75 women who had no such disorder. Each woman completed measures of psychological and somatoform dissociation, as well as a

G. Waller; M. Babbs; F. Wright; C. Potterton; C. Meyer; N. Leung

2003-01-01

127

Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

2011-01-01

128

Eating disorders and health education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research evidence and clinical experience both indicate an increase in the incidence of eating disorders, particularly in younger children, including males under 14 years of age. Current health education material promotes diets low in fat and cholesterol as generally beneficial but generally does not report research evidence suggesting tentative links between such diets and increased aggression, depression and suicide. Animal

P. Hartley

1998-01-01

129

Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

Muuss, Rolf E.

1985-01-01

130

The genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder and allied diagnoses such as eating disorder not otherwise specified are common, complex psychiatric disorders with a significant genetic component. Aetiology is unknown, but both phenotypic characteristics and genetic factors appear to be shared across these disorders, and indeed patients often change between diagnostic categories. Molecular studies have attempted to define genetic risk factors for these disorders, including case-control and family-based candidate gene association studies and linkage analysis of multiply affected nuclear families. These have used both clinical diagnoses and eating disorder-related intermediate phenotypes such as drive-for-thinness or body dissatisfaction. Candidate gene studies have focussed on neurotransmitter and neurodevelopmental systems [e.g. serotonergic, opioid, cannabinoid and dopaminergic receptors, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)], appetite regulatory peptides and their receptors [leptin, ghrelin, agouti-related protein (AgRP), melanocortin receptors, neuropeptide Y], energy balance systems (e.g. uncoupling proteins), genes implicated in obesity (e.g. FTO) and sex hormone systems (e.g. oestrogen receptors), either identified on the basis of their function alone or as positional candidates from linkage analysis. Of these studies, linkage analysis implicates 1p33-36 for AN, 1q31.3 for quantitative behavioural traits related to anorexia and 10p14 for BN, as well as other behavioural phenotypes across both disorders. Candidate gene association has implicated BDNF, delta 1 opioid receptor (OPDR1) and AgRP. More recently, with the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), analysis with microsatellite markers has implicated novel candidate loci for AN at 1q41 and 11q22, and further GWAS results are expected in the near future. PMID:21243475

Helder, Sietske G; Collier, David A

2011-01-01

131

Replication and meta-analysis of TMEM132D gene variants in panic disorder.  

PubMed

A recent genome-wide association study in patients with panic disorder (PD) identified a risk haplotype consisting of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7309727 and rs11060369) located in intron 3 of TMEM132D to be associated with PD in three independent samples. Now we report a subsequent confirmation study using five additional PD case-control samples (n = 1670 cases and n = 2266 controls) assembled as part of the Panic Disorder International Consortium (PanIC) study for a total of 2678 cases and 3262 controls in the analysis. In the new independent samples of European ancestry (EA), the association of rs7309727 and the risk haplotype rs7309727-rs11060369 was, indeed, replicated, with the strongest signal coming from patients with primary PD, that is, patients without major psychiatric comorbidities (n = 1038 cases and n = 2411 controls). This finding was paralleled by the results of the meta-analysis across all samples, in which the risk haplotype and rs7309727 reached P-levels of P = 1.4e-8 and P = 1.1e-8, respectively, when restricting the samples to individuals of EA with primary PD. In the Japanese sample no associations with PD could be found. The present results support the initial finding that TMEM132D gene contributes to genetic susceptibility for PD in individuals of EA. Our results also indicate that patient ascertainment and genetic background could be important sources of heterogeneity modifying this association signal in different populations. PMID:22948381

Erhardt, A; Akula, N; Schumacher, J; Czamara, D; Karbalai, N; Müller-Myhsok, B; Mors, O; Borglum, A; Kristensen, A S; Woldbye, D P D; Koefoed, P; Eriksson, E; Maron, E; Metspalu, A; Nurnberger, J; Philibert, R A; Kennedy, J; Domschke, K; Reif, A; Deckert, J; Otowa, T; Kawamura, Y; Kaiya, H; Okazaki, Y; Tanii, H; Tokunaga, K; Sasaki, T; Ioannidis, J P A; McMahon, F J; Binder, E B

2012-01-01

132

Replication and meta-analysis of TMEM132D gene variants in panic disorder  

PubMed Central

A recent genome-wide association study in patients with panic disorder (PD) identified a risk haplotype consisting of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7309727 and rs11060369) located in intron 3 of TMEM132D to be associated with PD in three independent samples. Now we report a subsequent confirmation study using five additional PD case–control samples (n=1670 cases and n=2266 controls) assembled as part of the Panic Disorder International Consortium (PanIC) study for a total of 2678 cases and 3262 controls in the analysis. In the new independent samples of European ancestry (EA), the association of rs7309727 and the risk haplotype rs7309727–rs11060369 was, indeed, replicated, with the strongest signal coming from patients with primary PD, that is, patients without major psychiatric comorbidities (n=1038 cases and n=2411 controls). This finding was paralleled by the results of the meta-analysis across all samples, in which the risk haplotype and rs7309727 reached P-levels of P=1.4e?8 and P=1.1e?8, respectively, when restricting the samples to individuals of EA with primary PD. In the Japanese sample no associations with PD could be found. The present results support the initial finding that TMEM132D gene contributes to genetic susceptibility for PD in individuals of EA. Our results also indicate that patient ascertainment and genetic background could be important sources of heterogeneity modifying this association signal in different populations. PMID:22948381

Erhardt, A; Akula, N; Schumacher, J; Czamara, D; Karbalai, N; Muller-Myhsok, B; Mors, O; Borglum, A; Kristensen, A S; Woldbye, D P D; Koefoed, P; Eriksson, E; Maron, E; Metspalu, A; Nurnberger, J; Philibert, R A; Kennedy, J; Domschke, K; Reif, A; Deckert, J; Otowa, T; Kawamura, Y; Kaiya, H; Okazaki, Y; Tanii, H; Tokunaga, K; Sasaki, T; Ioannidis, J P A; McMahon, F J; Binder, E B

2012-01-01

133

Behavior genetics and eating disorders.  

PubMed

Behavior genetics is concerned with the genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in the vulnerability to eating disorders. We should be skeptical about simple genetic explanations for disorders whose development, maintenance, and possible remission involve the interaction of individual behaviors and environmental circumstances. Twin, family, and adoption studies can help to delineate which phenotypes are most heritable, and which are most responsive to family circumstances or individual environments. Subsequent searches for individual genetic and environmental risk factors can be guided by these results. Although there is consistent evidence of genetic factors influencing vulnerability to eating disorders, the details are far from clear, and additional studies will be useful. The further development of dimensional indices of vulnerability will improve population-based and developmental genetic research, as well as facilitating the search for individual genes. PMID:9550878

Hewitt, J K

1997-01-01

134

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia nervosa fact sheet Bulimia nervosa fact sheet Depression ... of control during the binges. Unlike bulimia or anorexia, binge eaters do not throw up their food, ...

135

The epidemiology of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Further clarification of the epidemiology of eating disorders is essential. The high prevalence of these disorders, which appears to be increasing in women, indicates that high priority should be placed on the effective use of treatment resources through knowledge of the risk factors and clinical course of these illnesses. It seems clear that sociocultural emphasis on thinness in our society contributes to the risk factors of sex, age and social class. Prospective studies following a large number of subjects at high risk will be necessary to define more specific risk factors for the development of these disorders. PMID:6400210

Pyle, R L

136

Eating Disorders: Facts About Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pamphlet presents facts about eating disorders such as: binge-eating disorder; anorexia nervosa; and bulimia nervosa - and the search for solutions to these disorders. It also discusses treatments and research directions.

2001-01-01

137

Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by social impairments, including inappropriate responses to affective stimuli and nonverbal cues, which may extend to poor face-emotion recognition. However, the results of empirical studies of face-emotion recognition in individuals with ASD have yielded inconsistent findings that occlude understanding the role of face-emotion recognition deficits in the development of ASD. The goal of this meta-analysis was to address three as-yet unanswered questions. Are ASDs associated with consistent face-emotion recognition deficits? Do deficits generalize across multiple emotional expressions or are they limited to specific emotions? Do age or cognitive intelligence affect the magnitude of identified deficits? The results indicate that ASDs are associated with face-emotion recognition deficits across multiple expressions and that the magnitude of these deficits increases with age and cannot be accounted for by intelligence. These findings suggest that, whereas neurodevelopmental processes and social experience produce improvements in general face-emotion recognition abilities over time during typical development, children with ASD may experience disruptions in these processes, which suggested distributed functional impairment in the neural architecture that subserves face-emotion processing, an effect with downstream developmental consequences. PMID:24915526

Lozier, Leah M; Vanmeter, John W; Marsh, Abigail A

2014-11-01

138

Eating behavior and other distracting behaviors while driving among patients with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study sought to better characterize eating behavior, binge-eating behavior, and other potentially problematic, distracting behaviors while driving in patients with eating disorders. Forty patients with eating disorders who reported eating in their car at least once per week were included. Thirty subjects with eating disorders reported binge-eating while driving. A surprisingly high number of subjects reported engaging in

John Glass; James E Mitchell; Martina de Zwaan; Steve Wonderlich; Ross D Crosby; James Roerig; Melissa Burgard; Kathryn Lancaster; Janeen Voxland

2004-01-01

139

Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

1993-01-01

140

Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

2004-01-01

141

Participation in Athletic Activitiesand Eating Disordered Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the following study was to examine the relationship between participation in athletic and exercise activities and eating disordered behavior among a college student population. A sample of 853 undergraduate students completed the EAT-26 and indicated participation in athletic activities to determine eating disorder-related dieting and exercise attitudes and behaviors. Results demonstrate that participation in recreational activities correlates

Dana Heller Levitt

2008-01-01

142

Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating  

E-print Network

psychopathology models and newer evolutionary psychology models. Two of these behaviors/clusters of behaviors are relational aggression and disordered eating. Relational aggression is defined as “a form of aggression that involves attempts to harm others... social behaviors, although convenient, may lead to inaccurate and too simplistic conclusions about the role of relational aggression in psychopathology. The current study examined the relationships among relational aggression, prosocial behaviors...

Prohaska, Jennifer A.

2012-05-31

143

Eating Disorders and Substance Abuse  

E-print Network

Clinicians involved in substance abuse treatment have been aware for some time that women with alcohol or other drug abuse problems also frequently suffer from eating disorders. Some of the similarities, such as feelings of shame, need to hide the behavior, and the compulsive quality have led to speculations of an underlying common dynamic, and possibly to common organic predisposing factors. The treatment challenge is complex: One does not have the luxury of postponing the exploration of anxiety-producing issues until abstinence (sobriety) is well secured. Eating disorders are health threatening and some-times life threatening, and are frequently closely connected with the alcohol or other drug abuse pattern. This article focuses on bulimia and anorexia nervosa, omitting obesity because it is not characteristically associated with a distinct psychological or behavioral pattern (Norman 1984). It aims to clarify some of these issues and to provide recommendations to the treating clinician: guidelines on when to tackle the problem within the context of the substance abuse treatment and when to refer the clients elsewhere. It will also describe the major treatment approaches in the eating disorders field and offer criteria for selecting a program or therapist with whom to collaborate.

Joan Ellen Zweben, Ph.D.

144

Eating disorders: assessment and treatment.  

PubMed

Anorexia and bulimia are eating disorders affecting a significant number of adolescent and young adult women. The core symptoms of both disorders are similar and include a fear of obesity, body image disturbance, erratic eating patterns, and purging. These symptoms produce significant physical and psychologic complications. Both anorexia and bulimia appear to have a common origin in a fear of obesity and dieting. Anorectics, being "successful" dieters, lose a significant amount of weight; whereas bulimics alternate between binges and purges. Treatment for the eating disorders is gradually evolving as clinical research experience accumulates. For anorexia, hospitalization is indicated when weight falls below 15% of ideal, and most investigators agree that therapy for the core symptoms cannot be undertaken until weight is restored. During the impatient stay, a behavior modification program can effectively organize medical, nutritional, and psychologic support, and offers the quickest and most direct route to weight restoration. The nasogastric tube and total parenteral nutrition are used primarily for those who are severely emaciated or who actively resist standard modes of therapy. Inpatient treatment is most effectively and efficiently rendered in a specialized eating disorder unit. Once weight restoration is progressing, behavior therapy for core symptoms is commenced and continued on an outpatient basis. A variety of behavioral techniques are employed, and they are designed primarily to influence anorectic assumptions and beliefs. Although there may be a brief inpatient stay for initiation of treatment, the bulk of therapy for bulimia occurs on an outpatient basis. The available literature indicates that behavioral techniques and antidepressant medication are effective for the symptoms of bulimia. Early identification of core symptoms of both disorders can lead to an initiation of treatment before the core symptoms become ingrained. A potentially more effective intervention lies in efforts to influence the media. As noted, standards for feminine beauty as portrayed in the media have changed significantly over the past 20 years. An attempt at the primary prevention of eating disorders would include efforts to convince the media to change their standards of femininity from cosmetic slimness to a focus on health and physical fitness. These efforts could stem from professional and lay organizations who have the interest and capability to influence policy. PMID:3863731

Johnson, W G; Schlundt, D G

1985-09-01

145

Eating disorders and women's health: an update.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified have a significant impact on the health care and childbearing outcomes of the female population. Primary care contact for gynecologic care, childbearing, or infertility can serve as a critical entry point for the initial recognition of potentially devastating disorders that may result in permanent impairment and/or chronic debilitation. This review addresses the nature and prevalence of eating disorders and the management of pregnancy complicated by an active eating disorder or a history of an eating disorder. Genetic influences and intergenerational transmission of eating disorders are discussed. Finally, the increased risk for postpartum depression among women with a current or past eating disorder is examined. Factors critical to improving pregnancy outcome and reducing the risk for exacerbation or relapse in the postpartum period are identified. PMID:16647671

Mitchell, Anne Marie; Bulik, Cynthia M

2006-01-01

146

Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

2011-01-01

147

Lack of Association of P2RX7 Gene rs2230912 Polymorphism with Mood Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the association of P2RX7 gene rs2230912 polymorphism with mood disorders using a meta-analysis. Methods Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, with the last report up to April 1, 2013. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of the association. Dependent on the results of heterogeneity test among individual studies, the fixed effect model (Mantel–Haenszel) or random effect model (DerSimonian–Laird) was selected to summarize the pooled OR. Results We identified 13 separate studies using search (6,962 cases and 9,262 controls). We detected significant between-study heterogeneity. No significant association of this polymorphism with mood disorders was found (P>0.05). We also performed disease-specific meta-analysis in unipolar depression and bipolar disorder. No significant association of this polymorphism with unipolar depression or bipolar disorder was found (P>0.05). Additionally, we performed subgroup analysis by different types of cases. No significant association of this polymorphism with mood disorders in clinical cohorts or population-based cohorts (P>0.05). A significant association of this polymorphism with mood disorders was found for the allele contrast in family-based cohorts (OR?=?1.26, 95%CI?=?1.05–1.50, P?=?0.01). Conclusions Overall, our meta-analysis suggests that P2RX7 gene rs2230912 polymorphism may not contribute to the risk of developing mood disorders using a case-control design. Given the discordance in the subgroup analysis by different types of cases, further studies based on larger sample size are still needed. PMID:24533115

Feng, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Bo; Li, Wen; Liu, Juan

2014-01-01

148

Perfect Illusions: Eating Disorders and the Family  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to the PBS documentary of the same name, which aired February 24, 2003, as part of Eating Disorders Awareness Week. With this "hidden epidemic" affecting millions of people in the US alone, especially young women, this site provides a valuable resource for those wishing to learn more about three common eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. In addition to presenting detailed information for each disorder -- including symptoms, health consequences, and prevention -- the Web site supplies information for seeking help, and other resources such as personal stories from eating disorder sufferers and survivors.

2003-01-01

149

Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917

Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

2014-01-01

150

Eating disorders in athletes: managing the risks.  

PubMed

Athletes risk injuries and make personal sacrifices in their education, careers, and personal relationships in pursuit of excellence. Well-prepared athletes and their support teams take steps to minimize these risks. Since the 1980s, it has been apparent that development of an eating disorder is a risk associated with considerable morbidity and significant mortality, and with shorter careers characterized by inconsistency and recurrent injury. How likely is it that an athlete will develop an eating disorder? Who is at risk? Can eating disorders be prevented? How can eating disorders be identified? What are the consequences of developing an eating disorder? What can be done to help an athlete who has an eating disorder? This article attempts to answer these questions. PMID:16169451

Currie, Alan; Morse, Eric D

2005-10-01

151

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

2011-01-01

152

Eating disorders, serotonin transporter polymorphisms and potential treatment response.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder are eating disorders with common clinical and psychological features, potentially shared mechanisms, significant morbidity and, at least for anorexia nervosa, a high mortality rate. Among the numerous risk factors involved, the importance of a genetic vulnerability has been demonstrated, and the heritability, in the broad sense, has being estimated to be between 50 and 70%. Studies have thus focused on different candidate genes. Serotonin transmission and regulation has been extensively studied with regard to its role in core mechanisms such as feeding and fasting, but also in different clinical characteristics of eating disorders. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT), encoded by the SLC6A4 gene, may also have an important role in eating disorders, as its availability is decreased in patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. The promoter region contains a functional insertion/deletion polymorphism with two common alleles that have been designated the short (*S) and long (*L) alleles. The frequency of the SLC6A4*S allele has been assessed in four independent samples of patients with anorexia nervosa, but gave discrepant results. A meta-analysis was performed, which showed that the *S allele could represent a moderate but significant risk factor that increases the risk of anorexia nervosa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.72). Eating disorders are treated using different types of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with antidepressants; serotonin reuptake inhibitors being the most frequently prescribed. High doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are usually prescribed in eating disorders. The prevalence of non-responders (roughly one out of two), and the presence of a functional genetic polymorphism in the promotor region of SLC6A4, emphasizes the potential utility of psychopharmacogenetics in prescribing SSRIs in the treatment of patients with weight-restored anorexia nervosa. Information about genetic variations of cytochrome P450 could also facilitate pharmacotherapy by preventing the administration of high doses in poor metabolizers and identify rapid metabolizes who may require higher doses for efficacy. SLC6A4 genotyping would allow physicians to individualize selective serotonin reuptake therapy for their patients. PMID:14987118

Gorwood, Philip

2004-01-01

153

Multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis of white matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or FA between patients with OCD and healthy controls in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases were retrieved. Manual searches were also conducted and authors were contacted soliciting additional data. Thirty-four data sets were identified, of which 22 met inclusion criteria (five of them unpublished; comprising 537 adult and pediatric patients with OCD and 575 matched healthy controls). Whenever possible, raw statistical parametric maps were also obtained from the authors. Peak and raw WMV and FA data were combined using novel multimodal meta-analytic methods implemented in effect-size signed differential mapping. Patients with OCD showed widespread WM abnormalities, but findings were particularly robust in the anterior midline tracts (crossing between anterior parts of cingulum bundle and body of corpus callosum), which showed both increased WMV and decreased FA, possibly suggesting an increase of fiber crossing in these regions. This finding was also observed when the analysis was limited to adult participants, and especially pronounced in samples with a higher proportion of medicated patients. Therefore, patients with OCD may have widespread WM abnormalities, particularly evident in anterior midline tracts, although these changes might be, at least in part, attributable to the effects of therapeutic drugs. PMID:24407265

Radua, Joaquim; Grau, Mar; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Stein, Dan J; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Catani, Marco; Mataix-Cols, David

2014-06-01

154

American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered

Buser, Juleen K.

2010-01-01

155

Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

2007-01-01

156

Eating Disorders in Pregnancy and the Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are most often diagnosed during the childbearing years. Pregnancy and postpartum issues for women with eating\\u000a disorders are discussed with regard to symptoms, complications, course of pregnancy, delivery, breast-feeding, and postpartum\\u000a depression (PPD). Research findings indicate that women with eating disorders during pregnancy may be at risk for a variety\\u000a of pregnancy and obstetric complications. Moreover, there appears

Debra L. Franko

157

Parenting styles and eating disorder pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa,

Roni S. Enten; Moria Golan

2009-01-01

158

College Students' Attitudes towards Eating Disorders in Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are a prevalent and serious health problem in the United States. Eating disorders are generally associated with young women. However, people are less aware of eating disorders among male; thus, there are fewer studies done on this issue and fewer eating disorder prevention programs for males. This study investigates men's attitudes regarding awareness and knowledge of eating disorders

Joy K. VanDeLoo; Christina Strommer

159

Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders

Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

2008-01-01

160

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk\\u000a of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this\\u000a population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature\\u000a identified 31 studies involving

Francisca J. A. van Steensel; Susan M. Bögels; Sean Perrin

161

Eating disorders among high performance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eating disorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes

Dexa Stoutjesdyk; Ronna Jevne

1993-01-01

162

The Eating Disorders Outreach Service: Enabling Clinicians Statewide to Treat Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the Eating Disorders Outreach Service (EDOS), which supports clinicians in the treatment and management of eating disorder patients across Queensland. EDOS's mandate is to facilitate intake to the specialist inpatient and outpatient services at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) and to provide eating disorders education and consultation liaison to

Elaine Painter; Warren Ward; Peter Gibbon; Brett Emmerson

2010-01-01

163

Perplexities of treatment resistence in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed. Description The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the eating disorders. Conclusion Treatment resistance in eating disorders is usually predicted by the severity of the core eating disorder psychopathology which develops from an interaction between environmental risk factors with genetic traits and a vulnerable neurobiology. Future investigations of the biological features and neurocircuitry of the core eating disorders psychopathology and behaviors may provide information for more successful treatment interventions. PMID:24199597

2013-01-01

164

Dietitians and eating disorders: an international issue.  

PubMed

The prevalence of eating disorders is higher in university nutrition faculties than in other faculties. We examined beliefs about and approaches to eating disorders in nutrition education faculties around the world. We developed a questionnaire specifically for this project and distributed 664 copies electronically, using contact information obtained in collaboration with Dietitians of Canada and the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations. Using the 101 questionnaires returned from 14 countries, we found that 77% of respondents felt eating disorders are a concern among nutrition students; however, only 15% of programs had policies/procedures to help address these disorders. Forty-eight percent of respondents thought screening for eating disorders would be a good idea; however, 78% of them believed screening would involve ethical issues. In conclusion, eating disorders are a concern in nutrition faculties around the world, and while most feel something should be done, ethical dilemmas contribute to confusion over the best approach. More work is needed in this area. PMID:22668844

Drummond, Dianne; Hare, M Suzanne

2012-01-01

165

Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex disorder with a partly genetic etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study of the MDD2000+ sample (2431 cases, 3673 screened controls and >1?M imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance either in the MDD2000+ study, or in meta-analysis with two other studies totaling 5763 cases and 6901 controls. These results imply that common variants of intermediate or large effect do not have main effects in the genetic architecture of MDD. Suggestive but notable results were (a) gene-based tests suggesting roles for adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3, 2p23.3) and galanin (GAL, 11q13.3); published functional evidence relates both of these to MDD and serotonergic signaling; (b) support for the bipolar disorder risk variant SNP rs1006737 in CACNA1C (P=0.020, odds ratio=1.10); and (c) lack of support for rs2251219, a SNP identified in a meta-analysis of affective disorder studies (P=0.51). We estimate that sample sizes 1.8- to 2.4-fold greater are needed for association studies of MDD compared with those for schizophrenia to detect variants that explain the same proportion of total variance in liability. Larger study cohorts characterized for genetic and environmental risk factors accumulated prospectively are likely to be needed to dissect more fully the etiology of MDD. PMID:21042317

Wray, N R; Pergadia, M L; Blackwood, D H R; Penninx, B W J H; Gordon, S D; Nyholt, D R; Ripke, S; MacIntyre, D J; McGhee, K A; Maclean, A W; Smit, J H; Hottenga, J J; Willemsen, G; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lewis, C M; McGuffin, P; Hickie, I B; van den Oord, E J C G; Liu, J Z; Macgregor, S; McEvoy, B P; Byrne, E M; Medland, S E; Statham, D J; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Boomsma, D I; Madden, P A F; Sullivan, P F

2012-01-01

166

Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Aina Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Goncalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

2014-01-01

167

Assessment of Eating Disordered Behaviors in Middle School Students Using the Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders commonly develop during adolescence. In order to devise a prevention\\/education program, it is necessary to assess the presence of eating disordered behaviors in this population. The Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS) was used to gather data on body dissatisfaction, exercise and eating habits and restricting\\/purging behaviors. School and health professionals administered the self-report questionnaire to eighth grade students

S. G. Affenito; E. J. Khu; K. Carroll

1998-01-01

168

Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices  

PubMed Central

Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships) were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established. PMID:22934173

Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

2012-01-01

169

Candidate gene studies in eating disorders.  

PubMed

It has become increasingly clear that biological factors contribute to the etiology of eating disorders. Vulnerability to anorexia and bulimia nervosa is due, at least in part, to the effect of genes. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature on association studies of putative candidate genes for eating disorders. PMID:12473966

Tozzi, Federica; Bergen, Andrew W; Bulik, Cynthia M

2002-01-01

170

Eating disorders among professional fashion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fashion models are thought to be at an elevated risk for eating disorders, but few methodologically rigorous studies have explored this assumption. We have investigated the prevalence of eating disorders in a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia, Italy, comparing them with a group of 110 girls of the same age and of comparable social and cultural backgrounds.

Antonio Preti; Ambra Usai; Paola Miotto; Donatella Rita Petretto; Carmelo Masala

2008-01-01

171

Factors Associated with Eating Disorders in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various factors associated with eating disorders have been studied, no comprehensive source of research findings was identified in this review. The purpose of this study was to identify and synthesize research findings of factors associated with eating disorders in women published from 1992-2008. These findings may be useful to nurses, other professionals, families, and the public to facilitate the

Christina Knowles; Faculty Mentor; Frances Smith

172

Incidence of eating disorders in Navarra (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain.Methods. – We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the

Francisca Lahortiga-Ramos; Jokin De Irala-Estévez; Adrián Cano-Prous; Pilar Gual-García; Miguel Ángel Martínez-González; Salvador Cervera-Enguix

2005-01-01

173

Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

2006-01-01

174

Animal Models of Eating Disorder Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex\\u000a interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits\\u000a related to eating disorders may provide a way to functionally and systematically study neurobiological mechanisms underlying\\u000a these disorders. Interspecies trait genetics may offer opportunities to identify common neurobiological

Martien J. H. Kas; Roger A. H. Adan

175

The comorbidity between eating disorders and anxiety disorders.  

E-print Network

??Doctor of Philosophy(PhD)%%%Research indicates that eating disorders and anxiety disorders frequently co-occur. The prevalence of anxiety disorders amongst anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa samples has… (more)

Swinbourne, Jessica M

2008-01-01

176

Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules.  

PubMed

Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eating disorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exacerbates risk for developing eating disorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a battery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disordered eating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implications for designing early interventions for disordered eating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disordered eating who also report high levels of perfectionism. PMID:23121786

Brown, Amanda Joelle; Parman, Kortney M; Rudat, Deirdre A; Craighead, Linda W

2012-12-01

177

Effects of Stimulants on Brain Function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Psychostimulant medication, most commonly the catecholamine agonist methylphenidate, is the most effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, relatively little is known on the mechanisms of action. Acute effects on brain function can elucidate underlying neurocognitive effects. We tested methylphenidate effects relative to placebo in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during three disorder-relevant tasks in medication-naïve ADHD adolescents. In addition, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI findings of acute stimulant effects on ADHD brain function. Methods The fMRI study compared 20 adolescents with ADHD under either placebo or methylphenidate in a randomized controlled trial while performing stop, working memory, and time discrimination tasks. The meta-analysis was conducted searching PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. Peak coordinates of clusters of significant effects of stimulant medication relative to placebo or off medication were extracted for each study. Results The fMRI analysis showed that methylphenidate significantly enhanced activation in bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/insula during inhibition and time discrimination but had no effect on working memory networks. The meta-analysis, including 14 fMRI datasets and 212 children with ADHD, showed that stimulants most consistently enhanced right IFC/insula activation, which also remained for a subgroup analysis of methylphenidate effects alone. A more lenient threshold also revealed increased putamen activation. Conclusions Psychostimulants most consistently increase right IFC/insula activation, which are key areas of cognitive control and also the most replicated neurocognitive dysfunction in ADHD. These neurocognitive effects may underlie their positive clinical effects. PMID:24314347

Rubia, Katya; Alegria, Analucia A.; Cubillo, Ana I.; Smith, Anna B.; Brammer, Michael J.; Radua, Joaquim

2014-01-01

178

Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Male Collegiate Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male athletes have been hypothesized to be at increased risk for disordered eating attitudes and behaviors due to unique pressures in the sport environment. In this study, 203 male collegiate athletes from three universities completed the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (QEDD; Mintz, O'Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997) as well as provided information on binge eating and pathogenic weight control

Trent A. Petrie; Christy Greenleaf; Justine Reel; Jennifer Carter

2008-01-01

179

Academy for eating disorders position paper: The role of the family in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Position It is the position of the Academy for Eating Disor- ders (AED) that family factors can play a role in the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders; cur- rent knowledge refutes the idea that they are either the exclusive or even the primary mechanisms that underlie risk. Thus, the AED stands firmly against any etiologic model of eating disorders

Daniel Le Grange; James Lock; Katharine Loeb; Dasha Nicholls

2009-01-01

180

Eating and Exercise Disorders in Young College Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,…

O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

2002-01-01

181

Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995-2012  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2013-01-01

182

The Prevalence of Subclinical Eating Disorders among Male Cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered eating behaviors are typically seen as a problem in females and there are little data assessing their prevalence in males. The objective of the present cross-sectional investigation was to identify subclinical disordered eating patterns and dietary characteristics among competitive male cyclists. A nutritional questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and Survey of Eating Disorders Among Cyclists, were completed by

Shaun K. Riebl; Andrew W. Subudhi; Jeffery P. Broker; Kim Schenck; Jacqueline R. Berning

2007-01-01

183

Are eating disorders culture-bound syndromes? Implications for conceptualizing their etiology.  

PubMed

The authors explore the extent to which eating disorders, specifically anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), represent culture-bound syndromes and discuss implications for conceptualizing the role genes play in their etiology. The examination is divided into 3 sections: a quantitative meta-analysis of changes in incidence rates since the formal recognition of AN and BN, a qualitative summary of historical evidence of eating disorders before their formal recognition, and an evaluation of the presence of these disorders in non-Western cultures. Findings suggest that BN is a culture-bound syndrome and AN is not. Thus, heritability estimates for BN may show greater variability cross-culturally than heritability estimates for AN, and the genetic bases of these disorders may be associated with differential pathoplasticity. PMID:12956542

Keel, Pamela K; Klump, Kelly L

2003-09-01

184

Suicide attempts in women with eating disorders.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts/completions was higher in women with a lifetime history of an eating disorder than in women with no eating disorder and assessed whether eating disorder features, comorbid psychopathology, and personality characteristics were associated with suicide attempts in women with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (ANR), anorexia nervosa, binge-purge subtype (ANBP), lifetime history of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (ANBN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Participants were part of the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (N = 13,035) cohort. Lifetime suicide attempts were identified using diagnoses from the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. General linear models were applied to evaluate whether eating disorder category (ANR, ANBP, ANBN, BN, BED, PD, or no eating disorder [no ED]) was associated with suicide attempts and to identify factors associated with suicide attempts. Relative to women with no ED, lifetime suicide attempts were significantly more common in women with all types of eating disorder. None of the eating disorder features or personality variables was significantly associated with suicide attempts. In the ANBP and ANBN groups, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric conditions was higher in individuals with than without a lifetime suicide attempt. The odds of suicide were highest in presentations that included purging behavior (ANBN, ANBN, BN, and PD), but were elevated in all eating disorders. To improve outcomes and decrease mortality, it is critical to be vigilant for suicide and identify indices for those who are at greatest risk. PMID:24364606

Pisetsky, Emily M; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L; Bulik, Cynthia M

2013-11-01

185

Psychoactive substance consumption in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research investigating the comorbidity between eating disorders and substance-use disorders have reported positive but contrasting results. The aim of this study was to further explore this association by studying patterns of consumption of the entire range of psychoactive substances (alcohol, specific drugs, prescribed psychotropics) in a large sample (N=271) of eating-disorder DSM-IV subtypes. Results show that subjects suffering from anorexia

M. Corcos; S. Nezelof; M. Speranza; S. Topa; N. Girardon; O. Guilbaud; P. Bizouard; O. Halfon; J. L. Venisse; F. Perez-Diaz; M. Flament; Ph. Jeammet

2001-01-01

186

Cognitions and Emotions in Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The cognitive model of eating disorders (EDs) states that the processing of external and internal stimuli might be biased in mental disorders. These biases, or cognitive errors, systematically distort the individual’s experiences and, in that\\u000a way, maintains the eating disorder. This chapter presents an updated literature review of experimental studies investigating\\u000a these cognitive biases. Results indicate that ED patients show

Nicolette Siep; Anita Jansen; Remco Havermans; Anne Roefs

187

Validity of Retrospective Reports of Eating Behavior from the Eating Disorder Examination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, Cooper and Fairburn 1987) is the most widely used instrument for the diagnosis of eating disorders. The EDE relies on retrospective self-report to obtain eating behavior information. However, there is growing evidence...

J. M. Stone

1999-01-01

188

An Examination of Eating Patterns in Community Women with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To better understand the eating patterns of persons with eating disorders. Method This study investigated typical eating behavior (meal frequency and snacking) and atypical eating behavior among 311 community women with online questionnaires. Participants were classified with bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 39), binge eating disorder (BED; n = 69), or controls (CON; n = 203). Results In terms of typical eating behaviors, the BN group ate significantly fewer meals, particularly lunches, than the other two groups. Atypical eating, such as nibbling, eating double meals and nocturnal eating, was significantly more common in the eating disorder groups. More frequent breakfast consumption was associated with lower BMI in the BED and CON groups, and more frequent meal consumption was associated with less binge eating in the BED group only. Discussion Our study revealed differences in typical and atypical eating patterns, and associations with weight and eating disorder behaviors among eating disorder and control groups. PMID:21997425

Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.

2013-01-01

189

Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research.\\u000a The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed\\u000a the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders (ED) and substance use\\u000a disorders (SUD). One hundred and ninety three individuals seeking

Christine Marie Courbasson; Christian Rizea; Nicole Weiskopf

2008-01-01

190

The efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depressive and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons  

PubMed Central

Although psychotherapy and antidepressant medication are efficacious in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders, it is not known whether they are equally efficacious for all types of disorders, and whether all types of psychotherapy and antidepressants are equally efficacious for each disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies in which psychotherapy and antidepressant medication were directly compared in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Systematic searches in bibliographical databases resulted in 67 randomized trials, including 5,993 patients that met inclusion criteria, 40 studies focusing on depressive disorders and 27 focusing on anxiety disorders. The overall effect size indicating the difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy after treatment in all disorders was g=0.02 (95% CI: ?0.07 to 0.10), which was not statistically significant. Pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than psychotherapy in dysthymia (g=0.30), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (g=0.64). Furthermore, pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than non-directive counseling (g=0.33), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy with tricyclic antidepressants (g=0.21). These results remained significant when we controlled for other characteristics of the studies in multivariate meta-regression analysis, except for the differential effects in dysthymia, which were no longer statistically significant. PMID:23737423

Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F

2013-01-01

191

Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits.  

PubMed

Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H; Foulds Mathes, Wendy; Bulik, Cynthia M

2009-04-01

192

Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits  

PubMed Central

Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

Kas, Martien J. H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2008-01-01

193

Rumination in eating disorders: literature review.  

PubMed

Rumination is defined as regurgitation of partially digested food that is subsequently re-chewed and then swallowed or ejected by mouth. We report a case of rumination and a review of selected literature to emphasize: 1. Risk factors for rumination in eating disorders are unknown, 2. A history of rumination must be taken routinely because shame prevents patients from volunteering this history, 3. Rumination usually lessens with improvement of the eating disorder, but other methods including behavior modification, breathing techniques, and gum chewing have shown success in individual cases or small case series. There have been no controlled trials published of any treatment for rumination in eating disorders. PMID:17075234

Birmingham, C L; Firoz, T

2006-09-01

194

On the Connection Between Autoimmunity, tic Disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: A Meta-Analysis on Anti-Streptolysin O Titres.  

PubMed

Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titration is useful in the context of autoimmune pathologies, including specific cases of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorders occurring after streptococcal infections. There is currently a lack of consensus on the use of ASO titres; therefore we performed a meta-analysis to systematise available data and clarify the role of ASO titres in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. A meta-analysis was performed on ASO titration in neuropsychiatric patients, including tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Included studies reported numbers of positive subjects, depending on a chosen threshold, or detailed ASO titrations. Three hundred and twenty nine studies were identified, of which 13 were eligible for meta-analysis. Due to limited available data, only tic disorders were evaluated. The odds ratio of finding an abnormal ASO titre in patients was 3.22 (95 % C.I. 1.51-6.88) as compared to healthy controls and 16.14 (95 % C.I. 8.11-32.11) as compared to non-psychiatric patients. Studies using different thresholds were generally concordant. ASO titres were also compared quantitatively, finding an overall difference of the means of 70.50 U/ml (95 % C.I. 25.21-115.80) in favour of patients with tic disorders. Based on current evidence, tic disorders are associated with a significant increase in ASO titres, evident both in a threshold-level perspective and on a quantitative level. These results encourage the systematisation of ASO titration in the context of tic disorders. PMID:25091468

Pozzi, Marco; Pellegrino, Paolo; Carnovale, Carla; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Perrotta, Cristiana; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

2014-12-01

195

Culture and the Development of Eating Disorders: A Tripartite Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are often conceptualized as “culture-bound problems;” however, the processes by which culture contributes to eating disorders have yet to be elucidated by researchers. This manuscript moves beyond research's current emphasis on evaluating the prevalence rates of eating disorders among ethnic groups, and presents a tripartite model to aid in understanding how cultural processes influence eating disorders. Cultural influences

CHARLOTTE N. MARKEY

2004-01-01

196

Eating Disorders: A Means for Seeking Approval?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the predictive relationship of specific eating disorder symptomology including drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness, perfectionism, interpersonal distrust, low interoceptive awareness, and maturity fears with the need for approval. A total of 495 college students completed an 84-item questionnaire phus demographic information. The questionnaire consisted of the Revised Martin-Larsen Approval Motivation Scale (MLAM) and the Eating

Patrice Moulton; Michael Moulton; Scott Roach

1998-01-01

197

Substance use among women with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The results of past research suggest that bulimics are more likely than anorexics to engage in substance use, and that binge eating and\\/or purging may be an indicator of increased likelihood of substance use. We further investigated substance use among women with eating disorders. Method: We compared women with anorexia nervosa (n = 134) to women with bulimia nervosa

Michael W. Wiederman; Tamara Pryor

1996-01-01

198

Functional magnetic resonance imaging during emotion recognition in social anxiety disorder: an activation likelihood meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by abnormal fear and anxiety in social situations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a brain imaging technique that can be used to demonstrate neural activation to emotionally salient stimuli. However, no attempt has yet been made to statistically collate fMRI studies of brain activation, using the activation likelihood-estimate (ALE) technique, in response to emotion recognition tasks in individuals with SAD. Methods: A systematic search of fMRI studies of neural responses to socially emotive cues in SAD was undertaken. ALE meta-analysis, a voxel-based meta-analytic technique, was used to estimate the most significant activations during emotional recognition. Results: Seven studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, constituting a total of 91 subjects with SAD, and 93 healthy controls. The most significant areas of activation during emotional vs. neutral stimuli in individuals with SAD compared to controls were: bilateral amygdala, left medial temporal lobe encompassing the entorhinal cortex, left medial aspect of the inferior temporal lobe encompassing perirhinal cortex and parahippocampus, right anterior cingulate, right globus pallidus, and distal tip of right postcentral gyrus. Conclusion: The results are consistent with neuroanatomic models of the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning, and the importance of the limbic circuitry in mediating anxiety symptoms. PMID:23335892

Hattingh, Coenraad J.; Ipser, J.; Tromp, S. A.; Syal, S.; Lochner, C.; Brooks, S. J.; Stein, D. J.

2012-01-01

199

Disordered Eating and Gender Identity Disorder: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between disordered eating and gender identity was examined in a sample of 20 (11 female-to-male, 9 male-to-female) transgender Finnish adults, aged 21–62 years. Using semi-structured interviews, participants' own understanding of the underlying causes of their disordered eating was analyzed, as well as the effect of gender reassignment on eating behaviors and cognitions. A majority of the participants reported

Monica Ålgars; Katarina Alanko; Pekka Santtila; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2012-01-01

200

Eating disorder symptomatology in major depression.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the relationship between eating disorder symptomatology and severity of depression in depressed outpatients before and after antidepressant treatment and assessed the effect of treatment on eating disorder symptomatology. One hundred thirty-nine outpatients (82 women and 57 men) with major depressive disorder (MDD) filled out the eating disorder inventory (EDI) before and after 8 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine 20 mg/day. Diagnoses of MDD and possible comorbid eating disorders were made with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R-Patient Edition. Several EDI subscales correlated significantly with severity of depression both at baseline and endpoint. Additionally, all EDI subscales showed a statistically significant decrease following fluoxetine treatment, and changes in depression severity following treatment were significantly related to changes in EDI bulimia, ineffectiveness, perfectionism, and interpersonal distress subscale scores. These results suggest that several symptoms characteristic of eating disordered patients are linked to the severity of depressive symptoms. Decreases in eating disorder symptomatology following antidepressant treatment may be related to changes in depressive symptoms. PMID:9091594

Fava, M; Abraham, M; Clancy-Colecchi, K; Pava, J A; Matthews, J; Rosenbaum, J F

1997-03-01

201

Physiologic Screening Test for Eating Disorders/Disordered Eating Among Female Collegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop and evaluate a physiologic screening test specifically designed for collegiate female athletes engaged in athletic competition or highly athletic performances in order to detect eating disorders/disordered eating. No such physiologically based test currently exists. Methods: Subjects included 148 (84.5%) of 175 volunteer, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (n = 92), club (n = 15), and dance team (n = 41) athletes 18 to 25 years old who attended a large, Midwestern university. Participants completed 4 tests: 2 normed for the general population (Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Bulimia Test-Revised); a new physiologic test, developed and pilot tested by the investigators, called the Physiologic Screening Test; and the Eating Disorder Exam 12.0D, a structured, validated, diagnostic interview used for criterion validity. Results: The 18-item Physiologic Screening Test produced the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (78%) and was superior to the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (sensitivity = 62%, specificity = 74%) and Bulimia Test-Revised (sensitivity = 27%, specificity = 99%). A substantial number (n = 51, 35%) of athletes were classified as eating disordered/disordered eating. Conclusions: The Physiologic Screening Test should be considered for screening athletes for eating disorders/disordered eating. The Physiologic Screening Test seems to be a viable alternative to existing tests because it is specifically designed for female athletes, it is brief (4 measurements and 14 items), and validity is enhanced and response bias is lessened because the purpose is less obvious, especially when included as part of a mandatory preparticipation examination. PMID:14737209

Larkin, Laurie J.S.; Coster, Daniel C.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Abood, Doris A.

2003-01-01

202

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)  

MedlinePLUS

... overly driven to be thin, have very disturbed body image, restrict their caloric intake to unnatural and unhealthy ... might play in its development. Eating disorders and body image is commonly seen as a problem affecting women, ...

203

The Children of Mothers with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is good evidence that children of parents with psychological disorders are themselves at increased risk of disturbances in their development. Although there has been considerable research on a variety of disorders such as depression and alcohol, research on the children of parents with eating disorders has been relatively recent. This paper aims to review the evidence and covers a

Priti Patel; Rebecca Wheatcroft; Rebecca J. Park; Alan Stein

2002-01-01

204

Lifetime course of eating disorders: design and validity testing of a new strategy to define the eating disorders phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Aetiological studies of eating disorders would benefit from a solution to the problem of instability of eating disorder symptoms. We present an approach to defining an eating disorders phenotype based on the retro- spective assessment of lifetime eating disorders symptoms to define a lifetime pattern of illness. We further validate this approach by testing the most common lifetime categories

M. Anderluh; K. Tchanturia; S. Rabe-Hesketh; D. Collier; J. Treasure

2009-01-01

205

Learning from Collegiate Athletes who have Recovered from Eating Disorders: Advice to Coaches, Parents, and Other Athletes with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to elicit advice from female collegiate athletes who achieved recovery from an eating disorder for coaches, parents, and other athletes with eating disorders. Participants were 16 female collegiate athletes who had experienced eating disorders. Data was obtained through structured interview questions. Advice for coaches included confronting athletes with a suspected eating disorder and receiving

Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle; Amy Baltzell

2012-01-01

206

Body Image in Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impairment of body image in patients with binge eating disorder\\u000a (BED). Materials and Methods: A 3-year longitudinal study was undertaken in 25 BED obese patients and 26 non-BED obese patients\\u000a who had undergone biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) for obesity. The body image was evaluated by the Eating Disorder Inventory\\u000a body dissatisfaction

Gian Franco Adami; Giuseppe M. Marinari; Annalisa Bressani; Sara Testa; Nicola Scopinaro

1998-01-01

207

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

208

Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating  

E-print Network

Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating The most common time of life for an eating disorder to develop is between the ages of 17 - 20. This coincides with the college years. Research has shown that as many as a third of college-age women have disordered eating patterns

209

Gender and Age Differences in the Core Triad of Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism is an extensively studied disorder in which the gender disparity in prevalence has received much attention. In contrast, only a few studies examine gender differences in symptomatology. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 peer reviewed original publications examines gender differences in the core triad of impairments in autism.…

Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia J. M.; van Eeten, Evelien; Groen, Wouter B.; Van Deurzen, Patricia A.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

2014-01-01

210

A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Reading Instruction on the Reading Skills of Students with or at Risk of Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of a meta-analysis of the effect of reading instruction on the reading skills of students with or at risk of behavioral disorders (BD) are reported. The goal of the synthesis was to extend the work of Coleman and Vaughn by (a) detailing independent variables and outcome measures for each study, (b)including studies sampling from…

Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.; Mooney, Paul

2010-01-01

211

A Meta-Analysis of Differences in IQ Profiles between Individuals with Asperger's Disorder and High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did…

Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y.; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

2014-01-01

212

Disproportionality of English Learners with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Meta-Analysis with English Learners with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disproportionate representation of English learners in special education has been a longstanding and ongoing concern. However, research examining disproportionate representation of English learners receiving special education services for emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) has been limited. To address this gap, a meta-analysis of…

Gage, Nicholas; Gersten, Russell; Sugai, George; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

2013-01-01

213

Meta-Analysis of Social Skills Interventions of Single-Case Research for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Results from Three-Level HLM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 115 single-case studies with 343 participants that examined the effectiveness of social skills interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The average effect size of the included studies was 1.40 (SD = 0.43, 95% CL = 1.32-1.48, N = 115). In the further, several…

Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying

2013-01-01

214

[Epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain].  

PubMed

Considerable advances have been made in research of epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain. This report summarizes recent studies. This review suggests that the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors in Spanish clinical and non-clinical populations is not markedly different from that already reported for other developed countries. The wide range of variation in published prevalence rates for eating disorders in adults and adolescents can be understood in the face of the many methodological problems inherent to this type of research. Anorexia nervosa and related eating disorders are most commonly investigated in adolescent girls and young women and a number of researchers have investigated prevalence rates in this group. No good epidemiological research has been carried out with child populations and male populations. PMID:12677473

Ruiz-Lazaro, P M

2003-01-01

215

[Eating disorders, body image and sexuality].  

PubMed

Eating disorders are a growing problem in healthcare. Altered eating behaviors are a consequence of cognitions and emotions generated by low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with body image and schema. It is possible, that a negative body image, and in many cases, distorted, may be the most difficult feature to approach and improve in this disorders. But the dissatisfaction to one's own body would not be related only to altered eating behaviors. Several studies show that body image and one's own body perception are an essential feature in sexual experiences, especially in women's sexuality. This article describes the relation and influences between body image and women's sexuality, and the sexuality in women with eating disorders. PMID:24260753

Alba, Patricio; Kes, Mariana G

2013-07-01

216

Eating disorder emergencies: understanding the medical complexities of the hospitalized eating disordered patient.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients. PMID:15571940

Cartwright, Martina M

2004-12-01

217

Eating disorders and attachment: the effects of hidden family processes on eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study examined pattern of attachment in cohort of women with an eating disorder to determine what types of self- protective strategies they used, and further whether there was a specific relationship between strategy and diagnosis. Method: The participants were 62 young women with an eating disorder (19 with anorexia nervosa, 26 with bulimia nervosa and 17 with bulimic

Francoise Ringer; Patricia McKinsey Crittenden

2007-01-01

218

Implicit Family Process Rules in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…

Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.

2009-01-01

219

Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

Klasey, Nicole

2009-01-01

220

Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/ DE). No validated eating disorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disordered eating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eating disordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eating disorder or disordered eating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disordered eating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses. PMID:16558658

Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

2000-01-01

221

Genetic variants associated with disordered eating  

PubMed Central

Objective While the genetic contribution to the development of anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been recognized, there has been little progress relative to other psychiatric disorders in identifying specific susceptibility genes. Here we have carried out a GWAS on an unselected community sample of female twins surveyed for eating disorders. Method We conducted genome wide association analyses in 2564 female twins for four different phenotypes derived from self-report data relating to lifetime presence of 15 types of disordered eating: anorexia nervosa spectrum, bulimia nervosa spectrum, purging via substances, and a binary measure of no disordered eating behaviors versus 3 or more. To complement the variant level results we also conducted gene-based association tests using VEGAS. Results While no variants reached genome-wide significance at the level of p<10?8, six regions were suggestive (p<5×10?7). The current results implicate the following genes: CLEC5A; LOC136242, TSHZ1 and SYTL5 for the anorexia nervosa spectrum phenotype, NT5C1B for the bulimia nervosa spectrum phenotype, and ATP8A2 for the disordered eating behaviors phenotype. Discussion As with other medical and psychiatric phenotypes, much larger samples and meta-analyses will ultimately be needed to identify genes and pathways contributing to predisposition to eating disorders. PMID:23568457

Wade, Tracey D; Gordon, Scott; Medland, Sarah; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Heath, Andrew C; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G

2013-01-01

222

Eating Disorders: Could They be Autoimmune Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent research on Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) has shown an increasing understanding of the biological and physiological abnormalities that underlie the development of an eating disorder. Cultural pressures, individual and family experiences, along with physiological and genetic systems all appear to contribute to the onset of these disorders. There is significant evidence for genetic factors in

Melissa Stevenson

2006-01-01

223

Investigation of Loss of Control Eating Disorder in Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Loss of control (LOC) over eating is reported during middle childhood samples. LOC eating is associated with overweight and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. However, data suggest that children (6-12y) may have a different clustering of associate...

C. Elliott

2010-01-01

224

Prevalence and risk factors of postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated that women develop postpartum PTSD. Prevalence of postpartum PTSD has ranged from 1% to 30%, and many risk factors have been identified as predictors of postpartum PTSD. While qualitative reviews have identified patterns of risk, the lack of quantitative reviews prevents the field from identifying specific risk factors and making a single estimate of the prevalence of postpartum PTSD. The current meta-analysis investigated prevalence and risk factors of postpartum PTSD, both due to childbirth and other events, among community and targeted samples. Prevalence of postpartum PTSD in community samples was estimated to be 3.1% and in at-risk samples at 15.7%. Important risk factors in community samples included current depression, labor experiences such as interactions with medical staff, as well as a history of psychopathology. In at-risk samples, impactful risk factors included current depression and infant complications. Further research should investigate how attitudes towards pregnancy and childbirth may interact with women's experiences during delivery. Additionally, studies need to begin to evaluate possible long-term effects that these symptoms may have on women and their families. PMID:24952134

Grekin, Rebecca; O'Hara, Michael W

2014-07-01

225

Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorders Inventory: Norms for Adolescent Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been given to measuring symptoms of eating disorders in adolescents, but representative norms for the two widely used measures, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), have not been available. The present study collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in Grades 9–12. Significant sex, but not age, differences were

James C. Rosen; Nancy T. Silberg; Janet Gross

1988-01-01

226

Effect of Orlistat in Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Binge eating disorder represents a significant public health problem, with up to 50% of weight loss program participants displaying this disorder. In previous studies with orlistat, patients with binge eating disorder were excluded. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of orlistat in obese patients with binge eating disorder.Research Methods and Procedures: Eighty-nine patients with clinically

Alain Golay; Anne Laurent-Jaccard; Frank Habicht; Jean-Pierre Gachoud; Mireille Chabloz; Anne Kammer; Yves Schutz

2005-01-01

227

Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eating disorders,…

Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

2003-01-01

228

Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered

Bryla, Karen Y.

2003-01-01

229

The Heritability of Eating Disorders: Methods and Current Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Family, twin, and adoption studies of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder (BED), and the proposed\\u000a purging disorder presentation (PD) have consistently demonstrated that genetic factors contribute to the variance in liability\\u000a to eating disorders. In addition, endophenotypes and component phenotypes of eating disorders have been evaluated and provide\\u000a further insight regarding genetic factors influencing eating disorders and

Laura M. Thornton; Suzanne E. Mazzeo; Cynthia M. Bulik

230

A transdiagnostic approach to understanding eating disorders.  

PubMed

Categorical models dominate the eating disorder field, but the tandem use of categorical and dimensional models has been proposed. A transdiagnostic dimensional model, number of lifetime eating disorder behaviors (LEDB), was examined with respect to (1) its relationship to a variety of indicators of the individual's functioning, (2) the degree to which it was influenced by genetic and environmental risk factors, and (3) exposure to specific environmental risk factors. Data from self-report and interview from 1002 female twins (mean age = 34.91 years, SD = 2.09) were examined. While 15.4% women met criteria for a lifetime eating disorder, 29% had at least one LEDB. The dimensional measure provided an indicator of associated functioning, and was influenced primarily by the nonshared environment. The number of LEDB was associated with the degree of impaired functioning. This impairment was associated with conflict between parents and criticism from parents when growing up. PMID:16840847

Wade, Tracey D; Bergin, Jacqueline L; Martin, Nicholas G; Gillespie, Nathan A; Fairburn, Christopher G

2006-07-01

231

Issues in mapping genes for eating disorders.  

PubMed

Recent twin studies show that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of eating disorders. As in many other fields, there is much enthusiasm regarding the possibility of locating the specific genes that influence the risk of eating disorders. Advances in molecular and statistical technology have made this task more feasible than it was in the past, and continued enhancements in new technology are expected in the future. Despite these advances, the resources required to map a gene for traits as complex as eating disorders are likely to be enormous. Researchers considering such an undertaking may wish to look for ways to reduce this demand, such as (1) using multivariate analyses, (2) studying intermediate quantitative phenotypes, (3) using large sibships, (4) analytic enhancements (e.g., multipoint analyses), (5) reconceptualizing power, (6) data pooling, and (7) disequilibrium mapping. PMID:9550879

Allison, D B; Faith, M S

1997-01-01

232

Cognitions and emotions in eating disorders.  

PubMed

The cognitive model of eating disorders (EDs) states that the processing of external and internal stimuli might be biased in mental disorders. These biases, or cognitive errors, systematically distort the individual's experiences and, in that way, maintains the eating disorder. This chapter presents an updated literature review of experimental studies investigating these cognitive biases. Results indicate that ED patients show biases in attention, interpretation, and memory when it comes to the processing of food-, weight-, and body shape-related cues. Some recent studies show that they also demonstrate errors in general cognitive abilities such as set shifting, central coherence, and decision making. A future challenge is whether cognitive biases and processes can be manipulated. Few preliminary studies suggest that an attention retraining and training in the cognitive modulation of food reward processing might be effective strategies to change body satisfaction, food cravings, and eating behavior. PMID:21243468

Siep, Nicolette; Jansen, Anita; Havermans, Remco; Roefs, Anne

2011-01-01

233

Influences of disordered eating in prepubescent children.  

PubMed

Research has indicated that children as young as age 5 begin to demonstrate preoccupation with body image and weight, with the desire to be thin. Much of this preoccupation is influenced by increased public awareness of the obesity epidemic, which in turn has placed extreme pressures on school-age children, often leading to prejudices about shape and weight. This negative interaction can lead to a fear of being fat and gaining weight that develops into low self-esteem and eating disorders. An extensive amount of research has investigated the influences of eating disorders among adolescent children, but little has covered this health threat involving prepubescent children. This article explores the relationship between eating disorders, prepubescent children, and various influences. PMID:19266972

Cave, Kerry E

2009-02-01

234

Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.  

PubMed

The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (p<0.001). For DEAS total score, AN and BN patients were similar and all other were different (p<0.001). Similarities suggested between BN and BED were true just for the "Relationship with food" and "Idea of normal eating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes. PMID:24768646

Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

2014-05-28

235

The evolving genetic foundations of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Data described earlier are clear in establishing a role for genes in the development of eating abnormalities. Estimates from the most rigorous studies suggest that more than 50% of the variance in eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors can be accounted for by genetic effects. These high estimates indicate a need for studies identifying the specific genes contributing to this large proportion of variance. Twin and family studies suggest that several heritable characteristics that are commonly comorbid with AN and BN may share genetic transmission with these disorders, including anxiety disorders or traits, body weight, and possibly major depression. Moreover, some developmental research suggests that the genes involved in ovarian hormones or the genes that these steroids affect also may be genetically linked to eating abnormalities. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infant stages. However, promising areas for future research have already been identified (e.g., 5-HT2A receptor gene, UCP-2/UCP-3 gene, and estrogen receptor beta gene), and several large-scale linkage and association studies are underway. These studies likely will provide invaluable information regarding the appropriate phenotypes to be included in genetic studies and the genes with the most influence on the development of these disorders. PMID:11416922

Klump, K L; Kaye, W H; Strober, M

2001-06-01

236

Animal models of eating disorder traits.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functionally and systematically study neurobiological mechanisms underlying these disorders. Interspecies trait genetics may offer opportunities to identify common neurobiological mechanisms underlying eating disorder characteristics relevant to the initiation, progression, and/or maintenance of the disease, such as cognitive rigidity, increased anxiety levels, and behavioral hyperactivity. These can subsequently be tested directly by studying allelic variation in mice and human subjects and by applying methods that can modify gene expression levels in rodent models. Increasing our knowledge about these traits and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms will be relevant to develop new therapies for patients within the heterogeneous eating disorder populations. Novel mouse genetic and phenotyping tools offer a way to study these neurobehavioral traits under controlled environmental and genetic background conditions. PMID:21243478

Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

2011-01-01

237

A review of eating disorders research in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to summarize research findings on eating disorders and the current state of the field in Mexico. Papers published in indexed journals and graduate dissertations were retrieved, using “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “body image,” “binge eating,” “restrained eating,” “weight and shape concern,” and “dieting” as keywords. These were combined with the Boolean operator

Claudia Unikel; Ietza Bojorquez

2007-01-01

238

[Eating disorders in childhood and adolescence. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder].  

PubMed

The most important eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia, which most frequently occur for the first time during adolescence and continue into adulthood. Medical complications and accompanying psychological disturbances cause a significant mortality rate of up to 6% in anorexia and up to 3% in bulimia. The pathogenesis of eating disorders is still unclear. Current etiological concepts are multidimensional including biological, individual, familial, and sociocultural factors. In spite of a great variety of therapeutic possibilities, the prognosis for eating disorders is quite poor. In the long term, only about 50% of the persons affected overcome their illness. Preventive measures are therefore indispensable. PMID:15205793

Gerlinghoff, M; Backmund, H

2004-03-01

239

Life Beyond the Eating Disorder: Education, Relationships, and Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated sociodemographic characteristics in women with and without lifetime eating disorders. Method Participants were from a multi-site international study of eating disorders (N = 2096). Education level, relationship status, and reproductive status were examined across eating disorder subtypes and compared with a healthy control group. Results Overall, women with eating disorders were less educated than controls, and duration of illness and age of onset were associated with educational attainment. Menstrual status was associated with both relationship and reproductive status, but eating disorder subtypes did not differ significantly from each other or from healthy controls on these dimensions. Conclusion Differences in educational attainment, relationships, and reproduction do exist in individuals with eating disorders and are differentially associated with various eating disorder symptoms and characteristics. These data could assist with educating patients and family members about long-term consequences of eating disorders. PMID:20143323

Maxwell, Millie; Thornton, Laura M.; Root, Tammy L.; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Strober, Michael; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L.; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Plotnicov, Kathy; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2010-01-01

240

Meta-analysis, Database, and Meta-regression of 98 Structural Imaging Studies in Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Despite 25 years of structural imaging in bi- polar disorder, brain regions affected in the disorder are ill defined. Objectives: To use meta-analytical techniques to in- vestigate structural brain changes in bipolar disorder and to assess the effect of medication use and demographic and clinical variables. Data Sources: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched from 1980-2007 for

Matthew J. Kempton; John R. Geddes; Ulrich Ettinger; Steven C. R. Williams; Paul M. Grasby

2008-01-01

241

Bulimic Eating Disorders in Primary Care: Hidden Morbidity Still?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the features of women with bulimic-type eating disorders (n = 24) attending primary care in two smaller urban regions of the USA. The assessment included measures of eating disorder\\u000a psychopathology, medical comorbidity, impairment in role functioning, potential barriers to treatment and actual use of health\\u000a services. Eating disorders, primarily variants of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder not

Jonathan M. MondTricia; Tricia C. Myers; Ross D. Crosby; Phillipa J. Hay; James E. Mitchell

2010-01-01

242

Eating Disorders in Men: Underdiagnosed, Undertreated, and Misunderstood  

PubMed Central

This article provides a survey of eating disorders in men, highlights the dramatic rise in eating disorders, identifies issues specific to males, and suggests areas for research and intervention. This survey concludes that men with eating disorders are currently under-diagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood by many clinicians who encounter them. Ongoing research addressing these issues is expected to result in assessment tools and treatment interventions that will advance positive outcomes for men with eating disorders. PMID:22985232

Strother, Eric; Lemberg, Raymond; Stanford, Stevie Chariese; Turberville, Dayton

2012-01-01

243

Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Binge Eating Disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided Self Help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and cost-effective than existing, efficacious BED specialty treatments which are limited in public health utility and impact given their time and expense demands. No existing BED GSH treatment has incorporated affect regulation models of binge eating, which appears warranted given research linking negative affect and binge eating. Integrative Response Therapy (IRT), a new group-based guided self-help treatment, based on the affect regulation model of binge eating, that has shown initial promise in a pilot sample of adults meeting DSM IV criteria for BED, is described. Fifty-four% and 67% of participants were abstinent at post-treatment and three month follow-up respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of binge days over the previous 28 days from baseline to post-treatment [14.44 (±7.16) to 3.15 (±5.70); t=7.71, p<.001; d=2.2] and from baseline to follow-up [14.44 (±7.16) to 1.50 (±2.88); t=5.64, p<.001; d=1.7]. All subscales from both the Eating Disorder Examination – Questionnaire and Emotional Eating Scale were significantly lower at post-treatment compared to baseline. 100% of IRT participants would recommend the program to a friend or family member in need. IRT’s longer-term efficacy and acceptability are presently being tested in a National Institute of Mental Health funded randomized controlled trial. PMID:24605043

Robinson, Athena

2014-01-01

244

Meta-Analysis of the Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity to the Depressive and Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…

Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

2010-01-01

245

Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

2006-01-01

246

Exercise Involvement and Eating-Disordered Characteristics in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

While several reports have suggested a relationship between involvement in regular exercise activity and the presence of eating disorders or eating-disordered characteristics, other research has demonstrated no such association. Methodological difficulties and interpretive differences among researchers contributing to these disparate findings are reviewed. The present study investigated the relationship between exercise involvement and eating-disordered characteristics in 159 “exerciser” and 129

Eve M. Wolf; T. John Akamatsu

1994-01-01

247

Competing on all fronts: Achievement orientation and disordered eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strikingly high prevalence rates of symptoms of disordered eating among college women have been documented. The question arises as to whether one aspect of the college experience, achievement orientation, is associated with disordered eating. Competing hypotheses may be generated regarding the relationship between achievement orientation and disordered eating, with arguments for either a positive or negative relationship. The Work and

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Lisa R. Silberstein; Neil E. Grunberg; Judith Rodin

1990-01-01

248

Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction, and fearful attachment scores were positively

Jenna Elgin; Mary Pritchard

2006-01-01

249

Eating Disorders and Social Support: Perspectives of Recovered Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorder researchers have focused more on the etiology and treatment and less on what happens for individuals during the recovery process from an eating disorder. For this qualitative study, we examined how social supports were helpful and hurtful during the eating disorder recovery process and learned about varying experiences with social supports from the perspectives of 22 recovered women.

Deanna Linville; Tiffany Brown; Katrina Sturm; Tori McDougal

2012-01-01

250

Medical Providers' Screening, Training and Intervention Practices for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals struggling with an eating disorder are typically first seen by their family physician, yet little is known about how medical providers are trained to work with eating disorders or about their screening and intervention practices (Clarke & Polimeni-Walker, 2004). This study sought to examine frontline medical providers' eating disorder screening and intervention practices as well as their training needs.

Deanna Linville; Autumn Benton; Maya ONeil; Katie Sturm

2010-01-01

251

Eating Disorders in Adulthood Nicole Lurline Mensah1  

E-print Network

psychotropic medication to treat an underlying psychiatric illness at time of their first Eating disorder visit Eating Disorders in Adulthood Nicole Lurline Mensah1 , Theresa Rohr-Kirchgraber2 , Nathan of Pediatrics3 The lifetime prevalence of acquiring an Eating Disorder (ED) in the US is 0.6­4.5%. The focus

Zhou, Yaoqi

252

Barriers to treatment for eating disorders among ethnically diverse women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined barriers to treatment in an ethnically diverse com- munity sample of women with eating disorders. Method: Participants were 61 women (22 Hispanics, 8 Asians, 12 Blacks, 19 Whites) with eating disorders. Diagnosis was determined using the Eating Disorder Examination. Treatment-seeking history, barriers to treatment seek- ing, ethnic identity, and acculturation were assessed. Results: Although 85% of

Fary M. Cachelin; Ramona Rebeck; Catherine Veisel; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore

2001-01-01

253

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

254

Assessing Object Relations and Social Cognitive Correlates of Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between eating disorder and disturbances in object relations and cognitive structure was investigated. Undergraduate women (N = 183) were assessed for eating disorder on two measures and for object relations deficits on the four subscales of the Bell Object Relations Inventory. Cognitive structure was assessed using an interpersonal repertory grid. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that eating disorder was

Roberta S. Heesacker; Greg J. Neimeyer

1990-01-01

255

Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating  

E-print Network

of studies examined these effects by investigating relationships between eating disorder symptoms, prenatal were used for this study. Disordered eating was again assessed with the MEBS total score, while salivaPreliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating KELLY L. KLUMP1

Breedlove, Marc

256

Memory bias for fatness stimuli in the eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation studied the presence of a memory bias for words connoting fatness in persons diagnosed with an eating disorder. Eating disorder subjects were compared to a nonsymptomatic control group and to a symptomatic (weight-preoccupied) control group. A memory bias for fatness words in eating disorder patients was found. There was no evidence for a memory bias in either group

Shannon B. Sebastian; Donald A. Williamson; David C. Blouin

1996-01-01

257

The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

2008-01-01

258

Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder

Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

2010-01-01

259

Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

Talleyrand, Regine M.

2012-01-01

260

College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

2010-01-01

261

Changes in Television and Magazine Exposure and Eating Disorder Symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between girls' media exposure and their development of eating disorder symptomatology was assessed. At Time 1 and Time 2 (16 months later), participants (N = 374; M age = 12.0) completed a questionnaire that assessed eating disorder sympto-matology and television and fashion magazine exposure. Girls were divided into 3 groups: increased, decreased, or no change in eating disorder

Kimberley K. Vaughan; Gregory T. Fouts

2003-01-01

262

Males and Females with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 15 male and 15 female patients with serious eating disorders were compared. The two groups were similar in terms of demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiological complications. All three males who had bone density assessed had significant osteopenia. Abuse histories were obtained from 10 males and 10 females; childhood sexual abuse was as common among males as among

Pauline S. Powers; Eve G. Spratt

1994-01-01

263

Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

Hamilton, Kristin L.

264

Disordered Eating in Women of Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Therapists who assume that eating disorders affect only White middle class females may fail to detect such problems in Blacks and other minority patients. Therapists are encouraged to be more culturally sensitive in treating minority patients for these and other problems. (DM)

Root, Maria P. P.

1990-01-01

265

Adolescents with eating disorders: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents face stress in relation to normal growing up, to cultural pressures in looking slim and having a body image that mirrors peers' norms and values. Many adolescents make it through their youth without showing significant behavioural difficulties. Others negotiate these pressures through eating disorders. Both quantitative and qualitative data are used to identify adolescents' experiences and meanings in relation

Zoubida Guernina

1998-01-01

266

Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated

Catherine Salmon; Aurelio José Figueredo; Lindsey Woodburn

267

Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

2013-01-01

268

Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

Halmi, Katherine A.

2009-01-01

269

An Empirically Supported Eating Disorder Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An eating disorder prevention program was completed with middle school, high school, and college females. Some successful outcomes included: (1) facilitating an acknowledgement of pressures to attain a model skeletal look; (2) changing attitudes about standards of beauty; and (3) altering the participants' current and future intentional use of…

Phelps, LeAdelle; Sapia, Jennifer; Nathanson, David; Nelson, Linda

2000-01-01

270

[Treatment study hospitalizations and eating disorders].  

PubMed

Treatment-study hospitalisations are indicated in the case of severe eating disorders. This original programme for long term hospitalisation enables young patients to follow an individualised treatment at the same time as receiving support in their studies, adapted to the clinical condition. PMID:23923455

Mammar, Nadia

2013-01-01

271

A meta-analysis and scoping review of social cognition performance in social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Social cognition deficits are observed in a variety of psychiatric illnesses. However, data concerning anxiety disorders are sparse and difficult to interpret. This meta-analysis aims at determining if social cognition is affected in social phobia (SP) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to non-clinical controls and the specificity of such deficits relatively to other anxiety disorders. The scoping review aims to identify research gaps in the field. Forty studies assessing mentalizing, emotion recognition, social perception/knowledge or attributional style in anxiety disorders were included, totalizing 1417 anxious patients and 1321 non-clinical controls. Results indicate distinct patterns of social cognition impairments: people with PTSD show deficits in mentalizing (effect size d = -1.13) and emotion recognition (d = -1.6) while other anxiety disorders including SP showed attributional biases (d = -0.53 to d = -1.15). The scoping review identified several under investigated domains of social cognition in anxiety disorders. Some recommendations are expressed for future studies to explore the full range of social cognition in anxiety disorders and allow direct comparisons between different disorders. PMID:24239443

Plana, India; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Battaglia, Marco; Achim, Amélie M

2014-03-01

272

Cognitive Biases in Depression and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the link between cognitive biases (i.e., attention biases and implicit associations) and symptoms of depression\\u000a and eating disorders and whether the content of these biases is disorder-specific. These hypotheses were examined with a sample\\u000a of 202 undergraduate women. Cognitive biases were measured via computer-based tasks (i.e., the probe detection task and the\\u000a Implicit Association Test) and symptom

Jessica S. BenasBrandon; Brandon E. Gibb

2011-01-01

273

An introduction to eating disorders: clinical presentation, epidemiology, and prognosis.  

PubMed

The spectrum of eating disorders varies widely, ranging from mildly abnormal eating habits to life-threatening chronic disease. Given the many different cultural food norms and individual preferences, along with the fact that dieting behavior is extremely common, it can be challenging to differentiate unusual eating behaviors from clinically significant eating disorders. In this article, the authors provide an introduction to eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified, focusing on the clinical presentation, epidemiology, and prognosis. PMID:20413691

Miller, Catherine A; Golden, Neville H

2010-04-01

274

A meta–analysis of functional neuroimaging in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent neurobiological models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that a dysfunction in orbitofrontal–subcortical circuitry underlies the etiology of this disorder. Much of the empirical support for these theories comes from studies using neuroimaging techniques to compare brain activity in OCD patients with that in non-OCD controls. Qualitative reviews of this literature implicate the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. In

Stephen P. Whiteside; John D. Port; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

2004-01-01

275

Age-related change of neurochemical abnormality in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Prevalence and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) change with advancing age. However, neurochemical background of such age-related change is yet to be elucidated. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of 16 proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies comprising 270 individuals with ADHD and 235 controls. Standardized mean differences were calculated and used as an effect size. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression to explore the effect of age on neurochemical abnormality were performed. A random effects model identified a significantly higher-than-normal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but no significant differences of other metabolites in that area. No significant difference in metabolite levels was demonstrated in any other region. Sensitivity analysis of children with ADHD revealed significantly higher-than-normal NAA, whereas no significant difference was found in adults with ADHD. Meta-regression revealed significant correlation between advanced age and normal levels of NAA in the mPFC, suggesting that age-dependent abnormality of NAA level in the mPFC is a potential neural basis of age-related change of symptoms of ADHD. PMID:23735885

Aoki, Yuta; Inokuchi, Ryota; Suwa, Hiroshi; Aoki, Ai

2013-09-01

276

A systematic review and meta-analysis of eye-tracking studies in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Aberrant eye gaze mechanisms have been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies of eye movements in children with ASD reveal diminished eye gaze duration and lack of specific eye gaze fixation to the eyes and/or mouth compared with controls. However, findings to date have been contradictory. We examined eye-tracking studies on face processing in children with ASD and conducted meta-analyses to examine whether these children demonstrate atypical fixation on primary facial regions. Twenty eye-tracking studies in children with ASD were reviewed, of which the results from 14 studies were incorporated in the meta-analyses that evaluated fixation duration on (i) eyes (eight studies) and (ii) mouth (six studies). The results reveal that children with ASD have significantly reduced gaze fixation to the eye region of faces. The results of the meta-analyses indicate that ASD patients have significant impairments in gaze fixation to the eyes. On the other hand, no significant difference was uncovered in terms of fixation to the mouth region; however, this finding needs to be interpreted with caution because of the significant heterogeneity in the mouth fixation studies. The findings of this meta-analysis add further clarity to an expanding literature and suggest that specific eye gaze fixation to the eye region may represent a robust biomarker for the condition. The heterogeneity associated with the mouth fixation data precludes any definitive statement as to the robustness of these findings. PMID:24988218

Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A; Chitty, Kate M; Hermens, Daniel F; Hickie, Ian B; Lagopoulos, Jim

2014-12-01

277

World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kim, Hyun

2014-01-01

278

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pharmacological Treatment of the Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit behaviors and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to determine the relative efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD by identifying all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD. We located seven trials involving 225 children. A random effects meta-analysis of four methylphenidate trials showed methylphenidate to be effective for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD (ES = .67). Several adverse events were greater for children were taking methylphenidate compared to placebo. An individual trial of clonidine and two trials of atomoxetine suggest these agents may also be effective in treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD. PMID:23468071

Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.; Bloch, Michael H.

2013-01-01

279

A meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing reboxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of major depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present work was to conduct a meta-analysis comparing reboxetine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for major depressive disorder (MDD). Medline\\/Pubmed was searched for double-blind, randomized trials comparing these two agents for MDD. The makers of reboxetine (Pfizer Inc.) were also contacted to provide missing data and\\/or unpublished studies. 9 trials (n=2641) were combined using

George I. Papakostas; J. Craig Nelson; Siegfried Kasper; Hans-Jürgen Möller

2008-01-01

280

Borderline Personality and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is an Axis II disorder that is characterized by an intact façade, longstanding self-regulation difficulties and self-harm behavior, and unstable interpersonal relationships and mood. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), the prevalence of BPD in the general population is around 2%. The symptoms of the

Randy A. Sansone; John L. Levitt

2004-01-01

281

A Therapeutic Approach to Treating the Eating Disorder\\/Borderline Personality Disorder Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of eating disorder patients is renowned for its challenges, complexities, and inherent risks. When eating disorder patients also exhibit concomitant personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder, treatment may become extraordinarily difficult. Though the exact prevalence of this subgroup of patients is not explicitly known, current data suggests that patients with eating disorders and borderline personality disorder represent

John L. Levitt

2004-01-01

282

The heritability of eating disorders: methods and current findings.  

PubMed

Family, twin, and adoption studies of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder (BED), and the proposed purging disorder presentation (PD) have consistently demonstrated that genetic factors contribute to the variance in liability to eating disorders. In addition, endophenotypes and component phenotypes of eating disorders have been evaluated and provide further insight regarding genetic factors influencing eating disorders and eating disorder diagnostic criteria. Many of these phenotypes have demonstrated substantial heritability. This chapter reviews biometrical genetic methods and current findings from family and twin studies that investigate the role of genes and environment in the etiology of eating disorders. We review the methodology used to estimate heritability, the results of these studies, and discuss the implications of this research for the basic conceptualization of eating disorders and the future value of twin modeling in the molecular genetic era. PMID:21243474

Thornton, Laura M; Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Bulik, Cynthia M

2011-01-01

283

Efficacy of turmeric in the treatment of digestive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Digestive disorders pose significant burdens to millions of people worldwide in terms of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Turmeric has been traditionally used for conditions associated with the digestive system, and its therapeutic benefits were also confirmed in clinical studies. However, rigorous systematic review on this topic is severely limited. Our study aims to systematically review the therapeutic and adverse effects of turmeric and its compounds on digestive disorders, including dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods/Design This study will include both randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of turmeric or its compounds in comparison to a placebo or any other active interventions for digestive disorders without any restrictions on participant age or language of publication. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients that have experienced treatment success. Secondary outcomes are the prevalence of an individual symptom of digestive disorders, the proportion of patients who experienced relapse, the number of physician visits/hospitalization due to digestive disorders, health-related quality of life and the proportion of patients who experienced adverse events. Relevant studies will be identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, Dissertations & Theses Database and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials from their inception to August 31, 2013. In addition, grey literature such as information published on drug regulatory agencies websites and abstracts/proceedings from conferences will also be reviewed. A calibration exercise will be conducted in a process of study screening, whereby two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts from the literature search. Any conflicts will be resolved through a subsequent team discussion. The same process will be adopted in data abstraction and methodological quality appraisal by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We will describe study and patient characteristics, risk of bias/methodological quality results, and outcomes of the included studies. If we have sufficient data and homogeneity, a random effects meta-analysis will be performed. Discussion Our results will help patients and healthcare practitioners to make informed decisions when considering turmeric as an alternative therapy for digestive disorders. Trial registration PROSPERO registry number: CRD42013005739. PMID:24973984

2014-01-01

284

Smaller hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder are masked by exposure to lithium: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Smaller hippocampal volumes relative to controls are among the most replicated neuroimaging findings in individuals with unipolar but not bipolar depression. Preserved hippocampal volumes in most studies of participants with bipolar disorder may reflect potential neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li). Methods To investigate hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder while controlling for Li exposure, we performed a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies that subdivided patients based on the presence or absence of current Li treatment. To achieve the best coverage of literature, we categorized studies based on whether all or a majority, or whether no or a minority of patients were treated with Li. Hippocampal volumes were compared by combining standardized differences between means (Cohen d) from individual studies using random-effects models. Results Overall, we analyzed data from 101 patients with bipolar disorder in the Li group, 245 patients in the non-Li group and 456 control participants from 16 studies. Both the left and right hippocampal volumes were significantly larger in the Li group than in controls (Cohen d = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18 to 0.88; Cohen d = 0.51, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81, respectively) or the non-Li group (Cohen d = 0.93, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.31; Cohen d = 1.07, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.45, respectively), which had smaller left and right hippocampal volumes than the control group (Cohen d = ?0.36, 95% CI ?0.55 to ?0.17; Cohen d = ?0.38, 95% CI ?0.63 to ?0.13, respectively). There was no evidence of publication bias. Limitations Missing information about the illness burden or lifetime exposure to Li and polypharmacy in some studies may have contributed to statistical heterogeneity in some analyses. Conclusion When exposure to Li was minimized, patients with bipolar disorder showed smaller hippocampal volumes than controls or Li-treated patients. Our findings provide indirect support for the negative effects of bipolar disorder on hippocampal volumes and are consistent with the putative neuroprotective effects of Li. The preserved hippocampal volumes among patients with bipolar disorder in most individual studies and all previous meta-analyses may have been related to the inclusion of Li-treated participants. PMID:22498078

Hajek, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Hoschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin

2012-01-01

285

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders., 5 Day Lesson Plan on Eating Disorders. Columbus, OH: National Eating Disorders Association, 1991

Jacobs, Lucia

286

Eating disordered behaviors and media exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study examined this relationship between eating disordered behaviors and exposure to ideal-type media in a sample of\\u000a South African university students, who could be expected to have reasonably high levels of media exposure. Possible underlying\\u000a reasons for this complex relationship were also investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  It examined the relationship via both quantitative (using a questionnaire that included the EAT-26 and a

Tara Carney; Johann Louw

2006-01-01

287

Linking "Big" Personality Traits to Anxiety, Depressive, and Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We performed a quantitative review of associations between the higher order personality traits in the Big Three and Big Five models (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, disinhibition, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness) and specific depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD) in adults. This approach resulted in 66…

Kotov, Roman; Gamez, Wakiza; Schmidt, Frank; Watson, David

2010-01-01

288

The Neural Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An ALE Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and commonly studied forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Causal models of ADHD have long implicated dysfunction in fronto-striatal and frontal-parietal networks supporting executive function, a hypothesis that can now be examined…

Dickstein, Steven G.; Bannon, Katie; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

2006-01-01

289

Motor Coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are motor coordination deficits an underlying cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Database searches identified 83 ASD studies focused on motor coordination, arm movements, gait, or postural stability deficits. Data extraction involved between-group comparisons for ASD and typically developing controls (N = 51). Rigorous…

Fournier, Kimberly A.; Hass, Chris J.; Naik, Sagar K.; Lodha, Neha; Cauraugh, James H.

2010-01-01

290

Antiepileptic Medications in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine,…

Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

2014-01-01

291

Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers  

PubMed Central

We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referral by student participants were found. PMID:24044598

Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

2013-01-01

292

Stressful life events and binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Although there is evidence about the role played by stressful life events (SE) in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, few studies to date have explored this problem in binge eating disorder (BED). The aim of the present study was to examine SE preceding the onset of BED. A retrospective interview-based design was used to compare 107 patients with BED and 107 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), matched for duration of illness. Compared with patients with BN, those with BED reported a greater number of traumatic events in the 6 months preceding onset, revealing more often three types of events: bereavement, separation from a family member and accidents. The presence of SE before onset showed a dose-response relationship with the severity of psychopathology at the time of referral for treatment. Study of SE in patients with BED may be important for better understanding of the pathogenetic pathway to this disorder and to provide adequate treatment. PMID:25044613

Degortes, Daniela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Veronese, Angela; Favaro, Angela

2014-09-01

293

Body image, eating disorders, and the media.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:19227390

Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

2008-12-01

294

Are cavum septum pellucidum abnormalities more common in schizophrenia spectrum disorders? A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have reported a variety of brain abnormalities in association with schizophrenia. These include a higher incidence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), which is consistent with a neurodevelopmental model for this disorder. In this meta-analytic review, we describe and discuss the main CSP MRI findings in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) to date. We adopted as keywords cavum and schizophrenia or psychosis, and the inclusion criteria were articles in English, with samples of SSD patients compared to healthy subjects, which used MRI to assess CSP, without time limit. From 18 potential reports, fifteen were eligible to be part of the current review. These studies included 1054 patients with SSD and 866 healthy volunteers. Six out of 15 studies pointed to a higher prevalence of CSP of any size in SSD patients, while five out of 15 showed that subjects with SSD had a greater occurrence of a large CSP than healthy individuals. However, the meta-analysis demonstrated that only the incidence of a large CSP was significantly higher in SSD relative to healthy comparisons (odds ratio=1.59; 95%CI 1.07-2.38; p=0.02). Overall our results suggest that only a large CSP is associated with SSD while a small CSP may be considered a normal neuroanatomical variation. Our review revealed a large degree of variability in the methods employed across the MRI studies published to date, as well as evidence of publication bias. Studies in large, community-based samples with greater standardization of methods should clarify the true significance of CSP in SSD. PMID:20965698

Trzesniak, Clarissa; Oliveira, Irismar R; Kempton, Matthew J; Galvão-de Almeida, Amanda; Chagas, Marcos H N; Ferrari, Maria Cecília F; Filho, Alaor S; Zuardi, Antonio W; Prado, Daniel A; Busatto, Geraldo F; McGuire, Phillip K; Hallak, Jaime E C; Crippa, José Alexandre S

2011-01-01

295

Sleep and Quality of Life in Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are well-recognized eating disorders clinically. Night eating syndrome (NES)\\u000a and binge eating disorder (BED) are also of considerable importance and are increasingly recognized in the clinic, because\\u000a of the distress they cause and their links with obesity. Each of these four eating disorders has the capacity to disturb sleep\\u000a and in that respect

Jennifer D. Lundgren; John P. O’Reardon; Kelly C. Allison; Carrie D. Spresser

296

Perfectionistic self-presentation, body image, and eating disorder symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific model for eating disorder symptoms involving perfectionistic self-presentation and two different moderators (i.e., body image evaluation and body image investment) was tested. Participants completed measures of perfectionistic self-presentation, body image dysfunction, and eating disorder symptoms. Findings indicated that all three dimensions of perfectionistic self-presentation were associated with eating disorder symptoms. Results also showed that perfectionistic self-presentation predicted eating

Brandy J. McGee; Paul L. Hewitt; Simon B. Sherry; Melanie Parkin; Gordon L. Flett

2005-01-01

297

Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2014-07-01

298

Prevalence and Correlates of Eating Disordered Behaviors among Undergraduate Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated eating disordered behaviors among nonobese, nonanorexic college women (N=643). Classified 3 percent as bulimic, 61 percent as having intermediate form of eating behavior problem, 33 percent as having normal eating habits. Degree of disturbed eating was strongly correlated with lowered self-esteem, negative body image, endorsement of…

Mintz, Laurie B.; Betz, Nancy E.

1988-01-01

299

Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for alcohol and drug use disorders: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) produces better outcomes than individual-based treatment for alcoholism and drug abuse problems (e.g., [Epstein, E. E., & McCrady, B. S. (1998). Behavioral couples treatment of alcohol and drug use disorders: Current status and innovations. Clinical Psychology Review, 18(6), 689–711; O'Farrell, T. J., & Fals-Stewart, W. (2003). Alcohol abuse. Journal of Marital and

Mark B. Powers; Ellen Vedel; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp

2008-01-01

300

Behavioral versus pharmacological treatments of obsessive compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to provide a quantitative analysis of the relative efficacy of all five currently available serotonin\\u000a reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and behavior therapy [exposure and response prevention (ERP)] for obsessive compulsive disorder.\\u000a The relationship between effect size and methodological characteristics was also empirically examined. A search was conducted\\u000a of several computerized databases covering the dates from

K. A. Kobak; John H. Greist; James W. Jefferson; David J. Katzelnick; Henry J. Henk

1998-01-01

301

Intimate Partner Violence as a Risk Factor for Mental Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews literature on the prevalence of mental health problems among women with a history of intimate partner violence. The weighted mean prevalence of mental health problems among battered women was 47.6% in 18 studies of depression, 17.9% in 13 studies of suicidality, 63.8% in 11 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 18.5% in 10 studies of alcohol abuse,

Jacqueline M. Golding

1999-01-01

302

Efficacy of drug treatments for generalised anxiety disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To appraise the evidence for comparative efficacy and tolerability of drug treatments in patients with generalised anxiety disorder.Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Primary Bayesian probabilistic mixed treatment meta-analyses allowed pharmacological treatments to be ranked for effectiveness for each outcome measure, given as percentage probability of being the most effective treatment. Secondary frequentist mixed treatment meta-analyses conducted with

David Baldwin; Robert Woods; Richard Lawson; David Taylor

2011-01-01

303

Health Care Costs in Patients with Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine health care costs among patients with eating disorders using the Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Dakota (BCBSND) claims database system. Method Four groups of individuals enrolled between 1999 and 2005 were identified: 1) a group diagnosed with eating disorders at the beginning of the study period, in 2000 or 2001; 2) a group diagnosed with eating disorders later in the study period, in 2004 or 2005; 3) a comparison group with depression; and 4) a non-eating disordered comparison group. Results Health care costs were high for patients diagnosed with an eating disorder during the period when the diagnosis was made but remained elevated in the years following. Such costs were consistently higher than those for the non-eating disordered comparison group, but similar to the depression comparison group. Conclusion Health care costs remained elevated after a diagnosis of an eating disorder for an extended period of time. PMID:19172600

Mitchell, James E.; Myers, Trisha; Crosby, Ross; O'Neill, George; Carlisle, Jodi; Gerlach, Shamayne

2014-01-01

304

A meta-analysis of neuropsychological functioning in first-episode bipolar disorders.  

PubMed

Broad neuropsychological deficits have been consistently demonstrated in well-established bipolar disorder. The aim of the current study was to systematically review neuropsychological studies in first-episode bipolar disorders to determine the breadth, extent and predictors of cognitive dysfunction at this early stage of illness through meta-analytic procedures. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 1980 and December 2013. Twelve studies met eligibility criteria (N = 341, mean age = 28.2 years), and pooled effect sizes (ES) were calculated across eight cognitive domains. Moderator analyses were conducted to identify predictors of between-study heterogeneity. Controlling for known confounds, medium to large deficits (ES ? 0.5) in psychomotor speed, attention and working memory, and cognitive flexibility were identified, whereas smaller deficits (ES 0.20-0.49) were found in the domains of verbal learning and memory, attentional switching, and verbal fluency. A medium to large deficit in response inhibition was only detected in non-euthymic cases. Visual learning and memory functioning was not significantly worse in cases compared with controls. Overall, first-episode bipolar disorders are associated with widespread cognitive dysfunction. Since euthymia was not associated with superior cognitive performance in most domains, these results indicate that even in the earliest stages of disease, cognitive deficits are not mood-state dependent. The current findings have important implications for whether cognitive impairments represent neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes. Future studies need to more clearly characterise the presence of psychotic features, and the nature and number of previous mood episodes. PMID:25016347

Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Scott, Jan; Redoblado-Hodge, M Antoinette; Naismith, Sharon L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Griffiths, Kristi R; Porter, Melanie A; Hickie, Ian B

2014-10-01

305

Acupuncture for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment option for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The literatures were searched using 15 databases, including MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Central\\u000a Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, six Korean medical databases and two Chinese databases\\u000a without language restritions. Prospective controlled clinical studies of any type

Myeong Soo Lee; Tae-Young Choi; Jong-In Kim; Lakhyung Kim; Edzard Ernst

2011-01-01

306

INPATIENT COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT OF EATING DISORDER PATIENTS WITH DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several investigations have noted an association between eating disorders and dissociative disorders, little work has addressed the treatment of patients with both conditions. As an inpatient ser- vice focused on severely-ill eating disorder patients, it became nec- essary to diagnose and treat concomitant dissociative disorders. We describe a cognitive-behavioral inpatient program developed and specifically adapted to treat eating disorder

Andrew P. Levin; Edward Spauster

307

A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus. Self-report instruments were used to explore ED symptoms (the Eating

Mae Lynn Reyes-Rodríguez; Margarita Sala; Ann Von Holle; Claudia Unikel; Cynthia M. Bulik; Luis Cámara-Fuentes; Alba Suárez-Torres

2011-01-01

308

Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the EDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based diagnoses, convergent validity with risk factors for eating

Eric Stice; Melissa Fisher; Erin Martinez

2004-01-01

309

Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

Talleyrand, Regine M.

2010-01-01

310

Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

2014-01-01

311

Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Gradient of Severity in Cognitive Impairments.  

PubMed

SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ?1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice. PMID:25188300

Leblond, Claire S; Nava, Caroline; Polge, Anne; Gauthier, Julie; Huguet, Guillaume; Lumbroso, Serge; Giuliano, Fabienne; Stordeur, Coline; Depienne, Christel; Mouzat, Kevin; Pinto, Dalila; Howe, Jennifer; Lemière, Nathalie; Durand, Christelle M; Guibert, Jessica; Ey, Elodie; Toro, Roberto; Peyre, Hugo; Mathieu, Alexandre; Amsellem, Frédérique; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, I Carina; Rappold, Gudrun A; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P; Maestrini, Elena; Galan, Pilar; Heron, Delphine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rastetter, Agnès; Brice, Alexis; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Laffargue, Fanny; Lespinasse, James; Chiesa, Jean; Rivier, François; Bonneau, Dominique; Regnault, Beatrice; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Edery, Patrick; Perrin, Laurence; Tabet, Anne Claude; Schmeisser, Michael J; Boeckers, Tobias M; Coleman, Mary; Sato, Daisuke; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W; Rouleau, Guy A; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Delorme, Richard; Bourgeron, Thomas

2014-09-01

312

Placebo group improvement in trials of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders: A multivariate meta-analysis examining change over time  

PubMed Central

Objective Placebo group improvement in pharmacotherapy trials has been increasing over time across several pharmacological treatment areas. However, it is unknown to what degree increasing improvement has occurred in pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorders or what factors may account for placebo group improvement. This meta-analysis of 47 alcohol pharmacotherapy trials evaluated (1) the magnitude of placebo group improvement, (2) the extent to which placebo group improvement has been increasing over time, and (3) several potential moderators that might account for variation in placebo group improvement. Method Random-effects univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted that examined the magnitude of placebo group improvement in the 47 studies and several potential moderators of improvement: (a) publication year, (b) country in which the study was conducted, (c) outcome data source/type, (d) number of placebo administrations, (e) overall severity of study participants, and (f) additional psychosocial treatment. Results Substantial placebo group improvement was found overall and improvement was larger in more recent studies. Greater improvement was found on moderately subjective outcomes, with more frequent administrations of the placebo, and in studies with greater participant severity of illness. However, even after controlling for these moderators, placebo group improvement remained significant, as did placebo group improvement over time. Conclusion Similar to previous pharmacotherapy placebo research, substantial pre- to post-test placebo group improvement has occurred in alcohol pharmacotherapy trials, an effect that has been increasing over time. However, several plausible moderator variables were not able to explain why placebo group improvement has been increasing over time. PMID:23857312

Del Re, AC; Maisel, Natalya; Blodgett, Janet; Wilbourne, Paula; Finney, John

2014-01-01

313

Academy of eating disorders international conference.  

PubMed

New information is being acquired and disseminated about eating disorders, particularly in terms of integrating the roles of genes and environment, and new treatment approaches. Although evidence indicates that genes are not more important in the aetiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) than bulimia nervosa, Western culture does appear to be more important in the aetiology of bulimia nervosa than AN. Pathological fear conditioning offers a very useful and experimentally testable theory of the aetiology of AN. New evidence suggests that an enhanced, 'transdiagnostic' form of cognitive behavioural therapy is highly effective in eating disorder patients suitable for out-patient treatment. Patients who are homozygotic for the short (s) allele of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene promoter region appear to be more resistant to multimodal treatment. PMID:15212626

Brewerton, Timothy D

2004-07-01

314

Meta-analysis confirms a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene conferring risk of bipolar disorder in European populations.  

PubMed

The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a candidate risk gene for bipolar disorder, and a functional polymorphism of 44-bp insertion/deletion (5-HTTLPR) located in the promoter region of this gene has been investigated for the association with the illness extensively among worldwide populations, but overall results were inconsistent and its role in the disorder remains unclear. The present study attempts to find its potential association with bipolar disorder using meta-analyzes that maximize the statistical power. We applied meta-analysis techniques by combining all available case-control studies of 5-HTTLPR and bipolar disorder in samples of European ancestry (with a total of 3778 cases and 4997 controls), and we assessed the evidence for allelic associations, heterogeneity among different studies, influence of each single study, and potential publication bias. The short allele (S allele) of 5-HTTLPR showed a significant association with bipolar disorder in our meta-analysis (odds ratio=1.10, p-value=0.005), suggesting it is likely a risk polymorphism for the illness, and the observed OR is consistent with other susceptibility loci identified through recent large-scale genetic association studies on bipolar disorder, which could be regarded simply as a small but detectable effects. PMID:23756178

Jiang, Hong-Yan; Qiao, Fei; Xu, Xiu-Feng; Yang, Yuan; Bai, Yan; Jiang, Ling-Ling

2013-08-01

315

Epidemiology of eating disorders: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. To summarize the recent advances in the descrip- tive epidemiology of eating disorders, emphasizing studies published between 2005 and 2006. Summary of recent findings. During their lifetime, 0.9-2.2% of women and 0.2-0.3% of men suffer from anorexia nervosa (AN). Its overall incidence in the population has remained stable during the 1990s com- pared with the 1980s, but

Anna Keski-Rahkonen; Anu Raevuori; Hans W Hoek

316

A review of eating disorders in adolescents.  

PubMed

Many review articles address the diverse and rapidly developing field of eating disorders, but there are far fewer articles addressing the specific population of adolescents. The social contributors (desire for thinness amplified by the media) to these illnesses are considerable and affect all adolescent and latency-age girls to some degree. Understanding the full range of behavior and those at high risk to develop pathology is important. Developing prevention programs that target adolescent girls and their families, schools, and the relevant media is also important. Prevention has been a much-neglected area within the field of eating disorders. The chronic nature of eating disorders characterized by remission and relapse bears further study. Attention to the factors that provoke a symptomatic period is crucial. Along with relapse and remission are shifts between diagnostic categories within the field of eating disorders and comorbid illnesses. A better understanding of the factors that cause these shifts to occur would be quite valuable. Outcome and prospective studies would provide valuable information about the course of the illnesses and further identify the individuals at high risk. Certain groups are known to be at high risk, such as girls involved in specific athletics (e.g., gymnastics) or career activities, but recent investigations have indicated that girls involved in what was previously believed to be a low risk activity, such as swimming, may also be at risk (Benson et al., 1990). Further investigation of these factors is crucial. Cultural factors play a role in these illnesses, and cross-cultural studies provide crucial information. We must also continue to explore the biological and psychological correlates of these illnesses and further define the complex and heterogeneous etiology of these illnesses. Their study still promises to yield exciting challenges. Increased public awareness regarding the need for treatment of these illnesses is a high priority. If untreated, chronicity appears inevitable. Examination and study of the most cost effective methods of treatment are very important. PMID:7598191

Ponton, L E

1995-01-01

317

Onset of dieting vs binge eating in outpatients with binge eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential significance of the sequence of the onset of dieting and binge eating in binge eating disorder (BED).DESIGN: BED patients were interviewed and completed a battery of psychometrically well-established measures of current eating behaviors, eating disorder psychopathology, and associated psychological functioning.SUBJECTS: Participants were 98 consecutive outpatients with BED evaluated for a clinical trial.MEASURES: Interview data, self-report

CM Grilo; RM Masheb

2000-01-01

318

Genetics in eating disorders: state of the science.  

PubMed

Eating disorders have been viewed as psychiatric illnesses that are strongly influenced by societal pressures towards thinness and attractiveness. Although the environmental context of these disorders must not be neglected, recent research in the area of genetic epidemiology suggests a substantial influence of genetic factors on liability to eating disorders. This review presents a synthesis of current knowledge about genetic factors implicated in the etiology of eating disorders. PMID:15208510

Bulik, Cynthia M; Tozzi, Federica

2004-07-01

319

Adhesio interthalamica alterations in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have reported a variety of brain abnormalities in association with schizophrenia. These include a higher prevalence of an absent adhesio interthalamica (AI; also known massa intermedia), a gray matter junction that is present between the two thalami in approximately 80% of healthy subjects. In this meta-analytic review, we describe and discuss the main AI MRI findings in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) to date. The MEDLINE and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched up to December 2010, for studies that used MRI to assess AI in patients with SSD and controls. From fourteen potential reports, eleven were eligible to be part of the current review. These studies included 822 patients with SSD and 718 healthy volunteers. There was a large degree of variability in the MRI methods they employed. Patients with SSD had a higher prevalence of absent AI than healthy volunteers (odds ratio = 1.98; 95% confidence interval 1.33-2.94; p = 0.0008). This association was evident in both male and female SSD subjects, and there was no evidence that the prevalence was related to age or duration of illness. The significance of the absence of an AI for SSD may be clarified by studies in large, longitudinal community-based samples using standardized methods. PMID:21300129

Trzesniak, Clarissa; Kempton, Matthew J; Busatto, Geraldo F; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Galvão-de Almeida, Amanda; Kambeitz, Joseph; Ferrari, Maria Cecília Freitas; Filho, Alaor Santos; Chagas, Marcos H N; Zuardi, Antonio W; Hallak, Jaime E C; McGuire, Phillip K; Crippa, José Alexandre S

2011-06-01

320

Ghrelin gene variants and eating disorders.  

PubMed

Genetic factors have been implicated in playing a significant role in susceptibility to eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Genetic variants of ghrelin, an endogenous acylated peptide that stimulates growth hormone secretion, enhances appetite, and increases body weight, have been investigated in association with eating disorders, as changes in the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)/ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) system have been implicated in its pathology. Although most candidate-gene association studies have not been able to identify ghrelin gene variants as being significantly associated with either AN or BN, some ghrelin variants may be associated with BN in Japanese. Furthermore, a significant association of a GHSR gene variant with BN and that of a GOAT gene variant with AN have been found. However, there have been relatively few studies, tested variants are restricted, and sample sizes are often modest. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the role of ghrelin-related gene variants in the predisposition and pathology of eating disorders. PMID:23601422

Ando, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

321

White Matter Volume in Alcohol Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Atrophy of brain white matter (WM) often is considered a signature injury of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, investigations into AUD-related changes in WM volume have yielded complex findings that are difficult to synthesize in a narrative review. The objective of this study was to obtain an averaged effect size (ES) for WM volume reduction associated with AUD diagnosis and to test potential moderators of ES. Study inclusion criteria were: 1) English language; 2) peer-reviewed; 3) published before December 2011; 4) use of MRI; 5) human participants; 6) inclusion of AUD group; 7) inclusion of non-AUD comparison group; 8) reporting or testing of total or cerebral WM volume. Moderators included study design, MRI methodology, and AUD characteristics. Nineteen studies with a total of 1,302 participants (70% male) were included, and calculated ES were confirmed by the corresponding author for 12 studies. The magnitude of the averaged ES adjusted for small sample bias (Hedges’ g) for WM reduction in AUDs was .304 (standard error = .134, range = ?.57–1.21). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that the overall ES differed significantly from 0, t(18) = 2.257, p = .037, and that the distribution of the 19 ES showed significant heterogeneity beyond sampling error, ?2(18) = 52.400, p < .001. Treatment-seeking status and length of abstinence were significant moderators of ES distribution. These results are suggestive of WM recovery with sustained abstinence and point to the need for further investigation of factors related to treatment-seeking status. PMID:22458455

Monnig, Mollie A.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Yeo, Ronald A.; Thoma, Robert J.; McCrady, Barbara S.

2012-01-01

322

Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ?10, 2.5 ?m) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Contents, Global Health, and Cochrane were searched (last search: September, 2013). After a detailed screening of 270 studies, 10 studies were extracted. We conducted meta-analyses if a pollutant in a specific exposure window was reported by at least four studies. Using fixed- and random-effects models, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for each pollutant with specific increment of concentration. Increases in risks of HDP (OR per 10 ppb = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30) and preeclampsia (OR per 10 ppb = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17) were observed to be associated with exposure to NO2 during the entire pregnancy, and significant associations between HDP and exposure to CO (OR per 1 ppm = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45) and O3 (OR per 10 ppb = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.13) during the first trimester were also observed. Our review suggests an association between ambient air pollution and HDP risk. Although the ORs were relatively low, the population-attributable fractions were not negligible given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution.

Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Xu, Xiaohui

2014-11-01

323

White matter volume in alcohol use disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Atrophy of brain white matter (WM) often is considered a signature injury of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, investigations into AUD-related changes in WM volume have yielded complex findings that are difficult to synthesize in a narrative review. The objective of this study was to obtain an averaged effect size (ES) for WM volume reduction associated with AUD diagnosis and to test potential moderators of ES. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) English language; (2) peer reviewed; (3) published before December 2011; (4) use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (5) human participants; (6) inclusion of AUD group; (7) inclusion of non-AUD comparison group; and (8) reporting or testing of total or cerebral WM volume. Moderators included study design, MRI methodology and AUD characteristics. Nineteen studies with a total of 1302 participants (70% male) were included, and calculated ESs were confirmed by the corresponding author for 12 studies. The magnitude of the averaged ES adjusted for small sample bias (Hedges' g) for WM reduction in AUDs was 0.304 (standard error?=?0.134, range?=?-0.57-1.21). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that the overall ES differed significantly from 0, t(18)?=?2.257, P?=?0.037, and that the distribution of the 19 ESs showed significant heterogeneity beyond sampling error, ?(2) (18)?=?52.400, P?

Monnig, Mollie A; Tonigan, J Scott; Yeo, Ronald A; Thoma, Robert J; McCrady, Barbara S

2013-05-01

324

Untreated recovery from eating disorders.  

PubMed

This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. All respondents reported onset factors supporting a sociocultural etiology. Recovery was initiated through the empathic, participatory efforts of parents and friends, or was self-initiated. Respondents with the shortest disorder duration and most complete recovery reported early parental intervention. Onset factors similar to those in research with a clinically treated population were found. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:15563044

Woods, Susan

2004-01-01

325

Efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for secondary sleep disorders and sleep disorders accompanying sleep restriction: meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To conduct a systematic review of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in managing secondary sleep disorders and sleep disorders accompanying sleep restriction, such as jet lag and shiftwork disorder. Data sources 13 electronic databases and reference lists of relevant reviews and included studies; Associated Professional Sleep Society abstracts (1999 to 2003). Study selection The efficacy review included

Nina Buscemi; Ben Vandermeer; Nicola Hooton; Rena Pandya; Lisa Tjosvold; Lisa Hartling; Sunita Vohra; Terry P Klassen; Glen Baker

2006-01-01

326

Prevalence and correlates of eating disorder co-morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to document eating disorder symptoms in a well-defined sample of patients with bipolar disorder and to evaluate the relationship of current loss of control over eating (LOC) to demographic and clinical features hypothesized to characterize bipolar patients at risk for disordered eating. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the Bipolar Disorder Center for Pennsylvanians provided demographic information and

Jennifer E. Wildes; Marsha D. Marcus; Andrea Fagiolini

2008-01-01

327

Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Normal-Weight vs. Obese Individuals With Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and ?2 analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity. PMID:21331066

Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J.; Hill, Laura L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, Jim E.

2013-01-01

328

Eating disorder symptomatology in normal-weight vs. obese individuals with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and ?(2) analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity. PMID:21331066

Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura L; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, Jim E

2011-07-01

329

Body image and health: eating disorders and obesity.  

PubMed

Eating behavior in adolescents can be as high risk as other behaviors that arise during this period and can have serious health consequences. This article presents a framework for screening and treatment of abnormal adolescent eating behavior by the primary care provider. A review of the types of disordered eating is presented along with suggested ways to screen. Indications for subspecialty eating disorder referrals and key aspects of screening and intervention in adolescent obesity and eating disorders are also reviewed. Specific attention is paid to the aspects of care that can be provided in primary care and multidisciplinary care. PMID:25124204

Jasik, Carolyn Bradner

2014-09-01

330

Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media  

PubMed Central

Introduction This paper provides a review of the role of the media in the development, maintenance, prevention, and treatment of eating disorders. Method The literature on gambling in youth on the internet was reviewed. It explores: (1) the role of the media in providing a social context for the development of eating disorders, (2) the role of the media in the etiology of eating disorder pathology, (3) the ways in which the media is used by patients suffering from eating disorders, and (4) the role that awareness of the media can have in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Results This review demonstrates that the media does contribute to the development of eating disorders. Conclusion This review highlights the need for media literacy and media activism to help change the current normative body discontent of women in the Western world. PMID:19030149

Spettigue, Wendy; Henderson, Katherine A.

2004-01-01

331

Features of eating disorder among male-to-female transsexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found that during their journey of transition from male to female, people with gender identity disorder do not report higher levels of drive for thinness, bulimia or body dissatisfaction than the general population or people with eating disorders on the Eating Disorder Inventory. Instead, they report significantly lower levels of drive for thinness and bulimia when compared to biological

Deenesh Khoosal; Chris Langham; Bob Palmer; Tim Terry; Manjunath Minajagi

2009-01-01

332

Amnestic sleep-related eating disorder associated with zolpidem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the association of amnestic nocturnal eating behavior with use of zolpidem for insomnia.Background: Sleep-related eating disorder is increasingly recognized in relationship to other diagnosable sleep disorders. Many of these disorders, like restless legs syndrome (RLS), give rise to complaints of insomnia. Zolpidem is the most commonly prescribed drug for insomnia complaints, and although it has sometimes been

Timothy I Morgenthaler; Michael H Silber

2002-01-01

333

Modelling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyse Eating Regulation Disorders  

E-print Network

Modelling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyse Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse1 , Martine, an executable model has been developed of the dynamics of eating regulation disorders. Based on this model, The Netherlands Abstract. To analyse the disorders of their patients, psychotherapists often have to get insight

Treur, Jan

334

Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

1999-01-01

335

Eating Disorders in Childhood: Prevention and Treatment Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders (EDs) are chronic clinical mental disorders that are disruptive to the psychological and social development of children and adolescents. They can be difficult to prevent and treat and are considered among the most chronic and medically lethal of mental disorders. Research suggests that the incidence and prevalence of eating

Cook-Cottone, Catherine

2009-01-01

336

A Content Analysis of Popular Magazine Articles on Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested two hypotheses about popular magazine articles on eating disorders: (a) anorexics would be profiled more often than bulimics due to their conformity to the thin beauty ideal projected in the Western media, and (b) disordered behaviors used to achieve weight loss would be mentioned more often than their physical consequences. Forty-two popular magazine articles on eating disorders

Rebecca Inch; Noorfarah Merali

2006-01-01

337

Pro-eating disorder websites: facts, fictions and fixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Pro-eating disorder websites are online communities of individuals who do not consider eating disorders to be serious mental illnesses requiring treatment. People visit these websites to meet other like-minded individuals, to share tips and tricks on how to lose weight and how to otherwise maintain the symptomatology of the disorder. This paper aims to review what is actually

Helen Sharpe; Peter Musiat; Olivia Knapton; Ulrike Schmidt

2011-01-01

338

Reduced number of taste papillae in patients with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Taste affects dietary behavior and in turn taste response and food preferences are altered in eating disorders. Fungiform\\u000a papillae on the tongue are the first line of the gustatory apparatus to provide information about taste. Aim of this study\\u000a is determination of their number in patients with eating disorders. Twenty-seven female adolescents with eating disorders\\u000a and 16 age-matched healthy female

L. Wöckel; A. Jacob; M. Holtmann; F. Poustka

2008-01-01

339

Nutritional Status of Female Athletes with Subclinical Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the energy and nutritional status of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders and compare them with that of control subjects and standard norms.Design Group classification (subclinical eating disorder or control) was based on responses to a health and diet history questionnaire, a battery of self-report eating disorder questionnaires, and an in-depth interview. Energy and nutrient intakes and

KATHERINE A BEALS; MELINDA M MANORE

1998-01-01

340

Hypoglycaemia following a mixed meal in eating disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo describe the incidence of hypoglycaemia, and variables associated with hypoglycaemia, in eating disorder patients following a mixed meal stimulus.MethodsPostprandial blood glucose values of patients admitted to a specialist eating disorder hospital for treatment of an eating disorder between 2000 and 2006 were reviewed and compared to body mass index (BMI), electrolytes, and weight losing behaviours. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Susan Hart; Suzanne Abraham; Richard C Franklin; Stephen M Twigg; Janice Russell

2011-01-01

341

Meta-analysis argues for a female-specific role of MAOA-uVNTR in panic disorder in four European populations.  

PubMed

Panic disorder (PD) is a common mental disorder, ranking highest among the anxiety disorders in terms of disease burden. The pathogenesis of PD is multifactorial with significant heritability, however only a few convincing risk genes have been reported thus far. One of the most promising candidates is the gene encoding monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), due to its key role in monoaminergic neurotransmission, established validity of animal models, and the efficacy of MAO inhibitors in the treatment of PD. A promoter repeat polymorphism in MAOA (MAOA-uVNTR) impacts on gene expression; high-expression alleles have been reported to increase the risk for PD. To further scrutinize the role of this polymorphism, we performed a formal meta-analysis on MAOA-uVNTR and PD using original data from four published European (Estonian, German, Italian, and Polish) samples and genotypes from three hitherto unpublished German PD samples, resulting in the largest (n?=?1,115 patients and n?=?1,260 controls) genetic study on PD reported to date. In the unpublished samples, evidence for association of MAOA-uVNTR with PD was obtained in one of the three samples. Results of the meta-analysis revealed a significant and female-specific association when calculating an allelic model (OR?=?1.23, P?=?0.006). This sex-specific effect might be explained by a gene-dose effect causing higher MAOA expression in females. Taken together, our meta-analysis therefore argues that high-expression MAOA-uVNTR alleles significantly increase the risk towards PD in women. However, epigenetic mechanisms might obfuscate the genetic association, calling for ascertainment in larger samples as well as assessment of the MAOA promoter methylation status therein. PMID:22911667

Reif, Andreas; Weber, Heike; Domschke, Katharina; Klauke, Benedikt; Baumann, Christian; Jacob, Christian P; Ströhle, Andreas; Gerlach, Alexander L; Alpers, Georg W; Pauli, Paul; Hamm, Alfons; Kircher, Tilo; Arolt, Volker; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Binder, Elisabeth B; Erhardt, Angelika; Deckert, Jürgen

2012-10-01

342

Assessing the functional nature of binge eating in the eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the functional nature of binge eating through the development of a new self-report instrument called the Binge Eating Adjective Checklist. Participants were 405 adult females who presented to a specialized eating disorders clinic. A subset of participants with bulimia nervosa also completed additional psychometrics and treatment. Those participants who reported greater reductions in negative affective and somatic

Ron Davis; John Jamieson

2005-01-01

343

Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower…

Tylka, Tracy L.; Wilcox, Jennifer A.

2006-01-01

344

Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…

Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

2009-01-01

345

Evaluation of an Eating Disorders Prevention Curriculum on Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of Female College  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of an eating disorders prevention curriculum on eating attitudes and behaviors of female college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an academic college course on eating attitudes and behaviors of female college students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty female college students (19.4 ± 2.6 years old) participated in either the intervention

Amy Beth Magnuson

2010-01-01

346

Comparative benefits and harms of competing medications for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and indirect comparison meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Recommended medication prescribing hierarchies for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary between different\\u000a guideline committees. Few trials directly compare competing ADHD medications in adults and provide little insight for clinicians\\u000a making treatment choices.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The objective of this study was to assess comparative benefits and harms of competing medications for adult ADHD using indirect\\u000a comparison meta-analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Eligible studies were

Kim Peterson; Marian S. McDonagh; Rongwei Fu

2008-01-01

347

Eating Disorder Prevention in Sororities: Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects.  

E-print Network

??Abstract Eating Disorder Prevention in Sororities: Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects By Lisa M. Smith This study evaluated mechanisms through which intervention effects were achieved… (more)

Smith, Lisa Marie

2009-01-01

348

Health-Related Quality of Life in Women with Eating Disorders: Association with Subjective and Objective Binge Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined health-related quality of life (QOL) and its association with different forms of binge eating in 53 women\\u000a with eating disorders. Participants had enrolled in treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder,\\u000a or other eating disorders not otherwise specified and completed measures of QOL, eating-related psychopathology, and mood\\u000a disturbance. Eating- and mood-related psychopathology, and to a

Janet D. Latner; Joanna K. Vallance; Geoffrey Buckett

2008-01-01

349

Mindfulness and Acceptance in the Treatment of Disordered Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches to the treatment of clinical problems are accruing substantial empirical support. This article examines the application of these approaches to disordered eating. Theoretical bases for the importance of mindfulness and acceptance in the treatment of eating problems are reviewed, and interventions for eating problems that incorporate mindfulness and acceptance skills are briefly described. Empirical data are

Ruth A. Baer; Sarah Fischer; Debra B. Huss

2005-01-01

350

[Psychopathology in eating disorders: new trends].  

PubMed

Self-starvation as well as binge eating appears to be far more complex than the uniformity of eating disorders clinical features let us predict. One reason is that these "body-centred" behaviours generate severe biological effects, the complications playing a great part in the recovery process. Furthermore, these disorders which origins are likely to be multi-factorial seem to arise from physiological (ephebic modifications, gene pool...), family and sociocultural factors, psychological features predominating in a synergy always leading to a specificity that cannot be ignored. The progression towards mixed forms made the distinction between anorexia and bulimia nervosa, insufficiently accurate, leading to examine the addictive dimension these troubles have in common. Despite different theoretical surroundings, it has been suggested that an insecure style of attachment may be highly implicated in the disorders occurring. Moreover, a great number of surveys insisted on identity disturbance, and predisposition to intemperate dependency, resulting from the poor quality of internalized relationships. From that viewpoint, both fasting and binge eating appear as a form of addiction meant to mitigate the defense mechanisms failure and the flaws of the psychological organization. Impulsivity appears as a way to avoid processing affects, acting-out being here to balance the ego weakness deriving from the lack of inner security. The fluctuations in the sense of self lead them to self-damaging behaviours meant to vent their pervasive, chronic feeling of emptiness. Occurring whereas the subject still depends on his parents, puberty reactivates a vivid anguish of passivity, and generates attempts to take the control back. Therefore, these patients re-enact in their dealings with food and their body dissatisfaction the pattern of unstable relationships established with their kin, characterized by alternating between merging and rejection, engulfment and remoteness. PMID:18361275

Dupont, Marie-Estelle; Corcos, Maurice

2008-01-31

351

Intimate partner violence against adult women and its association with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms and postpartum depression: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

To date, few systematic reviews of observational studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate the co-morbidity of IPV and specific depression outcomes in women. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the authors summarized the extant literature and estimated the magnitude of the association between IPV and key depressive outcomes (elevated depressive symptoms, diagnosed major depressive disorder and postpartum depression). PubMed (January 1, 1980–Decemer 31, 2010) searches of English-language observational studies were conducted. Most of the selected 37 studies had cross-sectional population-based designs, focused on elevated depressive symptoms and were conducted in the United States. Most studies suggested moderate or strong positive associations between IPV and depression. Our meta-analysis suggested two to three-fold increased risk of major depressive disorder and 1.5 to 2-fold increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms and postpartum depression among women exposed to intimate partner violence relative to non-exposed women. A sizable proportion (9%–28%) of major depressive disorder, elevated depressive symptoms, and postpartum depression can be attributed to lifetime exposure to IPV. In an effort to reduce the burden of depression, continued research is recommended for evaluating IPV preventive strategies. PMID:22694991

Beydoun, Hind A.; Beydoun, May A.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Lo, Bruce; Zonderman, Alan B.

2012-01-01

352

Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at\\u000a the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the\\u000a association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating\\u000a cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates

Akihiko Masuda; Matthew Price; Robert D. Latzman

353

Prevention of negative body image, disordered eating, and eating disorders: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of review. This chapter reviews recent publications and ''in press'' manuscripts pertaining to prevention of eating disorders. Based on a continuum model of prevention, we categorize programs as ''universal- selective'' (intended for very large groups of people, including some who are at risk by virtue of age and developmental stage) or ''selective- targeted'' (intended for relatively small groups of

Michael P Levine; Linda Smolak

354

Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training for Treating Binge Eating Disorder: The Conceptual Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food

Jean L. Kristeller; Ruth Q. Wolever

2010-01-01

355

[EDNET - eating disorders diagnostic and treatment network].  

PubMed

The paper gives an overview of the 4 randomized-controlled multi-center psychotherapy studies and the associated studies of the Eating Disorders Diagnostic and Treatment Network (EDNET). The multi-center trials include an outpatient treatment trial for AN comparing focal psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and treatment as usual, a trial comparing in- and day-patient treatment in adolescents with AN, and two internet-based relapse prevention trials for patients with AN and with BN after discharge from inpatient treatment. Associated studies are grouped around these core proposals covering neuropsychology, structural as well as functional neuroimaging, genetics, endocrinology, and moderators and mediators of treatment outcome. PMID:19350470

de Zwaan, Martina; Zipfel, Stephan; Herzog, Wolfgang; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Schäfer, Helmut; Fichter, Manfred; Quadflieg, Norbert; Jacobi, Corinna; Herpertz, Stephan

2009-01-01

356

The economics of eating disorder treatment.  

PubMed

Illness-associated costs are a major concern in eating disorders (ED). Economic aspects of (ED) have been an area receiving research attention. In the last three years a number of studies have been completed, including studies examining national costs of ED; third party payer costs for ED treatment; societal costs of ED; and cost effectiveness analysis of specific treatments. Additionally, some work has been done to model costs associated with ED prevention efforts. A number of further cost effectiveness analyses are planned. This area will be a fertile one for continued study. PMID:24817201

Crow, Scott

2014-07-01

357

Antipsychotic treatment for children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomised trials  

PubMed Central

Introduction Antipsychotic treatment in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) lacks a rich evidence base, and efforts to rank different drugs concerning their efficacy have not proven any particular drug superior. In contrast to the literature regarding adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS), comparative effectiveness studies in children and adolescents are limited in number and size, and only a few meta-analyses based on conventional methodologies have been conducted. Methods and analyses We will conduct a network meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate antipsychotic therapies for EOS to determine which compounds are efficacious, and to determine the relative efficacy and safety of these treatments when compared in a network meta-analysis. Unlike a contrast-based (standard) meta-analysis approach, an arm-based network meta-analysis enables statistical inference from combining both direct and indirect comparisons within an empirical Bayes framework. We will acquire eligible studies through a systematic search of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Clinicaltrials.gov and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. Eligible studies should randomly allocate children and adolescents presenting with schizophrenia or a related non-affective psychotic condition to an intervention group or to a control group. Two reviewers will—independently and in duplicate—screen titles and abstracts, complete full text reviews to determine eligibility, and subsequently perform data abstraction and assess risk of bias of eligible trials. We will conduct meta-analyses to establish the effect of all reported therapies on patient-relevant efficacy and safety outcomes when possible. Ethics and dissemination No formal ethical procedures regarding informed consent are required as no primary data collection is undertaken. The review will help facilitate evidence-based management, identify key areas for future research, and provide a framework for conducting large systematic reviews combining direct and indirect comparisons. The study will be disseminated by peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42013006676. PMID:25304189

Pagsberg, A K; Tarp, S; Glintborg, D; Stenstr?m, A D; Fink-Jensen, A; Correll, C U; Christensen, R

2014-01-01

358

Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5-15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6-13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. PMID:23570911

Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Alguacil, Juan; Gil, Fernando; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Rojas-García, Antonio

2013-06-01

359

Partial eating disorders in newly drafted female recruits in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Eating-related behaviors and general psychopathology were assessed in 642 young Israeli women 10 to 14 days after being drafted\\u000a to the army. Weight and height were also recorded. Partial eating disorders were defined with the Eating Attitudes Test and\\u000a selected relevant criteria of the DSM-IV. Compared to subjects with no disturbed eating, individuals with partial anorexia\\u000a nervosa or partial

D. Stein; O. Luria; R. Tarrasch; N. Yoeli; D. Glick; A. Elizur; A. Weizman

1999-01-01

360

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders this instead of any diet, and you're likely to maintain a healthy weight and avoid eating disorders. Listen

Jacobs, Lucia

361

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

� 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders to be thin can quickly spin out of control and become a serious, life-threatening eating disorder. Just

Walker, Matthew P.

362

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

� 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders, and binge eating disorder. Genuine awareness will help you avoid judgmental or mistaken attitudes about food

Walker, Matthew P.

363

Oro-facial manifestations in patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

Studies have reported that the oral health status is jeopardized in patients with eating disorders. The aim was to review the oro-facial manifestations in patients with eating disorders. The address the focused question was "What is the oro-dental health status in patients with eating disorders?" MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched from 1948 to March 2012 using the following terms in various combinations: "Anorexia nervosa", "bulimia nervosa", "eating disorders", "dental", "oral health status". Letters to the editor, unpublished data and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Dry lips, burning tongue and parotid gland swelling are common manifestations in patients with eating disorders as compared to medically healthy controls. The association of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients with eating disorders remains debatable. Temporomandibular disorders have also been reported to be more prevalent in patients with eating disorders as compared to healthy controls. A critical oral-dental examination during routine dental check-ups may reveal valuable information regarding the presence or absence of eating disorders in routine dental patients. This may be important information, updating the medical history, supporting the role of the physician. PMID:22750232

Romanos, Georgios E; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Enisa B; Williams, Ray C

2012-10-01

364

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy examined in adolescent samples include family therapy, cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy

Pamela K. Keel; Alissa Haedt

2008-01-01

365

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

2008-01-01

366

Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

2006-01-01

367

The prevalence of eating disorders in female health care students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has suggested a raised prevalence of eating disorders amongst female medical students. This study aimed to test the belief, commonly held by occupational physicians, that there is also an increased prevalence of eating disorders amongst female applicants to nurse training. If correct, it implies the need for additional support and may predict increased failure to complete the course.

S. Szweda; P. Thorne

2002-01-01

368

The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

2008-01-01

369

Relationships between alexithymia and psychological characteristics associated with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationships between alexithymia and psychological characteristics and behaviors that are commonly associated with eating disorders. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) were administered to a group of 48 female patients with anorexia nervosa, a matched comparison group of 30 normal women, and an unmatched comparison group of 116 male and

Graeme J. Taylor; James D. A. Parker; R. Michael Bagby; Michael P. Bourke

1996-01-01

370

Negative emotion and disordered eating among obese college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationship between negative emotions, body dissatisfaction, exercise, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among obese college students. It also examined whether there were gender differences in these variables. A total of 88 males and 102 females, who reported a BMI score above 30, completed a survey. Females reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction,

Jeanne L. Edman; Alayne Yates; Mara S. Aruguete; Kurt A. DeBord

2005-01-01

371

Adolescent Females and Body Image: Eating Disorders and Educational Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the internal and external predisposing factors that signal potential eating disorders in females. It outlines the psychology of high ability females, which places them at greater risk for the development of an eating disorder and provides recommendations for identification and intervention. (Contains…

Leroux, Janice A.; Cuffaro, Maria Assunta

2001-01-01

372

Eating Disorders among Athletes: Theory, Issues, and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders among athletes has become an important topic both nationally and internationally. This volume of empirically focused articles presents theory, issues, and the latest research in a concise form for a variety of audiences. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Eating Disorders among Athletes: Current Perspective" (D. R. Black); (2) "College…

Black, David R., Ed.

373

Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale: A New Clinician Rated Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development and validation of the clinician-rated Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale (EDS), created to address a gap in measurement options for youth with eating disorders. The EDS is modeled on the Childhood Severity and Acuity of Psychiatric Illness Scales (Lyons, J. S, 1998). Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution and accounted for 78% of the variance,

Katherine A. Henderson; Annick Buchholz; Julie Perkins; Sarah Norwood; Nicole Obeid; Wendy Spettigue; Stephen Feder

2010-01-01

374

Self-Change in Eating Disorders: Is “Spontaneous Recovery” Possible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limited series of community studies including non-treatment-seekers has shown that a considerable number of eating disorder patients do not enter the health care system but can be considered “clinically recovered” (remission of major symptoms) if followed up long enough. The possibility of “spontaneous recovery” (overcoming an eating disorder without professional treatment or formal help) often faces scepticism on the

Walter Vandereycken

2012-01-01

375

Body Image and Eating Disorders in Older Adults: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have shown body image to be an important part of a person's self-concept and have linked body dissatisfaction to various psychopathologies, most frequently eating disorders. However, the majority of the literature to date has focused on adolescents and college-aged samples, with little attention paid to the course of body image and eating disorders throughout the life span. The present

Christine M. Peat; Naomi L. Peyerl; Jennifer J. Muehlenkamp

2008-01-01

376

Perspectives of eating disorders from the Charité Hospital in Berlin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders have attracted steadily expanding clinical and scientific attention since second half of the 19th century and, particularly, after the core descriptions of anorexia nervosa had been delivered by Gull and Lasègue. In this review, we attempt to illustrate perspectives on eating disorders that have emerged since then from the work at the Charité Hospital in Berlin. It is

Klaus-Jürgen Neumärker; Andreas Joachim Bartsch

2003-01-01

377

Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.…

Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

2001-01-01

378

Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

2004-01-01

379

Undergraduate Women's Reactions to Body Image and Eating Disorder Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine college women's (N = 405) reactions to body image and eating disorder research as well as predictors of negative reactions. Results suggested that the majority of women (94%) did not experience negative reactions and reported benefits to participating. Regression analyses revealed that disordered eating and poorer body esteem were predictive of negative

Megan J. Murphy; Katie M. Edwards; Jennifer C. Merrill; Christine A. Gidycz

2011-01-01

380

A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.…

Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

2011-01-01

381

Resistance to treatment in eating disorders: a critical challenge  

PubMed Central

The Special Issue “Treatment resistance in Eating Disorders” gathers together the contributions provided by several experienced groups of researchers in the field of Eating Disorders (EDs). The main topic is addressed from multiple perspectives ranging from pathogenesis (including developmental and maintaining factors) to treatment. An explicative model of resistance in EDs is also proposed. PMID:24229426

2013-01-01

382

Risk factors for Binge Eating Disorder: An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined a broad range of childhood risk factors for binge-eating disorders (bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, BN\\/BED), utilizing data that had been collected prospectively in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study.

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Faith-Anne Dohm; Helena C. Kraemer; George B. Schreiber; C. Barr Taylor; Stephen R. Daniels

2007-01-01

383

Risk factors and patterns of onset in Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined risk factors in women with binge eating disorder (BED) who began binging before dieting (binge-first [BF]) compared with women with BED who began dieting before binging (diet-first [DF]). It further aimed to replicate findings regarding eating disorder and general psychopathology among BF versus DF subtypes.

Jamie L. Manwaring; Anja Hilbert; Denise E. Wilfley; Kathleen M. Pike; Christopher G. Fairburn; Faith-Anne Dohm; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore

2006-01-01

384

Modeling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyze Eating Regulation Disorders  

E-print Network

ProofCopy Modeling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyze Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse Amsterdam, The Netherlands To analyze the disorders of their patients, psychotherapists often have to get- namics. Using this language, an executable model has been developed of the dynamics of eating regulation

Bosse, Tibor

385

Body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, and depression: A developmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCarthy (1990) contends that a cultural ideal of thinness (the “thin ideal”) causes depression and eating disorders to occur more frequently in women than men. She believes eating disorders are a way of coping with depression and hypothesizes that the thin ideal has its greatest impact during puberty when sexual attractiveness becomes important and changes in physical appearance increase the

Peter J. Adams; Roger C. Katz; Kenneth Beauchamp; Esther Cohen; Doreen Zavis

1993-01-01

386

Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

2008-01-01

387

Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Overweight Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors appear to be quite common in youth, and overweight youth have been identified as a subset of the population at particularly high risk for endorsing such symptoms. Overweight and eating disorder (ED) symptomatology independently confer significant threats to one's physical and psychosocial health, showing strong links with body weight gain and risk for ED development.

Andrea B. Goldschmidt; Vandana Passi Aspen; Meghan M. Sinton; Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Denise E. Wilfley

2008-01-01

388

Eating disorders and obesity: two sides of the same coin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesi- ty. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family- based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical

JEMMA DAY; ANDREW TERNOUTH; DAVID A. COLLIER

389

Prevalence of Eating-Disordered Behaviors Among Fashion Merchandising Majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female subjects from a Midwestern university were studied to determine whether eating-disordered behaviors are more prevalent among Fashion Merchandising majors than among other students. The authors hypothesized that Fashion Merchandising majors, due to exposure to media definitions of ideal body shape and weight, might be more susceptible to weight preoccupation and disordered eating behaviors than other students. All subjects completed

Maija Petersons; Elaine Phillips; Nancy Steinhaus

1996-01-01

390

Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many

Karen Farchaus Stein; Colleen Corte; David L. Ronis

2010-01-01

391

Acculturation and Eating Disorders in a Mexican American Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…

Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

2006-01-01

392

Eating disorders and associated psychiatric comorbidity in elderly Canadian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of disordered eating symptomatology and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics\\u000a and health indicators in a nationally representative sample of Canadian women aged 50 years and older. The study also examined\\u000a associations of disordered eating symptomatology with comorbid mood disorders, anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence. The\\u000a study was based on secondary data analysis of the Canadian Community

Tahany M. Gadalla

2008-01-01

393

Psychometric evaluation of the eating disorder examination adapted for children.  

PubMed

The Eating Disorder Examination adapted for children (ChEDE) is the child version of the semi-structured gold standard eating disorder interview for adults. This study was a comprehensive test statistic evaluation of the German ChEDE in a large sample of children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, loss of control eating, overweight and obesity, as well as non-eating-disordered and chronically ill control probands (n?=?352). Excellent inter-rater reliability, adequate internal consistency and satisfactory stability of ChEDE indicators were demonstrated. ChEDE indicators discriminated between diverse forms of eating and weight disturbances and normative eating and were significantly correlated with conceptually related measures. Factorial validity was not convincing; a brief eight-item scale showed the best fit. Item statistics were mostly acceptable. Overall, the ChEDE's German translation reliably and validly assesses psychopathology across the eating and weight disorder spectrum and facilitates international comparison of eating disorder research. PMID:23456853

Hilbert, Anja; Buerger, Arne; Hartmann, Andrea S; Spenner, Kristina; Czaja, Julia; Warschburger, Petra

2013-07-01

394

A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors. PMID:24801324

Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

2014-01-01

395

Negative emotion and disordered eating among obese college students.  

PubMed

The present study examined the relationship between negative emotions, body dissatisfaction, exercise, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among obese college students. It also examined whether there were gender differences in these variables. A total of 88 males and 102 females, who reported a BMI score above 30, completed a survey. Females reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and more frequent dieting than males and as predicted, males reported higher levels of exercise behaviors. Body dissatisfaction, anger discomfort, and self dissatisfaction all correlated with drive for thinness for both genders. Anger discomfort was the only variable to predict disordered eating for both genders. The results support numerous studies that have found that females are at greater risk of disordered eating than males, and also suggest that anger management may be an important component in treatment of disordered eating among obese young adults. PMID:16257804

Edman, Jeanne L; Yates, Alayne; Aruguete, Mara S; DeBord, Kurt A

2005-12-01

396

[Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].  

PubMed

New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out. PMID:15704033

Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; García Sánchez, F; Ríos Rial, B

2005-01-01

397

Eating Disorder Symptomatology: Prevalence among Latino College Freshmen Students  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in first-year students at the University of Puerto Rico. Method Responses to the Bulimia Test Revised (BULIT-R), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were analyzed in a sample of 2,163 freshman students. Results The percentage of students at or above the clinical cut-off points was 3.24% for the BULIT-R, 9.59% for the EAT-26 and 1.88% met the cut-off point for both instruments. The 36.44% of the students who screen positive on eating disorders measures scored 18 or more on the BDI and 5.93% on this group presented high suicidal risk based on their responses to BDI items assessing suicidal thoughts. Discussion Eating disorder symptoms occur frequently in Puerto Rican college students, and prevention, detection, and treatment efforts are needed. PMID:20455253

Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Franko, Debra L.; Matos-Lamourt, Anguelique; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Von Holle, Ann; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis R.; Rodríguez-Angleró, Dianisa; Cervantes-López, Sarah; Suárez-Torres, Alba

2010-01-01

398

Childhood Eating and Weight in Eating Disorders: A Multi-Centre European Study of Affected Women and Their Unaffected Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have suggested that childhood eating and weight problems may be risk factors for eating disorders. Robust evidence is still lacking. Aims: To investigate whether childhood eating and weight problems increase the risk of eating disorders in affected women compared to their unaffected sisters. Methods: Women (150) with anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from clinical and

N. Micali; J. Holliday; A. Karwautz; M. Haidvogl; G. Wagner; F. Fernandez-Aranda; A. Badia; L. Gimenez; R. Solano; M. Brecelj-Anderluh; R. Mohan; D. Collier; J. L. Treasure

2007-01-01

399

Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours?  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of this body of research, most studies have weaknesses in their designs (e.g. observational design, no control groups, or small sample sizes). The basic tenets of yoga, anecdotal reports of its effectiveness, its high accessibility and low cost, and initial research findings suggest that yoga may offer promise for the field of eating disorders. Two options are suggested for prevention: (1) eating disorder prevention can be integrated into ongoing yoga classes and (2) yoga can be integrated into eating disorder prevention programmes. Regarding treatment, it is important to examine the effectiveness of different teaching styles and practices for different eating disorders. Potential harms of yoga should also be explored. Further research, using stronger study designs, such as randomised, controlled trials, is needed. PMID:24955291

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2013-01-01

400

Diagnostic accuracy of level 3 portable sleep tests versus level 1 polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Greater awareness of sleep-disordered breathing and rising obesity rates have fueled demand for sleep studies. Sleep testing using level 3 portable devices may expedite diagnosis and reduce the costs associated with level 1 in-laboratory polysomnography. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of level 3 testing compared with level 1 testing and to identify the appropriate patient population for each test. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies of level 3 versus level 1 sleep tests in adults with suspected sleep-disordered breathing. We searched 3 research databases and grey literature sources for studies that reported on diagnostic accuracy parameters or disease management after diagnosis. Two reviewers screened the search results, selected potentially relevant studies and extracted data. We used a bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model to estimate summary diagnostic accuracy parameters. Results: We included 59 studies involving a total of 5026 evaluable patients (mostly patients suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea). Of these, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was high, ranging between 0.85 and 0.99 across different levels of disease severity. Summary sensitivity ranged between 0.79 and 0.97, and summary specificity ranged between 0.60 and 0.93 across different apnea–hypopnea cut-offs. We saw no significant difference in the clinical management parameters between patients who underwent either test to receive their diagnosis. Interpretation: Level 3 portable devices showed good diagnostic performance compared with level 1 sleep tests in adult patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and no unstable comorbidities. For patients suspected of having other types of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep disorders not related to breathing, level 1 testing remains the reference standard. PMID:24218531

El Shayeb, Mohamed; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Stafinski, Tania; Pawluk, Lawrence; Menon, Devidas

2014-01-01

401

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

� 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders to solve problems, establishing goals, and contributing to life. View exercise and balanced eating

Walker, Matthew P.

402

Moderators of Post-Binge Eating Negative Emotion in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to test the impact of two variables on post-binge eating negative emotion in a combined sample of women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 47) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 121). Participants completed two weeks of an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they provided multiple daily ratings of overall negative affect and guilt and reported eating disorder behaviors including binge eating and self-induced vomiting. The results indicate that both overall negative affect and guilt exhibited a statistically significantly decrease in the hour immediately following binge eating episodes. The decrease in guilt, but not overall negative affect, was moderated by eating disorder diagnosis and the tendency to engage in self-induced vomiting. Specifically, individuals with BN reported a greater reduction in guilt than those with AN, and individuals who did not typically engage in self-induced vomiting reported more decreases in guilt than those who typically engaged in self-induced vomiting. This study extends the existing literature on the relationship between negative affect and eating disorder behaviors, suggesting guilt as a potentially relevant facet of negative affect in the maintenance of binge eating. In addition, the findings indicate that two individual differences, eating disorder diagnosis and self-induced vomiting, may influence the trajectory of guilt following binge eating episodes. PMID:23245289

De Young, Kyle P.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel

2013-01-01

403

Does feminism serve a protective function against eating disorders?  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Two hundred seventeen women completed the Kinsey Sexual Orientation Scale, the Feminist Identity Scale, and three questionnaires that measured eating attitudes and behaviors. Lesbian participants were significantly more likely than heterosexual participants to work actively to improve the status of women, and they were less likely than heterosexuals to report attitudes and behaviors that are associated with eating disorders. Older women were more committed to feminist activism than younger women. Although feminist identity scores did not directly predict eating attitudes and behaviors, evidence suggests that feminism may serve a protective function against eating disorders in lesbians. PMID:24786436

Guille, C; Chrisler, J C

1999-01-01

404

Childhood Trauma, Borderline Personality, and Eating Disorders: A Developmental Cascade  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we discuss the nature and role of trauma in relationship to borderline personality disorder and eating disorders. As is clinically evident, trauma can result in a variety of psychological consequences. These consequences include both Axis I and II disorders. Among the Axis II disorders, trauma appears to heighten the risk for the development of borderline, antisocial, avoidant,

Randy A. Sansone; Lori A. Sansone

2007-01-01

405

Treatment Implications of Axis-II Comorbidity in Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we review the clinical research on the implications of comorbid personality disorders (PDs), pathological personality traits, and the expression and response to treatment of those with eating disorders (EDs) (i.e., anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder). Obsessive-compulsive PDs and related traits, such as perfectionism and rigidity, appear to be clear-cut risk and maintenance factors for

Kenneth R. Bruce; Howard Steiger

2004-01-01

406

Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

2006-09-01

407

Pathological organizations and psychic retreats in eating disorders.  

PubMed

A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed. PMID:22489814

Kadish, Yael Adira

2012-04-01

408

Meta-analysis of social skills interventions of single-case research for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: results from three-level HLM.  

PubMed

This meta-analysis used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 115 single-case studies with 343 participants that examined the effectiveness of social skills interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The average effect size of the included studies was 1.40 (SD = 0.43, 95% CL = 1.32-1.48, N = 115). In the further, several common predictors including intervention length, age and gender of the participants, and study quality indicators (provision of sufficient, in-depth, and replicable information of participants, settings/materials, independent variables, and dependent variables) were not found to mediate the intervention effectiveness. Only research design that the study employed was found to impact the intervention effectiveness; the studies using multiple baseline or reversal design had larger effect sizes than studies using other designs. Implications of the results and limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:23212808

Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying

2013-07-01

409

Comorbidity and age of onset of eating disorders in gay men, lesbians and bisexuals  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men with eating disorders. Method 388 white, black, Latino LGB men and women were sampled from community venues. DSM-IV diagnoses of anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder were assessed using the World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results Gay and bisexual men with eating disorders were more likely to have an anxiety or substance abuse disorder compared than gay and bisexual men without eating disorders, while lesbian and bisexual women with eating disorders were more likely to have a mood disorder compared to lesbian and bisexual women without an eating disorder. For individuals diagnosed with an eating and anxiety or major depressive disorder, the onset of the psychiatric disorder was more likely to precede the onset of the eating disorder. Conclusion Researchers should study potential explanations of the relationship eating and psychiatric disorders among LGB men and women. PMID:20483473

Feldman, Matthew B.; Meyer, Ilan H.

2009-01-01

410

A Pilot Investigation of the Relation of Perceived Mutuality to Eating Disorders in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relational theory predicts that lack of mutuality in important relationships leads to the development of psychological problems, including eating disorders. We sought to explore the association between perceived mutuality in relationships with partners and friends and eating disorders. Participants were 74 women, 35 with an eating disorder diagnosis and 39 non-psychiatric controls. The eating disorder group reported lower perceived mutuality

Jennifer L. Sanftner; Mary Tantillo; Larry Seidlitz

2004-01-01

411

BodyWise Handbook: Eating Disorders Information for Middle School Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The BodyWise Handbook is one of the components of the BodyWise packet. The handbook includes four sections: -Understanding Disordered Eating and Eating Disorders An overview of disordered eating and eating disorders, and a brief definition of terms; -Key ...

2002-01-01

412

The Effects of Coaching Feedback on Perfectionism and Disordered Eating in College Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedback given to athletes by their coaches is a topic that has not been extensively researched in terms of its effect on perfectionist tendencies and disordered eating in athletes. It is important to reduce factors that are associated with disordered eating before the overt disordered eating behaviors can develop into a more severe clinical-level eating disorder. In investigating these links,

Chase Natalie E

2009-01-01

413

Coping and Emotional Intelligence in Women with a History of Eating Disordered Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders pose a serious problem in our society. Studies have found that there is a negative correlation between eating disorders and emotional coping mechanisms, a factor of emotional intelligence (EI). This study was designed to discover if women who have a history of eating disorders resemble women who report no current or past history of eating disorders and women

Charlene Boyd

2006-01-01

414

Eating Disorders and Attitudes in Maltese and Italian Female Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: No study to date has investigated the frequency of eating disorders (ED) in Malta. The aim of the present study was to provide a cross-cultural comparison between Malta and Italy as regards the frequency of ED and problematic eating attitudes among female students. Sampling and Methods: 128 Maltese and 135 Italian female students aged 16–20 were surveyed. Subjects underwent

Paolo Santonastaso; Dorothy Scicluna; Giovanni Colombo; Tatiana Zanetti; Angela Favaro

2006-01-01

415

Eating-related disorders in patients with advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with advanced incurable illnesses and their families are frequently concerned about not eating enough and a decline in physical functioning. Eating-related disorders were reviewed for a workshop at the 4th San Salvatore Meeting on Palliative Care in Switzerland, with the purpose of discussing new findings relating to the understanding and treatment of such problems. The topics discussed were patient

Florian Strasser; John Ellershaw

2003-01-01

416

What not to do when teaching about eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has seen a dual increase in overweight and eating disorders in the past decade. In addition, a heavy focus on nutrition and obesity in the media has made school-aged young people very sensitive about issues of eating and body weight. The home economics and food technology curricula have a unique potential to address these issues through the development of

Zali Yager

2007-01-01

417

Diverging eating psychopathology in transgendered eating disorder patients: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

This report documents two transgendered biological males who met criteria for an eating disorder, who interchangeably reported periods of endorsing masculine and feminine gender identities, allowing an exploration of how their preferred gender orientation impacted their eating disorder psychopathology. This report suggests that the divergence of body image psychopathology amongst men may be impacted by gender role orientation, which is consistent with a developing body of research. PMID:23241091

Murray, Stuart B; Boon, Evelyn; Touyz, Stephen W

2013-01-01

418

Why do eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder co-occur?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823

Pollack, Lauren O; Forbush, Kelsie T

2013-04-01

419

Why Do Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Co-Occur?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823

Pollack, Lauren O.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

2013-01-01

420

[Eating disorders: state of the art research and future challenges].  

PubMed

Eating disorders are a common mental disorder during adolescence and young adulthood. While prevalence rates of eating disorders dramatically increased during the second half of the last century, these rates have remained relatively stable over the last 20 years. According to ICD-10 eating disorders are diagnostically categorized as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and atypical eating disorders or eating disorders not otherwise specified. Concerning the etiology, genetic factors are involved, especially in anorexia nervosa, as well as psychological and sociocultural factors. Evidence-based recommendations are available for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder and in this context cognitive behavioral therapy is seen as the first choice. In contrast, the state of knowledge concerning the treatment of anorexia nervosa is still limited, especially concerning effective treatments for adults. Recent data only provide evidence for the effectiveness of family therapy for adolescents. Due to the lack of high quality studies, research on therapy for anorexia nervosa is a future challenge. PMID:23104604

Voderholzer, U; Cuntz, U; Schlegl, S

2012-11-01

421

Guidelines for Group Therapy with Eating Disorder Victims.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a rationale for group psychotherapy with eating disorder victims and discusses therapists' characteristics and style, and group climate and strategies. Suggests specific interventions for each complex counseling issue. (LLL)

Lenihan, Genie O.; Sanders, Claud D.

1984-01-01

422

Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.  

PubMed

Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete. PMID:25014386

Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

423

Family functioning and risk factors for disordered eating.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether any of seven factors of family dysfunction predicted five risk factors for developing eating disorders in young adult women. Participants completed demographic questions, the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (Slade & Dewey, 1986) online. Five stepwise multiple regressions evaluated whether FAD scores predicted any of the eating disorder risk factors. Unhealthy affective responsiveness predicted general dissatisfaction and social and personal anxiety, and unhealthy general functioning predicted adolescent problems. No FAD factors predicted perfectionism or weight control. These results confirm the importance of families' affective responsiveness and general functioning to the risk of developing eating disorders. However, the lack of relationship among problem-solving, communication, roles, affective involvement, or behavior control with any of the risk factors for eating disorders warrants further investigation. PMID:24183144

Lyke, Jennifer; Matsen, Julie

2013-12-01

424

Family therapy for adolescent eating disorders: an update.  

PubMed

Family therapy has featured in the treatment of adolescent eating disorders for over 40 years, and the evolution of family therapy approaches, through a variety of theoretical lenses, has been significant. For instance, the recent dissemination of family-based treatment has resulted in a growing number of controlled empirical trials which continue to inform and augment treatment outcomes. In addition, a burgeoning number of alternate approaches to family therapy for eating disorders leave clinicians with more clinical considerations in practicing family therapy for eating disorders. In this paper, we aim to review the recent developments in family therapy for adolescent eating disorders, underscoring the impact on clinical practice and the likely implications for future research. PMID:24652505

Murray, Stuart B; Le Grange, Daniel

2014-05-01

425

Impact Of Family Environment On Disordered Eating In Overweight Adolescents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research has shown that overweight and disordered eating are often comorbid especially in the context of poor family functioning and negative affect. The role of family structure remains largely unexplored, and no single study has examined all of these va...

D. A. Ross

2008-01-01

426

Eating Disorders, Trauma, and Comorbidity: Focus on PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the relationships among eating disorders (EDs), trauma, and comorbid psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There have been a number of significant conclusions in the literature, applicable to clinical practice, which are essential to the understanding of the relationships between EDs and trauma. These are summarized as follows: a) childhood sexual abuse

Timothy D. Brewerton

2007-01-01

427

The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the ?-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors. PMID:22524510

2012-01-01

428

Do Psychogenic Dysphagia Patients Have an Eating Disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Patients who report dysphagia, but have no detectable physical defect, have often been diagnosed as having an eating disorder.\\u000a This diagnosis was evaluated by administering the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and a measure of distress, the Symptom\\u000a Checklist-90 (SCL-90R), to a sample of 21 adult psychogenic dysphagia patients (PDPs). Their EDI-2 responses were then compared\\u000a with samples of anorexics,

Ivan Barofsky; Kevin R. Fontaine

1998-01-01

429

Protective Factors for Eating Disorders in Female College Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sundgot-Borgen (1993) hypothesized that participants in refereed sports, e.g., basketball, may be at lower risk for the development of eating disorders in comparison to those participating in judged sports, e.g., gymnastics. This study tested this hypothesis. Structured interviews and self-report questionnaires were employed to assess the presence of eating disorder diagnoses, the presence of body weight and shape concerns, psychopathology,

Nancy L. Zucker; Leslie G. Womble; Donald A. Mlliamson; Lori A. Perrin

1999-01-01

430

Salient components of a comprehensive service for eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are challenging and difficult to treat, because of the necessity of a multidisciplinary treatment team for effective outcomes and the high mortality rate of anorexia nervosa. An adequate initial assessment and evaluation requires a psychiatric assessment, a medical history and medical examination, a social history and an interview of family members or collateral informants. A comprehensive eating disorder treatment team includes a psychiatrist coordinating the treatment and appropriate medical physician specialists, nutritionists, and psychotherapists. An adequate outpatient eating disorder clinic needs to provide individual psychotherapy with cognitive behavioral techniques specific for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, family therapy, pharmacological treatment and the resources to obtain appropriate laboratory tests. Eating disorder patients requiring inpatient care are best treated in a specialized eating disorder inpatient unit. A cognitive behavioral framework is most useful for the overall unit milieu. Medical management and nutritional rehabilitation are the primary goals for inpatient treatment. Various group therapies can cover common core eating disorder psychopathology problems and dialectical behavior therapy groups can be useful for managing emotional dysregulation. Residential, partial hospitalization and day treatment programs are useful for transitioning patients from an inpatient program or for patients needing some monitoring. In these programs, at least one structured meal is advisable as well as nutritional counseling, group therapy or individual counseling sessions. Group therapies usually address issues such as social skills training, social anxiety, body image distortion or maturity fears. Unfortunately there is s paucity of evidence based randomized control trials to recommend the salient components for a comprehensive service for eating disorders. Experienced eating disorder clinicians have come to the conclusion that a multidisciplinary team approach provides the most effective treatment. PMID:19812744

Halmi, Katherine A

2009-10-01

431

Assessing quality of life in eating disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine quality of life among subgroups of eating disorder patients. Method: Self-report questionnaires which included two quality of life measures were completed by 87 individuals referred for treatment to the Australian Capital Territory Eating Disorders Day Program. Health-related quality of life, as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form Mental Component Summary scale, and subjective quality

J. M. Mond; C. Owen; P. J. Hay; B. Rodgers; P. J. V. Beumont

2005-01-01

432

Depressive personality dimensions and alexithymia in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association has been reported between high levels of alexithymia and depression in patients with eating disorders. This study has examined alexithymic features and depressive experiences in patients with DSM-IV eating disorder (restricting anorexia, n=105; purging anorexia, n=49; bulimia, n=98) and matched controls (n=279). The subjects were assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20); the Beck Depression Inventory; and the

Mario Speranzaa; Fernando Perez-Diaze; Paul Bizouardg; Olivier Halfond; Philippe Jeammetb

433

Eating disorder examination questionnaire: norms for young adolescent girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports young adolescent female norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The standardization sample was comprised of 808 girls aged between 12 and 14 years from three single-sex schools (one private and two state schools). Means, standard deviations and percentile ranks for raw EDE-Q subscale scores are presented. Prevalence figures for key eating disorder behaviors over the

Jacqueline C Carter; D. Anne Stewart; Christopher G Fairburn

2001-01-01

434

Characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory for children at risk and protective factors for disordered eating in adolescent girls  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-Child version (EDI-C) to find early predictors that might constitute risk and protective factors in the development of disordered eating. Method Participants were divided into three groups based on eating attitudes at T2: disordered eating (n = 49), intermediate eating concern (n = 260), and healthy eating attitudes (n = 120). EDI-C from T1 (four to five years earlier) was then analyzed to find predictors of group classification at T2. Results Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction emerged as risk factors at T1, while drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and interoceptive awareness emerged as protective factors after controlling for initial eating concerns and body mass index. Discussion Eating disorders should not be seen as a result of a premorbid personality type. Rather we should take a more social-psychological perspective to explain how individual and sociocultural factors work together in the development of these conditions. PMID:21151684

Gustafsson, Sanna Aila; Edlund, Birgitta; Kjellin, Lars; Norring, Claes

2010-01-01

435

Prevalence of eating disorders in adults with celiac disease.  

PubMed

Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

Passananti, V; Siniscalchi, M; Zingone, F; Bucci, C; Tortora, R; Iovino, P; Ciacci, C

2013-01-01

436

Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

2013-01-01

437

Bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder in adolescents.  

PubMed

Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are separate entities with the common denominator of binge eating. In this chapter, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria for BN are reviewed, including both recurrent episodes of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain in one whose self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body weight and shape. Two percent of adolescent females and 0.3% of adolescent males fulfill criteria for BN. Risk factors, medical complications of binge eating (vomiting, use of ipecac, diet pills, diuretics, and laxatives), physical and laboratory findings, and treatment options and outcome are discussed. BED is seen in 1-2% of adolescents. The DSM-IV lists BED under Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. DSM-IV research criteria for BED is reviewed, including binge eating, distress over binge eating, and absence of regular extreme compensatory behaviors. The mean age of onset is 17.2 years. Up to 30% of obese patients have BED. Risk factors are discussed. Because most patients with BED are obese, medical evaluation is similar to that for obesity. Treatment goals must be geared not only toward decreased binge eating but toward weight loss. Outcome is discussed. PMID:12529196

Schneider, Marcie

2003-02-01

438

Weak central coherence in eating disorders: a step towards looking for an endophenotype of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Previous work has found that women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have weak coherence. The aim of this study was to examine whether women who had recovered from an eating disorder (ED) also had weak coherence. A total of 42 recovered ED women and 42 healthy women were assessed with a battery of five neuropsychological tests that measure aspects of global or local functioning. The recovered ED group showed superior local processing and poorer global processing than the healthy group. These results are indicative of weak coherence. The finding that weak coherence is a stable characteristic rather than a state effect suggests that it may be an endophenotype for ED. PMID:18608648

Lopez, Carolina; Tchanturia, Kate; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

2009-01-01

439

Depression modulates non-eating-disordered psychopathology in eating-disordered patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general psychopathology in subgroups of inpatients with eating disorders was investigated with the MMPI. One hundred and sixty-three females were diagnosed according to both DSM-III-R and DSM-IV into four subgroups: 1a) DSM-III-R anorexia nervosa-restricting subtype (AN-R), 1b) DSM-IV anorexia nervosa-restricting subtype (AN-R), 2a) DSM-III-R anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (AN-B), and 2b) DSM-IV anorexia nervosa binge\\/purge type (AN-BP), 3)

Ida F. Dancyger; Suzanne R. Sunday; Katherine A. Halmi

1997-01-01

440

Family structure and eating behavior disorders.  

PubMed

Introduction. The modern way of life, characterized by the cult of individualism, discredited authority, and a proliferation of points of view about reality, has modified family structure. This social structure imbues families and the way that its members become ill, in such a way that eating behavior disorders (EDs) have become a typically postmodern way of becoming ill. Methodology. The aim is to understand the systemic structure and vulnerability of families by comparing 108 families with members who have ED to 108 families without pathology. A questionnaire administered by an interview with trained personnel was used. Results. Families with ED have a different structure from the families in the control group. They have more psychiatric history and poor coping skills. The family hierarchy is not clearly defined and the leadership is diffuse, with strict and unpredictable rules, more intergenerational coalitions, and fewer alliances. The relationship between the parents is distant or confrontational, and their attitudes towards their children are complacent and selfish, with ambivalent and unaffectionate bonds. In the case of mothers, this is manifested by separation anxiety and dyadic dependence. Their expectations concerning their offspring are either very demanding and unrealistic, or indifferent, and there is less control of their behavior, in addition to poor organization of the family meals. Conclusions. The structural differences between the two groups of families seem to be important for the occurrence and maintenance of EDs, although they may not be the only cause. The results suggest strategies for clinical intervention in EDs. PMID:25388769

Mateos-Agut, Manuel; García-Alonso, Isabel; De la Gándara-Martín, Jesús J; Vegas-Miguel, María I; Sebastián-Vega, Carlota; Sanz-Cid, Beatriz; Martínez-Villares, Ana; Martín-Martínez, Esther

2014-11-01

441

Meta-analysis in psychiatric genetics.  

PubMed

The article reviews literature on methods for meta-analysis of genetic linkage and association studies, and summarizes and comments on specific meta-analysis findings for psychiatric disorders. The Genome Scan Meta-Analysis and Multiple Scan Probability methods assess the evidence for linkage across studies. Multiple Scan Probability analysis suggested linkage of two chromosomal regions (13q and 22q) to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, whereas Genome Scan Meta-Analysis on a larger sample identified at least 10 schizophrenia linkage regions, but none for bipolar disorder. Meta-analyses of pooled ORs support association of schizophrenia to the Ser311Cys polymorphism in DRD2 and the T102C polymorphism in HTR2A, and of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to the 48-bp repeat in DRD4. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) may contribute to the risk of bipolar disorder, suicidal behavior, and neuroticism, but association to the lifetime risk of major depression has not been shown. Meta-analyses support linkage of schizophrenia to regions where replicable associations to candidate genes have been identified through positional cloning methods. There are additional supported regions where susceptibility genes are likely to be identified. Linkage meta-analysis has had less clear success for bipolar disorder based on a smaller dataset. Meta-analysis can guide the prioritization of regions for study, but proof of association requires biological confirmation of hypotheses about gene actions. Elucidation of causal mechanisms will require more comprehensive study of sequence variation in candidate genes, better statistical and meta-analytic methods to take all variation into account, and biological strategies for testing etiologic hypotheses. PMID:15802092

Levinson, Douglas F

2005-04-01

442

Eating disorders, gene-environment interactions and epigenetics.  

PubMed

This review describes the various subtypes of eating disorders and examines factors associated with the risk of illness. It considers evidence that the development and maintenance of eating disorders is due to gene-environment interactions (GxE) that alter genetic expression via epigenetic processes. It describes how environmental factors such as those associated with nutrition and/or stress may cause epigenetic changes which have transcriptional and phenotypic effects, which, in turn, alter the long term risk of developing an eating disorder. It reviews theoretical and practical issues associated with epigenetic studies in psychiatry and how these are relevant to eating disorders. It examines the limited number of epigenetic studies which have been conducted in eating disorders and suggests directions for further research. Understanding the relationship between epigenetic processes and the risk of an eating disorder opens possibilities for preventive and/or therapeutic interventions. For example, epigenetic changes associated with diet and weight may be reversible and those associated with cognitive processes may be accessible to pharmacological interventions. PMID:20888360

Campbell, Iain C; Mill, Jonathan; Uher, Rudolf; Schmidt, Ulrike

2011-01-01

443

Interpersonal Influences on Late Adolescent Girls' and Boys' Disordered Eating  

PubMed Central

Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys’ and girls’ symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16–19 years of age (N = 199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents’, mothers’ and friends’ reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents’ perceptions and friends’ reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys. PMID:19447351

Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol

2009-01-01

444

Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.  

PubMed

Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys. PMID:19447351

Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

2009-04-01

445

Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Negative Affect, and Personality Dimensions  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study explored the clinical meaningfulness of distinguishing subjective (SBE) from objective binge eating (OBE) among individuals with threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). We examined relations between OBEs and SBEs and eating disorder symptoms, negative affect, and personality dimensions using both a group comparison and a continuous approach. Method Participants were 204 adult females meeting criteria for threshold/subthreshold BN who completed questionnaires related to disordered eating, affect, and personality. Results Group comparisons indicated that SBE and OBE groups did not significantly differ on eating disorder pathology or negative affect, but did differ on two personality dimensions (cognitive distortion and attentional impulsivity). Using the continuous approach, we found that frequencies of SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, diuretic use frequency, depressive symptoms, anxiety, social avoidance, insecure attachment, and cognitive distortion. Discussion SBEs in the context of BN may indicate broader areas of psychopathology. PMID:23109272

Brownstone, Lisa M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Printz, Katherine S.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

446

Night eating syndrome in young adults: delineation from other eating disorders and clinical significance.  

PubMed

The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a recently described disordered eating style whose status in current diagnostic systems needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the clinical features of NES in a sample of 1514 young adults aged 18-26 years from the general population who participated in an anonymous Internet survey. We first examined characteristics of NES and tried to delineate it from healthy controls as well as from other eating disorders in terms of socio-demography, eating disorder pathology and general psychopathology. Second, we attempted to further clarify the clinical utility of the NES by assessing the degree of distress as well as impairment. Twenty (1.3%) participants with NES were identified and there was only modest overlap between NES and both Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Bulimia nervosa (BN) according to questionnaire-based DSM-IV criteria. Compared to healthy controls, NES individuals reported more pronounced eating disorder pathology as well as general psychopathology (depressive symptoms, chronic social stress). NES seems to be associated with considerable distress and impairment. Implications for the validity and classification of NES are discussed. PMID:22883837

Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Hermann, Ernst; Tuch, Alex; Munsch, Simone

2012-12-30

447

The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project: development and debut of a paediatric clinical eating disorder registry  

PubMed Central

Background The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project is an ongoing registry study made up of a sequential cross-sectional sample prospectively recruited over 17 years, and is designed to answer empirical questions about paediatric eating disorders. This paper introduces the HOPE Project, describes the registry sample to-date, and discusses future directions and challenges and accomplishments. The project and clinical service were established in a tertiary academic hospital in Western Australia in 1996 with a service development grant. Research processes were inbuilt into the initial protocols and data collection was maintained in the following years. Recognisable progress with the research agenda accelerated only when dedicated research resources were obtained. The registry sample consists of consecutive children and adolescents assessed at the eating disorder program from 1996 onward. Standardised multidisciplinary data collected from family intake interview, parent and child clinical interviews, medical review, parent, child and teacher psychometric assessments, and inpatient admission records populate the HOPE Project database. Results The registry database to-date contains 941 assessments, of whom 685 met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder at admission. The majority of the sample were females (91%) from metropolitan Perth (83%). The cases with eating disorders consist of eating disorders not otherwise specified (68%), anorexia nervosa (25%) and bulimia nervosa (7%). Among those with eating disorders, a history of weight loss since illness onset was almost universal (96%) with fear of weight gain (71%) common, and the median duration of illness was 8 months. Conclusions Over the next five years and more, we expect that the HOPE Project will make a strong scientific contribution to paediatric eating disorders research and will have important real-world applications to clinical practice and policy as the research unfolds. PMID:24999409

2013-01-01

448

Association study in eating disorders: TPH2 associates with anorexia nervosa and self-induced vomiting.  

PubMed

Twin studies suggest that genetic factors play a substantial role in anorexia nervosa (AN) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom that is shared among different types of eating disorders (EDs). We investigated the association of 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), capturing 71-91% of the common variance in candidate genes, stathmin (STMN1), serotonin receptor 1D (HTR1D), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), with AN and EDs characterized by regular SV. The first allele frequencies of all the SNPs were compared between a Dutch case group (182 AN, 149 EDs characterized by SV) and 607 controls. Associations rendering P-values < 0.05 from this initial study were then tested for replication in a meta-analysis with two additional independent ED case-control samples, together providing 887 AN cases, 306 cases with an ED characterized by SV and 1914 controls. A significant effect for the minor C-allele of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 rs1473473 was observed for both AN [odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% CI 1.08-1.57, P < 0.003] and EDs characterized by SV (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.28-2.04, P < 0.006). In the combined case group, a dominant effect was observed for rs1473473 (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.64, P < 0.0003). The meta-analysis revealed that the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 polymorphism rs1473473 was associated with a higher risk for AN, EDs characterized by SV and for the combined group. PMID:20946355

Slof-Op 't Landt, M C T; Meulenbelt, I; Bartels, M; Suchiman, E; Middeldorp, C M; Houwing-Duistermaat, J J; van Trier, J; Onkenhout, E J; Vink, J M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Brandys, M K; Sanders, N; Zipfel, S; Herzog, W; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Klampfl, K; Fleischhaker, C; Zeeck, A; de Zwaan, M; Herpertz, S; Ehrlich, S; van Elburg, A A; Adan, R A H; Scherag, S; Hinney, A; Hebebrand, J; Boomsma, D I; van Furth, E F; Slagboom, P E

2011-03-01

449

Perception of parental acceptance in women with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

The authors contribute to the validating literature for binge eating disorder (BED) by examining perceptions of parents and satisfaction with life among obese women with and without BED. Participants were female patients, recruited through a private medical clinic, who were assigned to groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and scores on the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP; R. L. Spitzer et al., 1992). Groups consisted of (a) obese women with BED (n = 32), (b) obese women who had no eating disorders (n = 51), and (c) nonobese women with no eating disorders (n = 30). All participants completed the Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ; R. P. Rohner, 1986), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; J. Fischer & K. Corcoran, 1994), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; A. T. Beck & R. A. Steer, 1987). Obese women with BED perceived their fathers as more rejecting than did women in the other groups. Moreover, obese women with BED perceived their fathers as significantly more rejecting than their mothers. The BED group indicated lower satisfaction with life and higher levels of depression than the groups without eating disorders. These findings further validate the diagnostic category of BED. Obese women with BED appear to be a distinct subgroup of the obese population. The results indicate a need for further assessment of the father-daughter relationship in connection to BED and other eating disorders. PMID:10654844

Dominy, N L; Johnson, W B; Koch, C

2000-01-01

450

Risk behaviors for eating disorders in Brazilian dancers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the frequency of risk behaviors for eating disorders and their association with anthropometric, demographic, and socioeconomic variables in Brazilian professional dancers. Portuguese-language versions of the Eating Attitudes Test and of the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) were applied to 39 female and 22 male dancers considered to be some of the best classical ballet performers in Brazil. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Risk behaviors for eating disorders were observed in 31% of the dancers. Those who had a percentage of body fat above (PR=4.04; 95% CI=1.42-11.47) or below (PR=3.57; 95% CI=1.04-12.24) what is considered normal for the profession, and those who lived alone (PR=3.13; 95% CI=1.16-8.48) presented higher risk for eating disorders. In conclusion, the frequency of risk behaviors for eating disorders among the Brazilian dancers was high, which seems to be associated with the physical requirements of the profession. Those who are outside the BF% expected for dancers and those who live alone are the groups most vulnerable to developing eating disorders, and thus are the ones which are most in need of receiving special attention in regard to the intervention measures. PMID:20148375

Ribeiro, L G; da Veiga, G V

2010-04-01

451

Eating disorders and obesity: two sides of the same coin?  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesity. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family-based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical illness with metabolic and genetic origins, and thought to be best treated by mainstream medicine, involving dietary, drug or surgical treatment. We believe that this polarisation is fundamentally flawed, and research and treatment of both types of disorder would be better served by greater appreciation of the psychosocial components of obesity and the biological and genetic components of eating disorders. There are similarities in phenotype (such as excessive attempts at weight control, binge eating behaviours) and in risk factors (such as low self-esteem, external locus of control, childhood abuse and neglect, dieting, media exposure, body image dissatisfaction, weight-related teasing and shared susceptibility genes). One example of shared genetic risk is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) gene, in which the valine allele of the Val66Met amino acid polymorphism predisposes to obesity, whereas the methionine allele predisposes to eating disorders. Thus the evidence suggests that these disorders will have both shared and distinct susceptibility factors; some will predispose to both types of disorder, some will push in opposite directions, and some will separate them. PMID:19526739

Day, Jemma; Ternouth, Andrew; Collier, David A

2009-01-01

452

The eating disorder belief questionnaire: Psychometric properties in an adolescent sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Belief Questionnaire in older adolescent females. Three hundred and sixty-seven girls aged 17 or 18 who were in secondary school education completed the Eating Disorder Belief Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Eating Attitudes Test. They also provided information on height and weight. The Eating Disorder

Kathryn S. Rose; Myra J. Cooper; Hannah Turner

2006-01-01

453

Persecutors or Victims? The Moral Logic at the Heart of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating Disorders, particularly anorexia and bulimia, are of immense contemporary importance and interest. News stories depicting the tragic effects of eating disorders command wide attention. Almost everybody in society has been touched by eating disorders in one way or another, and contemporary obsession with body image and diet fuels fascination with this problem. It is unclear why people develop eating

Simona Giordano

2003-01-01

454

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders body can do for me each day. I will treat my body with respect, giving it enough rest, fueling

Jacobs, Lucia