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1

Tooth Erosion and Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? Methods An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders) vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. Results Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR?=?12.4, 95%CI?=?4.1–37.5). Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR?=?19.6, 95%CI?=?5.6–68.8). Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR?=?11.6, 95%CI?=?3.2–41.7). Conclusion The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion. PMID:25379668

Hermont, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Patrícia A. D.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Auad, Sheyla M.

2014-01-01

2

A meta-analysis of temperament in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Although suggested as an important contributor to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, temperament has not previously been studied adopting a meta-analytical approach. We therefore pooled data (N?=?14 studies; N?=?3315 cases, N?=?3395 controls) on Cloninger's temperament traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence and persistence) in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Persistence was significantly higher than in the controls in all eating disorders except for BED the highest levels being observed in AN. Correspondingly, the highest effect sizes for harm avoidance were seen in AN. Novelty seeking was significantly elevated relative to the controls only in BN. Harm avoidance was significantly lower, and reward dependence was significantly higher in individuals who had recovered from AN than in those who remained ill. Future studies with a longitudinal design are needed to explore the temporal relationships between eating disorders and temperament traits. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25546554

Atiye, Minna; Miettunen, Jouko; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu

2015-03-01

3

The Relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and Officially Recognized Eating Disorders: Meta-Analysis and Implications for DSM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),…

Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2009-01-01

4

Inhibitory Control in Bulimic-Type Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarise data from neuropsychological studies on inhibitory control to general and disease-salient (i.e., food/eating, body/shape) stimuli in bulimic-type eating disorders (EDs). A systematic literature search was conducted to identify eligible experimental studies. The outcome measures studied included the performance on established inhibitory control tasks in bulimic-type EDs. Effect sizes (Hedges' g) were pooled using random-effects models. For inhibitory control to general stimuli, 24 studies were included with a total of 563 bulimic-type ED patients: 439 had bulimia nervosa (BN), 42 had anorexia nervosa of the binge/purge subtype (AN-b), and 82 had binge eating disorder (BED). With respect to inhibitory control to disease-salient stimuli, 12 studies were included, representing a total of 218 BN patients. A meta-analysis of these studies showed decreased inhibitory control to general stimuli in bulimic-type EDs (g?=??0.32). Subgroup analysis revealed impairments with a large effect in the AN-b group (g?=??0.91), impairments with a small effect in the BN group (g?=??0.26), and a non-significant effect in the BED group (g?=??0.16). Greater impairments in inhibitory control were observed in BN patients when confronted with disease-salient stimuli (food/eating: g?=??0.67; body/shape: g?=??0.61). In conclusion, bulimic-type EDs showed impairments in inhibitory control to general stimuli with a small effect size. There was a significantly larger impairment in inhibitory control to disease salient stimuli observed in BN patients, constituting a medium effect size. PMID:24391763

Wu, Mudan; Hartmann, Mechthild; Skunde, Mandy; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

2013-01-01

5

Review and meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy for binge-eating disorder.  

PubMed

This study evaluated available controlled treatment studies to determine utility of pharmacotherapy for binge-eating disorder (BED). The authors identified randomized placebo-controlled trials testing pharmacotherapy-only treatments and controlled trials testing pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy treatments. Meta-analysis was performed on placebo-controlled trials with data for attrition, remission, and weight loss. Qualitative review was performed on remaining controlled treatment literature. A total of 33 studies were considered of which 14 studies with a total of 1,279 patients were included in the meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy-only treatment and 8 studies with a total of 683 patients were included in the qualitative review of pharmacotherapy combined with psychotherapy interventions. No evidence suggested significant differences between medication and placebo for attrition. Evidence suggested that pharmacological treatments have a clinically significant advantage over placebo for achieving short-term remission from binge eating (48.7% vs. 28.5%) and for weight loss, although weight losses are not substantial. No data exist to allow evaluation of longer-term effects of pharmacotherapy-only treatment for BED. Combining medications with psychotherapy interventions failed to significantly enhance binge outcomes, although specific medications (orlistat, topiramate) enhanced weight losses achieved with cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss. In summary, BED patients can be advised that certain pharmacotherapies may enhance likelihood of stopping binge eating short term, but that longer-term effects are unknown. Although some weight loss may occur, it is unlikely to be substantial with available medications. Combining medications with cognitive or behavioral treatments is unlikely to enhance binge outcomes, but specific medications (orlistat, topiramate) may enhance weight losses, albeit modestly. PMID:19186327

Reas, Deborah L; Grilo, Carlos M

2008-09-01

6

E-therapy in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The widespread availability of the Internet and mobile-device applications (apps) is changing the treatment of mental health problems. The aim of the present study was to review the research on the effectiveness of e-therapy for eating disorders, using the methodology employed by the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Electronic databases were searched for published randomised controlled trials of e-therapies, designed to prevent or treat any eating disorder in all age groups. Studies were meta-analysed where possible, and effect sizes with confidence intervals were calculated. The GRADE approach was used to determine the confidence in the effect estimates. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. For prevention, a CBT-based e-intervention was associated with small reductions in eating disorder psychopathology, weight concern and drive for thinness, with moderate confidence in the effect estimates. For treatment and relapse prevention, various e-therapies showed some beneficial effects, but for most outcomes, evidence came from single studies and confidence in the effect estimates was low. Overall, although some positive findings were identified, the value of e-therapy for eating disorders must be viewed as uncertain. Further research, with improved methods, is needed to establish the effectiveness of e-therapy for people with eating disorders. PMID:25461787

Loucas, Christina E.; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Whittington, Craig; Pennant, Mary E.; Stockton, Sarah; Kendall, Tim

2014-01-01

7

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... to be alone after a meal. Back Continue Treatment for Eating Disorders Fortunately, eating disorders can be treated. People with ... your doctor, or another trusted adult. Remember that eating disorders are very common among teens. Treatment options depend on each person and their families, ...

8

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and cardiovascular diseases. More on binge eating disorder. Treatment Eating disorders clearly illustrate the close links between emotional and ... by these illnesses, it is important that any treatment plan for a person with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder include general ...

9

[Eating disorders].  

PubMed

Abstract Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

2015-02-01

10

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

11

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... get help, and be persistent. Many colleges have treatment programs for these conditions and trained counselors who can relate to people with an eating disorder. They can help the person with an eating ...

12

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.

Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart

2004-01-01

13

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eating disorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders\\u000a as one of the nine

Rita DeBate; Heather Blunt; Marion Ann Becker

14

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are serious psychiatric disorders with significant medical and psychological morbidity and mortality. Most research has focused on the psychological and psychosocial risk factors for these disorders; however, recent genetic, neurocognitive, and neurotransmitter studies illustrate the biological underpinnings of these disorders. Treatments have generally focused on psychological interventions as well; however, a range of medications have been studied. Unfortunately,

B. Fleitlich-Bilyk; J. Lock

2008-01-01

15

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... women from developing an eating disorder. Also, specialized treatment of anorexia nervosa may help reduce the risk of death. Treating bulimia nervosa As with anorexia nervosa, treatment for bulimia nervosa often involves a combination of ...

16

Eating Disorders About eating disorders  

E-print Network

-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes). It is accompanied by feeling of being out of control, guilt and shame. Bulimia also involves being overly concerned with body weight and shape. Binge eating disorder (BED) is a condition that resembles bulimia nervosa

Leistikow, Bruce N.

17

Eating disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

18

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Research was conducted to obtain a profile of nutrition therapy currently in practice for patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia\\/bulimia (mixed diagnosis) and to identify the areas of dietetics education and research regarding eating disorders that need more attention.Design A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted by mailing a questionnaire composed of open- and closed-ended questions to US

SHERYL L WHISENANT; BARBARA A SMITH

1995-01-01

19

The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

Pole, Nnamdi

2007-01-01

20

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... from a weight-loss program that also offers treatment for eating disorders. However, some people with binge eating disorder may ... disorder should get help from a specialist in eating disorders, such as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. Treatment may include the use of behavior change therapy, ...

21

African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

O'Neill, Shannon K.

2003-01-01

22

EATING DISORDERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

23

Psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:Background Older meta-analyses of the effects of psychological treatments of social anxiety disorder have found that these treatments have moderate to large effects. However, these earlier meta-analyses also included non-randomized studies, and there are many featured studies in this area which were published after the recent meta-analysis.\\u000aMethod We conducted a systematic literature search and identified 29 randomized studies examining

C. Acarturk; P. Cuijpers; A. van Straten; R. de Graaf

2009-01-01

24

Prevention of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathological eating attitudes and behaviors. Many people engage\\u000a in pathological weight-control behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa and\\u000a may be regarded as having subclinical eating disorders. As described by Fairburn and Beglin (1), a broad spectrum of eating disorders appears to exist in

Cheryl L. Rock

25

Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

2009-01-01

26

EATING DISORDERS IN INDIA  

PubMed Central

Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndrome are described in relation to the major eating disorders. PMID:21743711

Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter

1995-01-01

27

Pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are complex, chronic disorders that are difficult to treat. In addition, the 2 primary eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, may have acute, life-threatening consequences. Medication trials for eating disorders have been hampered by high dropout rates, high placebo response, short trial duration, insufficient doses, and difficult outcome measures. Only 1 medication has been FDA approved for any eating disorder to date, and that is for fluoxetine in the treatment of bulimia. Clearly, new large-scale, independent studies using novel agents, and studying the use of medications for both short- and long-term outcomes, are needed. PMID:20413695

Jackson, Cherry Wyant; Cates, Marshall; Lorenz, Raymond

2010-04-01

28

EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

ANXIETY DEPRESSION EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS GENERAL CONCERNS INTERPERSONAL DIFFICULTIES.946.5117 Counselling and Cyber Counselling Services to Help With: · Anxiety · Depression · Eating disorders · Family help. What We Are A new initiative of the Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University

Toronto, University of

29

Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

2001-01-01

30

Boys with Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

Hatmaker, Grace

2005-01-01

31

[Affective disorders and eating disorders].  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. PMID:25550240

Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

2014-12-01

32

Comorbidity in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of review. To provide a review of the most recent research on the psychiatric comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) reported during the years 2004-2005. Summary of recent findings. Current research provides further evidence to support the high rates of DSM axis I and axis II disorders in EDs. The literature indicates that anxiety and mood disorders are prevalent across

David B Herzog; Kamryn T Eddy

33

Mindfulness-based interventions for binge eating: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly used to treat binge eating. The effects of these interventions have not been reviewed comprehensively. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to summarize the literature on mindfulness-based interventions and determine their impact on binge eating behavior. PubMED, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched using keywords binge eating, overeating, objective bulimic episodes, acceptance and commitment therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, meditation, mindful eating. Of 151 records screened, 19 studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies showed effects of large magnitude. Results of random effects meta-analyses supported large or medium-large effects of these interventions on binge eating (within-group random effects mean Hedge's g = -1.12, 95 % CI -1.67, -0.80, k = 18; between-group mean Hedge's g = -0.70, 95 % CI -1.16, -0.24, k = 7). However, there was high statistical heterogeneity among the studies (within-group I (2) = 93 %; between-group I (2) = 90 %). Limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25417199

Godfrey, Kathryn M; Gallo, Linda C; Afari, Niloofar

2014-11-23

34

Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating  

E-print Network

Previous studies have investigated the link between aggression and disordered eating behavior. This study investigated the behavioral and psychological links between disordered eating and relational aggression in a female college-age population. I...

Prohaska, Jennifer A.

2012-05-31

35

Electroencephalography in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

36

Eating disorders and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of patients with eating disorders are female. Most of those seeking treatment for weight loss are also women. Our culture views slenderness as beautiful, creating pressure to be thin. For some, however, the pursuit of thinness may be a way to avoid difficult developmental tasks, increase self-acceptance or get approval from others. Whatever its purpose, seeking slimness can

Jill Bresler

1988-01-01

37

Meta-analysis of P300 waveform in panic disorder.  

PubMed

The P300 waveform has been inconsistently linked to the maladaptive information-processing characterized in panic disorder (PD). The purpose of this study was to synthesize previous event-related potential (ERP) findings and determine whether patients with PD have significant abnormalities in the P300 wave compared to controls. We performed a systematic literature search for studies published between 1980 and 2013 that reported P300 measurements in patients with PD and controls. Effect size estimates were computed using the restricted maximum likelihood model. We identified 14 ERP studies that analyzed P300 amplitude (461 PD and 355 controls), and 11 ERP studies that analyzed latency (320 PD and 282 controls). Patients with PD had reduced P300 amplitudes compared to controls, but this difference was non significant at midline electrodes (n = 14, ES -0.16; z = -1.55, p = 0.122). However, P300 amplitude was significantly reduced when analyzing the Pz electrode independently (n = 7, ES -0.48, z = -3.92, p < 0.001). No significant differences between cases and controls in P300 latency were observed at the midline electrodes (n = 11, ES 0.11, z = 0.64, p = 0.524). This meta-analysis included non-peer reviewed literature and ERP stimuli with varying levels of emotional salience, which may have introduced bias into the analysis. There is no robust evidence that P300 latency alterations are present in patients with PD; however, there are indications of reduced amplitude at Pz relative to controls. Reductions in amplitude may be associated with reduced neural resources allocated to contextual updating, selective attention, and neural inhibition mechanisms. PMID:24942701

Howe, Aaron S; Pinto, Antonio; De Luca, Vincenzo

2014-10-01

38

Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

2005-01-01

39

Personality disorder cognitions in the eating disorders.  

PubMed

Patients with eating disorder have relatively high rates of comorbid personality disorder diagnoses, including both anxiety-based personality disorders (obsessive-compulsive and avoidant) and borderline personality disorder. However, there is preliminary evidence that the core cognitions underlying personality pathology in the eating disorders are those related specifically to anxiety. This article builds on that evidence, replicating and extending the findings with a large sample of patients with eating disorder (N = 374). There were no differences in personality disorder cognitions between eating disorder diagnoses. This study also examines the possibility that there are clusters of patients, differentiated by patterns of personality disorder cognition. Affect-related personality disorder cognitions were key to understanding the role of personality pathology in the eating disorders. It is suggested that those cognitions should be considered when planning psychological treatments. PMID:24469531

Gabriel, Chloe; Waller, Glenn

2014-02-01

40

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances in understanding the etiology of eating disorders require

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Cynthia M. Bulik

2007-01-01

41

Animal models of eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

Kim, Sangwon F.

2012-01-01

42

Ätstörningens ansikten; Eating Disorders faces.  

E-print Network

?? This is a qualitative study which purpose is to examine the experiences of the recovery process after a treatment for eating disorders.                                                          The questions… (more)

Gergelj, Viktoria

2013-01-01

43

Prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of epidemiological studies lies in recognition of cases that do not come to treatment settings. The increasing focus on child adolescent mental health in India points to the necessity of epidemiological studies on children. Although there are a few such studies done in different parts of India in different socio-cultural settings, data from those cannot be generalized to the entire country. This need can be served by meta-analysis. There has been no meta-analysis reported from India for the child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology. Aim To review and do the meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on child and adolescent psychiatric disorder from India. Methods Sixteen community based studies on 14594 children and adolescents; and seven school based studies on 5687 children and adolescents, reporting prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder were analyzed and overall prevalence was calculated. Results The prevalence rate of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in the community has been found to be 6.46% (95% confidence interval 6.08% - 6.88%) and in the school it has been found to be 23.33% (95% confidence interval 22.25% - 24.45%). Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis determining the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India. It has been found that the reporting systems of psychiatric disorders in children are inadequate. PMID:25071865

2014-01-01

44

Stealing in eating disordered patients.  

PubMed

Previous studies have noted high rates of stealing behavior in patients with eating disorders. To assess the significance of stealing in eating disordered patients, the authors compared the eating and purging behavior, levels of psychologic symptomatology, and alcohol use of 181 eating disordered patients with and without a history of stealing. Overall, the patients with a history of stealing had significantly more dysfunctional eating and purging behavior. Those patients with a history of stealing reported significantly more psychological distress including more depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive compulsive behavior, and hostility. The authors conclude that stealing behavior should be assessed in patients with eating disorders as a history of stealing may define a subgroup of more severely impaired patients. PMID:2005074

Krahn, D D; Nairn, K; Gosnell, B A; Drewnowski, A

1991-03-01

45

Brain lesions and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses.Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded.Results: Although simple

R Uher; J Treasure

2005-01-01

46

Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

2007-01-01

47

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Intimate Relationship Problems: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…

Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.

2011-01-01

48

A preliminary meta-analysis of the child behavior checklist in pediatric bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA possible explanation for the ongoing controversy surrounding pediatric bipolar disorder is that differences in assessment methodologies lead to conflicting results. One way to address methodological differences in assessment across studies is to use a single standardized assessment of psychopathology to calibrate the findings reported in different studies. To this end, we conducted a meta-analysis of several studies that have

Eric Mick; Joseph Biederman; Gahan Pandina; Stephen V Faraone

2003-01-01

49

The Effectiveness of Treatment for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the number of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome.…

Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Whiteside, Sephen P.; Deacon, Brett J.

2005-01-01

50

A Meta-Analysis of Social Skill Interventions for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many programs designed for children and youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) include a social skill training component. Using quantitative methods of meta-analysis, the findings from 35 studies investigating the effects of social skill interventions for students with EBD were synthesized. The pooled mean effect size (ES) was 0.199, from which the average student with EBD would be expected

Mary Magee Quinn; Kenneth A. Kavale; Sarup R. Mathur; Robert B. Rutherford; Steven R. Forness

1999-01-01

51

A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of evidence-based treatments is important for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the increasing number of interventions available and the prevalence of ASD. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for this population by conducting a meta-analysis of published…

Roth, Matthew E.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

2014-01-01

52

Innovative Technology-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided…

Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

2014-01-01

53

Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Treatment Trials for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis on randomized, controlled treatment trials of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Studies were included if they employed randomized, controlled methodology and treated young people (19 years or under) with OCD. A comprehensive literature search identified 13 RCTs containing 10…

Watson, Hunna J.; Rees, Clare S.

2008-01-01

54

Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of…

Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J. L.; Langely, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

2010-01-01

55

Sudden death in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. "Sudden death" has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. PMID:22393299

Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

56

Sudden death in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. PMID:22393299

Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

57

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep disordered breathing in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children and adolescents has been suggested by some authors. Yet, this topic remains highly controversial in the literature. A meta-analysis was conducted in order to examine the extent of relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in pediatric populations and whether there are differences in ADHD symptoms pre- versus post-adenotonsillectomy in pediatric populations. PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo and Cochrane databases were searched using the key words "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" or "ADHD" and "obstructive sleep apnea" or "OSA" or "sleep disordered breathing" (SDB) or "SDB". English language publications through September 2012 were surveyed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in the first part of the study, and the extent of change in ADHD symptoms before and after adenotonsillectomy in the second part. Eighteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for the first part of the study. This represented 1113 children in the clinical group (874 diagnosed with SDB who were examined for ADHD symptoms; 239 diagnosed with ADHD who were examined for SDB) and 1405 in the control-group. Findings indicate that there is a medium relationship between ADHD symptoms and SDB (Hedges' g = 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.36-0.78; p = 0.000001). A high apnea hypopnea index (AHI) cutoff was associated with lower effect sizes, while child age, gender and body mass index did not moderate the relationship between SDB and ADHD. Study quality was associated with larger effect sizes. In the second part of the study, twelve studies were identified assessing pre- versus post-surgery ADHD symptoms. Hedges' g was 0.43 (95% confidence interval = 0.30-0.55; p < 0.001; N = 529) suggesting a medium effect, as adenotonsillectomy was associated with decreased ADHD symptoms at 2-13 months post-surgery. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that ADHD symptoms are related to SDB and improve after adenotonsillectomy. Therefore, patients with ADHD symptomatology should receive SDB screening. Treatment of comorbid SDB should be considered before medicating the ADHD symptoms if present. PMID:24581717

Sedky, Karim; Bennett, David S; Carvalho, Karen S

2014-08-01

58

Investigational drugs for eating disorders.  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are common, significant public health problems which are treated with nutritional, psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions. A number of drugs (mostly antidepressant drugs) are currently used in their treatment to some benefit, but there is substantial room for improvement. A wide variety of compounds are listed as under investigation for the treatment of eating disorders. They have a diverse variety of mechanisms of action, reflecting the complex nature of the control of food intake. While none of these compounds are close to release at present, the diversity of mechanisms under study lend some optimism that more effective approaches will be identified. PMID:12605570

Crow, Scott; Brown, Eric

2003-03-01

59

Anxiety Disorders are Associated with Reduced Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Anxiety disorders increase risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, even after controlling for confounds including smoking, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status, and irrespective of a history of medical disorders. While impaired vagal function, indicated by reductions in heart rate variability (HRV), may be one mechanism linking anxiety disorders to CVD, prior studies have reported inconsistent findings highlighting the need for meta-analysis. Method: Studies comparing resting-state HRV recordings in patients with an anxiety disorder as a primary diagnosis and healthy controls were considered for meta-analysis. Results: Meta-analyses were based on 36 articles, including 2086 patients with an anxiety disorder and 2294 controls. Overall, anxiety disorders were characterized by lower HRV [high frequency (HF): Hedges’ g?=??0.29. 95% CI: ?0.41 to ?0.17, p?disorder (n?=?447), post-traumatic stress disorder (n?=?192), generalized anxiety disorder (n?=?68), and social anxiety disorder (n?=?90), but not obsessive–compulsive disorder (n?=?40), displayed reductions in HF HRV relative to controls (all ps?disorders are associated with reduced HRV, findings associated with a small-to-moderate effect size. Findings have important implications for future physical health and well-being of patients, highlighting a need for comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:25071612

Chalmers, John A.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Abbott, Maree J.-Anne; Kemp, Andrew H.

2014-01-01

60

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

2003-01-01

61

Eating Disorders in Late-life  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life.

Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

2015-01-01

62

Voxel-Based Morphometry ALE meta-analysis of Bipolar Disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.

Magana, Omar; Laird, Robert

2012-03-01

63

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

64

We Are Family - eating disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forty-third monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Eating disorders often begin in adolescence and can last a lifetime. They are psychiatric disorders and their treatment is very difficult. New clinical experience points to a crucial component - family.

2010-12-01

65

Psychological Factors Affecting Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders (EDs) are representative of the relationship between psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders and have complex interactions in the body, mind, and brain. The psychosomatic issues of EDs emerge in the alterations of the body and its functioning, in personality traits, in the difficulty of recognizing and coping with emotions, and in the management of anger and impulsiveness. The Diagnostic

S. Fassino; G. Daga; N. Delsedime

2007-01-01

66

Sexuality, Personality, and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess sexuality, personality, and eating pathology in women with eating disorders (EDs), we asked a random sample of 234 clinicians to describe an ED patient (age 16–65). Restricting AN patients tended to be childlike and prim\\/proper, while BN patients tended to be flirtatious and promiscuous. A constricted\\/overcontrolled personality predicted a childlike sexuality independent of AN diagnosis, and an undercontrolled,

KAMRYN T. EDDY; CATHERINE M. NOVOTNY; DREW WESTEN

2004-01-01

67

PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN  

E-print Network

PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN A FAMILY GUIDE TO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF EATING TO DO WITH THE BRAIN? Although people with eating disorders struggle to eat normally, this is only now believe that part of the problem has to do with how our brains process information about

Squire, Larry R.

68

Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Cognitive Abilities and Everyday Functioning in Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives Neurocognitive deficits are common in bipolar disorder and contribute to functional disability. However, the degree to which general and specific cognitive deficits affect everyday functioning in bipolar disorder is unknown. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the magnitude of the effect of specific neurocognitive abilities on everyday functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of studies that reported associations between performance on objective neuropsychological tasks and everyday functioning among individuals with bipolar disorder. From an initial pool of 486 papers, 22 studies met inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 1344 participants. Correlation coefficients were calculated for 11 cognitive domains and four measurement modalities for functioning. We also examined effect moderators, such as sample age, clinical state, and study design. Results The mean Pearson correlation between neurocognitive ability and functioning was 0.27, and was significant for all cognitive domains and varied little by cognitive domain. Correlations varied by methods of everyday functioning assessment, being lower for clinician and self-report than performance-based tasks and real-world milestones such as employment. None of the moderator analyses were significant. Conclusions Overall, the strength of association between cognitive ability and everyday functioning in bipolar disorder is strikingly similar to that seen in schizophrenia, with little evidence for differences across cognitive domains. The strength of association differed more so according to functional measurement approach. PMID:22548895

Depp, Colin A.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Savla, Gauri N.; Bowie, Christopher R.; Harvey, Philip D.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

69

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73:4962, 2003 Genome Scan Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder,  

E-print Network

Disorder, Part III: Bipolar Disorder Ricardo Segurado,1,* Sevilla D. Detera-Wadleigh,3,* Douglas FAm. J. Hum. Genet. 73:49­62, 2003 49 Genome Scan Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenia and Bipolar and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health/National Institutes of Health, and 4

Lübbert, Hermann

70

PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine  

E-print Network

PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine NEWTON-WELLESLEY EATING DISORDERS & BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE (www.nwedbmed.com) seeks a Massachusetts licensed Psychologist. Massachusetts licensure required and supervised training in eating disorders treatment, CBT, Cognitive Therapy

Patel, Aniruddh D.

71

Could your patient have an eating disorder?  

PubMed

Eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, affect approximately 14 million people in the U.S., three-fourths of whom are female. Contrary to popular belief, eating disorders affect people of all ages. Women's health nurses can play a vital role in identifying adolescents and women who may be suffering from an eating disorder and referring them for specialized treatment. PMID:23957797

Cooper, Rebecca

2013-01-01

72

Somatoform dissociation in eating-disordered patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of somatoform dissociation in eating disorders and pathological eating behaviour, relative to the established association of eating pathology with psychological dissociation. The participants were 131 women with DSM-IV diagnoses of anorexic or bulimic disorders and 75 women who had no such disorder. Each woman completed measures of psychological and somatoform dissociation, as well as a

G. Waller; M. Babbs; F. Wright; C. Potterton; C. Meyer; N. Leung

2003-01-01

73

Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

2000-01-01

74

Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

Muuss, Rolf E.

1985-01-01

75

First Aid for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop first aid guidelines, based on expert consensus, that provide members of the community with information on how to assist someone who is thought to be developing or experiencing an eating disorder. An online Delphi study was carried out with expert panels consisting of 36 clinicians, 27 care-givers and 22 consumers. The panel

Laura M. Hart; Anthony F. Jorm; Susan J. Paxton; Claire M. Kelly; Betty A. Kitchener

2009-01-01

76

Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

2005-01-01

77

The efficacy of motivational interviewing for disordered gambling: Systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Motivational interviewing is a client-centered therapeutic intervention that aims to resolve ambivalence toward change. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of motivational interviewing, compared to non-motivational interviewing controls, in the treatment of disordered gambling. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated change in gambling behavior using motivational interviewing in adult disordered gamblers. The primary outcomes were the weighted mean difference (WMD) for change in average days gambled per month and average dollars lost per month. The search strategy yielded 447 articles, of which 20 met criteria for full text review. Overall, 8 studies (N=730) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for systematic review and 5 (N=477) were included in the meta-analysis. Motivational interviewing was associated with significant reduction in gambling frequency up to a year after treatment delivery. For gambling expenditure, motivational interviewing yielded significant reductions in dollars spent gambling compared to non-motivational controls at post-treatment only (1-3 months). Overall, the results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing is an efficacious style of therapy for disordered gambling in the short term. Whether treatment effects are maintained over time remains unclear. PMID:25577724

Yakovenko, Igor; Quigley, Leanne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Hodgins, David C; Ronksley, Paul

2015-04-01

78

Mother-daughter coping and disordered eating.  

PubMed

This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25645347

Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D

2015-03-01

79

Association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is essential for DNA biosynthesis and the epigenetic process of DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and cancers. However, reports on the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the relationship of the MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and the risk of ASD by meta-analysis. Up to December 2012, eight case-control studies involving 1672 patients with ASD and 6760 controls were included for meta-analysis. The results showed that the C677T polymorphism was associated with significantly increased ASD risk in all the comparison models [T vs. C allele (frequency of allele): odds ratio (OR)?= 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.85; CT vs. CC (heterozygote): OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.00; TT vs. CC (homozygote): OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.08-3.20; CT+TT vs. CC (dominant model): OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12-2.18; and TT vs. CC+CT (recessive model): OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22], whereas the A1298C polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with reduced ASD risk but only in a recessive model (CC vs. AA+AC: OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.97). In addition, we stratified the patient population based on whether they were from a country with food fortification of folic acid or not. The meta-analysis showed that the C677T polymorphism was found to be associated with ASD only in children from countries without food fortification. Our study indicated that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to increased ASD risk, and periconceptional folic acid may reduce ASD risk in those with MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism. PMID:23653228

Pu, Danhua; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Jie

2013-10-01

80

A meta-analysis of quantitative EEG power associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis was performed on quantitative EEG (QEEG) studies that evaluated attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the criteria of the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition). The nine eligible studies (N = 1498) observed QEEG traits of a theta power increase and a beta power decrease, summarized in the theta/beta ratio with a pooled effect size of 3.08 (95% confidence interval, 2.90, 3.26) for ADHD versus controls (normal children, adolescents, and adults). By statistical extrapolation, an effect size of 3.08 predicts a sensitivity and specificity of 94%, which is similar to previous results 86% to 90% sensitivity and 94% to 98% specificity. It is important to note that the controlled group studies were often with retrospectively set limits, and that in practice the sensitivity and specificity results would likely be more modest. The literature search also uncovered 32 pre-DSM-IV studies of ADHD and EEG power, and 29 of the 32 studies demonstrated results consistent with the meta-analysis. The meta-analytic results are also supported by the observation that the theta/beta ratio trait follows age-related changes in ADHD symptom presentation (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.996, P = 0.004). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports that a theta/beta ratio increase is a commonly observed trait in ADHD relative to normal controls. Because it is known that the theta/beta ratio trait may arise with other conditions, a prospective study covering differential diagnosis would be required to determine generalizability to clinical applications. Standardization of the QEEG technique is also needed, specifically with control of mental state, drowsiness, and medication. PMID:17016156

Snyder, Steven M; Hall, James R

2006-10-01

81

Disordered eating attitudes among elementary school population.  

PubMed

Disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors among elementary school children were evaluated using the Children's Eating Attitude Test. Our findings demonstrate that students in early adolescence have disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors. We recommend screening for eating disorders in this group in order to provide primary and secondary prevention. PMID:16635782

Knez, Rajna; Munjas, Radenka; Petrovecki, Mladen; Pauci?-Kirinci?, Ela; Persi?, Mladen

2006-05-01

82

The Efficacy of the Tomatis Method for Children with Learning and Communication Disorders: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the Tomatis Method, a program of auditory stimulation and counseling used to assist children, adolescents, and adults with learning and communication disorders. Presents a meta-analysis of data from five research studies evaluating the efficacy of this method in assisting children with such disorders. Suggests that effect sizes favoring…

Gilmor, Tim

1999-01-01

83

Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

Spearing, Melissa

84

Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. Results From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114?009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Conclusions Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental studies are required to confirm a potentially beneficial effect of chocolate consumption. PMID:21875885

2011-01-01

85

Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

2004-01-01

86

Concepts of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nosology of mental disorders inevitably dithers between the wish to delineate useful categories and the hope of discovering natural kinds. It would be good to achieve both but each aspiration alone is elusive enough. Indeed, some would reckon the second hope to be forlorn and there has been a tendency to emphasise the pragmatic and the descriptive. The current

Bob Palmer

87

GSK-3? polymorphism discriminates bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a well-known conserved and ubiquitous protein kinase and playing a pivotal role in neurodevelopment, neurogenesis, learning/memory, and neuronal cell death. Dysfunction of GSK-3 had been seen in multiple neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are two common psychiatric diseases first occur in adolescence or young adulthood. They share similar risk genes as well as clinical symptoms, which make it is difficult to be discriminated from each other. Here, by using meta-analysis we reported that glycogen synthase kinase 3? promoter inactive mutant rs334558 may contribute to the development of schizophrenia not bipolar disorder. This might be used to distinguish these two diseases. PMID:23440732

Tang, Hui; Shen, Na; Jin, Huijuan; Liu, Dan; Miao, Xiaoping; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

2013-12-01

88

Eating Disorders and Substance Abuse  

E-print Network

Clinicians involved in substance abuse treatment have been aware for some time that women with alcohol or other drug abuse problems also frequently suffer from eating disorders. Some of the similarities, such as feelings of shame, need to hide the behavior, and the compulsive quality have led to speculations of an underlying common dynamic, and possibly to common organic predisposing factors. The treatment challenge is complex: One does not have the luxury of postponing the exploration of anxiety-producing issues until abstinence (sobriety) is well secured. Eating disorders are health threatening and some-times life threatening, and are frequently closely connected with the alcohol or other drug abuse pattern. This article focuses on bulimia and anorexia nervosa, omitting obesity because it is not characteristically associated with a distinct psychological or behavioral pattern (Norman 1984). It aims to clarify some of these issues and to provide recommendations to the treating clinician: guidelines on when to tackle the problem within the context of the substance abuse treatment and when to refer the clients elsewhere. It will also describe the major treatment approaches in the eating disorders field and offer criteria for selecting a program or therapist with whom to collaborate.

Joan Ellen Zweben, Ph.D.

89

Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.  

PubMed

Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

2014-08-01

90

The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) owing to converging evidence from multiple levels of analysis that oxytocin (OXT) has an important role in the regulation of affiliative behavior and social bonding in both nonhuman mammals and humans. Inconsistency in the effect sizes of the OXTR variants included in association studies render it unclear whether OXTR is truly associated with ASD, and, if so, which OXTR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated. Thus, a meta-analytic review of extant studies is needed to determine whether OXTR shows association with ASD, and to elucidate which specific SNPs have a significant effect on ASD. The current meta-analysis of 16 OXTR SNPs included 3941 individuals with ASD from 11 independent samples, although analyses of each individual SNP included a subset of this total. We found significant associations between ASD and the SNPs rs7632287, rs237887, rs2268491 and rs2254298. OXTR was also significantly associated with ASD in a gene-based test. The current meta-analysis is the largest and most comprehensive investigation of the association of OXTR with ASD and the findings suggest directions for future studies of the etiology of ASD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 5 August 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.77. PMID:25092245

LoParo, D; Waldman, I D

2014-08-01

91

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an updated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Previous studies examining the possible role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in the development of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) have provided inconclusive findings, this meta-analysis was therefore designed to get a more reliable assessment. A total of 38 articles were identified through a search of electronic databases, up to 27 February 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Meta-analysis showed that MTHFR C677T was significantly associated with SZ, the highest OR was found for the recessive model (for TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.53); a marginal association of MTHFR C677T with increased risk of BPD has also been found for the recessive model (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.59). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the significant association with SZ and BPD existed among Asian and African populations, but not for the white. MTHFR A1298C was significant associated with SZ, the highest OR for the dominant model (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.24). Subgroup analysis indicated a significant association with SZ existed in Asian populations, not among the white populations and no significant association was detected between the MTHFR A1298C and BPD in all groups. We conclude that MTHFR polymorphism is associated with SZ and BPD among Asian, African populations, but not the white. PMID:24938371

Hu, Cai-Yun; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Gong, Feng-Feng; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

2015-02-01

92

Pharmacologic treatment of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Increased research focusing on the eating disorders has put the clinician on firmer ground when choosing appropriate psychopharmacologic treatments. Recent studies of patients with bulimia demonstrate that treatment with antidepressant medications may substantially reduce symptoms of bingeing and vomiting. The efficacy of pharmacologic approaches to anorexia nervosa is more uncertain, in part because of the limited availability of long-term follow-up studies. The judicious use of appetite suppressant medications, as reviewed in the text, is helpful for mild to moderate obesity. In treating these disorders, the clinician needs to integrate medication treatment with psychotherapeutic and behavioral treatment approaches. PMID:6151652

Gwirtsman, H; Kaye, W; Weintraub, M; Jimerson, D C

1984-12-01

93

Temperament and emotional eating: A crucial relationship in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Specific personality traits are related to Eating Disorders (EDs) specific and general psychopathology. Recent studies suggested that Emotional Eating (EE) is a common dimension in all EDs, irrespective of binge eating. The present study was aimed to explore the relationship of temperamental features with EE and eating symptomatology in a sample of EDs patients, adjusting for general psychopathology. One hundred and sixty six female patients were enrolled at the Eating Disorders Outpatient Clinic of the Careggi Teaching-Hospital of Florence. Participants completed the emotional eating scale, the temperament and character inventory, the eating disorder examination questionnaire and the symptom checklist 90-revised. Novelty seeking and self directedness showed significant correlations with EE after adjustment for general psychopathology. Patients with binge eating displayed significant associations between EE and novelty seeking and self directedness. Among patients without binge eating, no significant correlation between EE and temperamental features was observed. Specific temperamental features are associated to EE in EDs. A clear, different pattern of association in patients with different eating attitudes and behavior was found. Considering that treatments of EDs are largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions, focused on emotions and cognitions, the present data provide some hints which could be helpful for the development of more appropriate psychotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25537489

Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Godini, Lucia; Mannucci, Edoardo; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

2015-02-28

94

Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

2011-01-01

95

A Quantitative Meta-Analysis of Neurocognitive Functioning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with regional alterations in brain structure and function that are hypothesized to contribute to symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. We present here the first systematic meta-analysis of neurocognitive outcomes associated with PTSD to examine a broad range of cognitive domains and describe the profile of cognitive deficits, as well as modifying clinical factors and study characteristics. This report is based on data from 60 studies totaling 4,108 participants, including 1,779 with PTSD, 1,446 trauma-exposed comparison participants, and 895 healthy comparison participants without trauma exposure. Effect-size estimates were calculated using a mixed-effects meta-analysis for 9 cognitive domains: attention/working memory, executive functions, verbal learning, verbal memory, visual learning, visual memory, language, speed of information processing, and visuospatial abilities. Analyses revealed significant neurocognitive effects associated with PTSD, although these ranged widely in magnitude, with the largest effect sizes in verbal learning (d = -.62), speed of information processing (d = -.59), attention/working memory (d = -.50), and verbal memory (d =-.46). Effect-size estimates were significantly larger in treatment-seeking than community samples and in studies that did not exclude participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and effect sizes were affected by between-group IQ discrepancies and the gender composition of the PTSD groups. Our findings indicate that consideration of neuropsychological functioning in attention, verbal memory, and speed of information processing may have important implications for the effective clinical management of persons with PTSD. Results are further discussed in the context of cognitive models of PTSD and the limitations of this literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365762

Scott, J Cobb; Matt, Georg E; Wrocklage, Kristen M; Crnich, Cassandra; Jordan, Jessica; Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Schweinsburg, Brian C

2014-11-01

96

Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.  

PubMed

Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535

Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P

2012-01-01

97

Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

2014-01-01

98

A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric…

Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

2011-01-01

99

Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Subjective and Objective Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of 16 subjective and objective sleep studies with a sample of 722 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus a control that numbers 638 shows that the children with ADHD are significantly more impaired in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures than their counterpart.

Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

2009-01-01

100

Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders

Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

2008-01-01

101

Mindfulness-based therapies in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Background. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent and standard treatments are often unsatisfactory. Mindfulness-based therapy has shown benefit in conditions including chronic pain, mood, and somatization disorders. Objectives. To assess the quality and effectiveness reported in existing literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of mindfulness-based therapy in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods. Pubmed, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Study inclusion criteria included randomized, controlled studies of adults using mindfulness-based therapy in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias. Effect sizes were calculated and pooled to achieve a summary effect for the intervention on symptom severity and quality of life. Results. Of 119 records, eight articles, describing seven studies, met inclusion criteria. In six studies, significant improvements were achieved or maintained at the end of intervention or follow-up time points. The studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Pooled effects were statistically significant for IBS severity (0.59, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.86) and quality of life (0.56, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.79). Conclusion. Studies suggest that mindfulness based interventions may provide benefit in functional gastrointestinal disorders; however, substantial improvements in methodological quality and reporting are needed. PMID:25295066

Aucoin, Monique; Lalonde-Parsi, Marie-Jasmine; Cooley, Kieran

2014-01-01

102

Mindfulness-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent and standard treatments are often unsatisfactory. Mindfulness-based therapy has shown benefit in conditions including chronic pain, mood, and somatization disorders. Objectives. To assess the quality and effectiveness reported in existing literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of mindfulness-based therapy in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods. Pubmed, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Study inclusion criteria included randomized, controlled studies of adults using mindfulness-based therapy in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias. Effect sizes were calculated and pooled to achieve a summary effect for the intervention on symptom severity and quality of life. Results. Of 119 records, eight articles, describing seven studies, met inclusion criteria. In six studies, significant improvements were achieved or maintained at the end of intervention or follow-up time points. The studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Pooled effects were statistically significant for IBS severity (0.59, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.86) and quality of life (0.56, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.79). Conclusion. Studies suggest that mindfulness based interventions may provide benefit in functional gastrointestinal disorders; however, substantial improvements in methodological quality and reporting are needed. PMID:25295066

2014-01-01

103

Gastrointestinal and nutritional aspects of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are potentially fatal eating disorders which primarily affect adolescent females. Differentiating eating disorders from primary gastrointestinal (GI) disease may be difficult. GI disorders are common in eating disorder patients, symptomatic complaints being seen in over half. Moreover, many GI diseases sometimes resemble eating disorders. Inflammatory bowel disease, acid peptic diseases, and intestinal motility disorders such as achalasia may mimic eating disorders. However, it is usually possible to distinguish these by applying the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and by obtaining common biochemical tests. The primary features of AN are profound weight loss due to self starvation and body image distortion; BN is characterized by binge eating and self purging of ingested food by vomiting or laxative abuse. GI complications in eating disorders are common. Recurrent emesis in BN is associated with dental abnormalities, parotid enlargement, and electrolyte disturbances including metabolic alkalosis. Hyperamylasemia of salivary origin is regularly seen, but may lead do an erroneous diagnosis of pancreatitis. Despite the weight loss often seen in eating disorders, serum albumin, cholesterol, and carotene are usually normal. However, serum levels of trace metals such as zinc and copper often are depressed, and hypophosphatemia can occur during refeeding. Patients with eating disorders frequently have gastric emptying abnormalities, causing bloating, postprandial fullness, and vomiting. This usually improves with refeeding, but sometimes treatment with pro-motility agents such as metoclopromide is necessary. Knowledge of the GI manifestations of eating disorders, and a high index of suspicion for one condition masquerading as the other, are required for the correct diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:8409109

McClain, C J; Humphries, L L; Hill, K K; Nickl, N J

1993-08-01

104

Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…

Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

2013-01-01

105

A meta-analysis of mentalizing impairments in adults with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Mentalizing has been examined both in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) primarily by either cognitive-linguistic (referred to as verbal) or emotion recognition from eyes (referred to as visual) mentalizing tasks. Each type of task is thought to measure different aspects of mentalizing. Differences in clinical features and developmental courses of each disorder may predict distinct patterns of mentalizing performance across dis orders on each type of task. To test this, a meta-analysis was conducted using 37 studies that assessed mentalizing either verbally or visually in adults with SCZ or ASD. We found that the estimated effect sizes of impairments in verbal and visual mentalizing tasks for both clinical groups were statistically large and at a similar level (overall Hedges' g = 0.73-1.05). For each disorder, adults with SCZ showed a trend towards larger impairments on verbal (overall Hedges' g = 0.99) than on visual mentalizing task (overall Hedges' g = 0.73; Qbet = 3.45, p =.06, df =1). Adults with ASD did not show different levels of impairment on the verbal versus visual tasks (Qbet = 0.08, p =.78, df =1). These results suggest that both clinical groups share, at least in part, some common cognitive processing deficits associated with mentalizing impairments. PMID:23686020

Chung, Yu Sun; Barch, Deanna; Strube, Michael

2014-05-01

106

Meta-analysis: hoarding symptoms associated with poor treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

DSM-5 recognizes hoarding disorder as distinct from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), codifying a new consensus. Hoarding disorder was previously classified as a symptom of OCD and patients received treatments designed for OCD. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether OCD patients with hoarding symptoms responded differently to traditional OCD treatments compared with OCD patients without hoarding symptoms. An electronic search was conducted for eligible studies in PubMed. A trial was eligible for inclusion if it (1) was a randomized controlled trial, cohort or case-control study; (2) compared treatment response between OCD patients with and those without hoarding symptoms, or examined response to treatment between OCD symptom dimensions (which typically include hoarding) and (3) examined treatment response to pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy or their combination. Our primary outcome was differential treatment response between OCD patients with and those without hoarding symptoms, expressed as an odds ratio (OR). Twenty-one studies involving 3039 total participants including 304 with hoarding symptoms were included. Patients with OCD and hoarding symptoms were significantly less likely to respond to traditional OCD treatments than OCD patients without hoarding symptoms (OR=0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.42-0.60), z=-7.5, P<0.0001). This finding was consistent across treatment modalities. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms represent a population in need of further treatment research. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms may benefit more from interventions specifically targeting their hoarding symptoms. PMID:24912494

Bloch, M H; Bartley, C A; Zipperer, L; Jakubovski, E; Landeros-Weisenberger, A; Pittenger, C; Leckman, J F

2014-09-01

107

Eating disorders in hospitalized substance abusers.  

PubMed

Among 386 consecutive patients hospitalized for substance abuse, 15% of 143 women had a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia nervosa, compared to only 1% of 243 men. Women with eating disorders had significantly higher rates of stimulant abuse and lower rates of opioid abuse than women without eating disorders. PMID:1562008

Hudson, J I; Weiss, R D; Pope, H G; McElroy, S K; Mirin, S M

1992-01-01

108

Vyvanse Approved for Binge-Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Vyvanse Approved for Binge-Eating Disorder Characterized by compulsive overeating (*this news item will ... Roberts Monday, February 2, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Eating Disorders Medicines MONDAY, Feb. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Vyvanse ( ...

109

Eating disorders among professional fashion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fashion models are thought to be at an elevated risk for eating disorders, but few methodologically rigorous studies have explored this assumption. We have investigated the prevalence of eating disorders in a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia, Italy, comparing them with a group of 110 girls of the same age and of comparable social and cultural backgrounds.

Antonio Preti; Ambra Usai; Paola Miotto; Donatella Rita Petretto; Carmelo Masala

2008-01-01

110

Pharmacotherapy for eating disorders and obesity.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are significant mental health problems in the adolescent population; however, there are no medications approved by the FDA for the treatment of adolescents with either of these disorders. Many medications are used off label for both the symptoms of eating disorders and their co-morbid conditions, particularly SSRIs and atypical anti-psychotics. The dosing, side effect profile, and long term effects of these medications in children and adolescents is unclear. Binge eating disorder, night eating syndrome, and sleep-related eating disorder often are associated with over-weight in adolescents. There are various pharmacological approaches to the treatment of obesity in the adolescent population some of which have FDA approval. In the article the authors discuss pharmacological approaches to guide the treatment of eating disorders and obesity in the pediatric population, including risks of treatment, monitoring of potential side effects, and recent outcomes in the literature. PMID:19014865

Powers, Pauline S; Bruty, Heidi

2009-01-01

111

Disordered eating behaviors and sleep disturbances.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate if disordered eating behaviors predicted the development of sleep disturbances. A total of 870 students participated at baseline, 592 one year later (T1) and 305 two years later (T2). The Eating Attitudes Test-40 was used to assess global disordered eating behaviors, dietary concerns (DC), bulimic behaviors (BB) and social pressure to eat (SPE). Sleep disturbances were assessed by two items related to difficulties initiating sleep (DIS) and maintaining sleep (DMS). A sleep disturbance index (SDI) was calculated by summing DIS and DMS scores. Results revealed that global disordered eating behaviors at baseline predicted DIS, DMS and SDI at T1 and T2. Students with increased BB and SPE scores at baseline were more likely to experience sleep onset and sleep maintenance difficulties in the long term. These results suggest that assessment and correction of eating behaviors might prevent sleep disturbances. PMID:23557819

Bos, Sandra Carvalho; Soares, Maria João; Marques, Mariana; Maia, Berta; Pereira, Ana Telma; Nogueira, Vasco; Valente, José; Macedo, António

2013-04-01

112

Sleep changes in the disorder of insomnia: a meta-analysis of polysomnographic studies.  

PubMed

Insomnia is a highly prevalent health problem worldwide. Primary insomnia (PI), i.e., insomnia not due to another disorder or substance use, represents a model to elucidate the pathophysiology of sleep. However, prior research in patients with PI has failed to demonstrate consistent abnormalities in the state-of-the-art assessment of sleep (polysomnography). The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify whether there are identifiable polysomnographic sleep changes that correspond to the subjective complaints of patients with PI. Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched from 1994 to 2012. Effects were calculated as standardized mean differences. Studies were pooled with the random-effects metaanalytic model. Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. In total, 582 patients with PI and 485 good sleeper controls (GSC) were evaluated. The results showed that patients with PI present a disruption of sleep continuity and a significant reduction of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared to GSC. The observed changes in sleep architecture, i.e., reductions in SWS and REM sleep, hitherto did not count among the typical polysomnographic findings in patients with PI. An advanced knowledge of the polysomnographic changes in PI may add to foster the understanding of the pathophysiology of sleep and its bi-directional relationships with somatic and mental disorders. PMID:23809904

Baglioni, Chiara; Regen, Wolfram; Teghen, Armand; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Riemann, Dieter

2014-06-01

113

The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders  

E-print Network

Review The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders Kent C circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain in obesity or in eating disorders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Obesity Eating Food

Berridge, Kent

114

Antidepressants for bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, controlled trials  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of short-term and long-term use of antidepressants in the treatment of bipolar disorder. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of randomized, double-blind, controlled trials published until December 2012 was performed using the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. The keywords “bipolar disorder, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, cyclothymia, mixed mania and depression, rapid cycling and bipolar disorder”, AND “antidepressant agent, antidepressive agents second- generation, antidepressive agents tricyclic, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, serotonin uptake inhibitor, and tricyclic antidepressant agent” were used. The studies that were listed in the reference list of the published papers but were not retrieved in the above-mentioned databases were supplemented. STUDY SELECTION: Studies selected were double-blind randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in patients with bipolar disorder. All participants were aged 18 years or older, and were diagnosed as having primary bipolar disorder. Antidepressants or antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers were used in experimental interventions. Placebos, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and other antide pressants were used in the control interventions. Studies that were quasi-randomized studies, or used antidepressants in combination with antipsychotics in the experimental group were excluded. All analyses were conducted using Review Manager 5.1 provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the response and switching to mania. The secondary outcomes included remission, discontinuation rate, and suicidality. RESULTS: Among 5 001 treatment studies published, 14 double-blind randomized controlled trials involving 1 244 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Eleven short-term studies and three maintenance studies were included. Studies suggested that patients treated with antidepressants were not significantly more likely to achieve higher response and remission rates in the short-term or long-term treatment than patients treated with placebo and other medications. Antidepressants were not associated with an increased risk of discontinuation, relapse or suicidality. When one antidepressant was compared with another, no significant difference in efficacy and tolerability was found. CONCLUSION: Existing evidence of efficacy does not support the short-term or long-term application of antidepressant therapy in patients with bipolar disorder, although the tolerability and safety of antidepressants have been generally acknowledged. There is a need for large-sample, double-blind, randomized controlled trials to elucidate the role of antidepressants in patients with different subcategories of bipolar disorder. PMID:25206617

Zhang, Yingli; Yang, Huan; Yang, Shichang; Liang, Wei; Dai, Ping; Wang, Changhong; Zhang, Yalin

2013-01-01

115

Guanfacine for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the safety and efficacy of guanfacine in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a bibliographic search up to May 2014 was performed using the Cochrane Library?s Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Embase, PsycINFO, and Medline databases, and clinical trials registers. The search terms used were: ["guanfacine"] and ["child" or "adolescent" or "pediatrics"] and ["randomized controlled trial"] and ["Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity" or "Attention Deficit Disorder" or "Attention Hyperactivity Disorder" or "Hyperactivity" or "ADHD"]. A meta-analysis was performed using response, defined as a score ? 2 on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement score, as the outcome measure. In all, 7 out of 48 studies were included, for a total of 1752 participants. All studies compared guanfacine versus placebo, with a duration ranging from 6 to 16 weeks. In all, the Clinical Global Impression Improvement score was reported as a secondary measure. Overall, 694/1177 (59.0%) participants in the guanfacine group benefited from the treatment compared to 192/575 (33.3%) in the placebo group (pooled OR 3.2; 95%CI 2.4-4.1). The participants with at least one adverse event were 948 (82.4%) in the guanfacine and 376 (67.9%) in the placebo group (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6-4.4). Somnolence (OR 4.9), sedation (OR 2.8), and fatigue (OR 2.2), were the adverse events with the greatest risk of occurrence in the guanfacine versus the placebo group. On the basis of seven randomized, placebo controlled trials guanfacine resulted safe and effective in treating children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:25156577

Ruggiero, Simona; Clavenna, Antonio; Reale, Laura; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Bonati, Maurizio

2014-10-01

116

Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2013-01-01

117

A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Social Skills Interventions for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social skills deficits are a central feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis of 55 single-subject design studies examined the effectiveness of school-based social skills interventions for children and adolescents with ASD. Interven- tion, maintenance, and generalization effects were measured by computing the percentage of non-overlapping data points. The results suggest that social skills interventions have been minimally effective

SCOTT BELLINI; JESSICA K. PETERS; LAUREN BENNER; ANDREA HOPF

2007-01-01

118

Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by social impairments, including inappropriate responses to affective stimuli and nonverbal cues, which may extend to poor face-emotion recognition. However, the results of empirical studies of face-emotion recognition in individuals with ASD have yielded inconsistent findings that occlude understanding the role of face-emotion recognition deficits in the development of ASD. The goal of this meta-analysis was to address three as-yet unanswered questions. Are ASDs associated with consistent face-emotion recognition deficits? Do deficits generalize across multiple emotional expressions or are they limited to specific emotions? Do age or cognitive intelligence affect the magnitude of identified deficits? The results indicate that ASDs are associated with face-emotion recognition deficits across multiple expressions and that the magnitude of these deficits increases with age and cannot be accounted for by intelligence. These findings suggest that, whereas neurodevelopmental processes and social experience produce improvements in general face-emotion recognition abilities over time during typical development, children with ASD may experience disruptions in these processes, which suggested distributed functional impairment in the neural architecture that subserves face-emotion processing, an effect with downstream developmental consequences. PMID:24915526

Lozier, Leah M; Vanmeter, John W; Marsh, Abigail A

2014-11-01

119

Facial emotion processing in borderline personality disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A body of work has developed over the last 20 years that explores facial emotion perception in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). We identified 25 behavioural and functional imaging studies that tested facial emotion processing differences between patients with BPD and healthy controls through a database literature search. Despite methodological differences there is consistent evidence supporting a negative response bias to neutral and ambiguous facial expressions in patients. Findings for negative emotions are mixed with evidence from individual studies of an enhanced sensitivity to fearful expressions and impaired facial emotion recognition of disgust, while meta-analysis revealed no significant recognition impairments between BPD and healthy controls for any negative emotion. Mentalizing studies indicate that BPD patients are accurate at attributing mental states to complex social stimuli. Functional neuroimaging data suggest that the underlying neural substrate involves hyperactivation in the amygdala to affective facial stimuli, and altered activation in the anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal sulcus particularly during social emotion processing tasks. Future studies must address methodological inconsistencies, particularly variations in patients' key clinical characteristics and in the testing paradigms deployed. PMID:24574071

Mitchell, Amy E; Dickens, Geoffrey L; Picchioni, Marco M

2014-06-01

120

[Advances in the treatment of eating disorders].  

PubMed

The consideration of existing literature, especially in light of new knowledge of eating disorders and new diagnostic categories, highlights the necessity to increase the efficacy of current forms of therapy, and to develop novel therapies for eating disorders. This pertains, in particular, to bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. A considerable gain in knowledge is to be expected from a systematic analysis of the therapeutic process as well as the moderators and mediators. Furthermore, dissemination of evidence-based treatment methods in practical settings and an examination of stepped care models are important avenues of future research. PMID:25594273

Hilbert, Anja

2015-01-01

121

Eating Disorders and Spirituality in College Students.  

PubMed

Associations were examined between eating disorder symptoms and spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of college students. Undergraduate nursing students at a university in a Mid-Atlantic coastal beach community were recruited for the study. A total of 115 students completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS), the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food (SCOFF) screening questionnaire, and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Approximately one quarter of students had positive screens for an eating disorder, and 40% admitted to binging/purging. SWBS scores reflected low life satisfaction and a lack of clarity and purpose among students. A significant association was found between EAT-26 scores and SWBS Existential Well-Being (EWB) subscale scores (p = 0.014). SCOFF scores were significantly associated with SWBS EWB scores (p = 0.001). Symptoms of eating disorders were pervasive. Future research that assesses the impact of spiritual factors on eating disorders may help health care providers better understand the unique contributions to the development of eating diorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. PMID:25490775

Phillips, Lauren; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Mechling, Brandy M; MacKain, Sally; Kim-Godwin, Yeounsoo; Leopard, Louisa

2014-12-10

122

Eating-Disordered Behavior of Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined variables associated with eating-disordered adults to determine whether they correlate with scores on Adapted Eating Attitudes Test (AEAT). Results from fourth, sixth, and eighth grade girls (N=144) revealed no significant difference in AEAT scores across grades. Only two of seven independent variables, Test of Cognitive Skills scores and…

Winkler, Martha C. Rhyne; Vacc, Nicholas A.

1989-01-01

123

Anger expression in eating disorders: Clinical, psychopathological and personality correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the study were to compare anger expressions in individuals with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to explore the relation among eating disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, personality traits, and impulsive behaviours. Participants comprised 135 eating disorder patients consecutively admitted to our unit and 103 healthy controls. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), Bulimic Investigatory

Isabel Krug; Cynthia M. Bulik; Olga Nebot Vall-Llovera; Roser Granero; Zaida Agüera; Cynthia Villarejo; Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Fernando Fernández-Aranda

2008-01-01

124

Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. Methods and Findings Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995–23 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated “dose–response” associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57–1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children) and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children). The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61–3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55–3.12). Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ?3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual confounding. Conclusions There is compelling evidence that preterm birth—particularly very preterm birth—increases the risk of asthma. Given the projected global increases in children surviving preterm births, research now needs to focus on understanding underlying mechanisms, and then to translate these insights into the development of preventive interventions. Review Registration PROSPERO CRD42013004965 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24492409

Been, Jasper V.; Lugtenberg, Marlies J.; Smets, Eline; van Schayck, Constant P.; Kramer, Boris W.; Mommers, Monique; Sheikh, Aziz

2014-01-01

125

[Cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders].  

PubMed

Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The former is characterized by failure to maintain a minimum normal body weight, while the latter is typified by recurrent binge eating followed by inappropriate compensating behavior, which may include self-inducing vomiting; abuse of laxatives, diuretics or other medications; fasting; and over-exercise. Because eating disorders are difficult to detect in the early stages and patients frequently try to hide their condition and avoid seeking medical help, medical treatment is sometimes sought only once a patient's condition poses an immediate threat to his/her health, or even life. Some patients suffer from chronic and treatment-refractory disorders. Cognitive behavioral therapy, administered through partially-structured guidance and education, has been shown to treat eating disorders effectively by correcting associated maladaptive and distorted cognitions and behaviors. A review of articles published in the domestic and international literature over the past five years show that cognitive behavioral therapy is more effective in treating eating disorders than other traditional approaches. Therefore, we chose to focus this study on the cognitive behavioral therapy model. Nurses can employ cognitive behavioral therapy to help eating disordered patients address and overcome the core beliefs that underpin their disorder (e.g., compulsive concern about body weight or figure) and recover health. PMID:16874604

Yeh, Hui-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lai, Tzu-Ju; Chou, Kuei-Ru

2006-08-01

126

Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

2012-01-01

127

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)  

MedlinePLUS

... types, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. If a person is struggling with eating disorder thoughts, feelings or behaviors, but does not have all the symptoms of anorexia or bulimia, that person may be diagnosed ...

128

Guys with eating disorders: how to help.  

PubMed

It is possible that 1 to 3 million males in the United States have anorexia and bulimia; thousands more have other forms of disordered eating. Physical complaints of ten are the first admission of a problem, but symptoms can be misinterpreted resulting in misdiagnosis and ineffective treatment. This article discusses clinical sequelae of eating disorders, specific symptoms and issues in males, and important components of effective treatment. PMID:20632481

Lample, Samuel S; Gillum, Jan

2010-01-01

129

Learning from Collegiate Athletes who have Recovered from Eating Disorders: Advice to Coaches, Parents, and Other Athletes with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to elicit advice from female collegiate athletes who achieved recovery from an eating disorder for coaches, parents, and other athletes with eating disorders. Participants were 16 female collegiate athletes who had experienced eating disorders. Data was obtained through structured interview questions. Advice for coaches included confronting athletes with a suspected eating disorder and receiving

Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle; Amy Baltzell

2012-01-01

130

Does disgust enhance eating disorder symptoms?  

PubMed

In the present study, the hypothesized causal relationship between disgust and eating pathology was investigated. Female undergraduates were either assigned to an experimental condition in which feelings of disgust were induced by means of a bad smelling odorant, or to a control condition in which no such disgust manipulation was carried out. Both groups completed questionnaires for measuring various eating disorder-related concepts (i.e., body esteem, restraint eating, and body change strategies). In addition, explicit and implicit preferences for high-caloric food were measured. Results demonstrated that women in the experimental condition did not report lower levels of body esteem, and neither showed higher levels of restraint eating or other body change strategies. Furthermore, they did not display a decreased explicit or implicit preference for high-caloric food. Thus, in the present study no indication for a causal relation between disgust and eating disorder symptoms in young females was found. PMID:18167331

Mayer, Birgit; Bos, Arjan E R; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Vlielander, Martha

2008-01-01

131

Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151

Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen

2000-01-01

132

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

2011-01-01

133

Eating disorder emergencies: understanding the medical complexities of the hospitalized eating disordered patient.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients. PMID:15571940

Cartwright, Martina M

2004-12-01

134

Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable than Autistic Disorder? A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as…

Rondeau, Emelie; Klein, Leslie S.; Masse, Andre; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

2011-01-01

135

Emerging drugs for eating disorder treatment.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) comprise the currently recognised eating disorders. Although distinct diagnostic entities, they share certain forms of comorbid psychopathology, particularly anxiety and mood disorders. BN and BED have been studied most intensively as targets for pharmacotherapy. The list of drugs tested in eating disorders is substantial; however, the number of therapeutic classes of medications tested in these conditions is relatively modest. Antidepressant medications, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, as well as some of the novel antidepressants, have shown evidence of some therapeutic value in both BN and BED. Their efficacy in AN, however, has been disappointing. The pharmacological options for AN are very limited. The number of controlled trials that have been conducted is small, and the research that has been successfully completed has generally failed to demonstrate medication efficacy. Patients with BN typically show reduced binge eating and purging frequency in medication trials, but rarely attain abstinence. In BED, patients often measure the value of their medication therapy by its ability to stimulate weight loss, which is another area on which future pharmacotherapy may improve. Novel pharmacological interventions are needed for each of these conditions. Peptide hormones are increasingly being evaluated for eating disorder treatment, including ghrelin agonists, neuropeptide Y1 and -5 antagonists, orexin receptor antagonists, corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 antagonists, histamine 3 antagonists, melanocortin 4 receptor antagonists, beta3-adrenoceptor agonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A antagonists and growth hormone agonists. Although these compounds are in early phases of clinical testing for eating disorder treatments, data from these studies will be instructive in the quest for effective pharmacotherapy for these conditions. An overview of the current pharmacotherapy options for eating disorders is presented with a discussion of the emerging potential treatments. PMID:16634704

Steffen, Kristine J; Roerig, James L; Mitchell, James E; Uppala, Saritha

2006-05-01

136

Social Story[TM] Interventions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of single-subject research was conducted, examining the use of Social Stories[TM] and the role of a comprehensive set of moderator variables (intervention and participant characteristics) on intervention outcomes. While Social Stories had low to questionable overall effectiveness, they were more effective when addressing…

Kokina, Anastasia; Kern, Lee

2010-01-01

137

Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex disorder with a partly genetic etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study of the MDD2000+ sample (2431 cases, 3673 screened controls and >1?M imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance either in the MDD2000+ study, or in meta-analysis with two other studies totaling 5763 cases and 6901 controls. These results imply that common variants of intermediate or large effect do not have main effects in the genetic architecture of MDD. Suggestive but notable results were (a) gene-based tests suggesting roles for adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3, 2p23.3) and galanin (GAL, 11q13.3); published functional evidence relates both of these to MDD and serotonergic signaling; (b) support for the bipolar disorder risk variant SNP rs1006737 in CACNA1C (P=0.020, odds ratio=1.10); and (c) lack of support for rs2251219, a SNP identified in a meta-analysis of affective disorder studies (P=0.51). We estimate that sample sizes 1.8- to 2.4-fold greater are needed for association studies of MDD compared with those for schizophrenia to detect variants that explain the same proportion of total variance in liability. Larger study cohorts characterized for genetic and environmental risk factors accumulated prospectively are likely to be needed to dissect more fully the etiology of MDD. PMID:21042317

Wray, N R; Pergadia, M L; Blackwood, D H R; Penninx, B W J H; Gordon, S D; Nyholt, D R; Ripke, S; MacIntyre, D J; McGhee, K A; Maclean, A W; Smit, J H; Hottenga, J J; Willemsen, G; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lewis, C M; McGuffin, P; Hickie, I B; van den Oord, E J C G; Liu, J Z; Macgregor, S; McEvoy, B P; Byrne, E M; Medland, S E; Statham, D J; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Boomsma, D I; Madden, P A F; Sullivan, P F

2012-01-01

138

Aggressiveness, Anger and Eating Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eating disorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,

Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca

2006-01-01

139

Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices  

PubMed Central

Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships) were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established. PMID:22934173

Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

2012-01-01

140

Anger and personality in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to examine how anger, temperament and character profiles differ across subtypes of eating disorders (EDs) in comparison to healthy controls and to analyze the relationship between anger expression, eating attitudes and personality dimensions. Method: One hundred and thirty-five outpatients (50 of whom suffered from anorexia nervosa restrictor type [AN-R], 40 from anorexia nervosa binge\\/purging [AN-BP

Secondo Fassino; Giovanni Abbate Daga; Andrea Pierò; Paolo Leombruni; Giovanni Giacomo Rovera

2001-01-01

141

Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

142

Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2013-01-01

143

Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered

Bryla, Karen Y.

2003-01-01

144

Longitudinal Relationships Between Childhood, Adolescent, and Adult Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study investigates the longitudinal course of eating problems from childhood though adulthood. The following questions are answered: (1) How stable are eating disorder symptoms and diagnoses over a 17-year interval from childhood to adulthood? (2) Do early childhood eating problems predict the occurrence of eating disorders in adulthood?

LISA A. KOTLER; PATRICIA COHEN; MARK DAVIES; DANIEL S. PINE; B. TIMOTHY WALSH

2001-01-01

145

Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

2007-01-01

146

Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses.  

PubMed

Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

Seeman, Mary V

2014-12-22

147

Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

Seeman, Mary V

2014-01-01

148

Detection of Feigned Mental DisordersA Meta-Analysis of the MMPI2 and Malingering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of test data from multiscale inventories is dependent on self-reports that may be easily distorted by malingering. In examining the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2's (MMPI-2) role in the assessment of feigning, this review provides a conceptual analysis of the detection strategies underlying the MMPI-2 validity scales. The conceptual analysis is augmented by comprehensive meta-analysis of 65 MMPI-2 feigning

Richard Rogers; Kenneth W. Sewell; Mary A. Martin; Michael J. Vitacco

2003-01-01

149

Meta-analysis of whole-genome linkage scans of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Badner and Gershon (2001) presented a technique of meta-analysis of linkage data that could be applied to published genome scans. It combines the reported P-values of individual studies, after correcting each value for the size of the region containing a minimum P-value. Simulations demonstrated that the type I error rate was at least as low as that for a single

J A Badner; E S Gershon

2002-01-01

150

Eating Disorders and Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians involved in substance abuse treatment have been aware for some time that women with alcohol or other drug abuse problems also frequently suffer from eating di s- orders. Some of the similarities, such as feelings of shame, need to hide the behavior, and the compulsive quality have led to speculations of an underlying common dynamic, and possibly to common

Joan Ellen Zweben

1987-01-01

151

Eating Disorders Treatment Patterns by Age.  

PubMed

This longitudinal, retrospective study examines patterns in eating disorder outpatient mental health treatment by age. Participants (n = 5,445) included patients treated for an eating disorder, with claims for treatment from Cigna, a leading health care insurance provider in the United States. Treatments for individuals 55 and older were less expensive and shorter than for any other age group. Treatments for individuals 44-55 were less expensive than for 15-24. Individual therapy is the most common treatment modality, but younger individuals are likely to receive family therapy. Younger individuals have lower dropout and higher return to care rates. PMID:25412302

Ballard, Jaime; Crane, D Russell

2014-11-20

152

Mindfulness-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Somatization Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been used effectively to treat a variety of physical and psychological disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. Recently, several lines of research have explored the potential for mindfulness-therapy in treating somatization disorders, including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Thirteen studies were identified as fulfilling the present criteria of employing randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of any form of MBT in treating somatization disorders. A meta-analysis of the effects of mindfulness-based therapy on pain, symptom severity, quality of life, depression, and anxiety was performed to determine the potential of this form of treatment. Findings While limited in power, the meta-analysis indicated a small to moderate positive effect of MBT (compared to wait-list or support group controls) in reducing pain (SMD ?=??0.21, 95% CI: ?0.37, ?0.03; p<0.05), symptom severity (SMD ?=??0.40, 95% CI: ?0.54, ?0.26; p<0.001), depression (SMD ?=??0.23, 95% CI: ?0.40, ?0.07, p<0.01), and anxiety (SMD ?=??0.20, 95% CI: ?0.42, 0.02, p?=?0.07) associated with somatization disorders, and improving quality of life (SMD ?=?0.39, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.59; p<0.001) in patients with this disorder. Subgroup analyses indicated that the efficacy of MBT was most consistent for irritable bowel syndrome (p<0.001 for pain, symptom severity, and quality of life), and that mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MCBT) were more effective than eclectic/unspecified MBT. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that MBT may be effective in treating at least some aspects of somatization disorders. Further research is warranted. PMID:23990997

Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Schofield, Kerry L.

2013-01-01

153

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

154

Eating Disorders in Men: Underdiagnosed, Undertreated, and Misunderstood  

PubMed Central

This article provides a survey of eating disorders in men, highlights the dramatic rise in eating disorders, identifies issues specific to males, and suggests areas for research and intervention. This survey concludes that men with eating disorders are currently under-diagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood by many clinicians who encounter them. Ongoing research addressing these issues is expected to result in assessment tools and treatment interventions that will advance positive outcomes for men with eating disorders. PMID:22985232

Strother, Eric; Lemberg, Raymond; Stanford, Stevie Chariese; Turberville, Dayton

2012-01-01

155

Risk factors across the eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

2014-12-15

156

On the connection between autoimmunity, tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders: a meta-analysis on anti-streptolysin O titres.  

PubMed

Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titration is useful in the context of autoimmune pathologies, including specific cases of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorders occurring after streptococcal infections. There is currently a lack of consensus on the use of ASO titres; therefore we performed a meta-analysis to systematise available data and clarify the role of ASO titres in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. A meta-analysis was performed on ASO titration in neuropsychiatric patients, including tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Included studies reported numbers of positive subjects, depending on a chosen threshold, or detailed ASO titrations. Three hundred and twenty nine studies were identified, of which 13 were eligible for meta-analysis. Due to limited available data, only tic disorders were evaluated. The odds ratio of finding an abnormal ASO titre in patients was 3.22 (95% C.I. 1.51-6.88) as compared to healthy controls and 16.14 (95% C.I. 8.11-32.11) as compared to non-psychiatric patients. Studies using different thresholds were generally concordant. ASO titres were also compared quantitatively, finding an overall difference of the means of 70.50 U/ml (95% C.I. 25.21-115.80) in favour of patients with tic disorders. Based on current evidence, tic disorders are associated with a significant increase in ASO titres, evident both in a threshold-level perspective and on a quantitative level. These results encourage the systematisation of ASO titration in the context of tic disorders. PMID:25091468

Pozzi, Marco; Pellegrino, Paolo; Carnovale, Carla; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Perrotta, Cristiana; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

2014-12-01

157

The efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depressive and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons  

PubMed Central

Although psychotherapy and antidepressant medication are efficacious in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders, it is not known whether they are equally efficacious for all types of disorders, and whether all types of psychotherapy and antidepressants are equally efficacious for each disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies in which psychotherapy and antidepressant medication were directly compared in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Systematic searches in bibliographical databases resulted in 67 randomized trials, including 5,993 patients that met inclusion criteria, 40 studies focusing on depressive disorders and 27 focusing on anxiety disorders. The overall effect size indicating the difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy after treatment in all disorders was g=0.02 (95% CI: ?0.07 to 0.10), which was not statistically significant. Pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than psychotherapy in dysthymia (g=0.30), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (g=0.64). Furthermore, pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than non-directive counseling (g=0.33), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy with tricyclic antidepressants (g=0.21). These results remained significant when we controlled for other characteristics of the studies in multivariate meta-regression analysis, except for the differential effects in dysthymia, which were no longer statistically significant. PMID:23737423

Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F

2013-01-01

158

Confirmatory factor analysis of eating disorder symptoms in college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have found that the eating disorders can best be conceptualized as multidimensional. Four factors have consistently emerged from factor analytic studies of eating disorder symptoms: dietary restraint, bulimic behaviors, neurotic personality characteristics, and body image\\/body dysphoria. Confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to determine if this four-factor structure of eating disorder symptoms would be found in a sample of

Paula J. Varnado; Donald A. Williamson; Richard Netemeyer

1995-01-01

159

Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

2006-01-01

160

Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating  

E-print Network

Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating KELLY L. KLUMP1, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA ABSTRACT Objective. Eating disorders are more common of studies examined these effects by investigating relationships between eating disorder symptoms, prenatal

Breedlove, Marc

161

Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder

Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

2010-01-01

162

Racial Differences in Eating Disorder Attitudes, Cigarette, and Alcohol Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…

Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

2001-01-01

163

Changes in Television and Magazine Exposure and Eating Disorder Symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between girls' media exposure and their development of eating disorder symptomatology was assessed. At Time 1 and Time 2 (16 months later), participants (N = 374; M age = 12.0) completed a questionnaire that assessed eating disorder sympto-matology and television and fashion magazine exposure. Girls were divided into 3 groups: increased, decreased, or no change in eating disorder

Kimberley K. Vaughan; Gregory T. Fouts

2003-01-01

164

Eating Disorders and Social Support: Perspectives of Recovered Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorder researchers have focused more on the etiology and treatment and less on what happens for individuals during the recovery process from an eating disorder. For this qualitative study, we examined how social supports were helpful and hurtful during the eating disorder recovery process and learned about varying experiences with social supports from the perspectives of 22 recovered women.

Deanna Linville; Tiffany Brown; Katrina Sturm; Tori McDougal

2012-01-01

165

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

166

Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample  

PubMed Central

Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18–24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:22888181

Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.

2012-01-01

167

Pharmacotherapy of the eating disorders: A commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 10 yr, evidence has accummulated which indicates that the eating disorders of bulimia and anorexia nervosa (BN and AN) may be differentially affected by pharmacological treatment. Although the efficacy of drug treatment alone (relative to nonpharmacological approaches) has been debated, there is support for the generalization that all types of antidepressant medications have proven efficacious for bulimia

Claire Advokat; Vesna Kutlesic

1995-01-01

168

Organic Diseases Mimicking Atypical Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present three case studies of patients referred to Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, for evaluation of possible eating disorders. The atypical manifestations of the cases warranted further investigation, which revealed an organic basis for their weight loss. The authors summarize the typical findings of bulimia and anorexia nervosa and discuss the clues from the case studies

Kathryn Wright; Mark Scott Smith; Jeff Mitchell

1990-01-01

169

Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

2013-01-01

170

Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

Halmi, Katherine A.

2009-01-01

171

Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

Hamilton, Kristin L.

172

SEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH EATING DISORDERS  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe sexual functioning in women with eating disorders. Method We assessed physical intimacy, libido, sexual anxiety, partner and sexual relationships in 242 women from the International Price Foundation Genetic Studies relative to normative data. Results Intercourse (55.3%), having a partner (52.7%), decreased sexual desire (66.9%), and increased sexual anxiety (59.2%) were common. Women with restricting and purging anorexia nervosa had a higher prevalence of loss of libido than women with bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified (75%, 74.6%, 39% and 45.4%, respectively). Absence of sexual relationships was associated with lower minimum lifetime body mass index (BMI) and earlier age of onset; loss of libido with lower lifetime BMI, higher interoceptive awareness and trait anxiety; and sexual anxiety with lower lifetime BMI, higher harm avoidance and ineffectiveness. Sexual dysfunction in eating disorders was higher than in the normative sample. Conclusion Sexual dysfunction is common across eating disorders subtypes. Low BMI is associated with loss of libido, sexual anxiety, and avoidance of sexual relationships. PMID:19260036

Pinheiro, Andréa Poyastro; Raney, TJ; Thornton, Laura M.; Fichter, Manfred M.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Goldman, David; Halmi, Katherine A.; Kaplan, Allan S.; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2009-01-01

173

Major Depressive Disorder is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. While many studies have found significant deficits associated with MDD on neuropsychological measures of EF, others have not, potentially due to low statistical power, task impurity, and diverse patient samples, and there have been no recent, comprehensive, meta-analyses investigating EF in patients with MDD. The current meta-analysis uses random effects models to synthesize 113 previous research studies that compared participants with MDD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate that MDD is reliably associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological measures of EF, with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.32–0.97. While patients with MDD also have slower processing speed, motor slowing alone cannot account for these results. In addition, some evidence suggests that deficits on neuropsychological measures of EF are greater in patients with more severe current depression symptoms, and those taking psychotropic medications, while evidence for effects of age was weaker. The results are consistent with the theory that MDD is associated with broad impairment in multiple aspects of EF. Implications for treatment of MDD and theories of EF are discussed. Future research is needed to establish the specificity and causal link between MDD and EF impairments. PMID:22642228

Snyder, Hannah R.

2012-01-01

174

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders., 5 Day Lesson Plan on Eating Disorders. Columbus, OH: National Eating Disorders Association, 1991

Jacobs, Lucia

175

Eating disorders in female inpatients with versus without substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the relationship between substance use disorders and eating disorders in female psychiatric inpatients. Structured diagnostic interviews were reliably administered to a series of inpatients with substance use disorders (n = 67) and a comparison sample without substance use disorders (n = 69). Eating disorder diagnoses as a whole, including eating disorder not otherwise specified, were distributed significantly

Carlos M. Grilo; Kenneth N. Levy; Daniel F. Becker; William S. Edell; Thomas H. McGlashan

1995-01-01

176

Eating disorders today--not just a girl thing.  

PubMed

Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20632480

Hepworth, Kimberly

2010-01-01

177

A Mindful Eating Group as an Adjunct to Individual Treatment for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a Mindful Eating Group as an adjunct to long-term treatment for a variety of eating disorders. Individuals (N = 33) attending treatment at an outpatient treatment facility participated in the 10-week intervention designed to enhance awareness around hunger and satiety cues. Disordered eating symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention

Natasha S. Hepworth

2010-01-01

178

Gender and Age Differences in the Core Triad of Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism is an extensively studied disorder in which the gender disparity in prevalence has received much attention. In contrast, only a few studies examine gender differences in symptomatology. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 peer reviewed original publications examines gender differences in the core triad of impairments in autism.…

Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia J. M.; van Eeten, Evelien; Groen, Wouter B.; Van Deurzen, Patricia A.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

2014-01-01

179

Disproportionality of English Learners with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Meta-Analysis with English Learners with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disproportionate representation of English learners in special education has been a longstanding and ongoing concern. However, research examining disproportionate representation of English learners receiving special education services for emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) has been limited. To address this gap, a meta-analysis of…

Gage, Nicholas; Gersten, Russell; Sugai, George; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

2013-01-01

180

A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Reading Instruction on the Reading Skills of Students with or at Risk of Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of a meta-analysis of the effect of reading instruction on the reading skills of students with or at risk of behavioral disorders (BD) are reported. The goal of the synthesis was to extend the work of Coleman and Vaughn by (a) detailing independent variables and outcome measures for each study, (b)including studies sampling from…

Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.; Mooney, Paul

2010-01-01

181

A Meta-Analysis of Differences in IQ Profiles between Individuals with Asperger's Disorder and High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did…

Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y.; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

2014-01-01

182

Meta-Analysis of Social Skills Interventions of Single-Case Research for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Results from Three-Level HLM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 115 single-case studies with 343 participants that examined the effectiveness of social skills interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The average effect size of the included studies was 1.40 (SD = 0.43, 95% CL = 1.32-1.48, N = 115). In the further, several…

Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying

2013-01-01

183

Different Methods for Assessing the Features of Eating Disorders in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder: A Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare different methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder (BED).Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 47 participants with BED were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) Interview and completed the EDE-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) at baseline. A total of 37 participants prospectively self-monitored their eating behaviors daily for 4 weeks and then

Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; G. Terence Wilson

2001-01-01

184

A Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Features of Eating Disorders in Patients With Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared 3 methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview and completed the EDE Questionnaire (EDE–Q) at baseline. Participants prospectively self-monitored their eating behaviors daily for 4 weeks and then completed another EDE–Q. The EDE and the EDE–Q were significantly correlated on

Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; G. Terence Wilson

2001-01-01

185

The treatment of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are common disorders among adolescent and young adult females, estimated to occur in up to 1% to 3% of these populations. A variety of medical and psychological approaches have been used in their treatment, including hospitalization; nutritional rehabilitation; medications; and psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, family, and group psychotherapies. The author discusses controlled and uncontrolled studies of the different therapeutic approaches that have been used in these disorders and reviews what is known about their prognosis. Important treatment issues include the nature of the disorder, age, degree of malnutrition, motivation, capacity to engage in treatment, personality disturbance, affective state, family situation, and available treatment resources. Based on research data and clinical lore, prudent suggestions for treatment planning are presented. PMID:3047102

Yager, J

1988-09-01

186

Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

2001-01-01

187

Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

Talleyrand, Regine M.

2010-01-01

188

The Role of Relationship Attachment Styles in Disordered Eating Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined women's eating disorder symptoms and the quality of the attachment relationship with their mothers and romantic partners for a sample of 117 participants, ages 18 to 22. Seventeen of the participants were in treatment for an eating disorder and 100 were untreated college students, but engaging in binge eating. There were no significant differences between the groups

Erica Landrau; Jerome Short

2010-01-01

189

Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Elevated blood serotonin (5-HT) levels were the first biomarker identified in autism research. Many studies have contrasted blood 5-HT levels in autistic patients and controls, but different measurement protocols, technologies, and biomaterials have been used through the years. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and between-study heterogeneity, while verifying whether and to what extent different methodological approaches influence the strength of this association. Our literature search strategy identified 551 papers, from which 22 studies providing patient and control blood 5-HT values were selected for meta-analysis. Significantly higher 5-HT levels in autistic patients compared to controls were recorded both in whole blood (WB) [O.R.=4.6; (3.1-5.2); P=1.0×10(-12]), and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) [O.R.=2.6 (1.8-3.9); P=2.7×10(-7)]. Predictably, studies measuring 5-HT levels in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) yielded no significant group difference [O.R.=0.54 (0.2-2-0); P=0.36]. Altogether, elevated 5-HT blood levels were recorded in 28.3% in WB and 22.5% in PRP samples of autistic individuals, as reported in 15 and 4 studies, respectively. Studies employing HPLC vs fluorometric assays yield similar cumulative effect sizes, but the former display much lower variability. In summary, despite some limitations mainly due to small study sample sizes, our results significantly reinforce the reliability of elevated 5-HT blood levels as a biomarker in ASD, providing practical indications potentially useful for its inclusion in multi-marker diagnostic panels for clinical use. PMID:24613076

Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Persico, Antonio M

2014-06-01

190

Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?  

PubMed

We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B?=?-0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B?=?0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception. PMID:25450896

de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

2015-02-01

191

Anxiety and defense styles in eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study investigates anxiety and defense styles in eating disorders. Seventy eating disorder (ED) patients and fifty-one female matched control subjects completed State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and 88-items Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). ED patients were more anxious in actual situations and more anxiety prone in general. They relied on maladaptive action and Image distorting defense style. Bulimic anorexic (BAN) patients and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients differed in defense styles from restrictive anorexic (RAN) patients who displayed no significant difference in either state and trait anxiety or in defense styles when compared to healthy patients. Different levels of anxiety and ego defense maturity are present in ED patients. The almost normal ego functioning of RAN patients could be explained by pseudomaturity, tendency to control external and internal environment and the unconscious efforts to imitate normality to avoid conflicts. PMID:12955902

Vidovi?, Vesna; Henigsberg, Neven; Juresa, Vesna

2003-01-01

192

Hyperamylasemia in patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

Hyperamylasemia, which has been reported in patients with the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, generally has been thought to result from pancreatitis. To evaluate the mechanisms of hyperamylasemia, we measured amylase, lipase, and isoamylase activity in 17 consecutive patients admitted to the eating disorder unit. Six patients had elevated amylase activity, and 5 of these 6 had isolated increases in salivary isoamylase activity. Six other patients had normal serum total amylase activity but modest elevations in the salivary isoamylase fraction. No patient developed clinical evidence of pancreatitis during hospitalization. Thus, the hyperamylasemia in patients with anorexia and bulimia often is caused by increased salivary-type amylase activity. The appropriate diagnostic test for hyperamylasemia in patients with anorexia or bulimia is the simple measurement of serum lipase or pancreatic isoamylase activity. If these levels are found to be normal, further tests to exclude pancreatitis are unnecessary. PMID:2431640

Humphries, L L; Adams, L J; Eckfeldt, J H; Levitt, M D; McClain, C J

1987-01-01

193

Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

2014-01-01

194

Development and validation of the Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders (AESED) for caregivers in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Families of people with eating disorders are often caught up in rule bound eating and safety behaviours that characterise the illness. The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and specific scale to measure family accommodation in the context of having a relative with an eating disorder. METHODS: A new scale, the Accommodation and Enabling Scale

Ana R. Sepulveda; Olivia Kyriacou; Janet Treasure

2009-01-01

195

Medications in the treatment of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Effective planning for medication treatment in patients with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa is based on a comprehensive clinical assessment, including a careful review of comorbid psychiatric disorders and response to treatments for previous episodes of the disorder. Although most patients with bulimia nervosa are offered a trial of psychotherapy, significant results of controlled trials have contributed to an increased role for medications in the treatment of patients with this disorder. Pharmacologic treatment of anorexia nervosa has similarities to that of treatment-resistant depression, with the clinician turning to open trials and clinical reports for clues to rational management. As described in this article, considerations of potential side effects and medical complications are likely to play an important role in guiding the choice of medication used for treatment of patients with eating disorders. PMID:8933605

Jimerson, D C; Wolfe, B E; Brotman, A W; Metzger, E D

1996-12-01

196

Rational therapy of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Pharmacological treatments are one of several strategies used in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Many studies have found that antidepressants are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and these drugs represent a mainstay of treatment for these patients. Over the past several years, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have become perhaps the most commonly used class of drugs. A variety of medications have been investigated for anorexia nervosa, but there is little consistent evidence that medications are effective. In both these illnesses it is important to diagnose and treat any comorbid conditions including mood and anxiety disorders; this may involve the administration of other medications, including anxiolytics such as benzodiazepines or buspirone or mood stabilising agents such as lithium, valproic acid (valproate sodium) or carbamazepine. PMID:7527758

Crow, S J; Mitchell, J E

1994-09-01

197

Medication management of pediatric eating disorders.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of psychopharmacological treatments for pediatric eating disorders (EDs). Although EDs usually begin in adolescence, there are few pharmacological treatment trials specific to this age group and a paucity of controlled data. Empirical evidence suggests that psychological, behavioural and family interventions should be the primary modalities of treatment for these conditions. In severely underweight patients behavioural weight restoration should be attempted before pharmacological intervention, especially since starvation is known to aggravate obsessional and depressive symptomatology. Evidence from controlled trials supports the use of antidepressants for the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adults; however, similar studies have not yet been performed in youths. For anorexia nervosa (AN), there are no pharmacotherapies of proven efficacy in either adults or youths. Nonetheless, clinical experience and uncontrolled evidence suggests that some children and adolescents may benefit from thoughtful use of psychotropic medications on an individual basis in the context of a multimodal treatment plan. Regarding binge eating disorder (BED), adult literature shows positive short-term effects on binge eating for both pharmacological (especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and behavioural interventions, but unclear effects on weight. Clearly, psychopharmacological interventions for pediatric EDs would benefit from more research. PMID:18386210

Reinblatt, Shauna Pencer; Redgrave, Graham W; Guarda, Angela S

2008-04-01

198

Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media  

PubMed Central

Introduction This paper provides a review of the role of the media in the development, maintenance, prevention, and treatment of eating disorders. Method The literature on gambling in youth on the internet was reviewed. It explores: (1) the role of the media in providing a social context for the development of eating disorders, (2) the role of the media in the etiology of eating disorder pathology, (3) the ways in which the media is used by patients suffering from eating disorders, and (4) the role that awareness of the media can have in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Results This review demonstrates that the media does contribute to the development of eating disorders. Conclusion This review highlights the need for media literacy and media activism to help change the current normative body discontent of women in the Western world. PMID:19030149

Spettigue, Wendy; Henderson, Katherine A.

2004-01-01

199

Eating disorders in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The first description of anorexia nervosa appeared in the literature over three hundred years ago. Since then, much has been learned about eating disorders, including the different presentations, medical complications, prognosis, and treatment strategies. In spite of this knowledge, the prevalence of eating disorders continues to grow. As well, eating disorders are seen in increasing frequency among males, children, and adults, and from all cultures and ethnicities. Of particular concern, is that patients with eating disorders often first present because of a complication such as amenorrhea, syncope, or abdominal pain, without disclosing the eating disorder. Therefore, all physicians should be aware of the various presentations of eating disorders, including the medical complications and risks, and be able to screen for a possible eating disorder. The major medical complications are due to the decreased caloric intake which leads to a hypometabolic state. While most complications are reversible with recovery, some, such as bone loss, may not be. Of particular concern during recovery is the possible development of a refeeding syndrome which occurs as the body goes from a catabolic to an anabolic state, causing hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, which can lead to delirium, coma and death. Of further concern is that eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric disorders at 5.6% per decade. This article will review the changing demographics, medical complications, treatment options, and prognosis of eating disorders. PMID:22036757

Weiselberg, E C; Gonzalez, M; Fisher, M

2011-12-01

200

Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…

Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

2009-01-01

201

Eating Disorders in Childhood: Prevention and Treatment Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders (EDs) are chronic clinical mental disorders that are disruptive to the psychological and social development of children and adolescents. They can be difficult to prevent and treat and are considered among the most chronic and medically lethal of mental disorders. Research suggests that the incidence and prevalence of eating

Cook-Cottone, Catherine

2009-01-01

202

Modelling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyse Eating Regulation Disorders  

E-print Network

Modelling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyse Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse1 , Martine, an executable model has been developed of the dynamics of eating regulation disorders. Based on this model, The Netherlands Abstract. To analyse the disorders of their patients, psychotherapists often have to get insight

Treur, Jan

203

Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

1999-01-01

204

Pro-eating disorder websites: facts, fictions and fixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Pro-eating disorder websites are online communities of individuals who do not consider eating disorders to be serious mental illnesses requiring treatment. People visit these websites to meet other like-minded individuals, to share tips and tricks on how to lose weight and how to otherwise maintain the symptomatology of the disorder. This paper aims to review what is actually

Helen Sharpe; Peter Musiat; Olivia Knapton; Ulrike Schmidt

2011-01-01

205

Obsessive compulsive symptoms at initial presentation of adolescent eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between obsessive compulsive disorder and eating disorders has often been reported in the literature. It has\\u000a been suggested that the association may be accounted for by depression, starvation or family factors but the literature remains\\u000a inconclusive. In this study self-report scales were used to measure eating attitudes, obsessional symptoms, depressive symptoms\\u000a and family functioning in an eating disordered

E. Cassidy; M. Allsopp; T. Williams

1999-01-01

206

Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the treatment of those often detrimental disorders. PMID:22532388

Frank, Guido K.W.; Kaye, Walter H.

2013-01-01

207

Efficacy of Modafinil on Fatigue and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Associated with Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting agent approved by the FDA ameliorating excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in three disorders: narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing trials of modafinil for fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders provided inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess drug safety and effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted in order to identify published studies assessing the effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders. Primary outcomes included fatigue and EDS. Secondary outcomes included depression and adverse effects. Findings Ten randomized controlled trials were identified including 4 studies of Parkinson’s disease (PD), 3 of multiple sclerosis (MS), 2 of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 1 of post-polio syndrome (PPS). A total of 535 patients were enrolled. Our results suggested a therapeutic effect of modafinil on fatigue in TBI (MD -0.82 95% CI -1.54 - -0.11 p=0.02, I2=0%), while a beneficial effect of modafinil on fatigue was not confirmed in the pooled studies of PD or MS. Treatment results demonstrated a clear beneficial effect of modafinil on EDS in patients with PD (MD -2.45 95% CI -4.00 - -0.91 p=0.002 I2=14%), but not with MS and TBI. No difference was seen between modafinil and placebo treatments in patients with PPS. Modafinil seemed to have no therapeutic effect on depression. Adverse events were similar between modafinil and placebo groups except that more patients were found with insomnia and nausea in modafinil group. Conclusions Existing trials of modafinil for fatigue and EDS associated with PD, MS, TBI and PPS provided inconsistent results. The majority of the studies had small sample sizes. Modafinil is not yet sufficient to be recommended for these medical conditions until solid data are available. PMID:24312590

Wang, Xiaowen; Huang, Chengguang; Yu, Mingkun; Han, Xi; Dong, Yan

2013-01-01

208

Relations among posttraumatic stress disorder, comorbid major depression, and HPA function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Exposure to traumatic stress is associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) function. Research linking traumatic stress with HPA function in PTSD has been inconsistent, however, in part due to (a) the inclusion of trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD (TE) in control groups and (b) a failure to consider comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and moderating variables. This meta-analysis of 47 studies (123 effect sizes, N=6008 individuals) revealed that daily cortisol output was lower for PTSD (d=-.36, SE=.15, p=.008) and PTSD+MDD (d=-.65, SE=.25, p=.008) groups relative to no trauma controls (NTC); TE and NTC groups did not differ significantly from each other. Afternoon/evening cortisol was lower in TE (d=-.25, SE=.09, p=.007) and PTSD (d=-.27, SE=.12, p=.021) groups and higher in PTSD+MDD groups (d=.49, SE=.24, p=.041) relative to NTC. Post-DST cortisol levels were lower in PTSD (d=-.40, SE=.12, p<.001), PTSD+MDD (d=-.65, SE=.14, p<.001), and TE groups (d=-.53, SE=.14, p<.001) relative to NTC. HPA effect sizes were moderated by age, sex, time since index event, and developmental timing of trauma exposure. These findings suggest that enhanced HPA feedback function may be a marker of trauma-exposure rather than a specific mechanism of vulnerability for PTSD, whereas lower daily cortisol output may be associated with PTSD in particular. PMID:22459791

Morris, Matthew C; Compas, Bruce E; Garber, Judy

2012-06-01

209

Risk of eating disorders among university students in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: As there is a lack of information on eating disorders in Bangladesh, the aim of this study was to explore the eating disorder attitudes and behaviors among undergraduate university students in the country. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurement were conducted with undergraduate students who were recruited randomly from classes. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes. The sample included 800 university students (56.6% men and 43.4% women), with a mean age of 21.0 years (SD=32.5). Results: Using the EAT-26, 37.6% of the students were classified as being at risk for an eating disorder. In multivariate analysis, being a late adolescent (17-19 years), high religious involvement, overweight body perception, low body appreciation, having had cosmetic surgery, and current binge drinking were found to be associated with an eating disorder risk. Discussion: Very high rates of eating disorder risk were found. This result calls for increased awareness and understanding of eating disorders, and related risk factors and interventions in university students in Bangladesh. PMID:25153370

Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin

2014-08-12

210

Mindfulness and Acceptance in the Treatment of Disordered Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches to the treatment of clinical problems are accruing substantial empirical support. This article examines the application of these approaches to disordered eating. Theoretical bases for the importance of mindfulness and acceptance in the treatment of eating problems are reviewed, and interventions for eating problems that incorporate mindfulness and acceptance skills are briefly described. Empirical data are

Ruth A. Baer; Sarah Fischer; Debra B. Huss

2005-01-01

211

Disordered Eating in Southwestern Pueblo Indians and Hispanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated incidence of eating disorders in Pueblo Indian and Hispanic high school students (N=95). Found no ethnic differences. Majority of girls reported wanting to lose weight, being worried about weight, and indulging in binge eating. Nine girls reported eating habits consistent with bulimia. Few boys indicated concerns about weight or…

Snow, Janeanne T.; Harris, Mary B.

1989-01-01

212

Specific and common genes implicated across major mental disorders: A review of meta-analysis studies.  

PubMed

Major efforts have been directed at family-based association and case-control studies to identify the involvement of candidate genes in the major disorders of mental health. What remains unknown is whether candidate genes are associated with multiple disorders via pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or if other genes are specific to susceptibility for individual disorders. Here we undertook a review of genes that have been identified in prior meta-analyses examining specific genes and specific mental disorders that have core disruptions to emotional and cognitive function and contribute most to burden of illness- major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD, including panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature review was conducted up to end-March 2013 which included a total of 1519 meta-analyses across 157 studies reporting multiple genes implicated in one or more of the five disorders studied. A total of 134 genes (206 variants) were identified as significantly associated risk variants for MDD, AD, ADHD, SZ or BD. Null genetic effects were also reported for 195 genes (426 variants). 13 genetic variants were shared in common between two or more disorders (APOE e4, ACE Ins/Del, BDNF Val66Met, COMT Val158Met, DAOA G72/G30 rs3918342, DAT1 40-bp, DRD4 48-bp, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, HTR1A C1019G, MTHR C677T, MTHR A1298C, SLC6A4 VNTR and TPH1 218A/C) demonstrating evidence for pleiotrophy. Another 12 meta-analyses of GWAS studies of the same disorders were identified, with no overlap in genetic variants reported. This review highlights the progress that is being made in identifying shared and unique genetic mechanisms that contribute to the risk of developing several major psychiatric disorders, and identifies further steps for progress. PMID:25287955

Gatt, Justine M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Schofield, Peter R

2015-01-01

213

Subclinical eating disorders and their comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders in adolescent girls.  

PubMed

The present study assesses the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders and examines their comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders in a sample of adolescent girls. A DSM-III-R computerized self-reported interview was administered to 833 adolescent girls (mean age=15.7±0.5 years) from a population sample to assess the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders, major depression, dysthymia, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorders. The prevalence of subclinical anorexia nervosa (restricting subtype) was 3.5%, 13.3% for weight concerns (restricting subtype), 3.8% for subclinical bulimia nervosa, and 10.8% for subclinical binge eating disorder. Girls with subclinical anorexia nervosa had a higher prevalence of separation anxiety diagnosis, and they reported significantly more major depressive and generalized anxiety symptoms compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. Girls with weight concerns reported significantly more major depressive, separation, and generalized anxiety symptoms compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. Girls with subclinical bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder had a higher prevalence of mood disorders (major depression and dysthymia) compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. Furthermore, girls with subclinical bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder also reported significantly more anxiety symptoms (separation anxiety and generalized anxiety) compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. In summary, adolescent girls suffering from subclinical eating disorders should be investigated concomitantly for mood and anxiety disorders while those suffering from mood and anxiety disorders should be investigated simultaneously for subclinical eating disorders. PMID:20546924

Touchette, Evelyne; Henegar, Adina; Godart, Nathalie T; Pryor, Laura; Falissard, Bruno; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M

2011-01-30

214

New frontiers in endocrinology of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Alterations of both central and peripheral feeding regulatory substances occur in the acute phases of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and, generally, reverse after recovery. Some of these alterations are believed not only to sustain the altered eating behavior but also to contribute to certain psychopathological aspects and/or etiopathogenetic processes of eating disorders (EDs). It has been suggested that EDs are clinical conditions linked to reward-related mechanisms leading to a kind of addiction to self-starvation and/or overeating. Most of the feeding regulatory substances, which are dysregulated in EDs, are also implicated in the modulation of reward, emotional, and cognitive functions, thus representing possible links between altered nutritional regulation, motivated behaviors and reward processes. In this chapter, the ED literature dealing with ghrelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, opioid peptides, and endocannabinoids, which have prominent effects on eating behavior, body weight, reward, emotional, and cognitive functions, is reviewed in view of the above suggested links. Moreover, the potential therapeutics of new medications developed on the basis of neuroendocrine aberrations found in EDs is also presented. PMID:21243477

Monteleone, Palmiero

2011-01-01

215

Meta-analysis, Database, and Meta-regression of 98 Structural Imaging Studies in Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Despite 25 years of structural imaging in bi- polar disorder, brain regions affected in the disorder are ill defined. Objectives: To use meta-analytical techniques to in- vestigate structural brain changes in bipolar disorder and to assess the effect of medication use and demographic and clinical variables. Data Sources: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched from 1980-2007 for

Matthew J. Kempton; John R. Geddes; Ulrich Ettinger; Steven C. R. Williams; Paul M. Grasby

2008-01-01

216

Disturbed eating behaviors and eating disorders in type 1 diabetes: Clinical significance and treatment recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls and women with type 1 diabetes have increased rates of disturbed eating behaviors and clinically significant eating\\u000a disorders than their nondiabetic peers. Type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with several empirically supported eating disorder\\u000a risk factors (eg, higher body mass index, increased body weight and shape dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and depression,\\u000a and dietary restraint). It may be that specific

Ann E. Goebel-Fabbri

2009-01-01

217

Partial eating disorders in newly drafted female recruits in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Eating-related behaviors and general psychopathology were assessed in 642 young Israeli women 10 to 14 days after being drafted\\u000a to the army. Weight and height were also recorded. Partial eating disorders were defined with the Eating Attitudes Test and\\u000a selected relevant criteria of the DSM-IV. Compared to subjects with no disturbed eating, individuals with partial anorexia\\u000a nervosa or partial

D. Stein; O. Luria; R. Tarrasch; N. Yoeli; D. Glick; A. Elizur; A. Weizman

1999-01-01

218

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

2008-01-01

219

Meta-Analysis of the Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity to the Depressive and Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…

Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

2010-01-01

220

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders, and binge eating disorder. Genuine awareness will help you avoid judgmental or mistaken attitudes about food

Walker, Matthew P.

221

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders this instead of any diet, and you're likely to maintain a healthy weight and avoid eating disorders. Listen

Jacobs, Lucia

222

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders your physical body weight or shape. #12;© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission

Walker, Matthew P.

223

Physiotherapy rehabilitation for whiplash associated disorder II: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate effectiveness of physiotherapy management in patients experiencing whiplash associated disorder II, on clinically relevant outcomes in the short and longer term. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently searched information sources, assessed studies for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias and extracted data. A third reviewer mediated disagreement. Assessment of risk of bias was tabulated across included trials. Quantitative synthesis was conducted on comparable outcomes across trials with similar interventions. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes, with random effects as primary analyses. Data sources Predefined terms were employed to search electronic databases. Additional studies were identified from key journals, reference lists, authors and experts. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English before 31 December 2010 evaluating physiotherapy management of patients (>16?years), experiencing whiplash associated disorder II. Any physiotherapy intervention was included, when compared with other types of management, placebo/sham, or no intervention. Measurements reported on ?1 outcome from the domains within the international classification of function, disability and health, were included. Results 21 RCTs (2126 participants, 9 countries) were included. Interventions were categorised as active physiotherapy or a specific physiotherapy intervention. 20/21 trials were evaluated as high risk of bias and one as unclear. 1395 participants were incorporated in the meta-analyses on 12 trials. In evaluating short term outcome in the acute/sub-acute stage, there was some evidence that active physiotherapy intervention reduces pain and improves range of movement, and that a specific physiotherapy intervention may reduce pain. However, moderate/considerable heterogeneity suggested that treatments may differ in nature or effect in different trial patients. Differences between participants, interventions and trial designs limited potential meta-analyses. Conclusions Inconclusive evidence exists for the effectiveness of physiotherapy management for whiplash associated disorder II. There is potential benefit for improving range of movement and pain short term through active physiotherapy, and for improving pain through a specific physiotherapy intervention. PMID:22102642

Wright, Chris; Heneghan, Nicola; Eveleigh, Gillian; Calvert, Melanie; Freemantle, Nick

2011-01-01

224

Pharmacotherapy of the eating disorders: a commentary.  

PubMed

During the last 10 yr, evidence has accumulated which indicates that the eating disorders of bulimia and anorexia nervosa (BN and AN) may be differentially affected by pharmacological treatment. Although the efficacy of drug treatment alone (relative to nonpharmacological approaches) has been debated, there is support for the generalization that all types of antidepressant medications have proven efficacious for bulimia but not for anorexia. These clinical observations are consistent with an extensive body of research concerning the regulation of ingestion, which indicates that the neurotransmitter serotonin plays an important role in mediating satiety. Such considerations have led to the "serotonin-hypothesis of bulimia," which postulates that BN represents an underlying "hyposerotonergic" condition and, conversely, that AN represents a "hyperserotonergic" state. Recently, however, two independent studies have shown that the antidepressant fluoxetine, which selectively blocks the synaptic re-uptake of serotonin, provided significant therapeutic benefit for anorexic patients. The implications of these apparently anomalous results for the "serotonin-hypothesis of BN" are discussed in an attempt to gain insight into the present pharmacotherapy of the eating disorders. PMID:7770198

Advokat, C; Kutlesic, V

1995-01-01

225

World Trade Center Disaster Exposure-Related Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Responders and Civilians: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun

2014-01-01

226

Differential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to present a meta-analysis about the differential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacological and combined treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The literature research and the application of the inclusion criteria enabled us to locate 18 studies, yielding a total of 24 independent comparisons between a treated (10 pharmacological, 11 CBT, and 3 combined interventions) and a control group. All types of interventions were efficacious in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, with effect sizes adjusted by the type of control group of d=1.203 for CBT, d=0.745 for pharmacological treatments, and d=1.704 for mixed treatments. Depression, anxiety and other secondary responses were also improved, especially with CBT interventions. The analysis of moderator variables showed that the CBT protocol and the total of intervention hours exhibited a significant influence on the effect size. Within pharmacological treatment, clomipramine (d=1.305) was more efficacious than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (d=0.644), but its adverse effects were more severe. Finally, the clinical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:24334214

Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Marina; Rosa-Alcázar, Angel

2014-01-01

227

Concordance of white matter and gray matter abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: a voxel-based meta-analysis study.  

PubMed

There are at least two fundamental unanswered questions in the literature on autism spectrum disorders (ASD): Are abnormalities in white (WM) and gray matter (GM) consistent with one another? Are WM morphometric alterations consistent with alterations in the GM of regions connected by these abnormal WM bundles and vice versa? The aim of this work is to bridge this gap. After selecting voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging studies comparing autistic and normally developing groups of subjects, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to estimate consistent brain alterations in ASD. Multidimensional scaling was used to test the similarity of the results. The ALE results were then analyzed to identify the regions of concordance between GM and WM areas. We found statistically significant topological relationships between GM and WM abnormalities in ASD. The most numerous were negative concordances, found bilaterally but with a higher prevalence in the right hemisphere. Positive concordances were found in the left hemisphere. Discordances reflected the spatial distribution of negative concordances. Thus, a different hemispheric contribution emerged, possibly related to pathogenetic factors affecting the right hemisphere during early developmental stages. Besides, WM fiber tracts linking the brain structures involved in social cognition showed abnormalities, and most of them had a negative concordance with the connected GM regions. We interpreted the results in terms of altered brain networks and their role in the pervasive symptoms dramatically impairing communication and social skills in ASD patients. PMID:23894001

Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Palermo, Sara; D'Agata, Federico; Diano, Matteo; Bianco, Francesca; Duca, Sergio; Keller, Roberto

2014-05-01

228

A meta–analysis of functional neuroimaging in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent neurobiological models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that a dysfunction in orbitofrontal–subcortical circuitry underlies the etiology of this disorder. Much of the empirical support for these theories comes from studies using neuroimaging techniques to compare brain activity in OCD patients with that in non-OCD controls. Qualitative reviews of this literature implicate the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. In

Stephen P. Whiteside; John D. Port; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

2004-01-01

229

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis of the Neural Correlates of Social Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContextImpaired social cognition is a cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). However, the functional neuroanatomy of social cognition in either disorder remains unclear due to variability in primary literature. Additionally, it is not known whether deficits in ASD and SZ arise from similar or disease-specific disruption of the social cognition network.ObjectiveTo identify regions most robustly implicated

Gisela Sugranyes; Marinos Kyriakopoulos; Richard Corrigall; Eric Taylor; Sophia Frangou; Bernhard T. Baune

2011-01-01

230

Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between HIV Infection and Risk for Depressive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Each of 10 published studies investigating the relationship between HIV infection and risk for depressive disorders concluded that HIV-positive individuals are at no greater risk for depression than com- parable HIV-negative individuals. This study used meta-analytic techniques to further examine the relationship between depressive disorders and HIV infection. Method: Meta-analytic techniques were used to aggregate and reanalyze the data

Jeffrey A. Ciesla; John E. Roberts

2001-01-01

231

Content specificity of attention bias to threat in anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Despite the established evidence for threat-related attention bias in anxiety, the mechanisms underlying this bias remain unclear. One important unresolved question is whether disorder-congruent threats capture attention to a greater extent than do more general or disorder-incongruent threat stimuli. Evidence for attention bias specificity in anxiety would implicate involvement of previous learning and memory processes in threat-related attention bias, whereas lack of content specificity would point to perturbations in more generic attention processes. Enhanced clarity of mechanism could have clinical implications for the stimuli types used in Attention Bias Modification Treatments (ABMT). Content specificity of threat-related attention bias in anxiety and potential moderators of this effect were investigated. A systematic search identified 37 samples from 29 articles (N=866). Relevant data were extracted based on specific coding rules, and Cohen's d effect size was used to estimate bias specificity effects. The results indicate greater attention bias toward disorder-congruent relative to disorder-incongruent threat stimuli (d=0.28, p<0.0001). This effect was not moderated by age, type of anxiety disorder, visual attention tasks, or type of disorder-incongruent stimuli. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Implications for threat bias in anxiety and ABMT are discussed. PMID:25462110

Pergamin-Hight, Lee; Naim, Reut; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bar-Haim, Yair

2014-11-01

232

Substance dependence and eating disorders: impact of sequence on comorbidity.  

PubMed

There is a high comorbidity between eating disorders and substance dependence. The sequence of illness may indicate differences in the underlying pathology and could reflect different etiologies and treatment. The present study subjects were 218 inpatients and outpatients with diagnoses of anorexia nervosa binge-purge type (AN-BP), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder NOS (ED-NOS). Of these 218 patients, 38 had substance dependence predating the eating disorder (SDED), 71 had an eating disorder predating the substance dependence (EDSD), and 109 had only an eating disorder (ED-only). All subjects were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Patient Edition With Psychotic Screen (SCID-P). EDSD patients had an earlier onset of the eating disorder than SDED patients and had the greatest prevalence of comorbid pathology. SDED patients were dependent on more substances. We conclude that the sequence of development of the eating disorder and substance dependence in eating disorder patients influences the amount of comorbid psychopathology. Clinical implications and future research are discussed. PMID:10509613

Wiseman, C V; Sunday, S R; Halligan, P; Korn, S; Brown, C; Halmi, K A

1999-01-01

233

Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.…

Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

2001-01-01

234

Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

2006-01-01

235

Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

2004-01-01

236

Modeling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyze Eating Regulation Disorders  

E-print Network

ProofCopy Modeling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyze Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse Amsterdam, The Netherlands To analyze the disorders of their patients, psychotherapists often have to get- namics. Using this language, an executable model has been developed of the dynamics of eating regulation

Bosse, Tibor

237

Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory with Eating Disorder Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was studied with a subsample of 93 bulimic women from a total sample of 110 women with eating disorders. Results suggested that the BDI appears to assess a unidimensional construct in patients with eating disorders. (SLD)

Pulos, Steven

1996-01-01

238

A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.…

Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

2011-01-01

239

The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

2008-01-01

240

Eating Disorders among Athletes: Theory, Issues, and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders among athletes has become an important topic both nationally and internationally. This volume of empirically focused articles presents theory, issues, and the latest research in a concise form for a variety of audiences. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Eating Disorders among Athletes: Current Perspective" (D. R. Black); (2) "College…

Black, David R., Ed.

241

Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and undergraduate women. Methods: In a random sample of undergraduates, the authors categorized respondents by

Louise Ousley; Elizabeth Diane Cordero; Sabina White

2008-01-01

242

Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The excessive influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation--referred to as overvaluation--is considered by some a central feature across eating disorders but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined shape/weight overvaluation in 399 consecutive patients with BED. Participants completed semistructured…

Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2007-01-01

243

Are Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Neuroanatomically Distinct? An Anatomical Likelihood Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: There is renewed debate on whether modern diagnostic classification should adopt a dichotomous or dimensional approach to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study synthesizes data from voxel-based studies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to estimate the extent to which these conditions have a common neuroanatomical phenotype. Methods: A post-hoc meta-analytic estimation of the extent to which bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or both conditions contribute to brain gray matter differences compared to controls was achieved using a novel application of the conventional anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) method. 19 schizophrenia studies (651 patients and 693 controls) were matched as closely as possible to 19 bipolar studies (540 patients and 745 controls). Result: Substantial overlaps in the regions affected by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder included regions in prefrontal cortex, thalamus, left caudate, left medial temporal lobe, and right insula. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia jointly contributed to clusters in the right hemisphere, but schizophrenia was almost exclusively associated with additional gray matter deficits (left insula and amygdala) in the left hemisphere. Limitation: The current meta-analytic method has a number of constraints. Importantly, only studies identifying differences between controls and patient groups could be included in this analysis. Conclusion: Bipolar disorder shares many of the same brain regions as schizophrenia. However, relative to neurotypical controls, lower gray matter volume in schizophrenia is more extensive and includes the amygdala. This fresh application of ALE accommodates multiple studies in a relatively unbiased comparison. Common biological mechanisms may explain the neuroanatomical overlap between these major disorders, but explaining why brain differences are more extensive in schizophrenia remains challenging. PMID:21103008

Yu, Kevin; Cheung, Charlton; Leung, Meikei; Li, Qi; Chua, Siew; McAlonan, Gráinne

2010-01-01

244

[Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].  

PubMed

New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out. PMID:15704033

Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; García Sánchez, F; Ríos Rial, B

2005-01-01

245

Mood, food, traits, and restraint: an experimental investigation of negative affect, borderline personality, and disordered eating.  

E-print Network

??Eating disorders and borderline personality disorder involve several overlapping features, such as impulsivity, negative affectivity, and dissociation. However, few studies have specifically assessed how eating… (more)

Ambwani, Suman

2009-01-01

246

Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872

Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

2014-06-30

247

Childhood Eating and Weight in Eating Disorders: A Multi-Centre European Study of Affected Women and Their Unaffected Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have suggested that childhood eating and weight problems may be risk factors for eating disorders. Robust evidence is still lacking. Aims: To investigate whether childhood eating and weight problems increase the risk of eating disorders in affected women compared to their unaffected sisters. Methods: Women (150) with anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from clinical and

N. Micali; J. Holliday; A. Karwautz; M. Haidvogl; G. Wagner; F. Fernandez-Aranda; A. Badia; L. Gimenez; R. Solano; M. Brecelj-Anderluh; R. Mohan; D. Collier; J. L. Treasure

2007-01-01

248

Characterizing eating disorders in a personality disorders sample.  

PubMed

The presence of a comorbid eating disorder (ED) and personality disorder (PD) is associated with greater problems and poorer functioning than having an ED alone or PD alone. This pattern is also found for non-ED axis I disorders and PDs. This study aims to examine if an ED, compared to other non-ED axis I disorders, in a PD sample confers greater risks for: number and type of non-ED axis I and axis II disorders, suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury, and poorer psychosocial functioning. Standardized interviews were conducted on 166 females and 166 males with PDs. In females with PDs, EDs, as compared to other axis I disorders, were associated with more non-ED axis I and II disorders (particularly borderline and avoidant PD) and poorer global functioning, but not with suicide attempts or non-suicidal self-injury. In males with PDs, EDs were associated with more axis II disorders, particularly borderline PD. Given the small group of males with EDs, these results require replication. Males and females with PDs and EDs may have multiple comorbid disorders, particularly borderline PD and for females, avoidant PD that may warrant targeting in treatment. PMID:20667417

Chen, Eunice Yu; McCloskey, Michael Sean; Michelson, Sara; Gordon, Kathryn Hope; Coccaro, Emil

2011-02-28

249

Characterizing eating disorders in a personality disorders sample  

PubMed Central

The presence of a comorbid eating disorder (ED) and personality disorder (PD) is associated with greater problems and poorer functioning than having an ED alone or PD alone. This pattern is also found for non-ED axis I disorders and PDs. This study aims to examine if an ED, compared to other non-ED axis I disorders, in a PD sample confers greater risks for: number and type of non-ED axis I and axis II disorders, suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury, and poorer psychosocial functioning. Standardized interviews were conducted on 166 females and 166 males with PDs. In females with PDs, EDs, as compared to other axis I disorders, were associated with more non-ED axis I and II disorders (particularly borderline and avoidant PD) and poorer global functioning, but not with suicide attempts or nonsuicidal self-injury. In males with PDs, EDs were associated with more axis II disorders, particularly borderline PD. Given the small group of males with EDs, these results require replication. Males and females with PDs and EDs may have multiple comorbid disorders, particularly borderline PD and for females, avoidant PD that may warrant targeting in treatment. PMID:20667417

Chen, Eunice Yu; McCloskey, Michael Sean; Michelson, Sara; Gordon, Kathryn Hope; Coccaro, Emil

2010-01-01

250

Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

2008-01-01

251

Developmental Meta-Analysis of the Functional Neural Correlates of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: There is a pressing need to elucidate the brain-behavior interactions underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the marked rise in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has begun to address this need, but few fMRI studies have evaluated age-related changes in ASD. Therefore, we conducted…

Dickstein, Daniel P.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Seymour, Karen E.; Laird, Angela R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Barrett, Rowland P.

2013-01-01

252

A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…

Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

2005-01-01

253

Pharmacologic Treatments for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: A growing body of literature has documented pediatric bipolar disorder to be a severely impairing form of psychopathology. However, concerns remain as to the inadequacy of the extant literature on its pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, treatment studies have not been systematically reviewed for treatment effects on core and associated…

Liu, Howard Y.; Potter, Mona P.; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Yorks, Dayna M.; Petty, Carter R.; Wozniak, Janet R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

2011-01-01

254

Motor Coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are motor coordination deficits an underlying cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Database searches identified 83 ASD studies focused on motor coordination, arm movements, gait, or postural stability deficits. Data extraction involved between-group comparisons for ASD and typically developing controls (N = 51). Rigorous…

Fournier, Kimberly A.; Hass, Chris J.; Naik, Sagar K.; Lodha, Neha; Cauraugh, James H.

2010-01-01

255

A meta-analysis of three interventions for autistic spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their purported advantages, researchers have consistently cited a lack of empirically sound research support for many popular interventions used for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There is now a tangible need for an effective synthesis of research that includes studies published over the past decade, a need most effectively met by meta-analytic review of cumulative research. The purpose

Dominick Avelino Fortugno

2011-01-01

256

Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison with Pharmacotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of (cognitive) behavioral therapy ([C]BT) for generalized anxiety disorder was investigated and compared with the efficacy of pharmacological therapy using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 65 (C)BT studies and pharmacological studies were included. (C)BT was more effective than control conditions. The results of the comparison…

Mitte, Kristin

2005-01-01

257

Unidentified Language Deficits in Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low language proficiency and problem behavior often co-occur, yet language deficits are likely to be overlooked in children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine prevalence and severity of the problem. Across 22 studies, participants included 1,171 children ages 5-13 with formally…

Hollo, Alexandra; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.

2014-01-01

258

Intimate Partner Violence as a Risk Factor for Mental Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews literature on the prevalence of mental health problems among women with a history of intimate partner violence. The weighted mean prevalence of mental health problems among battered women was 47.6% in 18 studies of depression, 17.9% in 13 studies of suicidality, 63.8% in 11 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 18.5% in 10 studies of alcohol abuse,

Jacqueline M. Golding

1999-01-01

259

Behavioral versus pharmacological treatments of obsessive compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to provide a quantitative analysis of the relative efficacy of all five currently available serotonin\\u000a reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and behavior therapy [exposure and response prevention (ERP)] for obsessive compulsive disorder.\\u000a The relationship between effect size and methodological characteristics was also empirically examined. A search was conducted\\u000a of several computerized databases covering the dates from

K. A. Kobak; John H. Greist; James W. Jefferson; David J. Katzelnick; Henry J. Henk

1998-01-01

260

Rate of Cannabis Use Disorders in Clinical Samples of Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Our aim was to review recent studies and estimate the rate of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in schizophrenia, as well as to examine the factors affecting this rate. Methods: We conducted an electronic search of 3 literature databases and a manual search of articles from 1996 to 2008. The key words used were “schizophreni*,” “psychos*s,” “psychotic,” “cannabis abuse,” “cannabis dependence,” “cannabis use disorder,” “substance use disorder,” “substance abuse,” “substance dependence,” and “dual diagnosis.” Articles that reported diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or International Classification of Diseases were included. Regression analysis was used to examine how estimated rates of CUDs are affected by various study characteristics such as the classification system, inpatient vs outpatient status, study location, proportion of males, age of the sample, or duration of illness. Results: Thirty-five studies met our search criteria. The median current rate of CUDs was 16.0% (interquartile range [IQR]?= 8.6–28.6, 10 studies), and the median lifetime rate was 27.1% (IQR?=?12.2–38.5, 28 studies). The median rate of CUDs was markedly higher in first-episode vs long-term patients (current 28.6%/22.0%, lifetime 44.4%/12.2%, respectively) and in studies where more than two-thirds of the participants were males than in the other studies (33.8%/13.2%). CUDs were also more common in younger samples than in the others (current 38.5%/16.0%, lifetime 45.0%/17.9%). Conclusions: Approximately every fourth schizophrenia patient in our sample of studies had a diagnosis of CUDs. CUDs were especially common in younger and first-episode patient samples as well as in samples with a high proportion of males. PMID:19386576

Koskinen, Johanna; Löhönen, Johanna; Koponen, Hannu; Isohanni, Matti; Miettunen, Jouko

2010-01-01

261

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders to solve problems, establishing goals, and contributing to life. View exercise and balanced eating

Walker, Matthew P.

262

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders will avoid categorizing foods as either "good" or "bad." I will not associate guilt or shame with eating

Jacobs, Lucia

263

Adolescents with bulimic and nonbulimic eating disorders.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight adolescents with eating disorders were analyzed in a study that included a retrospective examination of their hospital records and a letter to their family doctor and the patient. These 28 patients were dieting to lose weight, with nine reporting episodes of overeating and vomiting. The clinical characteristics of the bulimic patients versus the nonbulimic are contrasted. Bulimic patients tended to be older and ill for longer. They had a higher weight score, vomited more, and used laxatives and diet medications more frequently. They threatened suicide more often than nonbulimics and many had been overweight previously. Poor outcome was positively associated with bulimia, longer duration of illness, and older age of presentation, but not with a lower weight during the illness. However, with the exception of the presence of vomiting and being less likely to feel fat, these differences in clinical characteristics between bulimic and nonbulimic groups did not approach the level of statistical significance. PMID:3855298

Arroyo, D; Tonkin, R

1985-01-01

264

Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.  

PubMed

The objective was to review scientific evidence for efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in adults or children with an eating disorder (ED). We conducted a computer search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1960 and May 2010 for treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED). For drugs for which no RCT was found, open trials or case reports were retrieved. Clinically relevant RCTs in the treatment of AN have used atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and zinc supplementation. Olanzapine demonstrated an adjunctive effect for in-patient treatment of underweight AN patients, and fluoxetine helped prevent relapse in weight-restored AN patients in 1/2 studies. For treatment of BN, controlled studies have used SSRIs, other antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. In 9/11 studies, pharmacotherapy yielded a statistically significant although moderate reduction in binge/purge frequency, and some additional benefits. For BED, RCTs have been conducted using SSRIs and one serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), mood stabilizers, and anti-obesity medications. In 11/12 studies, there was a statistically significant albeit limited effect of medication. Meta-analyses on efficacy of pharmacotherapy for BN and BED support moderate effect sizes for medication, but generally low recovery rates. Treatment resistance is an inherent feature of AN, where treatment should focus on renourishment plus psychotherapy. For BN and BED, combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy has been more effective than either alone. Data on the long-term efficacy of pharmacotherapy for EDs are scarce. Short- and long-term pharmacotherapy of EDs still remains a challenge for the clinician. PMID:21414249

Flament, Martine F; Bissada, Hany; Spettigue, Wendy

2012-03-01

265

Eating disorders. A review and update.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are prevalent illnesses affecting between 1% and 10% of adolescent and college age women. Developmental, family dynamic, and biologic factors are all important in the cause of this disorder. Anorexia nervosa is diagnosed when a person refuses to maintain his or her body weight over a minimal normal weight for age and height, such as 15% below that expected, has an intense fear of gaining weight, has a disturbed body image, and, in women, has primary or secondary amenorrhea. A diagnosis of bulimia nervosa is made when a person has recurrent episodes of binge eating, a feeling of lack of control over behavior during binges, regular use of self-induced vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, strict dieting, or vigorous exercise to prevent weight gain, a minimum of 2 binge episodes a week for at least 3 months, and persistent overconcern with body shape and weight. Patients with eating disorders are usually secretive and often come to the attention of physicians only at the insistence of others. Practitioners also should be alert for medical complications including hypothermia, edema, hypotension, bradycardia, infertility, and osteoporosis in patients with anorexia nervosa and fluid or electrolyte imbalance, hyperamylasemia, gastritis, esophagitis, gastric dilation, edema, dental erosion, swollen parotid glands, and gingivitis in patients with bulimia nervosa. Treatment involves combining individual, behavioral, group, and family therapy with, possibly, psychopharmaceuticals. Primary care professionals are frequently the first to evaluate these patients, and their encouragement and support may help patients accept treatment. The treatment proceeds most smoothly if the primary care physician and psychiatrist work collaboratively with clear and frequent communication. PMID:1475950

Haller, E

1992-12-01

266

Reward pathway dysfunction in gambling disorder: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.  

PubMed

Recent emerging functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified many brain regions in which gambling cues or rewards elicit activation and may shed light upon the ongoing disputes regarding the diagnostic and neuroscientific issues of gambling disorder (GD). However, no studies to date have systemically reviewed fMRI studies of GD to analyze the brain areas activated by gambling-related cues and examine whether these areas were differentially activated between cases and healthy controls (HC). This study reviewed 62 candidate articles and ultimately selected 13 qualified voxel-wise whole brain analysis studies to perform a comprehensive series of meta-analyses using the effect size-signed differential mapping approach. Compared with HC, GD patients showed significant activation in right lentiform nucleus and left middle occipital gyrus. The increased activities in the lentiform nucleus compared to HC were also found in both GD subgroups, regardless of excluding or not excluding any kind of substance use disorder. In addition, the South Oaks Gambling Screen scores were associated with hyperactivity in right lentiform nucleus and bilateral parahippocampus, but negatively related to right middle frontal gyrus. These results suggest dysfunction within the frontostriatal cortical pathway in GD, which could contribute to our understanding of the categories and definition of GD and provide evidence for the reclassification of GD as a behavioral addiction in the DSM-5. PMID:25205368

Meng, Ya-jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Hui-yao; Guo, Wan-jun; Li, Tao; Lam, Chaw; Lin, Xia

2014-12-15

267

Genetic modulation of borderline personality disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality. Early theories ascribed an environmental etiology of BPD, but growing evidence supports a genetic vulnerability as well. The primary aim of this study was to systematically review genetic association studies focused on BPD. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies published until December 2012. Meta-analyses were also performed when three or more studies reported genetic data on the same polymorphism. Data were analyzed with Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software (RevMan, version 5.0). Quality and publication bias were assessed. The systematic review of association studies examining genetic polymorphisms and BPD produced conflicting results. Meta-analyses were performed for three serotonergic polymorphisms: two common polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the promoter insertion/deletion (5-HTTLPR) and the intron 2 VNTR (STin2 VNTR), and the rs1800532 (A218C) polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene (TPH1), all showing no association. No direct role of genetic polymorphisms was found in BPD. However, a few studies only are present in literature to draw definite conclusions. Further studies focusing on gene × gene and gene × environment interactions are needed to more deeply dissect the genetic role in the modulation of BPD. PMID:23810197

Calati, Raffaella; Gressier, Florence; Balestri, Martina; Serretti, Alessandro

2013-10-01

268

Atypical antipsychotic augmentation in SSRI treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

BackgroundIn 2006, the National Institute of Clinical and Health Excellence (NICE) guidelines for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) recommended anti-psychotics as a class for SSRI treatment resistant OCD. The article aims to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis on the clinical effectiveness of atypical anti-psychotics augmenting an SSRI.MethodsStudies that were double-blind randomized controlled trials of an atypical antipsychotic against a placebo, for a minimum of 4 weeks, in adults with OCD, were included. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores were the primary outcome measure. Inclusion criteria included Y-BOCS score of 16 or more and at least one adequate trial of a SSRI or clomipramine for at least 8 weeks prior to randomization. Data sources included Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), trial registries and pharmaceutical databases and manufacturers up to September 2013. Forest-plots were drawn to display differences between drug and placebo on the Y-BOCS.ResultsTwo studies found aripiprazole to be effective in the short-term. There was a small effect-size for risperidone or anti-psychotics in general in the short-term. We found no evidence for the effectiveness of quetiapine or olanzapine in comparison to placebo.ConclusionsRisperidone and aripiprazole can be used cautiously at a low dose as an augmentation agent in non-responders to SSRIs and CBT but should be monitored at 4 weeks to determine efficacy. PMID:25432131

Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Smallcombe, Nicola; Ghezai, Haben; Goldacre, Ben; Hodsoll, John

2014-11-29

269

Placebo group improvement in trials of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders: A multivariate meta-analysis examining change over time  

PubMed Central

Objective Placebo group improvement in pharmacotherapy trials has been increasing over time across several pharmacological treatment areas. However, it is unknown to what degree increasing improvement has occurred in pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorders or what factors may account for placebo group improvement. This meta-analysis of 47 alcohol pharmacotherapy trials evaluated (1) the magnitude of placebo group improvement, (2) the extent to which placebo group improvement has been increasing over time, and (3) several potential moderators that might account for variation in placebo group improvement. Method Random-effects univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted that examined the magnitude of placebo group improvement in the 47 studies and several potential moderators of improvement: (a) publication year, (b) country in which the study was conducted, (c) outcome data source/type, (d) number of placebo administrations, (e) overall severity of study participants, and (f) additional psychosocial treatment. Results Substantial placebo group improvement was found overall and improvement was larger in more recent studies. Greater improvement was found on moderately subjective outcomes, with more frequent administrations of the placebo, and in studies with greater participant severity of illness. However, even after controlling for these moderators, placebo group improvement remained significant, as did placebo group improvement over time. Conclusion Similar to previous pharmacotherapy placebo research, substantial pre- to post-test placebo group improvement has occurred in alcohol pharmacotherapy trials, an effect that has been increasing over time. However, several plausible moderator variables were not able to explain why placebo group improvement has been increasing over time. PMID:23857312

Del Re, AC; Maisel, Natalya; Blodgett, Janet; Wilbourne, Paula; Finney, John

2014-01-01

270

Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: a gradient of severity in cognitive impairments.  

PubMed

SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ?1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice. PMID:25188300

Leblond, Claire S; Nava, Caroline; Polge, Anne; Gauthier, Julie; Huguet, Guillaume; Lumbroso, Serge; Giuliano, Fabienne; Stordeur, Coline; Depienne, Christel; Mouzat, Kevin; Pinto, Dalila; Howe, Jennifer; Lemière, Nathalie; Durand, Christelle M; Guibert, Jessica; Ey, Elodie; Toro, Roberto; Peyre, Hugo; Mathieu, Alexandre; Amsellem, Frédérique; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, I Carina; Rappold, Gudrun A; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P; Maestrini, Elena; Galan, Pilar; Heron, Delphine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rastetter, Agnès; Brice, Alexis; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Laffargue, Fanny; Lespinasse, James; Chiesa, Jean; Rivier, François; Bonneau, Dominique; Regnault, Beatrice; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Edery, Patrick; Perrin, Laurence; Tabet, Anne Claude; Schmeisser, Michael J; Boeckers, Tobias M; Coleman, Mary; Sato, Daisuke; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W; Rouleau, Guy A; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Delorme, Richard; Bourgeron, Thomas

2014-09-01

271

Chocolate craving and disordered eating. Beyond the gender divide?  

PubMed

Chocolate craving in women has previously been linked to disordered eating behaviors. A relatively higher prevalence of eating disorder pathology may account for the fact that chocolate craving is significantly more common in women in North America, compared to many other countries. While support for a causal role of disordered eating in the etiology of craving in women is growing, little is known about the extent to which food cravings are associated with disordered eating behaviors in men. This study was designed to systematically assess the impact of gender and chocolate craving on measures of attitudes to chocolate, responsiveness to food cues in the environment, body shape dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and eating disorder and general pathology. Undergraduate men and women (n?=?645, 37.2% male) were invited to complete self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, height and weight, food cravings, dietary attitudes and behaviors, along with eating disorder and general pathology. Data suggest that the relationship between chocolate craving and disordered eating behaviors in men is the opposite of what has previously been observed in women: compared to non-cravers, male chocolate cravers reported significantly more guilt related to craving, but were significantly less likely to diet and reported lower levels of dietary restraint, less frequent weight fluctuations, and fewer symptoms of eating disorders. Findings indicate that a positive relationship between disordered eating behaviors and chocolate craving may be unique to women (and potentially women in North America). Findings have important implications for our understanding of cultural and psychosocial factors involved in the etiology of food cravings. PMID:25173065

Hormes, Julia M; Orloff, Natalia C; Timko, C Alix

2014-12-01

272

Detecting disease-associated genes with confounding variable adjustment and the impact on genomic meta-analysis: With application to major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Detecting candidate markers in transcriptomic studies often encounters difficulties in complex diseases, particularly when overall signals are weak and sample size is small. Covariates including demographic, clinical and technical variables are often confounded with the underlying disease effects, which further hampers accurate biomarker detection. Our motivating example came from an analysis of five microarray studies in major depressive disorder (MDD), a heterogeneous psychiatric illness with mostly uncharacterized genetic mechanisms. Results We applied a random intercept model to account for confounding variables and case-control paired design. A variable selection scheme was developed to determine the effective confounders in each gene. Meta-analysis methods were used to integrate information from five studies and post hoc analyses enhanced biological interpretations. Simulations and application results showed that the adjustment for confounding variables and meta-analysis improved detection of biomarkers and associated pathways. Conclusions The proposed framework simultaneously considers correction for confounding variables, selection of effective confounders, random effects from paired design and integration by meta-analysis. The approach improved disease-related biomarker and pathway detection, which greatly enhanced understanding of MDD neurobiology. The statistical framework can be applied to similar experimental design encountered in other complex and heterogeneous diseases. PMID:22458711

2012-01-01

273

Discounting of Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards by Women with and without Binge Eating Disorder.  

E-print Network

??Obese individuals with binge eating disorder: BED) exhibit more general and eating-disordered psychopathology than obese individuals without BED. Binge eating also impedes weight-loss efforts, already… (more)

Manwaring, Jamie

2009-01-01

274

Family involvement in the psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Psychological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are increasingly aimed at improving outcomes by directly incorporating family members to address family disruption, dysfunction, or symptom accommodation. Much remains to be learned about the pooled effects of "family inclusive treatment" (FIT) for OCD and factors that may explain variation in response. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures were conducted to empirically evaluate the overall effect of FITs on OCD, and treatment moderators. Study search criteria yielded 29 studies examining FIT response in 1,366 OCD patients. Outcome variables included OCD symptoms and global functioning. Examined moderators included age group, gender, minority status, treatment length and format, and inclusion of specific family focused treatment elements. FITs for OCD demonstrated a large overall effect on OCD symptoms (pooled d = 1.68, SE = 0.14) and global functioning (pooled d = 0.98, SE = 0.14). Moderator analyses found that individual family treatments (vs. group) and FITs targeting family accommodation of symptoms (vs. those that did not target accommodation) were associated with greater improvements in patient functioning. Results indicate a robust overall response to FITs for OCD and clarify key moderators that inform optimal circumstances for effective treatment. Findings underscore the need for continued momentum in the development, evaluation, and dissemination of FITs for OCD. PMID:24798816

Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Edson, Aubrey; Tompson, Martha C; Comer, Jonathan S

2014-06-01

275

A meta-analysis of cognitive functions in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

The cumulative prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in children and adolescents averages 9.5 %. The majority of adults with MDD suffer from significant cognitive deficits, but the available neuropsychological data on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents with MDD yielded mixed results. Meta-analytic methods were used to assess the severity of cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with MDD as compared to healthy children and adolescents. We identified 17 studies comparing the intelligence, executive functions, verbal memory and attention of 447 patients with DSM-IV MDD and 1,347 healthy children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with MDD performed 0.194-0.772 (p < 0.001) standard mean differences worse than healthy control subjects in neuropsychological test procedures. The most pronounced deficits of children and adolescents with MDD were seen in inhibition capacity (STD = 0.772; p = 0.002), phonemic verbal fluency (STD = 0.756; p = 0.0001), sustained attention (STD = 0.522; p = 0.000), verbal memory (STD = 0.516; p = 0.0009) and planning (STD = 0.513; p = 0.014). We revealed cognitive deficits of children and adolescents with MDD in various cognitive domains. Long-term studies should investigate how the cognitive deficits of depressed youth affect their academic and social functioning, and whether age, comorbidity and depression severity play a role in this process. PMID:24869711

Wagner, Stefanie; Müller, Carmen; Helmreich, Isabella; Huss, Michael; Tadi?, André

2015-01-01

276

Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ?10, 2.5 ?m) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Contents, Global Health, and Cochrane were searched (last search: September, 2013). After a detailed screening of 270 studies, 10 studies were extracted. We conducted meta-analyses if a pollutant in a specific exposure window was reported by at least four studies. Using fixed- and random-effects models, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for each pollutant with specific increment of concentration. Increases in risks of HDP (OR per 10 ppb = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30) and preeclampsia (OR per 10 ppb = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17) were observed to be associated with exposure to NO2 during the entire pregnancy, and significant associations between HDP and exposure to CO (OR per 1 ppm = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45) and O3 (OR per 10 ppb = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.13) during the first trimester were also observed. Our review suggests an association between ambient air pollution and HDP risk. Although the ORs were relatively low, the population-attributable fractions were not negligible given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution.

Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Xu, Xiaohui

2014-11-01

277

Ambient Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ? 10, 2.5 ?m) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Contents, Global Health, and Cochrane were searched (last search: September, 2013). After a detailed screening of 270 studies, 10 studies were extracted. We conducted meta-analyses if a pollutant in a specific exposure window was reported by at least four studies. Using fixed- and random-effects models, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for each pollutant with specific increment of concentration. Increases in risks of HDP (OR per 10 ppb = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30) and preeclampsia (OR per 10 ppb = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17) were observed to be associated with exposure to NO2 during the entire pregnancy, and significant associations between HDP and exposure to CO (OR per 1 ppm = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45) and O3 (OR per 10 ppb = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.13) during the first trimester were also observed. Our review suggests an association between ambient air pollution and HDP risk. Although the ORs were relatively low, the population-attributable fractions were not negligible given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution. PMID:25242883

Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Talbott, Evelyn O; Xu, Xiaohui

2014-11-01

278

Effectiveness of programs for reducing the stigma associated with mental disorders. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

The stigma associated with mental disorders is a global public health problem. Programs to combat it must be informed by the best available evidence. To this end, a meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of existing programs. A systematic search of PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases yielded 34 relevant papers, comprising 33 randomized controlled trials. Twenty-seven papers (26 trials) contained data that could be incorporated into a quantitative analysis. Of these trials, 19 targeted personal stigma or social distance (6,318 participants), six addressed perceived stigma (3,042 participants) and three self-stigma (238 participants). Interventions targeting personal stigma or social distance yielded small but significant reductions in stigma across all mental disorders combined (d=0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.39, p<0.001) as well as for depression (d=0.36, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60, p<0.01), psychosis (d=0.20, 95% CI: 0.06-0.34, p<0.01) and generic mental illness (d=0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.50, p<0.01). Educational interventions were effective in reducing personal stigma (d=0.33, 95% CI: 0.19-0.42, p<0.001) as were interventions incorporating consumer contact (d=0.47, 95% CI: 0.17-0.78, p<0.001), although there were insufficient studies to demonstrate an effect for consumer contact alone. Internet programs were at least as effective in reducing personal stigma as face-to-face delivery. There was no evidence that stigma interventions were effective in reducing perceived or self-stigma. In conclusion, there is an evidence base to inform the roll out of programs for improving personal stigma among members of the community. However, there is a need to investigate methods for improving the effectiveness of these programs and to develop interventions that are effective in reducing perceived and internalized stigma. PMID:24890069

Griffiths, Kathleen M; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Parsons, Alison; Reid, Russell

2014-01-01

279

Prevalence and Correlates of Eating Disordered Behaviors Among Undergraduate Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of eating disordered behaviors among college women. Measures of weight management habits, body image, self-esteem, and degree of endorsement of sociocultural norms regarding thinness were administered to a sample of 682 undergraduate women. The 643 nonanorexic, nonobese subjects were then classified into one of six categories representing severity along an eating-behaviors continuum. The

Laurie B. Mintz; Nancy E. Betz

1988-01-01

280

Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

2014-01-01

281

Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

2006-01-01

282

The Common Traits of the ACC and PFC in Anxiety Disorders in the DSM-5: Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (GA), and specific phobia (SP) are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. Methods A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. Results Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs) were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA), drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. Conclusion Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and fear, and the importance of the ventral anterior cingulate (ACC)/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating anxiety symptoms. PMID:24676455

Ren, Zhengjia; Zhang, Tao; Du, Mingying; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

283

Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. PMID:25565909

Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

2015-01-01

284

Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications  

PubMed Central

A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. PMID:25565909

Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

2015-01-01

285

Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.  

PubMed

Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete. PMID:25014386

Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

286

Investigation of schema modes in the eating disordered population   

E-print Network

Many eating disordered patients fail to respond to traditional cognitive behaviour therapy. As a result it has been suggested that further research needs to be completed to determine the cognitive processes and ...

Jenkins, Gwenllian

2009-01-01

287

Why Do Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Co-Occur?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use an alternative, dimensionally based approach to understanding the reasons for comorbidity between eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, and neuroticism. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that neuroticism and perfectionism completely mediated associations between most obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptoms. However, body dissatisfaction shared unique associations with checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals that could not be explained by these personality traits. Results suggest that shared personality traits play a key role in the comorbidity between eating disorders characterized by binge eating and dietary restraint and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Future studies are needed to examine whether similar underlying neurocognitive processes that give rise to compulsive checking, cleaning, and obsessive rituals may also contribute to the development and maintenance of body checking in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:23557823

Pollack, Lauren O.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

2013-01-01

288

Eating Disorders, Trauma, and Comorbidity: Focus on PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the relationships among eating disorders (EDs), trauma, and comorbid psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There have been a number of significant conclusions in the literature, applicable to clinical practice, which are essential to the understanding of the relationships between EDs and trauma. These are summarized as follows: a) childhood sexual abuse

Timothy D. Brewerton

2007-01-01

289

Mentalization and psychopharmacotherapy in patients with personality and eating disorders.  

PubMed

Contemporary psychiatry pays more and more attention to the patient's capacity regarding acceptance of psychiatric drugs. Understanding the basis of our treatment's effectiveness becomes more challenging. To understand psychiatric treatment psychiatrists must pay full attention to mentalizing and the conditions under which this basic human capacity becomes impaired especially in those suffering from personality and eating disorders. This paper discusses the meaning and clinical applications of the mentalizing related to psychopharmacotherapy for personality and eating disorders patients, including suicidality. PMID:24048405

Mar?inko, Darko; Jakši?, Nenad; Sko?i?, Milena; Frani?, Tomislav

2013-09-01

290

Depressive personality dimensions and alexithymia in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association has been reported between high levels of alexithymia and depression in patients with eating disorders. This study has examined alexithymic features and depressive experiences in patients with DSM-IV eating disorder (restricting anorexia, n=105; purging anorexia, n=49; bulimia, n=98) and matched controls (n=279). The subjects were assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20); the Beck Depression Inventory; and the

Mario Speranzaa; Fernando Perez-Diaze; Paul Bizouardg; Olivier Halfond; Philippe Jeammetb

291

Trauma and multi-impulsivity in the eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMultiple impulsive behaviours are common in the eating disorders, and multi-impulsive patients appear to do more poorly in treatment. However, comparatively little is known about the origins of multi-impulsivity in such cases. This study addresses the links between reported childhood trauma and multi-impulsivity in the eating disorders, examining whether specific types of trauma are predictive of specific impulsive behaviours in

Emma Corstorphine; Glenn Waller; Rachel Lawson; Christine Ganis

2007-01-01

292

Eating Disorders: A Review of the Literature with Emphasis on Medical Complications and Clinical Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and atypical eating disorder (eating disorder not otherwise specified or NOS), are estimated to occur in 5-10 million young and adult women and one million males in the United States. The etiology of eating ,disorders is complex ,and appears,to include ,predisposing ,genetic factors and serotonin dysregulation, as well as psychological

Lyn Patrick

293

[Pica--a historical "eating disorder"].  

PubMed

Pica, or the intentional consumption of things commonly considered as inedible, is a very old phenomenon. Between the 16th and 18th centuries it aroused widespread popular interest. It also was the subject of numerous medical treaties and intensive scientific research. At that time cravings for substances like chalk, soil or paper were discussed as a medical condition typically affecting young girls and pregnant women. Contemporary doctors developed theories about the disease and its genesis. Their publications reflect the commonly accepted medical knowledge of that time, religious beliefs and prevailing ideas as to possible therapies. In the course of time the view of Pica changed. There were new perceptions of this eating disorder among the doctors and its importance declined. Contrary to former times, today the medical and social interest in strange cravings is almost insignificant. The consumption of things commonly considered as inedible is seen as a very rare symptom that can be found mainly with people with psychological problems or mental deficiencies. This paper gives an overview of Pica as a typical disease of women between the 16th and 18th centuries. Besides it shows the historical development of a medical phenomenon up to the present, which has been strongly influenced by the cultural conditions of the respective societies. PMID:21563381

Zedlitz, Kathrin

2010-01-01

294

Sexual assault and disordered eating in Asian women.  

PubMed

The link between sexual assault and disordered eating has yet to be clarified, especially for ethnic minority populations. Asian women, in particular, report low rates of both sexual assault and eating disorders compared to their Western counterparts, and studies suggest that these rates may be conservative. The literature indicates that there are cultural attitudes that contribute to non- and underreporting of sexual assault by Asian women and that these sociocultural factors may have an important role in the development of eating disorders as a response to sexual victimization. Research illustrates a relationship between sexual assault and eating disorders; eating disorders may serve as coping mechanisms for survivors of sexual assault by providing a mechanism for comfort, numbing, and distracting in an effort to rid the painful feelings in response to the assault. To stimulate future research, this article reviews the current literature on the development of eating disorders following a sexual assault and on the sociocultural factors linking both phenomena in Asian women, and offers avenues for investigation to increase our understanding of these relationships. PMID:18661367

La Flair, Lareina N; Franko, Debra L; Herzog, David B

2008-01-01

295

Family, Peer, and Media Predictors of Becoming Eating Disordered  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify predictors of becoming eating disordered among adolescents. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Self-report questionnaires. Subjects Girls (n=6916) and boys (n=5618), aged 9 to 15 years at baseline, in the ongoing Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Main Exposures Parent, peer, and media influences. Main Outcome Measures Onset of starting to binge eat or purge (ie, vomiting or using laxatives) at least weekly. Results During 7 years of follow-up, 4.3% of female subjects and 2.3% of male subjects (hereafter referred to as “females” and “males”) started to binge eat and 5.3% of females and 0.8% of males started to purge to control their weight. Few participants started to both binge eat and purge. Rates and risk factors varied by sex and age group (<14 vs ?14 years). Females younger than 14 years whose mothers had a history of an eating disorder were nearly 3 times more likely than their peers to start purging at least weekly (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–5.9); however, maternal history of an eating disorder was unrelated to risk of starting to binge eat or purge in older adolescent females. Frequent dieting and trying to look like persons in the media were independent predictors of binge eating in females of all ages. In males, negative comments about weight by fathers was predictive of starting to binge at least weekly. Conclusions Risk factors for the development of binge eating and purging differ by sex and by age group in females. Maternal history of an eating disorder is a risk factor only in younger adolescent females. PMID:18524749

Field, Alison E.; Javaras, Kristin M.; Aneja, Parul; Kitos, Nicole; Camargo, Carlos A.; Barr Taylor, C.; Laird, Nan M.

2013-01-01

296

Five-year outcome from eating disorders: relevance of personality disorders.  

PubMed

In order to assess the relationship of personality disorder and eating disorder outcome 30 eating disordered patients were followed up 4-5 years after taking part in a study examining the prevalence of personality disorders in eating disordered individuals. Subjects with personality disorders did not differ from those without personality disorders in the amount of symptomatic change over time, although their psychopathology generally remained more severe. The relationship of personality disorder and clinical outcome ratings varied depending on the personality measure. SCID-II personality disorder diagnoses were not significantly associated with outcome ratings, but were related to a greater likelihood to be hospitalized and treated with psychotropic medications. Results with a new personality measure, the Wisconsin Personality Inventory, did display an association between personality disturbance and eating disorder outcome ratings and also suggested that borderline personality was a significant predictor of outcome. PMID:8199603

Wonderlich, S A; Fullerton, D; Swift, W J; Klein, M H

1994-04-01

297

Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5-15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6-13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. PMID:23570911

Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Alguacil, Juan; Gil, Fernando; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Rojas-García, Antonio

2013-06-01

298

Clinical psychopharmacology of eating disorders: a research update.  

PubMed

The paper presents a critical review (with search date 2010) of the major psychotropic medications assessed in eating disorders, namely antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood-stabilizing medications, anxiolytic and other agents. The evidence of efficacy of drug treatments is mostly weak or moderate. In addition, attrition rates are usually higher than for psychotherapies. However, there is support for use of antidepressants, particularly high-dose fluoxetine in bulimia nervosa, and anticonvulsants (topiramate) for binge-eating disorder. Low-dose antipsychotic medication may be clinically useful as adjunct treatment in acute anorexia, particularly where there is high anxiety and obsessive eating-related ruminations and failure to engage, but more trials are needed. Drug therapies such as topiramate and anti-obesity medication may aid weight loss in obese or overweight patients with binge-eating disorder; however, common or potentially serious adverse effects limit their use. PMID:21439105

Hay, Phillipa J; Claudino, Angélica M

2012-03-01

299

Attachment insecurity, personality, and body dissatisfaction in eating disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is assessing interactions between attachment style and personality in predicting body dissatisfaction (BD). A total of 586 outpatients with eating disorders (EDs) were recruited: 101 with anorexia nervosa, restricting type; 52 with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; 184 with bulimia nervosa, purging type; and 249 with an eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed Temperament and Character Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attachment Style Questionnaire. An insecure attachment was found in all EDs, as well as in eating disorder not otherwise specified. In all diagnostic groups, need for approval, as measured by the Attachment Style Questionnaire and depressive symptomatology, was found to be the best predictor of BD. Personality traits are weaker predictors of BD. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment insecurity is directly correlated with BD, core element in predicting and perpetuating EDs, independently of personality. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:20611057

Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Gramaglia, Carla; Amianto, Federico; Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo

2010-07-01

300

Integrating messages from the eating disorders field into obesity prevention.  

PubMed

Weight-related problems, including unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating, overweight and obesity, and eating disorders, are prevalent in youth. Furthermore, many young people exhibit more than one of these problems. Therefore, it is essential to consider how to simultaneously work toward the prevention of a broad range of weight-related problems in youth. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, weight talk, and weight-related teasing are commonly addressed risk factors within eating disorder prevention interventions, whereas low levels of physical activity and high intakes of foods high in fat and sugar are commonly addressed within interventions aimed at obesity prevention. Empirical data to be presented in this article demonstrate why risk factors such as dieting and body dissatisfaction, which are typically addressed within the eating disorder field, need to also be addressed within the obesity field. Although dieting and body dissatisfaction strongly predict weight gain over time, these findings are not always taken into account in the design of obesity interventions for youth. Possible reasons as to why risk factors such as dieting, body dissatisfaction, and weight stigmatization may be not adequately addressed within interventions addressing obesity are discussed. Suggestions for how physicians and other nonphysician clinicians might link messages from the fields of both eating disorders and obesity into their work with youth are provided. Finally, the potential for work on mindfulness and yoga to decrease risk factors for both eating disorders and obesity are explored. PMID:23437686

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-12-01

301

Antipsychotic treatment for children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomised trials  

PubMed Central

Introduction Antipsychotic treatment in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) lacks a rich evidence base, and efforts to rank different drugs concerning their efficacy have not proven any particular drug superior. In contrast to the literature regarding adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS), comparative effectiveness studies in children and adolescents are limited in number and size, and only a few meta-analyses based on conventional methodologies have been conducted. Methods and analyses We will conduct a network meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate antipsychotic therapies for EOS to determine which compounds are efficacious, and to determine the relative efficacy and safety of these treatments when compared in a network meta-analysis. Unlike a contrast-based (standard) meta-analysis approach, an arm-based network meta-analysis enables statistical inference from combining both direct and indirect comparisons within an empirical Bayes framework. We will acquire eligible studies through a systematic search of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Clinicaltrials.gov and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. Eligible studies should randomly allocate children and adolescents presenting with schizophrenia or a related non-affective psychotic condition to an intervention group or to a control group. Two reviewers will—independently and in duplicate—screen titles and abstracts, complete full text reviews to determine eligibility, and subsequently perform data abstraction and assess risk of bias of eligible trials. We will conduct meta-analyses to establish the effect of all reported therapies on patient-relevant efficacy and safety outcomes when possible. Ethics and dissemination No formal ethical procedures regarding informed consent are required as no primary data collection is undertaken. The review will help facilitate evidence-based management, identify key areas for future research, and provide a framework for conducting large systematic reviews combining direct and indirect comparisons. The study will be disseminated by peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42013006676. PMID:25304189

Pagsberg, A K; Tarp, S; Glintborg, D; Stenstrøm, A D; Fink-Jensen, A; Correll, C U; Christensen, R

2014-01-01

302

Prospective Association of Common Eating Disorders and Adverse Outcomes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (BN) are rare, but eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are relatively common among female participants. Our objective was to evaluate whether BN and subtypes of EDNOS are predictive of developing adverse outcomes. METHODS: This study comprised a prospective analysis of 8594 female participants from the ongoing Growing Up Today Study. Questionnaires were sent annually from 1996 through 2001, then biennially through 2007 and 2008. Participants who were 9 to 15 years of age in 1996 and completed at least 2 consecutive questionnaires between 1996 and 2008 were included in the analyses. Participants were classified as having BN (?weekly binge eating and purging), binge eating disorder (BED; ?weekly binge eating, infrequent purging), purging disorder (PD; ?weekly purging, infrequent binge eating), other EDNOS (binge eating and/or purging monthly), or nondisordered. RESULTS: BN affected ?1% of adolescent girls; 2% to 3% had PD and another 2% to 3% had BED. Girls with BED were almost twice as likely as their nondisordered peers to become overweight or obese (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9 [95% confidence interval: 1.0–3.5]) or develop high depressive symptoms (OR: 2.3 [95% confidence interval: 1.0–5.0]). Female participants with PD had a significantly increased risk of starting to use drugs (OR: 1.7) and starting to binge drink frequently (OR: 1.8). CONCLUSIONS: PD and BED are common and predict a range of adverse outcomes. Primary care clinicians should be made aware of these disorders, which may be underrepresented in eating disorder clinic samples. Efforts to prevent eating disorders should focus on cases of subthreshold severity. PMID:22802602

Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Micali, Nadia; Crosby, Ross D.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Laird, Nan M.; Treasure, Janet; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

303

Academy for Eating Disorders International Conference on Eating Disorders. Denver, CO, USA, May 29-31, 2003.  

PubMed

The focus of this meeting was the interface between eating disorders and obesity. A symposium at this meeting dealt with advances in treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder. There were two presentations in this symposium that addressed pharmacological treatments. One reviewed drug treatments for BN, which included reviewing the evidence for the efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin inhibitors in the treatment of BN. All drug studies demonstrated greater reduction in binge eating and purging than with placebo. Other medications studied without evidence of efficacy for BN include opiate antagonists, lithium and anticonvulsants. Two promising agents for BN that require further study are odansitron and topiramate. For binge eating disorder, studies have examined the efficacy of antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and serotonin/noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors), antiobesity agents (sibutramine) and antiepileptics associated with weight loss (topiramate), with some evidence of efficacy for these agents. PMID:12882630

Kaplan, Allan S

2003-08-01

304

Relationship between bipolar illness and binge-eating disorders.  

PubMed

In this study we describe the frequency of eating disorders (EDs) in a group of bipolar (BP) patients. We evaluated a sample of 51 outpatients, diagnosed as having BP I disorder on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Each of these subjects was administered the Binge Eating Disorder Clinical Interview (BEDCI) to determine the presence of binge eating disorder (BED) or bulimia nervosa (BN). Of the 51 BP patients, 14 (9 BED, 5 BN) met criteria for an ED. Most patients developed binge eating coincident with the first episode of BP disorder or after the onset of it. This was true for those who developed BED as well as BN, and involved both manic and depressive phases. All BN patients were women (5/5), and family history of binge eating was present in 80% of BN subjects, but only in 22.2% of BED and 29.7% of non-ED BP patients. We found a high frequency of concordance between BP illness and binge eating problems in our sample of BP patients. Given the temporal sequence of the mood disorder, which generally preceded the ED, we suggest a model in which the ED evolves due to modulation of emotions with food, as well as use of medications to treat BP disorder that disrupt hunger and satiety mechanisms. Given differences in gender distribution and family history, cultural and familial influences may also be significant in the minority of BP binge-eating patients who develop BN. PMID:15922456

Ramacciotti, Carla E; Paoli, Riccardo A; Marcacci, Giovanni; Piccinni, Armando; Burgalassi, Annalisa; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Garfinkel, Paul E

2005-06-15

305

Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management  

PubMed Central

Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care. PMID:25485152

Loas, Gwenole

2014-01-01

306

[Comorbidity of bipolar and eating disorders. Epidemiologic and therapeutic aspects].  

PubMed

The frequent association of bulimia nervosa and affective disorders is well documented. Most studies on this topic have focused on the comorbidity of bulimia nervosa and unipolar depression. The literature on the comorbidity of eating disorders and bipolar disorder is more sparse. Nevertheless, an increased rate of bipolar disorder, especially bipolar II disorder, has been found by several epidemiological studies in patients with bulimia nervosa. This association might be more frequent in bulimic patients presenting with a severe chronic type of eating disorder. The relatives of bulimic patients also display an increased morbid risk for bipolar disorder. Although the comorbidity of bulimia and bipolar disorder does not appear coincidental, the nosological relationships between these two disorders are not perfectly clear. The possible relationships between seasonal affective disorders and bulimia nervosa have recently been suggested by some epidemiological studies, demonstrating that bulimia may display seasonal variations with winter worsening of bulimic symptoms. Eating symptoms are present in both winter depression and bulimia nervosa. The carbohydrate craving encountered in the former disorder could be compared to "binge eating" in bulimic patients. Epidemiological data suggest that winter depression is most frequently part of a bipolar II disorder. Few data are available concerning the therapeutic implications of the association of bulimia nervosa and bipolar disorder. Some case reports of concomitant remission of both disorders with anticonvulsivants or lithium salts have been published. However, there are no controlled studies. Anticonvulsivants or lithium salts might be indicated in some bulimic patients who do not present with a typical bipolar disorder, but who fulfill clinical criteria which are potentially predictive of a good response to such medications. PMID:8529563

Mury, M; Verdoux, H; Bourgeois, M

1995-01-01

307

Efficacy of Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Patients with Posttraumatic-Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background We performed the first meta-analysis of clinical studies by investigating the effects of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients treated during the past 2 decades. Methods We performed a quantitative meta-analysis on the findings of 26 randomized controlled trials of EMDR therapy for PTSD published between 1991 and 2013, which were identified through the ISI Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature electronic databases, among which 22, 20, 16, and 11 of the studies assessed the effects of EMDR on the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress, respectively, as the primary clinical outcome. Results The meta-analysis revealed that the EMDR treatments significantly reduced the symptoms of PTSD (g?=??0.662; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.887 to ?0.436), depression (g?=??0.643; 95% CI: ?0.864 to ?0.422), anxiety (g?=??0.640; 95% CI: ?0.890 to ?0.390), and subjective distress (g?=??0.956; 95% CI: ?1.388 to ?0.525) in PTSD patients. Conclusion This study confirmed that EMDR therapy significantly reduces the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients. The subgroup analysis indicated that a treatment duration of more than 60 min per session was a major contributing factor in the amelioration of anxiety and depression, and that a therapist with experience in conducting PTSD group therapy was a major contributing factor in the reduction of PTSD symptoms. PMID:25101684

Chen, Ying-Ren; Chu, Hsin; Chung, Min-Huey; Chen, Su-Ru; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chou, Kuei-Ru

2014-01-01

308

Adolescent eating disorders: update on definitions, symptomatology, epidemiology, and comorbidity.  

PubMed

The prevalence of eating disorders among adolescents continues to increase. The starvation process itself is often associated with severe alterations of central and peripheral metabolism, affecting overall health during this vulnerable period. This article aims to convey basic knowledge on these frequent and disabling disorders, and to review new developments in classification issues resulting from the transition to DSM-5. A detailed description is given of the symptomatology of each eating disorder that typically manifests during adolescence. New data on epidemiology, and expanding knowledge on associated medical and psychiatric comorbidities and their often long-lasting sequelae in later life, are provided. PMID:25455581

Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

2015-01-01

309

Attachment research and eating disorders: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to review the clinical literature which examines the association between attachment patterns and eating disorders with a focus on anorexia nervosa, and to examine the varieties of methods and measures employed in attachment research. A literature review was carried out and the relevant articles are examined in terms of their contribution to this area. The literature indicates a number of important considerations when working with this group, including extreme separation anxiety and unresolved loss and trauma, and discusses the implications of these findings for treatment. The results also indicate conflicting evidence regarding associations between attachment style and eating disorder subgroup suggesting that severity of disorder matters more than eating disorder subtype. The different ways of investigating attachment patterns and experiences are explored in this paper. It is suggested that the attachment classification system runs the risk of reducing complex human experience to typologies and that qualitative research might help to address this problem. PMID:19759074

O'Shaughnessy, Ruth; Dallos, Rudi

2009-10-01

310

Eating disorders and personality: A methodological and empirical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methodological approaches utilized to evaluate models of the relationship between personality and eating disorders, as well as empirical support for each model, are reviewed. Limited prospective research suggests that negative emotionality, perfectionism, drive for thinness, poor interoceptive awareness, ineffectiveness, and obsessive-compulsive personality traits are likely predisposing factors. Limited family study research suggests that obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and anorexia nervosa

Lisa R. R. Lilenfeld; Stephen Wonderlich; Lawrence P. Riso; Ross Crosby; James Mitchell

2006-01-01

311

Aetiology of eating disorders in the 21 st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the aetiology of the eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, which is generally thought of as multi-factorial in nature. In recent years with the advent of new bio-technologies interest in the exploration of the contribution of biological, in particular genetic factors to the origins of these disorders has been revived. The challenge for the future is

Ulrike Schmidt

2003-01-01

312

Adolescent Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia. Publication 352-004.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an overview of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents. A brief review of the historical background of these eating disorders is included. Causes of anorexia and bulimia are discussed and physical, behavioral, emotional, and perceptual characteristics of the disorders are listed in a section on symptoms. The need for a…

Bayer, Alan E.; Baker, Daniel H.

313

Energy Intake Patterns in Obese Women with Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: For binge eating disorder (BED) to be accepted as a distinct diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, it must be demonstrated that the criteria identify a diagnostic entity that is distinct from bulimia nervosa and obesity. This study examined the difference in total energy intake per day, patterns of energy intake throughout

Nancy C. Raymond; Brooke Neumeyer; Cortney S. Warren; Susanne S. Lee; Carol B. Peterson

2003-01-01

314

Examining the Relationship Between Soda Consumption and Eating Disorder Pathology  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to compare diet soda drinkers, regular soda drinkers, and individuals who do not regularly consume soda on clinically significant eating disorder psychopathology, including binge eating, overeating, and purging. Method Participants (n=2077) were adult community volunteers who completed an online survey that included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and questions regarding binge eating behaviors, purging, current weight status, and the type and frequency of soda beverages consumed. Results Diet soda drinkers (34%, n=706) reported significantly higher levels of eating, shape, and weight concerns than regular soda drinkers (22%, n=465), who in turn reported higher levels on these variables than non-soda drinkers (44%, n=906). Diet soda drinkers were more likely to report binge eating and purging than regular soda drinkers, who were more likely to report these behaviors than non-soda drinkers. Consumption of any soda was positively associated with higher BMI, though individuals who consumed regular soda reported significantly higher BMI than diet soda drinkers, who in turn reported higher weight than those who do not consume soda regularly. Conclusions Individuals who consume soda regularly reported higher BMI and more eating psychopathology than those who do not consume soda. These findings extend previous research demonstrating positive associations between soda consumption and weight. PMID:24167775

Bragg, M.A.; White, M. A.

2013-01-01

315

Decision-making and impulsivity in eating disorder patients.  

PubMed

Impairment in decision-making can be related to some pathological behaviors in eating disorders. This ability was assessed in 71 eating disorder patients (27 restricting type patients and 44 binge/purging type patients) and compared with 38 healthy controls using the Iowa Gambling Task. This task simulates real-life decision-making by assessing the ability to sacrifice immediate rewards in favor of long term gains. Furthermore, some studies have demonstrated a relationship between impulsivity and decision-making, so in our study the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale was also used. Eating disorder patients, both the restricting and the binge/purging groups, performed poorly in the Iowa Gambling Task compared to controls, confirming a deficit in decision-making in these patients. The restricting group showed poorer IGT performance than the binge/purging group. Interestingly, impulsivity was negatively correlated with decision-making, but only in the binge/purging group. In conclusion, our results confirm a specific deficit in eating disorder patients which may be related to their pathological eating behavior, and suggest that this impairment might be explained by different mechanisms in restricting and binge/purging disorders. PMID:23122556

Garrido, Ignasi; Subirá, Susana

2013-05-15

316

Peer sexual harassment and disordered eating in early adolescence.  

PubMed

Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we used latent growth modeling with a sample of 406 U.S. adolescents to examine the relationship between longitudinal trends in peer sexual harassment from 5th to 9th grade and disordered eating in 9th grade. Longitudinal trends in self-surveillance were proposed as a mediator of the relationships. Results indicated that the relationship between upsetting sexual harassment at 5th grade and disordered eating symptoms at 9th grade was mediated by self-surveillance at 5th grade. Girls reported more upsetting sexual harassment, more self-surveillance, and thus more disordered eating than boys did. These results are in accord with objectification theory, which proposes that sexual harassment is a form of sexual objectification and may lead to self-surveillance and disordered eating. PMID:22545844

Petersen, Jennifer L; Hyde, Janet S

2013-01-01

317

Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

2002-12-01

318

POPS: a school-based prevention programme for eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  Disordered eating is a significant social and economic issue in Western societies. Weight and shape concerns are highly prevalent\\u000a during adolescence and an alarming percentage of adolescents already show disturbed eating patterns. Sociocultural factors\\u000a like the beauty ideal promoted by the media and social agents are among the main reasons for this trend. Prevention programmes\\u000a which focus on established protective

Petra Warschburger; Susanne Helfert; Eva Maria Krentz

2011-01-01

319

Attribution and Eating Disorders: An Investigation of the Attribution Styles of College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research on eating disorders places considerable emphasis upon cognitive components of those disorders. The possibility of a specific eating disorder attributional style is suggested by attributional analyses of clinical depression. This study was conducted to examine attributional style and eating disorders among 55 college women who…

Forsyth, John P.; And Others

320

Prevention of Obesity and Eating Disorders: A Consideration of Shared Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among youth, researchers in both the obesity and eating disorders fields have proposed using an integrated approach to prevention that addresses the spectrum of weight-related disorders within interventions. The identification of risk factors that are…

Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2006-01-01

321

Eating disorders in children and adolescents: pharmacological therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa do exist in childhood, frequently have their onset in adolescence, and can result in\\u000a serious medical and psychiatric sequelae that impede physical, emotional, and behavioral development. Although we use the\\u000a same Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Version 4 [DSM-IV] definitions to diagnose eating disorders in\\u000a children, adolescents, and adults, these disorders may be expressed

Lisa Kotler; B. Timothy Walsh

2000-01-01

322

9th annual meeting of the Eating Disorders Research Society.  

PubMed

The application of modern neurobiological probes to the field of eating disorders has yielded new and exciting insights into the underlying mechanisms and causes of these devastating conditions. Findings from neuroimaging studies and genetic investigations have further confirmed and expanded our understanding of the role of the serotonin system in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa. In addition, reduced regional cerebral blood flow in the temporal lobes and related brain structures have been identified in patients with AN, even after recovery. These data may hold promise for the development of more effective treatment strategies for these often chronic and refractory conditions. Results of reported treatment studies demonstrate the role and effectiveness of psychotherapy for AN and 'eating disorder not otherwise specified'; two eating disorders for which there is a paucity of empirically based treatments. Finally, more results from open studies of atypical antipsychotic medications in the treatment of AN are encouraging. PMID:14680455

Brewerton, Timothy D

2004-01-01

323

Validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in screening for eating disorders in community samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the concurrent and criterion validity of the questionnaire version of the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE-Q), self-report and interview formats were administered to a community sample of women aged 18–45 (n=208). Correlations between EDE-Q and EDE subscales ranged from 0.68 for Eating Concern to 0.78 for Shape Concern. Scores on the EDE-Q were significantly higher than those

J. M Mond; P. J Hay; B Rodgers; C Owen; P. J. V Beumont

2004-01-01

324

[Factoranalytic Structure of a Short Version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-13) and Prevalences of Disordered Eating in a Representative German Sample.  

PubMed

Early detection of disordered eating behavior is a first hint to prevent clinically relevant eating disorders. Screening instruments are aimed at detecting disordered eating behavior at an early stage, to identify risk groups and as necessary initiate treatment. The EAT-13 is an economic screening instrument (13 items), that allows identification of risk groups in big unselected samples with help of determination of sum score. Factorial validity of the EAT-13 and the suitability for different ages were determined in a representative sample of the German population (N=2?508). Furthermore prevalence of disordered eating behavior was assessed in the sample. Results show that the EAT-13 is a reliable and economic screening instrument that is eligible to select risk groups. An inspection of criterion validity shall be conducted in further studies. PMID:25494187

Richter, Felicitas; Brähler, Elmar; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

2014-12-01

325

In Search of the Trauma Memory: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Symptom Provocation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  

PubMed Central

Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping) were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients’ attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being involved in associative learning and priming, the retrosplenial cortex may have an important function in relation to trauma memory, in particular, the intrusive reexperiencing of the traumatic event. PMID:23536785

Sartory, Gudrun; Cwik, Jan; Knuppertz, Helge; Schürholt, Benjamin; Lebens, Morena; Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Schulze, Ralf

2013-01-01

326

Intuitive eating in young adults: Who is doing it, and how is it related to disordered eating behaviors?  

PubMed Central

Intuitive eating (i.e., reliance on physiologic hunger and satiety cues to guide eating) has been proposed as a healthier, more effective, and more innate alternative to current strategies of weight management. The current study explored intuitive eating among young adults according to socio-demographic characteristics and body mass index (BMI), and examined associations between intuitive and disordered eating behaviors. Data were drawn from Project EAT-III, a population-based study of 2,287 young adults (mean age: 25.3 years). More males reported trusting their bodies to tell them how much to eat than did females. Intuitive eating was inversely associated with BMI in both genders. Males and females who reported trusting their body to tell them how much to eat had lower odds of utilizing disordered eating behaviors compared to those that did not have this trust. Females who reported that they stop eating when they are full had lower odds of chronic dieting and binge eating than those who do not stop eating when full. Overall, this study found that intuitive eating practices are inversely associated with a number of harmful outcomes. Clinicians should discuss the concept of intuitive eating with their young adult patients to promote healthier weight-related outcomes. PMID:23063606

Denny, Kara N.; Loth, Katie; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

327

Update on eating disorders: epidemiology, mortality and comorbidity.  

PubMed

In recent years there have been, in clinical practice an increased influx of services dedicated to eating disorders (DCA). This article provides An examination of some epidemiological aspects aimed at assessing a possible increase in the incidence and prevalence of these syndromes, toghether with an analysis of the mortality and comorbidities of DCA. The literature search covered the period 2006-2011. The selected articles were evaluated to establish the correct approach using the checklist proposed by the NICE Guideline Manual. Some recent publications among those examined hypothesize (common impression) a possible increase in eating disorders (especially BN and BED) in the last two decades. PMID:25413519

Mendolicchio, Leonardo; Maggio, Grazia; Fortunato, Federico; Ragione, Laura Dalla

2014-11-01

328

Artificial sweetener use among individuals with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Women,with eating disorders report using large quantities of artificially sweetened products, but this has not been quanti- fied. Objective: The authors,assessed,the use of selected artificially sweetened,low- calorie products among,women,with eat- ing disorders compared,with controls. Method: Thirty women,with,anorexia nervosa,(18 with,the,restricting sub- type,[AN-R] and,12 with,the,binge\\/ purge subtype [AN-B\\/P]), 48 women with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 32 healthy,control,women,completed,a survey of frequency,and,amount,of con-

Diane A. Klein; Gillian S. Boudreau; Michael J. Devlin; B. Timothy Walsh

2006-01-01

329

Plasma Ghrelin in Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating Disorder: Relations with Eating Patterns and Circulating Concentrations of Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in

Alfonso Troisi; Giorgio Di Lorenzo; Ilaria Lega; Manfredi Tesauro; Aldo Bertoli; Roberto Leo; Micaela Iantorno; Chiara Pecchioli; Stefano Rizza; Mario Turriziani; Renato Lauro; Alberto Siracusano

2005-01-01

330

Orthorexia nervosa: a frequent eating disordered behavior in athletes.  

PubMed

Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes. PMID:22361450

Segura-García, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nisticò, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L

2012-12-01

331

Post-traumatic stress disorder, physical activity, and eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a prevalent and costly psychiatric disorder, is associated with high rates of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. Many studies have examined PTSD and risky behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol/substance abuse); far fewer have examined the relationship between PTSD and health-promoting behaviors. Physical activity and eating behaviors are 2 lifestyle factors that impact cardiometabolic risk and long-term health. This comprehensive review of the literature (1980-2014) examined studies that reported physical activity and eating behaviors in adults with PTSD or PTSD symptoms. A systematic search of electronic databases identified 15 articles on PTSD-physical activity and 10 articles on PTSD-eating behaviors in adults. These studies suggest that there may be a negative association among PTSD, physical activity, and eating behaviors. Preliminary evidence from 3 pilot intervention studies suggests that changes in physical activity or diet may have beneficial effects on PTSD symptoms. There was considerable heterogeneity in the study designs and sample populations, and many of the studies had methodological and reporting limitations. More evidence in representative samples, using multivariable analytical techniques, is needed to identify a definitive relationship between PTSD and these health behaviors. Intervention studies for PTSD that examine secondary effects on physical activity/eating behaviors, as well as interventions to change physical activity/eating behaviors that examine change in PTSD, are also of interest. PMID:25595169

Hall, Katherine S; Hoerster, Katherine D; Yancy, William S

2015-01-01

332

Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases through February 2011. Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction. A random-effects meta-analytic model generated summary effect sizes. Results Restriction diets reduced ADHD symptoms at an effect of g = 0.29 (95% CI, 0.07–0.53). For food colors, parent reports yielded an effect size of g = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24; p = .0007), which decreased to 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01–0.23; p < .05) after adjustment for possible publication bias. The effect was reliable in studies restricted to food color additives (g = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.36) but did not survive correction for possible publication bias and was not reliable in studies confined to Food and Drug Administration–approved food colors. Teacher/observer reports yielded a nonsignificant effect of 0.07 (95% CI = ?0.03 to 0.18; p = .14). However, high-quality studies confined to color additives yielded a reliable effect (g = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.10–0.41, p = .030) that survived correction. In psychometric tests of attention, the summary effect size was 0.27 (95% CI = 0.07–0.47; p = .007) and survived correction. An estimated 8% of children with ADHD may have symptoms related to synthetic food colors. Conclusions A restriction diet benefits some children with ADHD. Effects of food colors were notable were but susceptible to publication bias or were derived from small, nongeneralizable samples. Renewed investigation of diet and ADHD is warranted. PMID:22176942

Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

2015-01-01

333

Examining the Effectiveness of Peer-Mediated and Video-Modeling Social Skills Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis in Single-Case Research Using HLM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social interaction is a fundamental problem for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Various types of social skills interventions have been developed and used by clinicians to promote the social interaction in children with ASD. This meta-analysis used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the effectiveness of peer-mediated and…

Wang, Shin-Yi; Cui, Ying; Parrila, Rauno

2011-01-01

334

EATING DISORDERS AND THE REGULATION OF EMOTION: FUNCTIONAL MODELS FOR ANOREXIA AND BULIMIA NERVOSA  

E-print Network

or downregulating different emotions. Evidence characterizing eating disordered behavior according to this theory is discussed based on personality research, comorbidity, affect intensity, and neurobiology. An original emotion regulation theory of eating disorders...

McCurdy, Danyale Patrice

2010-08-10

335

Mood, eating attitudes, and anger in obese women with and without Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anger levels and their management in obese patients. Methods: A total of 103 obese women [51 with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and 52 without BED] were included in the study and compared to 93 healthy controls. They were assessed with the State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI),

Secondo Fassino; Paolo Leombruni; Andrea Pierò; Giovanni Abbate-Daga; Giovanni Giacomo Rovera

2003-01-01

336

Body-related social comparison and disordered eating among adolescent females with an eating disorder, depressive disorder, and healthy controls.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12-18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others'. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ? 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ? 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC. PMID:23112914

Hamel, Andrea E; Zaitsoff, Shannon L; Taylor, Andrew; Menna, Rosanne; Le Grange, Daniel

2012-09-01

337

Eating disorders in children and adolescents: pharmacological therapies.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa do exist in childhood, frequently have their onset in adolescence, and can result in serious medical and psychiatric sequelae that impede physical, emotional, and behavioral development. Although we use the same Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Version 4 [DSM-IV] definitions to diagnose eating disorders in children, adolescents, and adults, these disorders may be expressed somewhat differently in younger populations, requiring assessment and treatment procedures that are tailored to their developmental needs. Significant advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of treatments for eating disorders in adults, and specifically pharmacological treatments for these disorders. Multiple double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have documented the short-term efficacy of antidepressant medications in bulimia nervosa. While the usefulness of pharmacological treatments for the acute treatment of anorexia nervosa is less clear, recent evidence suggests a role for medication in the relapse-prevention stage of the illness. The majority of the medication trials for the eating disorders have been conducted with adults, and the literature on the pharmacological treatment of children and adolescents with these disorders is very limited. This review article summarizes the current literature on the role of medication in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, with particular emphasis on studies conducted in child and adolescent populations. PMID:11140774

Kotler, L A; Walsh, B T

2000-01-01

338

Efficacy of rimonabant in obese patients with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

In obesity, a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system has been shown. The endocannabinoid receptor blockage by rimonabant demonstrated interesting metabolic effects. However, the role of rimonabant in weight loss of patients with binge eating disorder has not been investigated. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the effects of rimonabant on body weight in obese patients with binge eating disorders. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 289 obese subjects (age 18-70 years, body mass index 30-45?kg/m(2)) with binge eating disorders. Subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive rimonabant 20?mg/day or placebo for 6 months. In total, 289 participants (age: 43.2±10.5?yrs, 91% of women) were randomized. The completer rate was similar (71%) in both treatment and placebo groups. Participants treated with rimonabant lost 4.7±5.2% of their initial body weight, vs. 0.4±4.5% in the placebo group (difference between both groups: 4.4±0.6?kg, p<0.0001). The rimonabant group showed a greater reduction on the binge eating scale total score (mean±SD ?-?40.9±35.2%) vs. placebo (?-?29.9±34.6%, p=0.02). The incidence of treatment emergent adverse events was comparable in both the rimonabant (82.5%) and placebo (76.0%) group. Discontinuations due to treatment emergent adverse events occurred in 13.3% rimonabant-treated vs. 6.2% placebo-treated participants. In conclusion, this is the only randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial having assessed the effect of rimonabant in patients with binge eating disorders. The rimonabant treatment reduced body weight significantly more than placebo in obese subjects with binge eating. Trial registration number (clinicaltrials.gov): NCT00481975. PMID:23147209

Pataky, Z; Gasteyger, C; Ziegler, O; Rissanen, A; Hanotin, C; Golay, A

2013-01-01

339

Eating disorders on the web: risks and resources.  

PubMed

Our work is aimed at exploring the recent literature data on web sites, forums, and blogs, which promote eating disorders as normal life styles and their implication in the changes of the psychopatology of such disorders. We also want to understand whether new technologies have an impact in the course of the disorders or, on the other hand, whether they can also represent an instrument for searching help or information about them. The search strategy included a search of PsycINFO, Medline, and Ovid databases to identify research reports about pro-ana sites and their implication on the course of anorexia using the following key words: pro-ana, thinspiration, anorexia-web, online help eating disorders, anorexia nation. PMID:19592719

Mulè, Alice; Sideli, Lucia

2009-01-01

340

The Continuum Versus Categorical Debate on Eating Disorders: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors summarize a study by D. A. Williamson et al. (2002) in which clinical groups with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified, and binge eating disorder were contrasted with nonclinical groups of participants (i.e., obese and normal weight). The eating disorder groups were qualitatively different. Also,…

Perosa, Linda M.; Perosa, Sandra L.

2004-01-01

341

U.Va. Coalition on Eating Disorders Exercise Concerns Membership List, 2013-2014  

E-print Network

U.Va. Coalition on Eating Disorders Exercise Concerns Membership List, 2013-2014 Name Department.Va. Coalition on Eating Disorders Exercise Concerns Membership List, 2013-2014 Kristina Brown Undergrad Student Undergrad student (CIO Male Educators on Disordered Eating) willwarren21@gmail.com #12;

Acton, Scott

342

Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the predictors of new eating disorders in an adolescent cohort. Design Cohort study over 3 years with six waves. Subjects Students, initially aged 14›15 years, from 44 secondary schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. Outcome measures Weight (kg), height (cm), dieting (adolescent dieting scale), psychiatric morbidity (revised clinical interview schedule), and eating disorder (branched eating disorders

G C Patton; R Selzer; C Coffey; J B Carlin; R Wolfe; Parkville Victoria

343

UVA Department of Student Health Medical Guideline for Outpatient Treatment of Eating Disorders  

E-print Network

UVA Department of Student Health Medical Guideline for Outpatient Treatment of Eating Disorders In recognition of the complex and intensive treatment often required for individuals with an eating disorder to assist UVA staff in providing excellent outpatient care for students with eating disorders

Acton, Scott

344

VISIT US ON FACEBOOK 1. Student Wellness "How to Recognize If You Have an Eating Disorder"  

E-print Network

VISIT US ON FACEBOOK 1. Student Wellness "How to Recognize If You Have an Eating Disorder" 2" -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. How to Recognize If You Have an Eating Disorder Graduate study is a rigorous and demanding symptoms take the form of what is referred to as an eating disorder. What follows is a short introduction

Chen, Kuang-Yu

345

U.Va. Coalition on Eating Disorders Exercise Concerns Membership List, 2011-2012  

E-print Network

U.Va. Coalition on Eating Disorders Exercise Concerns Membership List, 2011-2012 Name Department@virginia.edu #12;U.Va. Coalition on Eating Disorders Exercise Concerns Membership List, 2011-2012 Lisa Womack Open to Preventing Eating Disorders nas2z@virginia.edu Page Zakas Undergrad Student, Inter

Acton, Scott

346

Empirical classification of eating disorder not otherwise specified: Support for DSM-IV changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using cluster analytic procedures, this study identified three subgroups of subjects who had been diagnosed as eating disorder not otherwise specified. These three subgroups were quite similar in symptom profiles to the descriptions of subthreshold anorexia nervosa, nonpurging bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder which are being considered in the new DSM-IV diagnostic scheme for eating disorders. The three atypical

Donald A. Williamson; David H. Gleaves; Suzanne S. Savin

1992-01-01

347

Treatment Outcome in Eating Disorders: A One-Year Follow-Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of an outpatient eating disorders treatment program was evaluated for 50 women over a 1-year follow-up period. Unlike many eating disorders programs now in place, this data was collected at a time when this program had relatively few exclusion criteria for potential participants; anyone with an eating disorder not requiring…

Espelage, Dorothy L.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; McKenna, Molly C.; Sherman, Roberta; Thompson, Ron

348

Enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Single Treatment for All Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses affecting a significant proportion of women and a smaller number of men. Approximately half of those with an eating disorder (ED) will not meet the criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and will be diagnosed with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Until recently, there were no…

Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Sharon; Watson, Hunna; La Puma, Michelle; Allen, Karina; Byrne, Susan

2012-01-01

349

Weight-Related Sports Involvement in Girls: Who Is at Risk for Disordered Eating?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between weight-related sport involvement, disordered eating, health behavior, and psycho-social factors in female adolescents. Survey data indicated that girls in weight-related sports were at increased risk for disordered eating, though the majority did not report disordered eating. This group was also at decreased risk…

Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Beuhring, Trish; Resnick, Michael D.

2002-01-01

350

Assessment and Diagnosis of Eating Disorders: A Guide for Professional Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the prevalence of and risk associated with disordered eating, there are few guidelines for counselors on how to conduct an eating disorder assessment. Given the importance of the clinical interview, the purpose of this article is to provide recommendations for the assessment and diagnosis of eating disorders that (a) specifically focus on…

Berg, Kelly C.; Peterson, Carol B.; Frazier, Patricia

2012-01-01

351

Disordered Eating Behavior and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in College Students: Cognitive and Affective Similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the psychological similarities between disordered eating behavior and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. The present study examined relationships among disordered eating, OC symptoms, and three cognitive and affective variables (perfectionism, obsessive beliefs, and negative affect). The cognitive and affective variables were significantly associated with disordered eating and with OC symptoms in a sample of 160 college women. Results

Joy D. Humphreys; James R. Clopton; Darcy A. Reich

2007-01-01

352

Implications of Attachment Theory and Research for the Assessment and Treatment of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review the research literature on attachment and eating disorders and suggest a framework for assessing and treating attachment functioning in patients with an eating disorder. Treatment outcomes for individuals with eating disorders tend to be moderate. Those with attachment-associated insecurities are likely to be the least to benefit from current symptom-focused therapies. We describe the common

Giorgio A. Tasca; Kerri Ritchie; Louise Balfour

2011-01-01

353

Attachment Style and Family Functioning as Discriminating Factors in Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the extent to which family environment and attachment styles are concurrently related to eating disorders. The Adult Attachment Scale and the Family Environment Scale were administered to 25 anorexic and 33 bulimic female patients at intake in an eating disorder clinic, and 37 age-matched female controls. Eating disorder patients were found to be less secure,

Yael Latzer; Zipora Hochdorf; Eitan Bachar; Laura Canetti

2002-01-01

354

The Concurrence of Eating Disorders with Histories of Child Abuse among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between eating disorders and history of physical abuse, incest, and extrafamilial sexual abuse. Results of a survey of adolescents (n=6,224) indicate that eating disorders are correlated with all 3 types of abuse. Presence of an eating disorder also correlates with presence of other addictive behaviors, family history of…

Hernandez, Jeanne

1995-01-01

355

Comparison of psychological placebo and waiting list control conditions in the assessment of cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is ongoing debate about the efficacy of placebos in the treatment of mental disorders. In randomized control trials (RCTs) about the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, the administration of a psychological placebo or placement on a waiting list are the two most common control conditions. But there has never been a systematic comparison of the clinical effect of these different strategies. Aim Compare the change in symptom severity among individuals treated with cognitive behavioral therapy, provided a psychological placebo, or placed on a waiting list using data from RCTs on generalized anxiety disorder. Methods The following databases were searched for RCTs on generalized anxiety disorder: PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, Chongqing VIP, Wanfang, Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database, and Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services. Studies were selected based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and the quality of each included study – based on the risk of bias and the level of evidence – was formally assessed. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan5.3 and network meta-analyses comparing the three groups were conducted using R. Results Twelve studies with a combined sample size of 531 were included in the analysis. Compared to either control method (placebo or waiting list), cognitive behavioral therapy was more effective for generalized anxiety disorder. Provision of a psychological placebo was associated with a significantly greater reduction of symptoms than placement on a waiting list. Eight of the studies were classified as ‘high risk of bias’, and the overall level of evidence was classified as ‘moderate’, indicating that further research could change the overall results of the meta-analysis. Conclusions RCTs about the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders are generally of moderate quality; they indicate the superiority of CBT but the results cannot, as yet, be considered robust. There is evidence of a non-negligible treatment effect of psychological placebos used as control conditions in research studies. This effect should be considered when designing and interpreting the results of randomized controlled trials about the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:25642106

ZHU, Zhipei; ZHANG, Li; JIANG, Jiangling; LI, Wei; CAO, Xinyi; ZHOU, Zhirui; ZHANG, Tiansong; LI, Chunbo

2014-01-01

356

Pharmacotherapy of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the use of medication in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and of binge eating disorder. There is now compelling evidence from double blind, placebo-controlled studies that antidepressant medication is useful in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. What is less clear is which patients are most likely to benefit from antidepressant medications and how to best sequence the

B. Timothy Walsh; Michael J. Devlin

1995-01-01

357

Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

Radford, Benjamin

358

Assessing Readiness for Change in Adolescents with Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Readiness and Motivation Interview (RMI) is a semistructured interview measure of readiness and motivation to change that can be used for all eating disorder diagnoses. The RMI has demonstrated excellent psychometric properties and has both clinical and predictive utility in adult samples. This study examined the psychometric properties of the…

Geller, Josie; Brown, Krista E.; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Menna, Rosanne; Bates, Mollie E.; Dunn, Erin C.

2008-01-01

359

Commentary: Eating Disorders and the Problem of “Culture” in Acculturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers in this issue grapple with a conundrum: what should we make of the fact that eating disorders, long considered to be the consummate culturebound syndrome of Western (post) industrial modernity, seem to be on the rise in purportedly “non-Western” or “non-modern” contexts across the globe? Before turning to the specifics of how the articles speak to this question,

Rebecca Lester

2004-01-01

360

Peer Sexual Harassment and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…

Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.

2013-01-01

361

Constructing identities in cyberspace: The case of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper consists of a discourse analysis of data collected from websites that have been created by and for people who wish to share experiences of eating disorders in a positive and supportive environment. These sites have earned the broad description 'pro-ana' (where 'ana' is short for 'anorexia'). Site users have come to see themselves as a broad on-line community

David Giles

2006-01-01

362

Depressive Symptoms, Coping Strategies, and Disordered Eating among College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 2-phase study with a total of 392 participants, depressive symptoms mediated the association between disordered eating and lower problem-solving confidence and an avoidance problem-solving style. Depressive symptoms did not mediate the association between the ability to generate competent solutions to hypothetical stressful situations and…

VanBoven, Amy M.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

2006-01-01

363

Sociocultural Influences in Eating Disorders: Shape, Super Woman and Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a review of the literature, this presentation provides information on eating disorders as they relate to sport and fitness and examines the role of all physical and health education teachers, coaches, administrators, and guidance counsellors in either precipitating or preventing anorexia nervosa or bulimia. These professionals are in a…

Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

364

Suicidality in eating disorders: Occurrence, correlates, and clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the published studies on suicide and suicide attempts in individuals with eating disorders, highlighting rates of occurrence, clinical correlates, and implications for practitioners. Multiple studies find high rates of suicide in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) [Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for suicide range from 1.0 to 5.3], whereas suicide rates do not appear to be elevated in

Debra L. Franko; Pamela K. Keel

2006-01-01

365

Eating Disorder Intervention, Prevention, and Treatment: Recommendations for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School counselors are in daily contact with the highest risk group for developing eating disorders--children and adolescents. School counselors are in a position to identify at-risk individuals, implement effective school-based prevention programs, make appropriate referrals, and provide support for recovering individuals. An overview of a theory…

Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; McCulloch, Ariana R. M.; Witko, Kim D.; Spriddle, Jennifer W.; Roest, Allison R.

2004-01-01

366

Gender, General Strain Theory, Negative Emotions, and Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal--especially violent--activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally…

Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R.; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul

2010-01-01

367

The Relationship between Media Consumption and Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that, for women, the use of thinness-depicting and thinness-promoting (TDP) media predicted disordered-eating symptomatology, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and ineffectiveness. Shows that TDP media use predicted men's endorsement of personal thinness and dieting and select attitudes in favor of thinness and dieting for women.…

Harrison, Kristen; Cantor, Joanne

1997-01-01

368

Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

2014-01-01

369

Group Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Retrospective Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing amount of research supports group therapy as an effective treatment option for eating disorders (Moreno, 1994). In an attempt to further delineate therapeutic factors associated with productive group work, this study represents an exploratory, descriptive analysis of client and therapist perspectives on group process and outcome. Specifically, this retrospective study investigated what clients and their therapist considered important,

Janine Wanlass; J. Kelly Moreno; Hannah M. Thomson

2005-01-01

370

Group Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Retrospective Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing amount of research supports group therapy as an effective treatment option for eating disorders (Moreno, 1994). In an attempt to further delineate therapeutic factors associated with productive group work, this study represents an exploratory, descriptive analysis of client and therapist perspectives on group process and outcome.…

Wanlass, Janine; Moreno, J. Kelly; Thomson, Hannah M.

2005-01-01

371

Adolescent Eating Disorders: Who's at Risk and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a culture glorifying thinness and beauty, most females (especially adolescents) carry some risk of developing eating disorders. A recent survey of 280 South Carolina middle school students disclosed significant female/male differences. About 70% of the girls felt fat; many used various weight-loss techniques, including dieting, fasting,…

Glovinsky, Diane M.

1993-01-01

372

Prevention of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating: What Next?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorder prevention is a young field that has made significant strides in the past two decades. It is timely to take a look back at what we have learned during this period in order to begin to address the question, “What next?” This paper considers several key issues based upon a review of the literature and the authors' perspectives.

Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Michael P. Levine; Susan J. Paxton; Linda Smolak; Niva Piran; Eleanor H. Wertheim

2006-01-01

373

The Patient's Perception of Having Recovered From an Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim in this study was to describe how patients perceive having recovered from eating disorders. A qualitative method with a phenomenographic approach was used to identify various ways of experiencing recovery. Four categories emerged, describing how the subjects now relate in a relaxed and accepting manner to food, the body, themselves as individuals, and their social environment. Some perceived

T. BjöRk; G. Ahlström

2008-01-01

374

Recognizing and Preventing Adolescent Eating Disorders and Muscularity Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important for adults who work with youth to know how to address the issues of eating disorders and steroid use. This article provides signs and symptoms for both, and then gives practical suggestions for talking with youth about a potential problem. It ends with prevention strategies for adults who work with youth. (Contains 3 tables.)

Smolak, Linda; Levine, Michael P.

2007-01-01

375

Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: an examination of overlapping symptoms, obsessive beliefs, and associated cognitive dimensions.  

E-print Network

??For over half a century, researchers and practitioners have documented the statistical comorbidity and overlapping symptom presentation between eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent… (more)

Schembri, A

2010-01-01

376

Empirical Support for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The available research suggests that the etiology of eating disorders (EDs) is multifactorial and individually variable, with\\u000a risk conferred from personality pathology, family history, developmental history, sociocultural phenomena, comorbid disorders,\\u000a and genetic endowment [1–5]. The treatment of EDs is complicated by characteristic problems in interpersonal relationships,\\u000a resistance to change in symptomatic behavior, and difficulty in accessing emotional experience [6, 7].

Heather Thompson-Brenner; Jolie Weingeroff; Drew Westen

377

A comparison of eating disorder patients in India and Australia  

PubMed Central

Background: Eating disorders (EDs) are an emerging concern in India. There are few studies comparing clinical samples in western and nonwestern settings. Aim: The aim was to compare females aged 16–26 years being treated for an ED in India (outpatients n = 30) and Australia (outpatients n = 30, inpatients n = 30). Materials and Methods: Samples were matched by age and body mass index, and had similar diagnostic profiles. Demographic information and history of eating and exercise problems were assessed. All patients completed the quality-of-life for EDs (QOL EDs) questionnaire. Results: Indians felt they overate and binge ate more often than Australians; frequencies of food restriction, vomiting, and laxative use were similar. Indians were less aware of ED feelings, such as, “fear of losing control over food or eating” and “being preoccupied with food, eating or their body.” Indians felt eating and exercise had less impact on their relationships and social life but more impact on their medical health. No differences were found in the global quality-of-life, body weight, eating behaviors, psychological feelings, and exercise subscores for the three groups. Conclusion: Indian and Australian patients are similar but may differ in preoccupation and control of their ED-related feelings.

Lal, Maala; Abraham, Suzanne; Parikh, Samir; Chhibber, Kamna

2015-01-01

378

Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study  

PubMed Central

Background Although score reliability is a sample-dependent characteristic, researchers often only report reliability estimates from previous studies as justification for employing particular questionnaires in their research. The present study followed reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory and its most commonly employed subscales (Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction) and the Eating Attitudes Test as a way to better identify those characteristics that might impact score reliability. Methods Published studies that used these measures were coded based on their reporting of reliability information and additional study characteristics that might influence score reliability. Results Score reliability estimates were included in 26.15% of studies using the EDI and 36.28% of studies using the EAT. Mean Cronbach’s alphas for the EDI (total score?=?.91; subscales?=?.75 to .89), EAT-40 (total score?=?.81) and EAT-26 (total score?=?.86; subscales?=?.56 to .80) suggested variability in estimated internal consistency. Whereas some EDI subscales exhibited higher score reliability in clinical eating disorder samples than in nonclinical samples, other subscales did not exhibit these differences. Score reliability information for the EAT was primarily reported for nonclinical samples, making it difficult to characterize the effect of type of sample on these measures. However, there was a tendency for mean score reliability to be higher in the adult (vs. adolescent) samples and in female (vs. male) samples. Conclusions Overall, this study highlights the importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency during every test administration because reliability is affected by characteristics of the participants being examined. PMID:24764530

2014-01-01

379

Order and disorder: Temporal organization of eating  

PubMed Central

Feeding behavior is described from an evolutionary perspective, and implications for modern neurobiological studies are suggested. In particular, it is argued that meals may have evolved more for sociocultural reasons than physiological imperatives, and that biological approaches to the study of feeding episodes should adopt a more flexible model that is founded in economic or cost-benefit considerations. Specific examples of flexibility in mouse feeding behavior are given. It is further argued that the modern human food environment is so immoderate that physiological manipulations designed to restrain eating have little hope of achieving this goal. PMID:22138508

Rowland, Neil E.

2012-01-01

380

An Evaluation of the Reliability and Construct Validity of Eating Disorder Measures in White and Black Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most measures of eating disorder symptoms and risk factors were developed in predominantly White female samples. Yet eating disorders affect individuals of all racial and ethnic backgrounds. Black women appear more vulnerable to certain forms of eating pathology, such as binge eating, and less susceptible to other eating disorder symptoms and risk…

Kelly, Nichole R.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Lydecker, Janet A.; Bair, Carrie E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne

2012-01-01

381

Bipolar disorder with comorbid binge eating history: A genome-wide association study implicates APOB  

PubMed Central

Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable disease. While genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified several genetic risk factors for BD, few of these studies have investigated the genetic etiology of specific disease subtypes. In particular, BD is positively associated with eating dysregulation traits such as binge eating behavior (BE), yet the genetic risk factors underlying BD with comorbid BE have not been investigated. Methods Utilizing data from the Genetic Association Information Network study of BD, which included 729,454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 1001 European American bipolar cases and 1034 controls, we performed GWA analyses of bipolar subtypes defined by the presence or absence of BE history, and performed a case-only analysis comparing BD subjects with and without BE history. Association signals were refined using imputation, and network analysis was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Based on these results, candidate SNPs were selected for replication in an independent sample of 855 cases and 857 controls. Results Top ranking SNPs in the discovery set included rs6006893 in PRR5, rs17045162 in ANK2, rs13233490 near PER4, rs4665788 and rs10198175 downstream of APOB, rs2367911 in CACNA2D1, and rs7249968 near ZNF536. Rs10198175 in APOB also demonstrated evidence of association in the replication sample and a meta-analysis of the two samples. Limitations Without information of BE history in controls, it is not possible to determine whether the observed association with APOB reflects a risk factor for BE behavior in general or a risk factor for a subtype of BD with BE. Further longitudinal and functional studies are needed to determine the causal pathways underlying the observed associations. Conclusions This study identified new potential BD-susceptibility genes, highlighting the advantages of phenotypic sub-classification in genetic research and clinical practice. PMID:24882193

Winham, Stacey J.; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B.; McElroy, Susan L.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Crow, Scott; Colby, Colin L.; Choi, Doo-Sup; Chauhan, Mohit; Frye, Mark A.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

2014-01-01

382

Development and validation of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: A brief self-report measure of anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development and validation of a brief self-report scale for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Study 1 used a panel of eating-disorder experts and provided evidence for the content validity of this scale. Study 2 used data from female participants with and without eating disorders (N = 367) and suggested that the diagnoses from

Eric Stice; Christy F. Telch; Shireen L. Rizvi

2000-01-01

383

Eating disorders and emotional and physical well-being: Associations between student self-reports of eating disorders and quality of life as measured by the SF36  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects with eating disorders in terms of eating disorder type and in relation to self-reports of longstanding illness, depression and self-harming behaviours. Method: Data on eating disorder history, SF-36 health status, longstanding illness, and self-reported frequencies of depression, self-harming behaviour, and suicidal thoughts or acts were collected during 1996 as part

Helen A. Doll; Sophie E. Petersen; Sarah L. Stewart-Brown

2005-01-01

384

Emergent factors in Eating Disorders in childhood and preadolescence  

PubMed Central

We have reviewed the literature related to the current advances in comprehension of Eating Disorders (ED) in childhood and preadolescence. The state of art regarding the psychodynamic models concerning the onset of ED are explained. DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria are discussed, pointing out their little value in the characterization of early eating difficulties. Historic and new diagnostic classifications are displayed in detail. We provided a clearer description of subclinical patterns. Finally we focus on the key role of the paediatrician in detecting and managing parental concerns regarding feeding. PMID:20615223

2010-01-01

385

Potential risks of pro-eating disorder websites.  

PubMed

Although dangers of pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) websites have recently been discussed in the popular press, no integration of research findings on this topic yet exists. After completing a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles about pro-ED websites, we identified three possible risks as themes: operation under the guise of "support," reinforcement of disordered eating, and prevention of help-seeking and recovery. Pro-ED websites tend to be perceived as supportive by users, but instead appear to exacerbate or maintain users' eating disorder symptoms. We discuss research and clinical implications of these dangers. Future research should clarify how specific features of pro-ED websites contribute to the development, exacerbation, and maintenance of eating pathology, e.g., by employing experimental techniques and prospective designs with clinical samples and various ages. Despite limited empirical research on the topic, existing findings should prompt clinicians, parents, and researchers to remain vigilant about potential negative influences of pro-ED websites on users. PMID:21272967

Rouleau, Codie R; von Ranson, Kristin M

2011-06-01

386

Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) in a case series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential, and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioral change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropped-out at mid-treatment. Eating disorder severity, global schema severity, shame, and anxiety levels were reduced between pre- and post-therapy, with a large effect size at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in eating severity was found in four out of six completers. Group completers showed a mean reduction in schema severity of 43% at post-treatment, and 59% at follow-up. By follow-up, all completers had achieved over 60% improvement in schema severity. Self-report feedback suggests that group factors may catalyze the change process in schema therapy by increasing perceptions of support and encouragement to take risks and try out new behaviors, whilst providing a de-stigmatizing and de-shaming therapeutic experience. PMID:21833243

Simpson, Susan G.; Morrow, Emma; van Vreeswijk, Michiel; Reid, Caroline

2010-01-01

387

Childhood Psychological, Physical, and Sexual Maltreatment in Outpatients with Binge Eating Disorder: Frequency and Associations with Gender, Obesity, and Eating-Related Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine rates of reported childhood maltreatment in binge eating disorder (BED), and to explore associations with obesity, gender, eating disorder features, and associated functioning.Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects were 145 consecutive outpatients with BED as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4thedition. Subjects were interviewed and they completed questionnaires to assess eating disorder features

Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb

2001-01-01

388

Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Despite omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation in depressed patients have been suggested to improve depressive symptomatology, previous findings are not univocal. Objectives To conduct an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of omega-3 PUFA treatment of depressive disorders, taking into account the clinical differences among patients included in the studies. Methods A search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Database of RCTs using omega-3 PUFA on patients with depressive symptoms published up to August 2013 was performed. Standardized mean difference in clinical measure of depression severity was primary outcome. Type of omega-3 used (particularly eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-3 as mono- or adjuvant therapy was also examined. Meta-regression analyses assessed the effects of study size, baseline depression severity, trial duration, dose of omega-3, and age of patients. Results Meta-analysis of 11 and 8 trials conducted respectively on patients with a DSM-defined diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and patients with depressive symptomatology but no diagnosis of MDD demonstrated significant clinical benefit of omega-3 PUFA treatment compared to placebo (standardized difference in random-effects model 0.56 SD [95% CI: 0.20, 0.92] and 0.22 SD [95% CI: 0.01, 0.43], respectively; pooled analysis was 0.38 SD [95% CI: 0.18, 0.59]). Use of mainly EPA within the preparation, rather than DHA, influenced final clinical efficacy. Significant clinical efficacy had the use of omega-3 PUFA as adjuvant rather than mono-therapy. No relation between efficacy and study size, baseline depression severity, trial duration, age of patients, and study quality was found. Omega-3 PUFA resulted effective in RCTs on patients with bipolar disorder, whereas no evidence was found for those exploring their efficacy on depressive symptoms in young populations, perinatal depression, primary disease other than depression and healthy subjects. Conclusions The use of omega-3 PUFA is effective in patients with diagnosis of MDD and on depressive patients without diagnosis of MDD. PMID:24805797

Grosso, Giuseppe; Pajak, Andrzej; Marventano, Stefano; Castellano, Sabrina; Galvano, Fabio; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Caraci, Filippo

2014-01-01

389

Dimensional assessment of personality pathology in patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study examined patients with eating disorders on personality pathology using a dimensional method. Female subjects who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorder (n = 136) were evaluated and compared to an age-controlled general population sample (n = 68). We assessed 18 features of personality disorder with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology - Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to derive three clusters of patients. A five-factor solution was obtained with limited intercorrelation between factors. Cluster analysis produced three clusters with the following characteristics: Cluster 1 members (constituting 49.3% of the sample and labelled 'rigid') had higher mean scores on factors denoting compulsivity and interpersonal difficulties; Cluster 2 (18.4% of the sample) showed highest scores in factors denoting psychopathy, neuroticism and impulsive features, and appeared to constitute a borderline psychopathology group; Cluster 3 (32.4% of the sample) was characterized by few differences in personality pathology in comparison to the normal population sample. Cluster membership was associated with DSM-IV diagnosis -- a large proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa were members of Cluster 1. An empirical classification of eating-disordered patients derived from dimensional assessment of personality pathology identified three groups with clinical relevance. PMID:10220006

Goldner, E M; Srikameswaran, S; Schroeder, M L; Livesley, W J; Birmingham, C L

1999-02-22

390

Re-examination of chewing and spitting behavior: characteristics within and across eating disorder diagnoses.  

PubMed

Chewing and spitting (CS) out food is a relatively understudied eating disorder behavior. The aim of this study was to examine lifetime and current frequencies of CS across eating disorder diagnostic groups and to compare the severity of eating disorder symptomatology between participants who did and did not endorse CS. A total of 972 individuals presenting for outpatient eating disorder treatment between 1985 and 1996 completed a questionnaire that included items regarding current and lifetime eating disorder behaviors, including CS. Results indicated that both lifetime and current prevalence estimates of CS varied cross-diagnostically, with CS being more common among those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa compared to those with eating disorder not otherwise specified. CS was significantly associated with several eating disorder symptoms, including compensatory behaviors, meal restriction, and lower BMI. Those who reported CS were also younger in age compared to those who did not report CS. These findings indicate that CS is associated with more severe eating and weight pathology and is not equally prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses. These results also support the relatively high occurrence of CS and the importance of targeting this behavior in eating disorder treatment. Future research should clarify the correlates, mechanisms, and function of CS in eating disorders. PMID:24357336

Durkin, Nora E; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross

2014-09-01

391

Teasing and disordered eating behaviors in Spanish adolescents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between peer teasing and body dissatisfaction (BD), emotional symptoms, drive for thinness (DT), and abnormal eating behaviors, as well as to analyze the mediating role of gender and body mass index (BMI) in such disorders. We screened 57,997 school children between 13 and 16 years of age. Scores in weight-related teasing and competency-related teasing were higher among girls, as well as overweight or obese individuals. Weight-teasing correlated more strongly with abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors, whereas competency-teasing correlated with emotional symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that weight-teasing is significantly and independently associated with BD, especially in boys. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association between weight-teasing and abnormal eating in girls, although its predictive value was very low (Exp(B) = 1.009). Mediation analysis and Path analysis showed the mediating role of DT in this association. Interventions on teasing do not seem to be a priority in eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:23241090

Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Rubio, Teresa; Plumed, Javier; Barberá, María; Serrano, Marisa; Gimeno, Natalia; Conesa, Llanos; Ruiz, Elías; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Beato, Luis; Livianos, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

392

Measurement of disordered eating in Latina college women.  

PubMed

The Eating Disorder Risk Composite (EDRC) comprises the Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory, Third Edition (EDI-3, Garner, 2004). Past research conducted with Latina college women (LCW) has found older versions of the EDRC subscales to be reliable, but the EDI-3's EDRC factor structure has yet to be studied among LCW. The present study investigated the pattern of responses to and the factor structure of the EDRC in LCW. It was hypothesized that eating pathology would be present and that a factor analysis would find some discrepancies between the original factor structure of the EDRC and the factor structure from LCW. Analyses of data on a 6-point Likert scale indicate that drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction are far more prevalent than is bulimic symptomology in LCW. Principal Axis Factoring with promax rotation was used to extract three factors very similar to the original EDRC. Some discrepancies in the item loadings were observed, most notably that half of the items from the original Body Dissatisfaction subscale did not load together on one factor. Overall, the EDRC appears to be a good measurement of eating- and body-related phenomena among LCW. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:23557825

Cordero, Elizabeth D; Julian, Anne K; Murray, Kate E

2013-04-01

393

Roughly 6-17% of college females have an eating disorder.  

E-print Network

Roughly 6-17% of college females have an eating disorder. (Prouty et al., 2002; Schwitzer et al at FSU provide assistance with healthy weight management, body image concerns, disordered eating., 2001) As many as 25%-40% of female college students are concerned that their eating is out of control

Weston, Ken

394

Analysis of Adaptive Dynamical Systems for Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse  

E-print Network

Analysis of Adaptive Dynamical Systems for Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse 1 , Martine F, in particular for the first phase of eating regulation disorders; e.g., (Beument et al., 1987; Garner and Garfinkel, 1985). In Delfos (2002), an adaptive dynamical model that describes normal functioning of eating

Bosse, Tibor

395

Differences between adolescents and young adults at presentation to an eating disorders program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe differences between adolescents and adults in clinical presentation of eating disorders.Methods: Data from the charts of 622 female patients treated for an eating disorder in a division of adolescent medicine between 1980 and 1994 were coded and computerized. General categories included demographic and family factors, weight loss and weight changes, eating-related behaviors, diagnosis and severity, and treatment

Martin Fisher; Marcie Schneider; Jennifer Burns; Heather Symons; Francine S Mandel

2001-01-01

396

Treating Asian American Women With Eating Disorders: Multicultural Competency and Empirically Supported Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction are occurring among Asian American women, but the vast majority of treatment literature is based on White Western women. Empirically supported treatments are increasingly encouraged for eating disorders, but therapists find little guidance for implementing them in a culturally sensitive manner. This paper reviews eating problems in Asian American women and explores concepts important to

Rebekah Smart

2009-01-01

397

Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: Hypoleptinemia and Disordered Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the exact etiology of functional, or idiopathic, hypotha- lamic amenorrhea (FHA) is still unknown, FHA remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The disorder may be stress induced. However, mounting evidence points to a metabolic\\/nutritional insult that may be the primary causal factor. We explored the thyroid, hormonal, dietary, behavior, and leptin changes that occur in FHA, as they provide a

M. P. Warren; F. VOUSSOUGHIAN; E. B. GEER; E. P. HYLE; C. L. ADBERG; R. H. RAMOS

1999-01-01

398

Pharmacologic approaches in the treatment of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Important advances in the treatment of eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, have been made during the past decade. Controlled trials for bulimia nervosa have demonstrated significant benefit from short-term pharmacotherapy with antidepressant medications and from short-term individual and group psychotherapies. Despite these advances, treatment of a patient often involves complex clinical decisions around such issues as choice of initial treatment modality, incomplete resolution of symptoms, and the role of long-term maintenance treatment. To address these questions, this review focuses primarily on summarizing results of published controlled trials of pharmacotherapy in patients with bulimia nervosa. In addition, it outlines the more limited literature on controlled pharmacotherapy trials for anorexia nervosa and for the provisionally identified syndrome of binge eating disorder. PMID:9384834

Jimerson, D C; Herzog, D B; Brotman, A W

1993-01-01

399

[Supporting carers of persons suffering from an eating disorder].  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe the background and procedure of a skills training program provided for carers of patients suffering from anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Caring for someone suffering from an eating disorder is associated with psychological distress and may lead to unhelpful interactive behaviours that maintain the illness. Recent investigations in supporting carers, especially skills sharing workshops that target interpersonal maintaining factors are described. A 5-session training concept in teaching basic skills and information about eating disorders to carers in order to improve caregiving burden and reduce interpersonal maintaining factors like expressed emotions (EE) is currently examined in our department. Design and content will be described in detail. Carers' and sufferers' perceptions of the impact of the sessions and acceptance of the provided skills training are reported. PMID:22814922

Zitarosa, Dino; de Zwaan, Martina; Pfeffer, Meike; Graap, Holmer

2012-01-01

400

Vegetarian Students in Their First Year of College: Are They at Risk for Restrictive or Disordered Eating Behaviors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared restrictive and disordered eating behaviors in vegetarian versus non-vegetarian first-year college students. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the abbreviated Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used to assess eating behaviors (n=330). The mean restrictive DEBQ and the EAT-26 scores of vegetarians were…

Trautmann, Julianne; Rau, Stephanie I.; Wilson, Mardell A.; Walters, Connor

2008-01-01

401

Identity, Body-Image, and the Global Epidemiology of Eating Disorders  

E-print Network

Eating disorders have been explained as syndromes with foundations in Western ideals and values. These disturbances in eating patterns may be more widespread within varied ethnic groups than formerly acknowledged, due to shifting standards...

Gahman, Levi

2008-07-29

402

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

and calories can start a vicious cycle of body dissatisfaction and obsession. The things you're doing to be thin can quickly spin out of control and become a serious, life-threatening eating disorder. Just of control, become obsessions, and may even turn into an eating disorder. Even if you don't have a full

Walker, Matthew P.

403

Combining Supported Housing and Partial Hospitalization to Improve Eating Disorder Symptoms, Perceived Health Status, and Health Related Quality of Life for Women With Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study examines outcomes obtained from a combined treatment approach, Eating Disorders Partial Hospitalization (EDPHP) plus supported housing (Sage House) for adult women with eating disorders versus EDPHP alone. The combined treatment group (n = 16) showed numerous improvements from admission to discharge over and above the group receiving only EDPHP (n = 19) after controlling for age, duration

Mary Tantillo; Sarah MacDowell; Elizabeth Anson; Eileen Taillie; Robert Cole

2009-01-01

404

Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with Unhealthy Patterns of Nutrient Intake: a Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The aim,of this investigation,was,to assess,the relationship between,smoking,status and,nutrient intakes using a meta-analysis. Publications in English were,sought,through,a Medline search,using the following key words: food habits, eating, feeding behavior, diet, food, nutrition, nutritional status or assessment, tobacco use disorder, tobacco, nicotine and smoking. Scanning relevant reference lists of articles and hand searching completed,the data collection. No attempt,was,made,to search,for unpublished,results. Paper selection,was

Jean Dallongeville; Nadine Mare caux; Jean-Charles Fruchart; Philippe Amouyel

405

The Prevalence of Comorbid Personality Disorders in Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of comorbid personality disorders among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Almost one half (47.9%) of problem gamblers displayed comorbid personality disorders. They were most likely to display Cluster B disorders (17.6%), with smaller proportions reporting Cluster C disorders (12.6%) and Cluster A disorders (6.1%). The most prevalent personality disorders were narcissistic (16.6%), antisocial (14.0%), avoidant (13.4%), obsessive-compulsive (13.4%), and borderline (13.1%) personality disorders. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these prevalence estimates were robust to the inclusion of clinical trials and self-selected samples. Although there was significant variability in reported rates, subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in estimates of antisocial personality disorder according to problem gambling severity, measure of comorbidity employed, and study jurisdiction. The findings highlight the need for gambling treatment services to conduct routine screening and assessment of co-occurring personality disorders and to provide treatment approaches that adequately address these comorbid conditions. PMID:25248010

Dowling, Nicki A; Cowlishaw, S; Jackson, A C; Merkouris, S S; Francis, K L; Christensen, D R

2014-09-23

406

Melanocortin-4 receptor gene variants are not associated with binge-eating behavior in nonobese patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine whether variability in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, predisposing to hyperphagia and obesity, may also be present in nonobese patients with binge-eating behavior or be related to anthropometric or psychopathological parameters in these patients. The coding region of the MC4R gene was sequenced in nonobese patients with binge-eating behavior diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder (n=77); individuals with severe early-onset obesity (n=170); and lean women with anorexia nervosa (n=20). A psychometric evaluation (Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist 90 Revised inventories) was carried out for all the patients with eating disorders. In the obesity group, 10 different variants were identified, whereas in the binge-eating patients, only two individuals with bulimia nervosa were found to carry the I251L polymorphism, which did not correlate with weight, BMI, or psychopathological features. We found no evidence that mutations in the MC4R gene are associated with binge-eating behavior in nonobese eating disorder patients. PMID:25419636

Gamero-Villarroel, Carmen; Rodriguez-Lopez, Raquel; Jimenez, Mercedes; Carrillo, Juan A; Garcia-Herraiz, Angustias; Albuquerque, David; Flores, Isalud; Gervasini, Guillermo

2015-02-01

407

Pearson's meta-analysis 1 Pearson's meta-analysis revisited  

E-print Network

leads to something new that may be better revisited #12;Pearson's meta-analysis 3 Karl Pearson quote Stigler (2008) recounting Karl Pearson's amazing productivity includes this from Stouffer (1958): "YouPearson's meta-analysis 1 Pearson's meta-analysis revisited in a microarray context Art B. Owen

Owen, Art

408

The Use of Psychotropic Medications in Eating Disorder Patients with Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of psychotropic medications in eating disorder patients with personality disorders (PDs) is a complex topic. In this overview, we do not focus on individual studies, but rather on the philosophical issues and broader management principles of medications in this comorbid population. We review a general construct of personality and PD development, the theories that underlie how medications might

Randy A. Sansone; Lori A. Sansone

2004-01-01

409

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

Waller, Glenn

1994-01-01

410

Functional Neuroimaging of Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis of Emotional Processing in PTSD, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Specific Phobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study of human anxiety disorders has benefited greatly from func- tional neuroimaging approaches. Individ- ual studies, however, vary greatly in their findings. The authors searched for com- mon and disorder-specific functional neu- robiological deficits in several anxiety dis- orders. The authors also compared these deficits to the neural systems engaged during anticipatory anxiety in healthy subjects. Method: Functional

Amit Etkin; Tor D. Wager

2007-01-01

411

Pharmacological approaches in the treatment of binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Binge eating disorder (BED) is a newly defined diagnostic category characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating not followed by the inappropriate compensatory weight loss behaviors characteristic of bulimia nervosa. BED is usually associated with overweight or obesity and psychopathology. Pharmacotherapy may be a useful component of a multidimensional treatment approach. Although pharmacotherapy research in BED is still in its preliminary stages. some drugs have been shown to be promising agents. This paper reviews available pharmacological treatment studies of BED and related conditions. Currently, three main classes of drugs have been studied in double-blind, placebo controlled trials in BED: antidepressants, anti-obesity agents, and anticonvulsants. Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the best studied medications. Thus, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline and citalopram have been shown to modestly but significantly reduce binge eating frequency and body weight in BED over the short term. More recently, the anti-obesity agent sibutramine and the anticonvulsant topiramate have been shown to significantly reduce binge eating behavior and body weight in BED associated with obesity. Special issues concerning current pharmacological trials and future research directions in this area are also discussed. PMID:15058314

Appolinario, Jose C; McElroy, Susan L

2004-04-01

412

Brain signature of chronic orofacial pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis on neuroimaging research of trigeminal neuropathic pain and temporomandibular joint disorders.  

PubMed

Brain neuroimaging has been widely used to investigate the bran signature of chronic orofacial pain, including trigeminal neuropathic pain (TNP) and pain related to temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). We here systematically reviewed the neuroimaging literature regarding the functional and structural changes in the brain of TNP and TMD pain patients, using a computerized search of journal articles via PubMed. Ten TNP studies and 14 TMD studies were reviewed. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed based on the criteria of patient selection, the history of medication, the use of standardized pain/psychological assessments, and the model and statistics of imaging analyses. Qualitative meta-analysis was performed by examining the brain regions which showed significant changes in either brain functions (including the blood-oxygen-level dependent signal, cerebral blood flow and the magnetic resonance spectroscopy signal) or brain structure (including gray matter and white matter anatomy). We hypothesized that the neuroimaging findings would display a common pattern as well as distinct patterns of brain signature in the disorders. This major hypothesis was supported by the following findings: (1) TNP and TMD patients showed consistent functional/structural changes in the thalamus and the primary somatosensory cortex, indicating the thalamocortical pathway as the major site of plasticity. (2) The TNP patients showed more alterations at the thalamocortical pathway, and the two disorders showed distinct patterns of thalamic and insular connectivity. Additionally, functional and structural changes were frequently reported in the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia, suggesting the role of cognitive modulation and reward processing in chronic orofacial pain. The findings highlight the potential for brain neuroimaging as an investigating tool for understanding chronic orofacial pain. PMID:24759798

Lin, Chia-Shu

2014-01-01

413

White matter hyperintensities and their association with suicidality in major affective disorders: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Individuals who have deep and periventricular white matter hyperintensities may have a higher risk for suicidal behavior. There are mixed results in the literature regarding whether unipolar or bipolar patients who have attempted suicide have more MRI findings of deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH) or periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) relative to those who have no history of suicide attempts. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of studies examining white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in mood disorder patients with and without a history of suicide attempts. Results Four studies and a total of 173 patients who attempted suicide and 183 who did not attempt were included. A significantly higher number of attempters were found to have hyperintensities than non-attempters. Unipolar depressed patients who were attempters had 1.9 times more DWMH and 2.1 times more PVH than those who were non-attempters. Bipolar patients who were attempters had 5.4 times more PVH than those who were non-attempters. Taken together, unipolar and bipolar patients who were attempters had 2.8 times more DWMH and 4.5 times more PVH than those who were not attempters. Conclusions These findings raise the possibility that WMH are biological substrates of symptoms that lead to suicidal behavior. PMID:20625370

Grangeon, Maria Conceição; Seixas, Camila; Quarantini, Lucas C.; Miranda-Scippa, Angela; Pompili, Maurizio; Steffens, David C.; Wenzel, Amy; Lacerda, Acioly L. T.; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis

2010-01-01

414

Computer Therapy for the Anxiety and Depressive Disorders Is Effective, Acceptable and Practical Health Care: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDepression and anxiety disorders are common and treatable with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), but access to this therapy is limited.ObjectiveReview evidence that computerized CBT for the anxiety and depressive disorders is acceptable to patients and effective in the short and longer term.MethodSystematic reviews and data bases were searched for randomized controlled trials of computerized cognitive behavior therapy versus a treatment

Gavin Andrews; Pim Cuijpers; Michelle G. Craske; Peter McEvoy; Nickolai Titov

2010-01-01

415

Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Adult Anxiety Disorders in Clinical Practice: A Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in adults is well established. In the present study, the authors examined whether CBT tested under well-controlled conditions generalizes to less-controlled, real-world circumstances. Fifty-six effectiveness studies of CBT for adult anxiety disorders were located and synthesized. Meta-analytic effect sizes are presented for disorder-specific symptom measures as well as symptoms of generalized anxiety

Rebecca E. Stewart; Dianne L. Chambless

2009-01-01

416

Assessment and treatment of binge-eating disorder.  

PubMed

The patient presenting with binge-eating disorder requires a detailed clinical assessment that takes into account behavioral, somatic, and psychological aspects of the disorder. Treatment selection depends on the patient's particular goals. Antidepressant medications and CBT are effective, at least in the short term, in suppressing binge eating and reducing depressive symptoms. Fluoxetine may, in addition, promote short-term weight loss, which is more likely to be maintained if medication is administered in the context of behavior therapy. Preliminary study suggests that behavior therapy may be designed to promote weight loss, even in the absence of medication treatment, without undermining binge cessation. Appetite suppressant medications clearly promote weight loss, but their use in suppressing binge eating has yet to be studied specifically. Further study is needed in several areas including the feasibility and efficacy of treatment approaches that combine medication and psychotherapy, the efficacy of individual versus group psychotherapy, the long-term outcome of various forms of treatment, and the clinical features that predict favorable response to different treatment modalities. PMID:8933607

Devlin, M J

1996-12-01

417

Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

2009-01-01

418

Objectified Body Consciousness in Relation to Recovery from an Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

In Western society, the feminine body has been positioned as an object to be looked at and sexually gazed upon; thus, females often learn to view themselves as objects to be observed (i.e., objectified body consciousness (OBC)). This study examined the relation between OBC and eating disorder recovery by comparing its components across non-eating disorder controls, fully recovered, partially recovered, and active eating disorder cases. Results revealed that non-eating disorder controls and fully recovered individuals had similarly low levels of two components of OBC, body surveillance and body shame. Partially recovered individuals looked more similar to those with an active eating disorder on these constructs. The third component of OBC, control beliefs, and a conceptually similar construct, weight/shape self-efficacy, did not differ across groups. Results provide support for the importance of measuring aspects of self-objectification, particularly body surveillance and body shame, across the course of an eating disorder. PMID:22051364

Fitzsimmons, Ellen E.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

2011-01-01

419

Objectified body consciousness in relation to recovery from an eating disorder.  

PubMed

In Western society, the feminine body has been positioned as an object to be looked at and sexually gazed upon; thus, females often learn to view themselves as objects to be observed (i.e., objectified body consciousness (OBC)). This study examined the relation between OBC and eating disorder recovery by comparing its components across non-eating disorder controls, fully recovered, partially recovered, and active eating disorder cases. Results revealed that non-eating disorder controls and fully recovered individuals had similarly low levels of two components of OBC, body surveillance and body shame. Partially recovered individuals looked more similar to those with an active eating disorder on these constructs. The third component of OBC, control beliefs, and a conceptually similar construct, weight/shape self-efficacy, did not differ across groups. Results provide support for the importance of measuring aspects of self-objectification, particularly body surveillance and body shame, across the course of an eating disorder. PMID:22051364

Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Kelly, Kathleen A

2011-12-01

420

What Contributes to Excessive Diet Soda Intake in Eating Disorders: Appetitive Drive, Weight Concerns, or Both?  

PubMed Central

Excessive diet soda intake is common in eating disorders. The present study examined factors contributing to excessive intake in a sample of individuals with lifetime eating disorders based on proposed DSM-5 criteria (n=240) and non-eating disorder controls (n=157). Individuals with eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, consumed more diet soda than controls. Eating disorder symptoms that reflect increased appetitive drive or increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake. Increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake when levels of appetitive drive were high, but not when they were low. Results highlight the importance of monitoring diet soda intake in individuals with eating disorders and may have implications for the maintenance of dysregulated taste reward processing in BN. PMID:23600556

Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2013-01-01

421

Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?  

PubMed Central

Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating) differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating. PMID:22992241

2012-01-01

422

[Mealtime Support for Patients with Eating Disorders: A Survey on the Clinical Practice in German Eating Disorders Centers.  

PubMed

Mealtime support is a cornerstone of eating disorders (ED) inpatient and day-care treatment but has received only little attention in research so far and no valid recommendations are available for this type of intervention. Thus, the aim of the present study was to gather a comprehensive picture of how mealtime support is currently practiced in Germany. In a nationwide survey, 97 staff members from 66 ED centers across Germany completed a survey-form that covered 4 broad topics: (a) setting, (b) general conditions, (c) specific interventions, and (d) treatment providers' perspective. For the most part, mealtime support is delivered by nurses. Two thirds of the centers provide at least one therapeutically supported meal per day. Most centers offer their patients a kitchen and/or a guided cooking group. Patient eating behavior and amount of food eaten is documented by three quarters of staff members. Most staff members offer some kind of role modeling by eating their own meals at the same table. Food exposure is provided by a minority. Whereas two thirds use sanctions when patients did not achieve their eating goals, only one third use positive reinforcement when patients achieved their goals. Less than one half offer some kind of post-meal support. The results provide important insights into the current practice of mealtime support and will thus inform future studies that examine the efficacy of different types and interventions of mealtime support. PMID:25401216

Brockmeyer, Timo; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Jäger, Burkard; Schwab, Michael; Herzog, Wolfgang; de Zwaan, Martina

2014-11-17

423

Validating the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2) in two Danish samples: a comparison between female eating disorder patients and females from the general population.  

PubMed

The Eating Disorder Inventory, Version 2 (EDI-2) is a questionnaire used clinically and in research all over the world. EDI-2 is cross-culturally valid, yet normative values may depend on culture. Norms and reliability of the Danish version have to date been lacking, and will be presented in this article, comparing patients (N = 575) and controls (N = 881). Also, internal reliability of scales is tested for both groups. Differences between norms of the Danish and the North American version of EDI were small but significant for all scales except asceticism (eating disorder patients) and ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust and maturity fears (normal controls). For both groups the internal consistency was >0.70 for all subscales except asceticism. Although differences across the eating disorder diagnostic groups were dubious, the EDI-2 is useful to screen for eating problems in the general population as well as to rate progress and outcome among eating disorder patients. PMID:19504471

Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian; Rosenvinge, Jan H

2009-11-01

424

Treatment of Adolescent Eating Disorders: Progress and Challenges.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Although eating disorders are common psychiatric disorders that usually onset during adolescence, few evidence-based treatments for this age group have been identified. A critical review of treatments used for Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and related conditions (EDNOS) is provided that summarizes the rationale for the treatments, evidence of effectiveness available, and outcomes. METHOD: Critical review of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs). RESULTS: There are only seven published RCTs of psychotherapy for AN in adolescents with a total of 480 subjects. There are only two published RCTs for outpatient psychotherapy for adolescent BN with a total of 165 subjects. There are no published RCTs examining medications for adolescent AN or BN. For adolescent AN, Family-Based Treatment (FBT) is the treatment with the most evidence supporting its use. Three RCTs suggest that FBT is superior to individual therapy at the end of treatment; however, at follow-up differences between individual and family approaches are generally reduced. For adolescent BN, one study found no differences between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and FBT at the end of treatment or follow-up, while the other found FBT superior to individual therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Although the evidence remains limited, FBT appears to be the first line treatment for adolescent AN. There is little evidence to support a specific treatment for adolescent BN. There is a need for additional studies of treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders. New treatments studies may build on current evidence as well as examine new approaches based on novel findings in the neurosciences about cognitive and emotional processes in eating disorders. PMID:21532979

Lock, James

2010-09-01

425

The Beech Hill Hospital Eating Disorders Treatment Program for Drug Dependent Females: program description and case analysis.  

PubMed

The association of eating disorders and substance abuse has increasingly been noted among chemically dependent women. Without diagnosis and focused interventions around the disordered eating, female substance abusers are vulnerable to chemical relapse and continued out of control eating. This paper describes an eating disorder treatment program for drug-dependent females during the inpatient phase of chemical dependency treatment. The interrelationship and need to treat both addiction and eating disorder at the beginning of early sobriety is emphasized. PMID:8246322

Sutherland, L A; Weaver, S N; McPeake, J D; Quimby, C D

1993-01-01

426

Exploration Linking Self-Reported Disordered Eating and Wellness in Undergraduate Health Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University campus environments are conducive to the development of disordered eating in students. Busy schedules, easy access to fast food, and the transition from high school to college contribute to the development of disordered eating in university students. This researcher explored whether a relationship exists between self-reported disordered

Owens, Pamela K.

2009-01-01

427

The Role of Self-Objectification in the Experience of Women with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectification theory has linked self-objectification to negative emotional experiences and disordered eating behavior in cultures that sexually objectify the female body. This link has not been empirically tested in a clinical sample of women with eating disorders. In the present effort, 209 women in residential treatment for eating disorders completed self-report measures of self-objectification, body shame, media influence, and drive

Rachel M. Calogero; William N. Davis; J. Kevin Thompson

2005-01-01

428

Disordered Eating Cognitions as Predictors of Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether young adults’ disordered eating cognitions predicted attitudes toward seeking professional\\u000a psychological services. Two hundred and eighty three 18- to 24-year-old undergraduate students completed a survey package\\u000a that included measures of disordered eating cognitions and help-seeking attitudes. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed\\u000a that greater disordered eating cognitions uniquely predicted lower degrees of favorable help-seeking attitudes overall, lower

Keri B. Dotson; Akihiko Masuda; Lindsey L. Cohen

429

Eating habits, physical activity, consumption of substances and eating disorders in adolescents.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between adolescents with a high or low risk of developing an eating disorder (ED) in different health behaviors (eating habits, physical activity and the consumption of substances) per gender. The EAT-40 and the Inventory of Behavioral Health in Scholars were applied to 2142 middle school students from Alicante (Spain), of whom 52.8% were girls and 47.2% were boys, with an average age of 13.92 years old (Sd = 1.34). Results indicated that girls with a high risk of developing an ED consumed fewer meals, ate fewer unhealthy foods, followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. Furthermore, they also performed more physical activity with the objective of losing weight, and consumed more tobacco, alcohol and medicines. Boys at high risk of developing an ED followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. For boys, no more differences were found. These results suggest that any program directed at the prevention of ED should not only include nutritional education, but should also seek to promote regular physical activity with objectives other than weight loss or the burning of calories. PMID:22059317

Quiles-Marcos, Yolanda; Balaguer-Solá, Isabel; Pamies-Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles-Sebastián, María José; Marzo-Campos, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús

2011-11-01

430

Binge eating disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice.  

PubMed

This case report describes the clinical course of a young woman suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) associated with obesity. It illustrates the efficacy of different medications in the treatment of BED and related conditions and is followed by the comments and clinical observations of 2 practicing psychiatrists. The issues described in this paper have important clinical implications and are topical, given that BED is now recognized as a specific disorder in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition classification system, but neither the US Food and Drug Administration nor any other regulatory agency has yet approved a drug for treatment of this disease, despite its very prevalent and disabling nature. Growing evidence from the fields of psychopathology and neurobiology, including preclinical and clinical studies, converges to support the idea that "overeating" has much in common with other behavioral addictions, and substance abuse treatment agents may show promise for the treatment of BED. PMID:25629882

Goracci, Arianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Iovieno, Nadia; di Volo, Silvia; Benbow, Jim; Bolognesi, Simone; Fagiolini, Andrea

2015-01-01

431

Public School-Based Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the effectiveness of four categories of intervention when implemented in public schools with adolescents and young adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The study's inclusionary criteria include a setting of public schools, participants aged between 12 and 22 years, and the investigation of an…

de Bruin, Catriona L.; Deppeler, Joanne M.; Moore, Dennis W.; Diamond, Neil T.

2013-01-01

432

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adult Anxiety Disorders in Clinical Practice: A Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in adults is well established. In the present study, the authors examined whether CBT tested under well-controlled conditions generalizes to less-controlled, real-world circumstances. Fifty-six effectiveness studies of CBT for adult anxiety disorders were located and synthesized.…

Stewart, Rebecca E.; Chambless, Dianne L.

2009-01-01

433

Major Depressive Disorder Is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. Although many studies have…

Snyder, Hannah R.

2013-01-01

434

Food and drug abuse: the contrasts and comparisons of eating disorders and alcoholism.  

PubMed

The authors present a series of comparisons highlighting the similarities and differences between alcoholism and two eating disorders: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They suggest that diagnostic, psychodynamic and therapeutic similarities are strong and may relate to a common lack of behavioral inhibition once abnormal drinking or eating patterns become set. They point to recent research suggesting that eating disorder patients are at greater risk for alcoholism later in life. They conclude that a scientific comparison of these disorders may yield new research findings that could advance treatment methods for both types of psychopathology and may prevent later morbidity for the eating disorder group. PMID:2813830

Beresford, T P; Hall, R C

1989-01-01

435

Male body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptomatology: Moderating variables among men.  

PubMed

Body dissatisfaction is recognized as a robust risk factor for eating disorders. Despite over 80% of college men being body dissatisfied, not all men report several levels of eating disorder symptoms. In this study, we examined poor impulse control, social anxiety and internalization of media ideals as potential moderators. Data collected from 405 college-aged men were analysed, using latent variable structural equation modelling approach. All variables investigated have been found to moderate the body dissatisfaction-eating disorder symptomatology, such that male body dissatisfaction was strongly related to men's eating disorder symptomatology when each moderator was at its highest level. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:23988683

Dakanalis, Antonios; Zanetti, Assunta M; Riva, Giuseppe; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Volpato, Chiara; Madeddu, Fabio; Clerici, Massimo

2015-01-01

436

The human genetics of eating disorders lessons from the leptin/melanocortin system.  

PubMed

Genetic analysis of eating disorders is complex phenotypically and genotypically. As seen in the leptin/melanocortin system, however, the results can lead to a deeper understanding and to new therapies. Benefits are expected for eating disorders that stem from genetic and psychologic causes. Finally, an awareness of possible genetic causes of eating disorders will help determine the causes--and thus the treatments--in children and adolescents with eating disorders, as exemplified by obese patients with mutations in the POMC, PC1, leptin, and MC4R loci. PMID:12109327

Costa, Jessica Lynn; Brennen, Miles B; Hochgeschwender, Ute

2002-04-01

437

Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. Methods An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organizations specializing in eating disorders to examine their support for 23 potential policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigma. Participants also rated policy actions according to their potential for positive impact and feasible implementation. Results Support for the majority of health and social policies was high in both samples. For example, strategies to 1) improve school-based health curriculum to include content aimed at preventing eating disorders, 2) require training for educators and health providers on the prevention and early identification of eating disorders, and 3) implement school-based anti-bullying policies that that protect students from being bullied about their weight, were supported by over two-thirds of participants. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both health and social policy actions will be important in broader policy initiatives to address eating disorders and weight stigma. PMID:24884645

2014-01-01

438

Parent skills training for parents of children or adults with developmental disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Developmental disorders, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders, may limit an individual's capacity to conduct daily activities. The emotional and economic burden on families caring for an individual with a developmental disorder is substantial, and quality of life may be limited by a lack of services. Therefore, finding effective treatments to help this population should be a priority. Recent work has shown parent skills training interventions improve developmental, behavioural and family outcomes. The purpose of this review protocol is to extend previous findings by systematically analysing randomised controlled trials of parent skills training programmes for parents of children with developmental disorders including intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders and use meta-analytic techniques to identify programme components reliably associated with successful outcomes of parent skills training programmes. Methods and analysis We will include all studies conducted using randomised control trials designs that compare a group of parents receiving a parent skills training programme to a group of parents in a no-treatment control, waitlist control or treatment as usual comparison group. To locate studies, we will conduct an extensive electronic database search and then use snowball methods, with no limits to publication year or language. We will present a narrative synthesis including visual displays of study effects on child and parental outcomes and conduct a quantitative synthesis of the effects of parent skills training programmes using meta-analytic techniques. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen and ethical approval is not required given this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and international conference presentations. Updates of the review will be conducted, as necessary, to inform and guide practice. Trial registration number PROSPERO (CRD42014006993). PMID:25164537

Reichow, Brian; Kogan, Cary; Barbui, Corrado; Smith, Isaac; Yasamy, M Taghi; Servili, Chiara

2014-01-01

439

Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: Who will gain weight in winter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values

Kurt Kräuchi; Simone Reich; Anna Wirz-Justice

1997-01-01

440

Eating Disorders and Dieting Behavior among Australian and Swazi University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the eating behaviors of 192 Australian and 129 Swaziland university students using the Eating Attitudes Test. Reports no significant differences between the Australian and Swazi samples in terms of eating disorder symptoms, but indicates that more Australians saw themselves as overweight and were on a weight loss diet. (CMK)

Stephens, Nicole M.; Schumaker, John F.; Sibiya, Thokozile E.

1999-01-01

441

The Concurrence of Eating Disorders with Histories of Child Abuse Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between eating disorders and reported history of physical or sexual abuse among male and female adolescents. A survey administered to high school students in a rural midwestern slate school system contained questions on eating behaviors, weight, lifestyle habits, parental substance abuse, and history of physical abuse, extrafamilial sex abuse and incest. Results showed that eating

Jeanne Hernandez

1996-01-01

442

Treatment of comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression with cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims To review published studies on the effectiveness of combining cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing (MI) to treat comorbid clinical and subclinical alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depression (MDD) and estimate the effect of this compared with usual care. Methods We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase up to June 2013 and identified additional studies through cross-references in included studies and systematic reviews. Twelve studies comprising 1721 patients met our inclusion criteria. The studies had sufficient statistical power to detect small effect sizes. Results CBT/MI proved effective for treating subclinical and clinical AUD and MDD compared with controls, with small overall effect sizes at post-treatment [g = 0.17, confidence interval (CI) = 0.07–0.28, P < 0.001 for decrease of alcohol consumption and g = 0.27, CI: 0.13–0.41, P < 0.001 for decrease of symptoms of depression, respectively]. Subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences for both AUD and MDD. However, digital interventions showed a higher effect size for depression than face-to-face interventions (g = 0.73 and g = 0.23, respectively, P = 0.030). Conclusions Combined cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing for clinical or subclinical depressive and alcohol use disorders has a small but clinically significant effect in treatment outcomes compared with treatment as usual. PMID:24304463

Riper, Heleen; Andersson, Gerhard; Hunter, Sarah B; de Wit, Jessica; Berking, Matthias; Cuijpers, Pim

2014-01-01

443

Interventions for common perinatal mental disorders in women in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the mental health of women in the perinatal period and to evaluate any effect on the health, growth and development of their offspring, in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Methods Seven electronic bibliographic databases were systematically searched for papers published up to May 2012 describing controlled trials of interventions designed to improve mental health outcomes in women who were pregnant or had recently given birth. The main outcomes of interest were rates of common perinatal mental disorders (CPMDs), primarily postpartum depression or anxiety; measures of the quality of the mother–infant relationship; and measures of infant or child health, growth and cognitive development. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain a summary measure of the clinical effectiveness of the interventions. Findings Thirteen trials representing 20?092 participants were identified. In all studies, supervised, non-specialist health and community workers delivered the interventions, which proved more beneficial than routine care for both mothers and children. The pooled effect size for maternal depression was ?0.38 (95% confidence interval: ?0.56 to ?0.21; I2?=?79.9%). Where assessed, benefits to the child included improved mother–infant interaction, better cognitive development and growth, reduced diarrhoeal episodes and increased immunization rates. Conclusion In LAMI countries, the burden of CPMDs can be reduced through mental health interventions delivered by supervised non-specialists. Such interventions benefit both women and their children, but further studies are needed to understand how they can be scaled up in the highly diverse settings that exist in LAMI countries. PMID:23940407

Fisher, Jane; Bower, Peter; Luchters, Stanley; Tran, Thach; Yasamy, M Taghi; Saxena, Shekhar; Waheed, Waquas

2013-01-01

444

A re-evaluation of random-effects meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Meta-analysis in the presence of unexplained heterogeneity is frequently undertaken by using a random-effects model, in which the effects underlying different studies are assumed to be drawn from a normal distribution. Here we discuss the justification and interpretation of such models, by addressing in turn the aims of estimation, prediction and hypothesis testing. A particular issue that we consider is the distinction between inference on the mean of the random-effects distribution and inference on the whole distribution. We suggest that random-effects meta-analyses as currently conducted often fail to provide the key results, and we investigate the extent to which distribution-free, classical and Bayesian approaches can provide satisfactory methods. We conclude that the Bayesian approach has the advantage of naturally allowing for full uncertainty, especially for prediction. However, it is not without problems, including computational intensity and sensitivity to a priori judgements. We propose a simple prediction interval for classical meta-analysis and offer extensions to standard practice of Bayesian meta-analysis, making use of an example of studies of ‘set shifting’ ability in people with eating disorders. PMID:19381330

Higgins, Julian P T; Thompson, Simon G; Spiegelhalter, David J

2009-01-01

445

Difficulties in the Assessment of Personality Traits and Disorders in Eating-Disordered Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are compelling reasons to examine personality variables in the eating disorder (ED) field but many impediments to the collection of useful data. In addition to the conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with personality assessment in the general case, the EDs present a number of special problems. These include patients’ young age at onset and evaluation, the “state” effects of

Kelly M. Vitousek; Roxanna E. Stumpf

2004-01-01

446

Night eating syndrome and winter seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome (NES) and winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) share some features such as snacking for high-carbohydrate/high-fat food with increased weight, emotional distress, circadian disturbances, good response to serotoninergic antidepressants (SSRIs) and bright-light therapy. This study assessed the prevalence and socio-demographical and clinical correlates of the NES in a sample of 62 consecutive depressed outpatients with winter seasonal features (DSM-IV criteria). Depression was assessed with the 29 item-HDRS and Sigh-SAD version and with the 7-item depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The prevalence of NES was low (4.8%). Patients suffering from NES were significantly older with a greater duration of the illness. NES was not related to depression and to Body Mass Index. NES and winter SAD are not overlapping disorders. PMID:16632073

Friedman, Serge; Even, Christian; Thuile, Jacques; Rouillon, Frédéric; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel

2006-07-01

447

An attachment insecurity model of negative affect among women seeking treatment for an eating disorder.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to receiving treatment. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Fit indices indicated that the hypothesized model fit adequately to the data. Although cross-sectional in nature, the data suggested that attachment insecurity may lead to negative affect. As well, attachment insecurity may lead to body dissatisfaction, which in turn may lead to restrained eating among women with eating disorders. Attachment insecurity could be a possible vulnerability factor for the development of eating disorder symptoms among women. PMID:16843228

Tasca, Giorgio A; Kowal, John; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Virley, Barbara; Bissada, Hany

2006-08-01

448

Associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors  

PubMed Central

Dieting, unhealthy weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors are common among adolescents: friends are a probable source of influence on these behaviors. The present study uses data provided by nominated friends to examine associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors and participants' own behaviors in a diverse sample of American youth. Male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.4) completed surveys and identified their friends from a class roster; friends' survey data were then linked to each participant. Participants (N = 2126) who had at least one nominated friend were included in the analytic sample. Independent variables were created using the same weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors reported by nominated friends, and were used in logistic regression models to test associations between participants' and their friends' behaviors, stratified by gender. Results indicated that dieting, disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample, and selected friends' behaviors were associated with the same behaviors in participants. For example, girls whose friends reported extreme weight control behaviors had significantly greater odds of using these behaviors than girls whose friends did not report these same behaviors (OR = 2.39). This research suggests that friends' weight- and shape-related behaviors are a feature of social relationships, and is the first report demonstrating these associations for muscle-enhancing behaviors. Capitalizing on the social element may be important to the development of increasingly effective intervention and prevention programs. PMID:23010337

Eisenberg, Marla E.; Wall, Melanie; Shim, Jin Joo; Bruening, Meg; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

449

Constructing identities in cyberspace: the case of eating disorders.  

PubMed

This paper consists of a discourse analysis of data collected from websites that have been created by and for people who wish to share experiences of eating disorders in a positive and supportive environment. These sites have earned the broad description 'pro-ana' (where 'ana' is short for 'anorexia'). Site users have come to see themselves as a broad on-line community of like-minded individuals, but within this community there are many subgroups, and the boundaries between these subgroups are fiercely contested. In addition, frequent attacks on such websites in the media (charged with 'promoting eating disorders'), and by occasional hostile site visitors, have often forced the community into a defensive mode. The result is a rich tapestry of identity work. The analysis examines several 'pro-ana' sites and explores the way in which the identity is used to police the boundaries of the community, and ultimately, what it means 'to be ana' rather than 'mia' (bulimic), 'a normal', 'a faker', or even 'a hater'. PMID:16984715

Giles, David

2006-09-01

450

Media images, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in adolescent women.  

PubMed

This article examines the literature related to the media, body image, and diet/weight issues in children and young women. The media holds an awesome power to influence young women, bombarding them with images of abnormally thin models who seem to represent the ideal. When the majority of adolescents inevitably fail to achieve the extremely thin image they crave, body dissatisfaction results, and disordered eating can begin. Emerging research in the pediatric and adolescent literature demonstrates that children as young as 5 are already anxious about their bodies, and want to be thinner. This obsessive interest in body weight is only fueled by a dramatic increase in the number of Internet Web sites devoted to disordered eating. Unfortunately many of the Web sites are "pro-ana" (pro anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro bulimia); these Web sites encourage young people at risk to begin starving themselves, or to begin binge-purging. As nurses know, each of these scenarios can lead to serious illness, and sometimes to death. PMID:12629318

Andrist, Linda C

2003-01-01

451

The impact of client race on clinician detection of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are thought to occur less among African-American women than among women of other ethnic groups. Ninety-one clinicians read 1 of 3 passages (differing only with regards to the girl's race: African-American, Caucasian, or Hispanic) describing disturbed eating patterns of a fictional character named Mary. Participants were then asked to indicate if they thought Mary had a problem and to rate her anxiety, depression, and eating disorder symptoms based upon the passage they had read. The results suggest that clinicians may have race-based stereotypes about eating disorders that could impede their detection of symptoms in African-American girls. PMID:17071210

Gordon, Kathryn H; Brattole, Marissa M; Wingate, Laricka R; Joiner, Thomas E

2006-12-01

452

Appetite Sensations, Appetite Signaling Proteins, and Glucose in Obese Adolescents with Subclinical Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530

Adamo, Kristi B.; Wilson, Shanna L.; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Éric; Goldfield, Gary S.

2014-01-01

453

Appetite sensations, appetite signaling proteins, and glucose in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530

Adamo, Kristi B; Wilson, Shanna L; Ferraro, Zachary M; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Eric; Goldfield, Gary S

2014-01-01

454

Personality characteristics predict outcome of eating disorders in adolescents: A 4-year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies on predictive factors in eating disorders have not been very clear until now. Attention has focused primarily\\u000a on the predictive value of eating behaviour, duration of illness, comorbidity, and population characteristics for groups with\\u000a mixed eating disorders, but lately several studies have concentrated on the influence of psychological and personality characteristics.\\u000a In this 4-year prospective follow-up study

T. van der Ham; D. C. van Strien; H. van Engeland

1998-01-01

455

Preliminary Data on Risk Factors and Disordered Eating in Male College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated four (anger, depression, anxiety, impulsivity) potential risk factors for the development of\\u000a eating disorders in 79 male college students. All participants completed the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale\\u000a (SCANS), to determine if they were at-risk for the development of an eating disorder. The hypothesis, that males who are at-risk\\u000a for the development of an eating

Kathryn A. Feltman; F. Richard Ferraro

2011-01-01

456

Anatomical deficits in adult posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.  

PubMed

Evidence from previous anatomical studies indicate that widespread brain regions are involved in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to quantitatively integrate the literature on structural abnormalities seen on individuals with PTSD. Twenty voxel-based analysis studies were analysed through a comprehensive series of meta-analyses. Compared with healthy controls, PTSD patients showed a significant reduction in grey matter (GM) in the left anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC) at the whole-brain level. Several brain regions, including the left ACC, the left insula and the right parahippocampal gyrus were significantly smaller in individuals with PTSD than in trauma-exposed healthy subjects. Furthermore, the clinician-administered PTSD scale scores were negatively correlated with GM in the left ACC and positively correlated with GM in the left insula. In addition, PTSD patients who experienced accidental or non-accidental trauma had anatomical changes in different brain regions. These results suggest that the smaller ACC and insular cortex within the limbic-prefrontal circuit contribute to the pathogenesis of PTSD. Moreover, the PTSD patients with different types of trauma may have different cerebral deficits. PMID:24859173

Meng, Yajing; Qiu, Changjian; Zhu, Hongru; Lama, Sunima; Lui, Su; Gong, Qiyong; Zhang, Wei

2014-08-15

457

Long-term safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is used in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), particularly in the alleviation of snoring. The literature provides evidence that the short-term results are promising; however, the long-term efficacy is a matter of contention. In this article, we present the results of a literature search of studies that use RFA in the treatment of SDB which have a follow-up time of greater than a year. RFA was found to be a safe technique with minimal morbidity. The overall Visual Analogue score from six studies showed the overall mean improvement to be 4.3 (confidence intervals 3.4-5.12). Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), improved significantly in five of the studies analysed. Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), improved significantly in six of the studies analysed. In conclusion, the evidence suggests that RFA for SDB results in a significant improvement in follow-up times of at least a year. Since RFA can be applied in a clinic setting and leads to minimal disruption to daily life, this treatment option can be considered for those unwilling to participate in the more traditional surgical options for SDB. PMID:24510179

Veer, Vik; Yang, Woo-Young; Green, Richard; Kotecha, Bhik

2014-11-01