Sample records for eating disorders meta-analysis

  1. Quality of life in eating disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hansen, Nina Beck; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinkby

    2014-09-30

    Eating disorders (EDs) comprise a variety of symptoms and have a profound impact on everyday life. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse published data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in EDs so as to compare the results to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and binge eating disorder (BED) and used the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a measure of HRQoL. Of the 102 citations identified, 85 abstracts were reviewed and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. AN patients were included in five studies (n=227), BN in four studies (n=216), EDNOS in two studies (n=166) and BED in four studies (n=148). We tested for between-study variation and significant differences between the diagnostic groups. The results confirmed a significantly lower level of HRQoL in all EDs compared to a population mean. It was not possible to establish any differences between the diagnostic groups. PMID:24857566

  2. Co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders in women: a meta analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Gadalla; N. Piran

    2007-01-01

    Summary  This meta analysis involved 41 studies published between January of 1985 and May of 2006, which examined the co-occurrence\\u000a of eating disorders (ED) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) in women. Studies were reviewed and a quantitative synthesis of their\\u000a results was carried out via the calculation of standardised effect sizes. Direction and strength of the relationships between\\u000a AUD and specific

  3. Eating disorder prevention research: a meta-analysis

    E-print Network

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2005-08-29

    (2001) highlighted the costs and consequences associated with eating disorders as revealed by medical complications, comorbid psychopathology, and financial costs of inpatient hospitalization and outpatient treatment. Anorexia nervosa has been...????????????????????????. 39 Effects of Including Eating Disorder Information and Other Variations in Intervention Strategy????????????????????.. 42 Practical and Clinical Significance of Findings???????????? 43 Precautions...

  4. A meta-analysis of temperament in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Atiye, Minna; Miettunen, Jouko; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu

    2015-03-01

    Although suggested as an important contributor to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, temperament has not previously been studied adopting a meta-analytical approach. We therefore pooled data (N?=?14 studies; N?=?3315 cases, N?=?3395 controls) on Cloninger's temperament traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence and persistence) in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Persistence was significantly higher than in the controls in all eating disorders except for BED the highest levels being observed in AN. Correspondingly, the highest effect sizes for harm avoidance were seen in AN. Novelty seeking was significantly elevated relative to the controls only in BN. Harm avoidance was significantly lower, and reward dependence was significantly higher in individuals who had recovered from AN than in those who remained ill. Future studies with a longitudinal design are needed to explore the temporal relationships between eating disorders and temperament traits. PMID:25546554

  5. Tooth Erosion and Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Patrícia A. D.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Auad, Sheyla M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? Methods An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders) vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. Results Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR?=?12.4, 95%CI?=?4.1–37.5). Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR?=?19.6, 95%CI?=?5.6–68.8). Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR?=?11.6, 95%CI?=?3.2–41.7). Conclusion The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion. PMID:25379668

  6. The Relationship Between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and Officially Recognized Eating Disorders: Meta-Analysis and Implications for DSM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. Thomas; Lenny R. Vartanian; Kelly D. Brownell

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search identified 125

  7. Personality disorders in eating disorder not otherwise specified and binge eating disorder: a meta-analysis of comorbidity studies.

    PubMed

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Martinussen, Monica; Kaiser, Sabine; Øvergård, Karl Tore; Martinsen, Egil W; Schmierer, Phöbe; Rosenvinge, Jan Harald

    2014-02-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to identify the proportion of comorbid personality disorders (PDs) in patients with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and binge eating disorder (BED). A search identified 20 articles in the period of 1987 to 2010. For EDNOS and BED, the comorbid proportions for any PD were 0.38 and 0.29, respectively; for cluster C PDs, 0.38 and 0.30, respectively (avoidant PD, 0.18 and 0.12, and obsessive-compulsive PD, 0.11 and 0.10, respectively); and for cluster B PDs, 0.25 and 0.11, respectively (borderline, 0.12 and 0.10). This pattern converged with findings on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, except being lower. Because the comorbidity profiles for EDNOS and BED were highly similar, their underlying PD pathology seems similar. Few moderators were significant, except for interviews yielding lower estimates than that of questionnaires. The variance statistic for any PD comorbidity was wide for EDNOS and narrow for BED, thus partly supporting BED as a distinct eating disorder category and EDNOS as a potentially more severe condition than BED. PMID:24469523

  8. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and Officially Recognized Eating Disorders: Meta-Analysis and Implications for DSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN),…

  9. Prevalence of eating disorders amongst dancers: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Mitchell, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Eating disorders in dancers are thought to be common, but the exact rates remain to be clarified. The aim of this study is to systematically compile and analyse the rates of eating disorders in dancers. A literature search, appraisal and meta-analysis were conducted. Thirty-three relevant studies were published between 1966 and 2013 with sufficient data for extraction. Primary data were extracted as raw numbers or confidence intervals. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for controlled studies. The overall prevalence of eating disorders was 12.0% (16.4% for ballet dancers), 2.0% (4% for ballet dancers) for anorexia, 4.4% (2% for ballet dancers) for bulimia and 9.5% (14.9% for ballet dancers) for eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The dancer group had higher mean scores on the EAT-26 and the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. Dancers, in general, had a higher risk of suffering from eating disorders in general, anorexia nervosa and EDNOS, but no higher risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa. The study concluded that as dancers had a three times higher risk of suffering from eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa and EDNOS, specifically designed services for this population should be considered. PMID:24277724

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of set-shifting ability in eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARION E. ROBERTS; KATE TCHANTURIA; DANIEL STAHL; LAURA SOUTHGATE; JANET TREASURE

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background. The aim was to critically appraise and synthesize the literature relating to set-shifting ability in eating disorders. PsycINFO, Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched to December,2005. Hand searching of eating-disorder journals and relevant reference sections was also undertaken. Method. The 15 selected studies contained both eating disorder and healthy control groups, and

  11. The relationship between eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: Meta-analysis and implications for DSM

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. This meta-analysis aimed to inform DSM revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS to that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search identified 125 eligible studies (published and unpublished) appearing in the literature from 1987 to 2007. Random effects analyses indicated that while EDNOS did not differ significantly from AN and BED on eating pathology or general psychopathology, BN exhibited greater eating and general psychopathology than EDNOS. Moderator analyses indicated that EDNOS groups who met all diagnostic criteria for AN except for amenorrhea did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Similarly, EDNOS groups who met all criteria for BN or BED except for binge frequency did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Results suggest that EDNOS represents a set of disorders associated with substantial psychological and physiological morbidity. While certain EDNOS subtypes could be incorporated into existing DSM-IV categories, others such as purging disorder and non-fat-phobic AN—may be best conceptualized as distinct syndromes. PMID:19379023

  12. E-therapy in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loucas, Christina E.; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Whittington, Craig; Pennant, Mary E.; Stockton, Sarah; Kendall, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The widespread availability of the Internet and mobile-device applications (apps) is changing the treatment of mental health problems. The aim of the present study was to review the research on the effectiveness of e-therapy for eating disorders, using the methodology employed by the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Electronic databases were searched for published randomised controlled trials of e-therapies, designed to prevent or treat any eating disorder in all age groups. Studies were meta-analysed where possible, and effect sizes with confidence intervals were calculated. The GRADE approach was used to determine the confidence in the effect estimates. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. For prevention, a CBT-based e-intervention was associated with small reductions in eating disorder psychopathology, weight concern and drive for thinness, with moderate confidence in the effect estimates. For treatment and relapse prevention, various e-therapies showed some beneficial effects, but for most outcomes, evidence came from single studies and confidence in the effect estimates was low. Overall, although some positive findings were identified, the value of e-therapy for eating disorders must be viewed as uncertain. Further research, with improved methods, is needed to establish the effectiveness of e-therapy for people with eating disorders. PMID:25461787

  13. E-therapy in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loucas, Christina E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Whittington, Craig; Pennant, Mary E; Stockton, Sarah; Kendall, Tim

    2014-10-01

    The widespread availability of the Internet and mobile-device applications (apps) is changing the treatment of mental health problems. The aim of the present study was to review the research on the effectiveness of e-therapy for eating disorders, using the methodology employed by the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Electronic databases were searched for published randomised controlled trials of e-therapies, designed to prevent or treat any eating disorder in all age groups. Studies were meta-analysed where possible, and effect sizes with confidence intervals were calculated. The GRADE approach was used to determine the confidence in the effect estimates. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. For prevention, a CBT-based e-intervention was associated with small reductions in eating disorder psychopathology, weight concern and drive for thinness, with moderate confidence in the effect estimates. For treatment and relapse prevention, various e-therapies showed some beneficial effects, but for most outcomes, evidence came from single studies and confidence in the effect estimates was low. Overall, although some positive findings were identified, the value of e-therapy for eating disorders must be viewed as uncertain. Further research, with improved methods, is needed to establish the effectiveness of e-therapy for people with eating disorders. PMID:25461787

  14. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

  15. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Del Parigi; Ellen Schur

    \\u000a As commonly defined, eating disorders are persistent abnormalities of eating behavior that affect physical or mental health.\\u000a Traditionally, eating disorders identify psychiatric conditions characterized by compulsive eating or extreme avoidance of\\u000a eating, epitomized by bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN), respectively. Another rather well-characterized eating\\u000a disorder is binge eating disorder (BED), which can lead to weight gain, obesity, and

  16. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... irritation, leading to intestinal problems • Diuretics (water pills) cause kidney problems • Severe dehydration from purging of fluids Binge Eating Disorder Presently, the criteria for binge eating disorder are ...

  17. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  18. Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study

    E-print Network

    Pearson, Crystal Anne

    2009-05-15

    I used reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and the Bulimia Test (BULIT). Reliability generalization is a type of meta-analysis used...

  19. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  20. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

    This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

  1. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... food (often junk food) at once, usually in secret. Sometimes they eat food that is not cooked ... also evidence that eating disorders may run in families. Although part of this may be genetics, it's ...

  2. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita DeBate; Heather Blunt; Marion Ann Becker

    \\u000a Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eating disorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders\\u000a as one of the nine

  3. Eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilip R. Patel; Elaine L Phillips; Helen D. Pratt

    1998-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behaviour.\\u000a Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures\\u000a where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries\\u000a like India. As Western socioculturel ideals become

  4. Eating Disorders About eating disorders

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    of binge eating followed by purging (vomiting, use of laxatives, fasting or vigorous exercise with body weight and shape. Binge eating disorder (BED) is a condition that resembles bulimia nervosa in that individuals binge eat and experience feelings of being out of control. Unlike bulimia, however, BED

  5. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need answers. Researchers are using the latest in technology and science to better understand eating disorders. One ... internal body temperature, causing a person to feel cold all the time Lethargy, sluggishness, or feeling tired ...

  6. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Risa J. Stein; Ryan D. Field; John P. Foreyt

    \\u000a Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder (BED) all involve observable eating, and often purging, behaviors.\\u000a However, to develop a complete conceptual picture of each disorder, additional sociocultural, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional\\u000a processes must be considered. To complicate matters, altered physiological functioning may result from as well as cause emotional\\u000a and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, whereas interviewers will want to

  7. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  8. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya R. Schlam; G. Terence Wilson

    As these two case studies illustrate, homework is absolutely essential to the effective use of CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and in the prevention of relapse. Adherence to homework assignments, including difficult assignments that provoke anxiety, is best achieved in the context of a strong relationship in which clients understand the rationale for the assignment and are able

  9. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Goldstein; Stephen Morewitz

    \\u000a Eating disorders cause substantial morbidity and mortality in children, adolescents, and adults.\\u000a \\u000a Individuals with AN refuse to keep a minimally normal body weight. They fear gaining weight and have a severely disturbed\\u000a perception of their body shape or size. Postmenarcheal females with AN are amenorrheic. Persons with the disorder maintain\\u000a a body weight that is below minimally normal standards for

  10. Eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustín Tomás Vega Alonso; María Ángeles Rasillo Rodríguez; José Eugenio Lozano Alonso; Gloria Rodríguez Carretero; Manuel Franco Martín

    2005-01-01

    Background  Eating disorders (EDs) are an important public health problem in developed countries. Despite the amount of epidemiological\\u000a studies and causal theories, there is a great disparity of estimates and many questions remain still unclear. The aim of this\\u000a study was to estimate the prevalence of the population at risk of developing EDs and describe the risk profiles among adolescents\\u000a and

  11. Binge Eating Disorder Binge Eating Disorder

    E-print Network

    Heart Disease

    (BED) is a type of eating disorder not otherwise specified and is characterized by recurrent binge eating without the regular use of compensatory measures to counter the binge eating. Binge Eating Disorder is characterized by: ? Frequent episodes of eating large quantities of food in short periods

  12. EATING DISORDERS AWARENESS Eating Disorders Among Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie King; Bonnie Sutherly

    ome athletes spend hours of intense training for their sport while practicing dangerous eating pat- terns in an attempt to lose weight. This practice often leads to eating disorders among athletes. This fact sheet will give signs and symptoms of eating disorders. Parents, coaches, and trainers need to recognize ath- letes with disordered eating patterns and refer them to appropriate

  13. Loneliness and Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Peaslee Levine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the link between loneliness and eating disorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eating disorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eating disorders—including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder—are challenging health issues. Each

  14. Spotlight on Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Autism (21 Items) Bipolar Disorder (7 Items) Borderline Personality Disorder (2 Items) Depression (11 Items) Eating Disorders (2 ... Autism (21 Items) Bipolar Disorder (7 Items) Borderline Personality Disorder (2 Items) Depression (11 Items) Eating Disorders (2 ...

  15. Psychotherapy of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina In-Albon; Silvia Schneider

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study compared the efficacy of psychotherapy for childhood anxiety disorders (excluding trials solely treating post-traumatic stress disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder). Methods: The meta-analysis included studies that met the basic CONSORT (consolidated standards of reporting trials) criteria. Several outcome variables (e.g. effect sizes, percentage of recovery) were analyzed using completer and intent-to-treat analyses during post-treatment and follow-up assessment.

  16. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

  17. Personality and eating disorders: A decade in review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie E. Cassin; Kristin M. von Ranson

    2005-01-01

    Personality traits have been implicated in the onset, symptomatic expression, and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). The present article reviews literature examining the link between personality and EDs published within the past decade, and presents a meta-analysis evaluating the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED) as assessed by self-report

  18. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Depression fact sheet Mental health What is binge eating disorder? What causes binge eating disorder? What are the health consequences ... than men. Return to top What causes binge eating disorder? Researchers are unsure of the causes and nature of binge eating and other eating ...

  19. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  20. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  1. EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    ANXIETY DEPRESSION EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS GENERAL CONCERNS INTERPERSONAL DIFFICULTIES.946.5117 Counselling and Cyber Counselling Services to Help With: · Anxiety · Depression · Eating disorders · Family

  2. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  3. Prevention of Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl L. Rock

    The clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathological eating attitudes and behaviors. Many people engage\\u000a in pathological weight-control behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa and\\u000a may be regarded as having subclinical eating disorders. As described by Fairburn and Beglin (1), a broad spectrum of eating disorders appears to exist in

  4. EATING DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  5. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... The exact cause of binge eating is unknown. Things that may lead to this disorder include: Genes, such as having close relatives who also have an ...

  6. Correlates of substance use disorder in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Richardson

    2011-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in those with bipolar disorder (BD) and are linked to a number of negative outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis on correlates of SUDs in those with BD. A systematic review was performed on the online database PsychINFO, with specific keywords and inclusion criteria employed.

  7. Eating Disorders and Attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica Lynn Fidler

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorders have become extremely common in today's society. The individuals most commonly affected by eating disorders have been women. This is often the result of societal demands, and can be greatly influenced by the relationships a woman has with her parents. The purpose of this study was to focus specifically on the father-daughter relationship of college women diagnosed with

  8. Psychobiology of eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Favaro; Palmiero Monteleone; Paolo Santonastaso; Mario Maj

    Objectives of review. The goal of this review is to highlight advances in research on the psychobiology of eating disorders during the period 2005- 2006. Summary of recent findings. Studies on the function of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in eating disorders have demonstrated the presence of state- and trait-related alterations and their associations with behavioral and comorbid characteristics.

  9. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  10. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  11. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  12. Domestic Violence and Perinatal Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Louise M.; Oram, Sian; Galley, Helen; Trevillion, Kylee; Feder, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Background Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048). Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013), hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis. Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.6). Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eating disorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality. Conclusions High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly associated with having experienced domestic violence. High-quality evidence is now needed on how maternity and mental health services should address domestic violence and improve health outcomes for women and their infants in the perinatal period. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23723741

  13. Structural brain change in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder identified by meta-analysis

    E-print Network

    Ellison-Wright, Ian; Ellison-Wright, Zoe; Bullmore, Ed

    2008-06-30

    Abstract Background The authors sought to map gray matter changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using a novel technique incorporating neuro-imaging and genetic meta-analysis methods. Methods A systematic search was conducted...

  14. Mindfulness-based interventions for binge eating: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Kathryn M; Gallo, Linda C; Afari, Niloofar

    2015-04-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly used to treat binge eating. The effects of these interventions have not been reviewed comprehensively. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to summarize the literature on mindfulness-based interventions and determine their impact on binge eating behavior. PubMED, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched using keywords binge eating, overeating, objective bulimic episodes, acceptance and commitment therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, meditation, mindful eating. Of 151 records screened, 19 studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies showed effects of large magnitude. Results of random effects meta-analyses supported large or medium-large effects of these interventions on binge eating (within-group random effects mean Hedge's g = -1.12, 95 % CI -1.67, -0.80, k = 18; between-group mean Hedge's g = -0.70, 95 % CI -1.16, -0.24, k = 7). However, there was high statistical heterogeneity among the studies (within-group I (2) = 93 %; between-group I (2) = 90 %). Limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25417199

  15. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a lot to burn the calories, usually in secret). Kids who have bulimia might feel they can' ... making weight." Eating disorders also may run in families, which means if someone in your family has ...

  16. Binge eating disorder and obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M de Zwaan

    2001-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) was included in the DSM IV as a proposed diagnostic category for further study and as an example for an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). BED is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of regular compensatory behavior such as vomiting or laxative abuse. Related features include eating until uncomfortably full, eating

  17. Mothers, Daughters, and Disordered Eating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen M. Pike; Judith Rodin

    1991-01-01

    We examined features of 77 mothers' attitudes and behavior that relate to disordered eating among their adolescent daughters. Mothers whose daughters reported a level of disordered eating comparable with clinical samples of bulimic patients were compared with mothers whose daughters reported a low level of eating disturbances. As hypothesized, mothers of daughters with disordered eating were more dissatisfied with the

  18. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  19. Classification of eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine A. Halmi; Kathryn H Gordon; Thomas E Joiner

    1983-01-01

    Objective of review. The aim of this chapter is to review the literature relevant to the classification of eating disorders (ED) published during the period 2004-2005. Summary of recent findings. Considerable debate over the best way to classify ED has ensued. Many researchers have investigated empirically the best way to subtype disorders using latent class analysis and cluster analysis. The

  20. Genetics of eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen M Culbert; Jennifer D Slane; Kelly L Klump

    Objectives of review. This review summarizes twin and genetic studies of eating disorders (EDs) published in 2005 and 2006. Summary of recent findings. Twin studies highlight important gender differences in genetic liability to ED symptoms and possible shared genetic transmission between EDs and anxiety disorders. Association and linkage analyses have suggested the presence of distinct genetic risk factors for anorexia

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  2. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

  3. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  4. Prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of epidemiological studies lies in recognition of cases that do not come to treatment settings. The increasing focus on child adolescent mental health in India points to the necessity of epidemiological studies on children. Although there are a few such studies done in different parts of India in different socio-cultural settings, data from those cannot be generalized to the entire country. This need can be served by meta-analysis. There has been no meta-analysis reported from India for the child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology. Aim To review and do the meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on child and adolescent psychiatric disorder from India. Methods Sixteen community based studies on 14594 children and adolescents; and seven school based studies on 5687 children and adolescents, reporting prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder were analyzed and overall prevalence was calculated. Results The prevalence rate of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in the community has been found to be 6.46% (95% confidence interval 6.08% - 6.88%) and in the school it has been found to be 23.33% (95% confidence interval 22.25% - 24.45%). Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis determining the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India. It has been found that the reporting systems of psychiatric disorders in children are inadequate. PMID:25071865

  5. Obesity and Mental Disorders During Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Molyneaux, Emma; Poston, Lucilla; Ashurst-Williams, Sarah; Howard, Louise M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and risk of antenatal and postpartum mental disorders among obese and overweight women. Data sources Seven databases (including MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched from inception to January 7, 2013, in addition to citation tracking, hand-searches and expert recommendations. Methods of study selection Studies were eligible if antenatal or postpartum mental disorders were assessed with diagnostic or screening tools among women who were obese or overweight at the start of pregnancy. Of the 4,687 screened articles, 62 met the inclusion criteria for the review. The selected studies included a total of 540,373 women. Tabulation, integration, and results Unadjusted odds ratios were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis for antenatal depression (n=29), postpartum depression (n=16) and antenatal anxiety (n=10). Obese and overweight women had significantly higher odds of elevated depression symptoms than normal-weight women and higher median prevalence estimates. This was found both during pregnancy (obese OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.27-1.61, overweight OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.09-1.31; median prevalence: obese 33.0%, overweight 28.6%, normal-weight 22.6%) and postpartum (obese OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.20-1.42, overweight OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.05-1.13; median prevalence: obese 13.0%, overweight 11.8%, normal-weight 9.9%). Obese women also had higher odds of antenatal anxiety (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.10-1.80). The few studies identified for postpartum anxiety (n=3), eating disorders (n=2) or serious mental illness (n=2) also suggested increased risk among obese women. Conclusion Healthcare providers should be aware that women who are obese when they become pregnant are more likely to experience elevated antenatal and postpartum depression symptoms than normal-weight women, with intermediate risks for overweight women. PMID:24785615

  6. Eating Disorders: About More Than Food

    MedlinePLUS

    Order a free hardcopy What are eating disorders? The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, and their variants, all feature serious disturbances in eating behavior and ...

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Intimate Relationship Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…

  8. Anger, Hostility, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Wieland, Elias

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the available data on the strength of association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between hostility and PTSD, covering 39 studies with trauma-exposed adults. Effect sizes did not differ for anger and hostility, which could therefore be combined; effect sizes for anger expression variables…

  9. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J. L.; Langely, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of…

  10. Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Treatment Trials for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Hunna J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis on randomized, controlled treatment trials of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Studies were included if they employed randomized, controlled methodology and treated young people (19 years or under) with OCD. A comprehensive literature search identified 13 RCTs containing 10…

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Social Skill Interventions for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Magee Quinn; Kenneth A. Kavale; Sarup R. Mathur; Robert B. Rutherford; Steven R. Forness

    1999-01-01

    Many programs designed for children and youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) include a social skill training component. Using quantitative methods of meta-analysis, the findings from 35 studies investigating the effects of social skill interventions for students with EBD were synthesized. The pooled mean effect size (ES) was 0.199, from which the average student with EBD would be expected

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Matthew E.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of evidence-based treatments is important for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the increasing number of interventions available and the prevalence of ASD. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for this population by conducting a meta-analysis of published…

  13. Meta-Analysis of Dropout in Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Zac E.; Laska, Kevin; Jakupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many patients drop out of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); some clinicians believe that trauma-focused treatments increase dropout. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of dropout among active treatments in clinical trials for PTSD (42 studies; 17 direct comparisons). Results: The average dropout rate was 18%, but it…

  14. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Using Mixed-Effects Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online…

  15. Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…

  16. Innovative Technology-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L.; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided…

  17. The Effectiveness of Treatment for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Whiteside, Sephen P.; Deacon, Brett J.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the number of treatment outcome studies for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present article describes a meta-analysis of this literature with the aim of quantifying treatment effects and examining the extent to which various patient or treatment variables are related to outcome.…

  18. The Genetics of Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sietske G. Helder; David A. Collier

    \\u000a The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder and allied diagnoses such as eating\\u000a disorder not otherwise specified are common, complex psychiatric disorders with a significant genetic component. Aetiology\\u000a is unknown, but both phenotypic characteristics and genetic factors appear to be shared across these disorders, and indeed\\u000a patients often change between diagnostic categories. Molecular studies have

  19. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  20. Lifestyle determinants of the drive to eat: a meta-analysis123

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Colin Daniel; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha Jane; Birgir Schiöth, Helgi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is emerging as the most significant health concern of the 21st century. Although this is attributable in part to changes in our environment—including the increased prevalence of energy-dense food—it also appears that several lifestyle factors may increase our vulnerability to this calorie-rich landscape. Epidemiologic studies have begun to show links between adiposity and behaviors such as television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation. However, these studies leave unclear the direction of this association. In addition, studies that investigated the acute impact of these factors on food intake have reported a wide variety of effect sizes, from highly positive to slightly negative. Objective: The purpose of this article was to provide a meta-analysis of the relation between lifestyle choices and increases in acute food intake. Design: An initial search was performed on PubMed to collect articles relating television watching, sleep deprivation, and alcohol consumption to food intake. Only articles published before February 2012 were considered. Studies that took place in a controlled, laboratory setting with healthy individuals were included. Studies were analyzed by using 3 meta-analyses with random-effects models. In addition, a 1-factor ANOVA was run to discover any main effect of lifestyle. Results: The 3 most prominent lifestyle factors—television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation—had significant short-term effects on food intake, with alcohol being more significant (Cohen's d = 1.03) than sleep deprivation (Cohen's d = 0.49) and television watching (Cohen's d = 0.2). Conclusions: Our results suggest that television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation are not merely correlated with obesity but likely contribute to it by encouraging excessive eating. Because these behaviors are all known to affect cognitive functions involved in reward saliency and inhibitory control, it may be that they represent common mechanisms through which this eating is facilitated. PMID:22836029

  1. Eating Expectancies in Relation to Eating Disorder Recovery.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Keatts, Dara A; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relation between eating expectancies, assessed via the Eating Expectancy Inventory, and eating disorder recovery. Individuals formerly seen for an eating disorder were categorized as having an active eating disorder (n = 53), as partially recovered (n = 15), or as fully recovered (n = 20). The expectancies of these groups were compared to each other and to 67 non-eating disorder controls. Results revealed that three of the five eating expectancies differed across groups. Non-eating disorder controls and fully recovered individuals endorsed similar levels of the expectancies that eating helps manage negative affect, eating is pleasurable and useful as a reward, and eating leads to feeling out of control. Partially recovered individuals looked more similar to active eating disorder cases on these expectancies. The other two expectancies did not differ across groups. Results provide some indication that certain eating expectancies may be associated with eating disorder recovery. PMID:24089581

  2. Eating disordered adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Eliot, A O; Baker, C W

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a sample of 40 eating disordered adolescent males in order to complete a series of follow-up studies on adolescent females who were seen for evaluation and treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic between 1981 and 1991. The sample was drawn from all males seen at the clinic (between 1981 and 1995) who were eligible for inclusion because of a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder-not otherwise specified. Data were collected via retrospective chart review and three self-administered quantitative scales. Although the response rate to the mailed follow-up questionnaires was low, comparisons with the three studies on females were consistent with those of other investigations, suggesting that the course and outcome of these illnesses are remarkably similar for males and females. The findings support the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family members should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with assurance that these issues are common to both sexes. PMID:11817634

  3. Anxiety Disorders are Associated with Reduced Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, John A.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Abbott, Maree J.-Anne; Kemp, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders increase risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, even after controlling for confounds including smoking, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status, and irrespective of a history of medical disorders. While impaired vagal function, indicated by reductions in heart rate variability (HRV), may be one mechanism linking anxiety disorders to CVD, prior studies have reported inconsistent findings highlighting the need for meta-analysis. Method: Studies comparing resting-state HRV recordings in patients with an anxiety disorder as a primary diagnosis and healthy controls were considered for meta-analysis. Results: Meta-analyses were based on 36 articles, including 2086 patients with an anxiety disorder and 2294 controls. Overall, anxiety disorders were characterized by lower HRV [high frequency (HF): Hedges’ g?=??0.29. 95% CI: ?0.41 to ?0.17, p?disorder (n?=?447), post-traumatic stress disorder (n?=?192), generalized anxiety disorder (n?=?68), and social anxiety disorder (n?=?90), but not obsessive–compulsive disorder (n?=?40), displayed reductions in HF HRV relative to controls (all ps?disorders are associated with reduced HRV, findings associated with a small-to-moderate effect size. Findings have important implications for future physical health and well-being of patients, highlighting a need for comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:25071612

  4. Preventing eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews eating disorder (ED) prevention programs, highlighting features that define successful programs and particularly promising interventions, and how they might be further refined. The field of ED prevention has advanced considerably both theoretically and methodologically compared with the earlier ED prevention programs, which were largely psychoeducational and met with limited success. Recent meta-analytic findings show that more than half (51%) of ED prevention interventions reduced ED risk factors and more than a quarter (29%) reduced current or future eating pathology (EP). A couple of brief programs have been shown to reduce the risk for future onset of EP and obesity. Selected interactive, multisession programs offered to participants older than 15 years, delivered by professional interventionists and including body acceptance or dissonance-induction content, produced larger effects. Understanding and applying these results can help inform the design of more effective prevention programs in the future. PMID:19014867

  5. Males and Eating Disorders: Gender-Based Therapy for Eating Disorder Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Teri Greenberg; Eva G. Schoen

    2008-01-01

    Mental health professionals may wonder how males with eating disorders differ from females with eating disorders and how best to treat males with eating disorders. The eating disorder literature largely focuses on females. Limited research has examined assessment and treatment of eating disorders in males. This article offers a unique view of eating disorder treatment for males by integrating it

  6. [Cognitive function in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

  7. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder. PMID:22362599

  8. Comorbidity and binge eating disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Mitchell; Melissa Pederson Mussell

    1995-01-01

    Research in obesity has generally not demonstrated an association with increased rates of psychopathology compared to normal-weight comparison groups. However, studies of obese individuals from clinical samples with recurrent binge eating or binge eating disorder (BED) have generally revealed increased rates of psychiatric comorbidity compared to nonbinge eating obese individuals. Also, several studies have reported finding an association between BED

  9. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Buitrago-Lopez; Jean Sanderson; Laura Johnson; Samantha Warnakula; Angela Wood; Emanuele Di Angelantonio; Oscar H Franco

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies.Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors.Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross

  10. Modified Therapeutic Community for Co-Occurring Disorders: Single Investigator Meta Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Sacks; Karen McKendrick; JoAnn Y. Sacks; Charles M. Cleland

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis for a single investigator examining the effectiveness of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) for clients with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders (COD). The flexibility and utility of meta-analytic tools are described, although their application in this context is atypical. The analysis includes 4 comparisons from 3 studies (retrieved N = 569) for

  11. Migration, social mobility and common mental disorders: critical review of the literature and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Das-Munshi; G. Leavey; S. A. Stansfeld; M. J. Prince

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Changes in socio-economic position in people who migrate may have adverse associations with mental health. The main objective of this review was to assess the association of social mobility with common mental disorders in migrant and second-generation groups, to inform future research.Design. Systematic review and meta-analysis of English-language studies assessing the association of social mobility in migrant or second-generation

  12. Migration, social mobility and common mental disorders: critical review of the literature and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Das-Munshi; G. Leavey; S. A. Stansfeld; M. J. Prince

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Changes in socio-economic position in people who migrate may have adverse associations with mental health. The main objective of this review was to assess the association of social mobility with common mental disorders in migrant and second-generation groups, to inform future research.Design. Systematic review and meta-analysis of English-language studies assessing the association of social mobility in migrant or second-generation

  13. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  14. Voxel-Based Morphometry ALE meta-analysis of Bipolar Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana, Omar; Laird, Robert

    2012-03-01

    A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.

  15. Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating

    E-print Network

    Prohaska, Jennifer A.

    2012-05-31

    , & Singer, 1993). Most research supports the development of both Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) in middle adolescence through early adulthood (American Psychological Association, 2000; Smolak & Levine, 1994). The typical age of onset... analyses. Depressive symptoms are commonly co-morbid with disordered eating. Also, depressive symptoms itself can cause changes in appetite, weight, and eating behavior. This investigation attempted to look at the relationship between disordered eating...

  16. Binge eating disorder: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AE Dingemans; MJ Bruna; EF van Furth

    2002-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is a new proposed eating disorder in the DSM-IV. BED is not a formal diagnosis within the DSM-IV, but in day-to-day clinical practice the diagnosis seems to be generally accepted. People with the BED-syndrome have binge eating episodes as do subjects with bulimia nervosa, but unlike the latter they do not engage in compensatory behaviours. Although

  17. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Terence Wilson; Carlos M. Grilo; Kelly M. Vitousek

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Important challenges remain. Even the

  18. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus; Helen D. Pratt; Elaine L. Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Adolescent athletes are especially vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviors. Risk factors include participation in sports where weight and lean body type are important, high-intensity training, pressure from coaches, and training and dieting beginning at an early age. Medical complications associated with these unhealthy dietary and weight-control practices and eating disorders can be potentially dangerous. Prevention strategies include minimizing the

  19. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

  20. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  1. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…

  2. Eating disorders in men: update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean

    2005-01-01

    Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eating disorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eating disorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than

  3. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Figueras, Francesc; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Dadvand, Payam

    2014-09-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders can lead to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but the cause of these conditions is not well understood. We have systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December 2009 and December 2013. Combined risk estimates were calculated using random-effect models for each exposure that had been examined in ?4 studies. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. A total of 17 articles evaluating the impact of nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOX), particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting on gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as separate or combined outcomes; there was less heterogeneity in findings of the 10 studies reporting solely on preeclampsia. Meta-analyses showed increased risks of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy for all pollutants except CO. Random-effect meta-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-?g/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. PMID:24935943

  4. Biological Therapies for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James E.; Roerig, James; Steffen, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a comprehensive review of pharmacotherapy and other biological treatments for eating disorders. Method Literature on this topic was systematically reviewed. Results The bulimia nervosa literature underscores the utility of antidepressants, particularly SSRIs, in improving the symptoms of the disorder. The literature on binge eating disorder supports efficacy on reduction in binge eating frequency for a variety of compounds. However, such compounds have only modest effects on weight. Certain antiepileptic agents such as topiramate, if tolerated, are probably more useful in terms of weight loss. The number of controlled trials in patients with anorexia nervosa in particular has been quite small, and recent meta-analyses show disappointing results using atypical antipsychotics in anorexia nervosa. Discussion The pharmacological treatment of eating disorders remains an underdeveloped field although drug therapy clearly plays a role in the treatment of those with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Other biological therapies have not been adequately studied. PMID:23658094

  5. Smoking and thyroid disorders--a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Vestergaard

    2002-01-01

    Background: Smoking has been associated with Graves' disease, but it remains unclear if the association is present in other thyroid disorders. Outcome variables: Graves' disease, Graves' ophthalmopathy, toxic nodular goitre, non-toxic goitre, post-partum thyroid disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or hypothyroidism. Material and methods: A search of MEDLINE identified 25 studies on the association between smoking and thyroid diseases. Results: In Graves'

  6. Brain lesions and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Uher, R; Treasure, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

  7. Cytokine aberrations in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Masi, A; Quintana, D S; Glozier, N; Lloyd, A R; Hickie, I B; Guastella, A J

    2015-04-01

    The role of non-diagnostic features in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is unclear. Increasing evidence suggests immune system alterations in ASD may be implicated in the severity of behavioral impairment and other developmental outcomes. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate if there is a characteristic abnormal cytokine profile in ASD compared with healthy controls (HCs). We identified relevant studies following a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge and Scopus. A meta-analysis was performed on studies comparing plasma and serum concentrations of cytokines in unmedicated participants with ASD and HCs. Results were reported according to PRISMA statement. Seventeen studies with a total sample size of 743 participants with ASD and 592 HC were included in the analysis. Nineteen cytokines were assessed. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta (P<0.001), IL-6 (P=0.03), IL-8 (P=0.04), interferon-gamma (P=0.02), eotaxin (P=0.01) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (P<0.05) were significantly higher in the participants with ASD compared with the HC group, while concentrations of transforming growth factor-?1 were significantly lower (P<0.001). There were no significant differences between ASD participants and controls for the other 12 cytokines analyzed. The findings of our meta-analysis identified significantly altered concentrations of cytokines in ASD compared to HCs, strengthening evidence of an abnormal cytokine profile in ASD where inflammatory signals dominate. PMID:24934179

  8. Eating Disorders: Disorders of Under and Overnutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly C. Allison

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eating disorder diagnoses consist of anorexia nervosa (restricting type and binge-eating\\/purging type); bulimia nervosa (purging\\u000a and nonpurging types); and eating disorder, not otherwise specified (including binge-eating disorder, night eating syndrome,\\u000a and purging disorder).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Physical complications of anorexia nervosa affect most major systems in the body and are caused by starvation and the effects\\u000a of purging. Most physical complications

  9. Eating disorders and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E

    2001-06-01

    This review examines the current debate on the role that sexual and physical abuse may play in predisposing to eating disorders in women. Despite some discordant opinions, clinicians agree that the experience of abuse in early childhood may be important for understanding the complex genesis of the eating disorders of some women. Three groups of studies are presented: those in which no connections emerge between sexual abuse and eating disorders, those in which a strong link is present and those in which the results refer to a multifactorial interpretative model. Some of the main symptoms, such as reactualization of the trauma, dissociation, personality disorders, pathological relationship with food, distortion of body image, suicide attempts and self-inflicted punishment that victims of abuse and eating disordered subjects share are examined. PMID:11456424

  10. Eating Disorders: No Longer Trapped by Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Oswalt; Helen M. Welle-Graf

    The purpose of this study was to document disordered eating patterns and prevalence rates to assess the current extent of the problem among college students. The Undergraduate Student Health Risk Appraisal Survey, with a Disordered Eating Subscale, generated such information. A randomized stratified study (n=320) of students at a major university ascertained disordered eating patterns, documented diagnosed eating disorders, and

  11. Eating disorders and chronic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching King Chieng; Ronald J. Kulich; Scott Streusels

    1999-01-01

    Eating disorders and chronic pain are among the most vexing problems encountered by the clinician.When both problems occur\\u000a concurrently in a patient, adequate assessment and implementation of an effective treatment program become most complex.

  12. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  13. Does D-Cycloserine Enhance Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Humans? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Helga; Figueira, Ivan; Lopes, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Raquel; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Ventura, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of anxiety is on the edge of a new era of combinations of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions. A new wave of translational research has focused on the use of pharmacological agents as psychotherapy adjuvants using neurobiological insights into the mechanism of the action of certain psychological treatments such as exposure therapy. Recently, d-cycloserine (DCS) an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis has been applied to enhance exposure-based treatment for anxiety and has proved to be a promising, but as yet unproven intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DCS in the enhancement of exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic searches were conducted in the databases ISI-Web of Science, Pubmed and PsycINFO. We included only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with humans, focusing on the role of DCS in enhancing the action of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. We identified 328 references, 13 studies were included in our final sample: 4 on obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 on panic disorder, 2 on social anxiety disorder, 2 on posttraumatic stress disorder, one on acrophobia, and 2 on snake phobia. The results of the present meta-analysis show that DCS enhances exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Cohen d?=? ?0.34; CI: ?0.54 to ?0.14), facilitating the specific process of extinction of fear. DCS seems to be effective when administered at a time close to the exposure therapy, at low doses and a limited number of times. DCS emerges as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with refractory anxiety disorders that are unresponsive to the conventional treatments available. When administered correctly, DCS is a promising strategy for augmentation of CBT and could reduce health care costs, drop-out rates and bring faster relief to patients. PMID:24991926

  14. Couples Eating Disorder Prevention Program

    E-print Network

    Ramirez-Cash, Ana L.

    2010-07-14

    COUPLES EATING DISORDER PREVENTION PROGRAM A Thesis by ANA L. RAMIREZ-CASH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Psychology COUPLES EATING DISORDER PREVENTION PROGRAM A Thesis by ANA L. RAMIREZ-CASH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  15. The efficacy of motivational interviewing for disordered gambling: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, Igor; Quigley, Leanne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Hodgins, David C; Ronksley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Motivational interviewing is a client-centered therapeutic intervention that aims to resolve ambivalence toward change. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of motivational interviewing, compared to non-motivational interviewing controls, in the treatment of disordered gambling. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated change in gambling behavior using motivational interviewing in adult disordered gamblers. The primary outcomes were the weighted mean difference (WMD) for change in average days gambled per month and average dollars lost per month. The search strategy yielded 447 articles, of which 20 met criteria for full text review. Overall, 8 studies (N=730) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for systematic review and 5 (N=477) were included in the meta-analysis. Motivational interviewing was associated with significant reduction in gambling frequency up to a year after treatment delivery. For gambling expenditure, motivational interviewing yielded significant reductions in dollars spent gambling compared to non-motivational controls at post-treatment only (1-3 months). Overall, the results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing is an efficacious style of therapy for disordered gambling in the short term. Whether treatment effects are maintained over time remains unclear. PMID:25577724

  16. Innovative technology-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Gal, Eynat

    2014-05-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of technology-based intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review of research that used a pre-post design to assess innovative technology interventions, including computer programs, virtual reality, and robotics. The selected studies provided interventions via a desktop computer, interactive DVD, shared active surface, and virtual reality. None employed robotics. The results provide evidence for the overall effectiveness of technology-based training. The overall mean effect size for posttests of controlled studies of children with autism spectrum disorders who received technology-based interventions was significantly different from zero and approached the medium magnitude, d = 0.47 (confidence interval: 0.08-0.86). The influence of age and IQ was not significant. Differences in training procedures are discussed in the light of the negative correlation that was found between the intervention durations and the studies' effect sizes. The results of this meta-analysis provide support for the continuing development, evaluation, and clinical usage of technology-based intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24092843

  17. Eating Disorders in Late-life.

    PubMed

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra, Carmela

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to "Feeding and Eating Disorders" are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  18. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  19. Disordered eating among mothers of Polish patients with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Józefik, Barbara; Sa?apa, Kinga

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating as measured by the Eating Attitude Test (EAT26) among mothers of girls diagnosed with various types of eating disorders, in comparison with mothers of depressive girls and their relationship with daughters’ results 14 years after the beginning of the Polish political and cultural transformation of 1989. Material/Methods The data of 68 mothers and their daughters were used in statistical analysis (anorexia nervosa restrictive type: 18, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type: 12, bulimia: 14, depression: 24). The mean age in the group of mothers was 43.5 (SD 5.3), daughters: 16.7 (SD 1.4). Results In the group of mothers, the results of EAT26 test were lower than results of the general population of Polish females or patients’ mothers obtained in a different cultural context. Results from girls with an eating disorder diagnosis considerably exceed the mean result of Polish population studies of teenagers. There were no statistically significant differences between the EAT26 results of mothers of girls with various types of eating disorders and mothers of depressive girls. Sociocultural variables such as education and place of residence of mothers also did not differentiate the studied groups and did not have a significant influence on attitudes towards weight and body shape presented by the studied mothers. Conclusions The obtained results may suggest that in the studied population, the social background of mothers and disturbances of their own mothers’ attitudes towards weight and body shape were not an important and specific risk factor in the development of their daughters’ eating disorders. PMID:23197240

  20. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for panic disorder in the Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Otowa, T; Kawamura, Y; Nishida, N; Sugaya, N; Koike, A; Yoshida, E; Inoue, K; Yasuda, S; Nishimura, Y; Liu, X; Konishi, Y; Nishimura, F; Shimada, T; Kuwabara, H; Tochigi, M; Kakiuchi, C; Umekage, T; Miyagawa, T; Miyashita, A; Shimizu, E; Akiyoshi, J; Someya, T; Kato, T; Yoshikawa, T; Kuwano, R; Kasai, K; Kato, N; Kaiya, H; Tokunaga, K; Okazaki, Y; Tanii, H; Sasaki, T

    2012-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a moderately heritable anxiety disorder whose pathogenesis is not well understood. Due to the lack of power in previous association studies, genes that are truly associated with PD might not be detected. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in two independent data sets using the Affymetrix Mapping 500K Array or Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. We obtained imputed genotypes for each GWAS and performed a meta-analysis of two GWAS data sets (718 cases and 1717 controls). For follow-up, 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 329 cases and 861 controls. Gene ontology enrichment and candidate gene analyses were conducted using the GWAS or meta-analysis results. We also applied the polygenic score analysis to our two GWAS samples to test the hypothesis of polygenic components contributing to PD. Although genome-wide significant SNPs were not detected in either of the GWAS nor the meta-analysis, suggestive associations were observed in several loci such as BDKRB2 (P=1.3 × 10?5, odds ratio=1.31). Among previous candidate genes, supportive evidence for association of NPY5R with PD was obtained (gene-wise corrected P=6.4 × 10?4). Polygenic scores calculated from weakly associated SNPs (P<0.3 and 0.4) in the discovery sample were significantly associated with PD status in the target sample in both directions (sample I to sample II and vice versa) (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that large sets of common variants of small effects collectively account for risk of PD. PMID:23149450

  1. Association Between Antidepressants Use During Pregnancy and Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Antidepressants have been reported in several studies in the literature to be associated with the development of autistic disorder symptoms in children exposed to them during the time of their mothers’ pregnancies. There have also been reports of neurodevelopment delays associated with exposure to antidepressants in the same conditions. Design: We searched the PUBMED, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, and ERIC for original articles published between January 1983 and May 2013 to identify studies on the association between autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurodevelopment delays in children and exposure to antidepressants during pregnancy. Conclusion: At the end of our preliminary work, we retained only three articles that were pertinent to the purpose of our study. We extracted the available data in Excel files and then did a meta-analysis. The final results showed a positive association between the exposure to antidepressants in utero and autistic spectrum disorders. PMID:25152842

  2. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. Results From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114?009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Conclusions Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental studies are required to confirm a potentially beneficial effect of chocolate consumption. PMID:21875885

  3. Treatment of psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder with aripiprazole monotherapy: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available clinical trials concerning the usefulness of aripiprazole in the treatment of the psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder. Methods A systematic MEDLINE and repository search concerning clinical trials for aripiprazole in bipolar disorder was conducted. Results The meta-analysis of four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on acute mania suggests that the effect size of aripiprazole versus placebo was equal to 0.14 but a more reliable and accurate estimation is 0.18 for the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score. The effect was higher for the PANSS-positive subscale (0.28), PANSS-hostility subscale (0.24) and PANSS-cognitive subscale (0.20), and lower for the PANSS-negative subscale (0.12). No data on the depressive phase of bipolar illness exist, while there are some data in favour of aripiprazole concerning the maintenance phase, where at week 26 all except the total PANSS score showed a significant superiority of aripiprazole over placebo (d = 0.28 for positive, d = 0.38 for the cognitive and d = 0.71 for the hostility subscales) and at week 100 the results were similar (d = 0.42, 0.63 and 0.48, respectively). Conclusion The data analysed for the current study support the usefulness of aripiprazole against psychotic symptoms during the acute manic and maintenance phases of bipolar illness. PMID:20043829

  4. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  5. We Are Family - eating disorders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-01

    Forty-third monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Eating disorders often begin in adolescence and can last a lifetime. They are psychiatric disorders and their treatment is very difficult. New clinical experience points to a crucial component - family.

  6. Adding psychotherapy to antidepressant medication in depression and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander L; Andersson, Gerhard; Beekman, Aartjan T; Reynolds, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials in which the effects of treatment with antidepressant medication were compared to the effects of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in adults with a diagnosed depressive or anxiety disorder. A total of 52 studies (with 3,623 patients) met inclusion criteria, 32 on depressive disorders and 21 on anxiety disorders (one on both depressive and anxiety disorders). The overall difference between pharmacotherapy and combined treatment was Hedges' g?=?0.43 (95% CI: 0.31-0.56), indicating a moderately large effect and clinically meaningful difference in favor of combined treatment, which corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 4.20. There was sufficient evidence that combined treatment is superior for major depression, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The effects of combined treatment compared with placebo only were about twice as large as those of pharmacotherapy compared with placebo only, underscoring the clinical advantage of combined treatment. The results also suggest that the effects of pharmacotherapy and those of psychotherapy are largely independent from each other, with both contributing about equally to the effects of combined treatment. We conclude that combined treatment appears to be more effective than treatment with antidepressant medication alone in major depression, panic disorder, and OCD. These effects remain strong and significant up to two years after treatment. Monotherapy with psychotropic medication may not constitute optimal care for common mental disorders. PMID:24497254

  7. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cai-Yun; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Gong, Feng-Feng; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies examining the possible role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in the development of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) have provided inconclusive findings, this meta-analysis was therefore designed to get a more reliable assessment. A total of 38 articles were identified through a search of electronic databases, up to 27 February 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Meta-analysis showed that MTHFR C677T was significantly associated with SZ, the highest OR was found for the recessive model (for TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.53); a marginal association of MTHFR C677T with increased risk of BPD has also been found for the recessive model (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.59). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the significant association with SZ and BPD existed among Asian and African populations, but not for the white. MTHFR A1298C was significant associated with SZ, the highest OR for the dominant model (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.24). Subgroup analysis indicated a significant association with SZ existed in Asian populations, not among the white populations and no significant association was detected between the MTHFR A1298C and BPD in all groups. We conclude that MTHFR polymorphism is associated with SZ and BPD among Asian, African populations, but not the white. PMID:24938371

  9. PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN A FAMILY GUIDE TO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF EATING TO DO WITH THE BRAIN? Although people with eating disorders struggle to eat normally, this is only now believe that part of the problem has to do with how our brains process information about

  10. Mission impossible: treating serious mental illness and substance use co-occurring disorder with integrated treatment: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifton M. Chow; Dow Wieman; Ben Cichocki; Helena Qvicklund; Dorothy Hiersteiner

    2012-01-01

    Integrated treatment of co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders is defined by the concurrent delivery of treatment for both disorders by a team of providers. This approach is designed to increase effectiveness by minimizing obstacles experienced by individuals who are seeking care for co-occurring disorders. This meta-analysis analyzed the results of several studies conducted in the United States to

  11. The Effects of School-Based Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis 1996-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Vilardo, Brigid

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis evaluating the effects of school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted by examining 60 outcome studies between 1996 and 2010 that yielded 85 effect sizes. Separate analyses were performed for studies employing between-subjects, within- subjects, and single-subject experimental…

  12. Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Subjective and Objective Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 16 subjective and objective sleep studies with a sample of 722 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus a control that numbers 638 shows that the children with ADHD are significantly more impaired in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures than their counterpart.

  13. Maternal Diabetes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guifeng; Jing, Jin; Bowers, Katherine; Liu, Buyun; Bao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature search regarding maternal diabetes before and during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring. Of the 178 potentially relevant articles, 12 articles including three cohort studies and nine case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both the meta-analyses of cohort…

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric…

  15. PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine NEWTON-WELLESLEY EATING DISORDERS & BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE (www.nwedbmed.com) seeks a Massachusetts licensed Psychologist. Massachusetts licensure required and supervised training in eating disorders treatment, CBT, Cognitive Therapy

  16. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder and Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine A. Halmi

    2004-01-01

    Obsessions, compulsions, and personality traits such as perfectionism and inflexibility are commonly described in eating disorder patients. A lack of precise clarification has existed in defining the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in the various eating disorder subtypes. Research clarifying these definitions and the components of perfectionism as it pertains to eating disorders is reviewed in this

  17. Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Sassaroli; Leonor J. Romero Lauro; Giovanni Maria Ruggiero; Massimo C. Mauri; Piergiuseppe Vinai; Randy Frost

    2008-01-01

    High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and

  18. Mindfulness-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent and standard treatments are often unsatisfactory. Mindfulness-based therapy has shown benefit in conditions including chronic pain, mood, and somatization disorders. Objectives. To assess the quality and effectiveness reported in existing literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of mindfulness-based therapy in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods. Pubmed, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Study inclusion criteria included randomized, controlled studies of adults using mindfulness-based therapy in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias. Effect sizes were calculated and pooled to achieve a summary effect for the intervention on symptom severity and quality of life. Results. Of 119 records, eight articles, describing seven studies, met inclusion criteria. In six studies, significant improvements were achieved or maintained at the end of intervention or follow-up time points. The studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Pooled effects were statistically significant for IBS severity (0.59, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.86) and quality of life (0.56, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.79). Conclusion. Studies suggest that mindfulness based interventions may provide benefit in functional gastrointestinal disorders; however, substantial improvements in methodological quality and reporting are needed. PMID:25295066

  19. The neuropsychology of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Mittelman, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    A vast and heterogeneous body of literature on the neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has accumulated in recent decades, yielding inconsistent results. In an attempt to quantitatively summarize the literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of 115 studies (including 3452 patients), comparing adult OCD patients with healthy controls on tests of 10 neuropsychological domains. Across studies, medium mean effect sizes were found for all executive function subdomains, processing speed, and sustained attention. Small effect sizes were found for visuospatial abilities and working memory. A large effect size was found for non-verbal memory whereas a small effect size was found for verbal memory, where only the former was found to be associated with impairments in executive functions. Moderators of effect sizes were also investigated. Results are discussed in terms of their clinical significance as well as their implications for current neurobiological models of OCD and methodological caveats. PMID:24128603

  20. Antiepileptic medications in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

    2014-04-01

    Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and topiramate. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference between medication and placebo in four studies targeting irritability/agitation and three studies investigating global improvement, although limitations include lack of power and different medications with diverse actions. Across all seven studies, there was no significant difference in discontinuation rate between two groups. AEDs do not appear to have a large effect size to treat behavioral symptoms in ASD, but further research is needed, particularly in the subgroup of patients with epileptiform abnormalities. PMID:24077782

  1. Somatoform dissociation in eating-disordered patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Waller; M. Babbs; F. Wright; C. Potterton; C. Meyer; N. Leung

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the role of somatoform dissociation in eating disorders and pathological eating behaviour, relative to the established association of eating pathology with psychological dissociation. The participants were 131 women with DSM-IV diagnoses of anorexic or bulimic disorders and 75 women who had no such disorder. Each woman completed measures of psychological and somatoform dissociation, as well as a

  2. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  3. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  4. Eating disorders and health education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hartley

    1998-01-01

    Research evidence and clinical experience both indicate an increase in the incidence of eating disorders, particularly in younger children, including males under 14 years of age. Current health education material promotes diets low in fat and cholesterol as generally beneficial but generally does not report research evidence suggesting tentative links between such diets and increased aggression, depression and suicide. Animal

  5. Epidemiology of Binge Eating Disorder

    E-print Network

    Ruth H. Striegel-moore; Debra L. Franko

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Objective: First described over 50 years ago, binge eating disorder (BED) only recently has become the focus of epidemiologic studies. This article provides a comprehensive review of these studies. Method: Relevant studies were examined and summarized in the form of a narrative review

  6. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  7. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  8. The genetics of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Helder, Sietske G; Collier, David A

    2011-01-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder and allied diagnoses such as eating disorder not otherwise specified are common, complex psychiatric disorders with a significant genetic component. Aetiology is unknown, but both phenotypic characteristics and genetic factors appear to be shared across these disorders, and indeed patients often change between diagnostic categories. Molecular studies have attempted to define genetic risk factors for these disorders, including case-control and family-based candidate gene association studies and linkage analysis of multiply affected nuclear families. These have used both clinical diagnoses and eating disorder-related intermediate phenotypes such as drive-for-thinness or body dissatisfaction. Candidate gene studies have focussed on neurotransmitter and neurodevelopmental systems [e.g. serotonergic, opioid, cannabinoid and dopaminergic receptors, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)], appetite regulatory peptides and their receptors [leptin, ghrelin, agouti-related protein (AgRP), melanocortin receptors, neuropeptide Y], energy balance systems (e.g. uncoupling proteins), genes implicated in obesity (e.g. FTO) and sex hormone systems (e.g. oestrogen receptors), either identified on the basis of their function alone or as positional candidates from linkage analysis. Of these studies, linkage analysis implicates 1p33-36 for AN, 1q31.3 for quantitative behavioural traits related to anorexia and 10p14 for BN, as well as other behavioural phenotypes across both disorders. Candidate gene association has implicated BDNF, delta 1 opioid receptor (OPDR1) and AgRP. More recently, with the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), analysis with microsatellite markers has implicated novel candidate loci for AN at 1q41 and 11q22, and further GWAS results are expected in the near future. PMID:21243475

  9. Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…

  10. Mother-daughter coping and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25645347

  11. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secondary to major depression. A disturbance in interoceptive awareness exists independently in bulimia nervosa and in MAD providing a common diathesis from which bulimia may arise given family and social pressure. Bulimics with MAD do not respond to treatment as readily as those without MAD. It is recomended that these two groups be treated separately. PMID:1786263

  12. Impact of Physical Exercise on Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongshi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yingying; Li, Rena; Zhou, Chenglin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine whether long-term physical exercise could be a potential effective treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Methods The PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, CNKI and China Info were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies in regards to the effects of physical exercise on SUD between the years 1990 and 2013. Four main outcome measures including abstinence rate, withdrawal symptoms, anxiety, and depression were evaluated. Results Twenty-two studies were integrated in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that physical exercise can effectively increase the abstinence rate (OR?=?1.69 (95% CI: 1.44, 1.99), z?=?6.33, p<0.001), ease withdrawal symptoms (SMD?=??1.24 (95% CI: ?2.46, ?0.02), z?=??2, p<0.05), and reduce anxiety (SMD?=??0.31 (95% CI: ?0.45, ?0.16), z ?=? ?4.12, p<0.001) and depression (SMD ?=? ?0.47 (95% CI: ?0.80, ?0.14), z?=??2.76, p<0.01). The physical exercise can more ease the depression symptoms on alcohol and illicit drug abusers than nicotine abusers, and more improve the abstinence rate on illicit drug abusers than the others. Similar treatment effects were found in three categories: exercise intensity, types of exercise, and follow-up periods. Conclusions The moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercises, designed according to the Guidelines of American College of Sports Medicine, and the mind-body exercises can be an effective and persistent treatment for those with SUD. PMID:25330437

  13. TRAUMA AND DISSOCIATIVE EXPERIENCES IN EATING DISORDERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Dalle Grave; M. D. Manuela Oliosi; Patrizia Todisco; Claudia Bartocci

    This study investigates the relationship between trauma, dissocia- tive experiences, and eating psychopathology in a group of eating disorder patients. TheDissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q) and a semi- structured interview were used to assess 106 eating disorder patients at the start of an inpatient treatment program. DIS-Q scores were evaluated for the eating disorder patients and compared with the scores of 20

  14. Meta-Analysis: Hoarding Symptoms Associated with Poor Treatment Outcome in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Bartley, Christine A.; Zipperer, Lara; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2014-01-01

    DSM-5 recognizes Hoarding Disorder as distinct from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), codifying a new consensus. Hoarding Disorder was previously classified as a symptom of OCD and patients received treatments designed for OCD. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether OCD patients with hoarding symptoms responded differently to traditional OCD treatments than OCD patients without hoarding symptoms. An electronic search was conducted for eligible studies in PubMed. A trial was eligible for inclusion if it was (1) a randomized controlled trial, cohort or case-control study; (2) compared treatment response between OCD patients with and without hoarding symptoms, or examined response to treatment between OCD symptom dimensions (which typically include hoarding) and (3) examined treatment response to pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, or their combination. Our primary outcome was differential treatment response between OCD patients with and without hoarding, expressed as an odds ratio. Twenty-one studies involving 3039 total participants including 304 with hoarding symptoms were included. Patients with OCD and hoarding symptoms were significantly less likely to respond to traditional OCD treatments than OCD patients without hoarding symptoms (OR=0.50 (95%CI: 0.42–0.60), z=?7.5, p<0.0001). This finding was consistent across treatment modalities. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms represent a population in need of further treatment research. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms may benefit more from interventions specifically targeting their hoarding symptoms. PMID:24912494

  15. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  16. Internet-Based Innovations for the Prevention of Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mandi S. Newton; Donna Ciliska

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to compare the results of studies of Internet-based eating disorder prevention programs. Eight electronic bibliographic databases, three key journals, and study reference lists were searched. This method yielded five published studies: four experimental and one quasi-experimental. A meta-analysis of the study results indicated no statistical significance for pooled study outcome data. No robust

  17. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry. 2007;61(3):348–358. 2 Swanson SA, ... comorbidity survey replication adolescent supplement. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2011;68(7):714–723. 3 Uher R, ...

  18. The comorbidity between eating disorders and anxiety disorders: Prevalence in an eating disorder sample and anxiety disorder sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Swinbourne; Caroline Hunt; Maree Abbott; Janice Russell; Tamsen St Clare; Stephen Touyz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of comorbid eating and anxiety disorders in women presenting for inpatient and outpatient treatment of an eating disorder and women presenting for outpatient treatment of an anxiety disorder.Methods: The prevalence of comorbidity was investigated from a sample of 152 women, which included 100 women presenting for treatment of an eating disorder and 52 women presenting

  19. Stigma and eating and weight disorders.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young

    2015-03-01

    Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders. PMID:25652251

  20. Participation in Athletic Activitiesand Eating Disordered Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Heller Levitt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the following study was to examine the relationship between participation in athletic and exercise activities and eating disordered behavior among a college student population. A sample of 853 undergraduate students completed the EAT-26 and indicated participation in athletic activities to determine eating disorder-related dieting and exercise attitudes and behaviors. Results demonstrate that participation in recreational activities correlates

  1. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

  3. Personality disorders among subjects recovered from eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisato Matsunaga; Walter H. Kaye; Claire McConaha; Katherine Plotnicov; Christine Pollice; Radhika Rao

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Personality disorders are common in symptomatic eating disorders subjects. Because personality symptoms could be exaggerated by malnutrition or Axis I disorders, we studied women who had recovered from eating disorders for at least 1 year to see if personality disorder symptoms persisted in the well state. Method: Personality disorders were evaluated in 10 women recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN),

  4. Stereotactic surgery for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bomin; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    EATING DISORDERS (EDS) ARE A GROUP OF SEVERELY IMPAIRED EATING BEHAVIORS, WHICH INCLUDE THREE SUBGROUPS: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future. PMID:23682343

  5. Epidemiology of binge eating disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Debra L. Franko

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Objective: First described over 50 years ago, binge eating disorder (BED) only recently has become,the focus of epidemiologic,studies. This article provides a comprehen- sive review,of these studies. Method: Relevant studies were examined,and summarized,in the form of a narrative review. Results: Similar to the early studies of bulimia nervosa (BN), the first generation of epidemiologic,studies of BED is limited in

  6. Psychotic Disorders and Repeat Offending: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis on the risk of repeat offending in individuals with psychosis and to assess the effect of potential moderating characteristics on risk estimates. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 6 bibliographic databases from January 1966 to January 2009, supplemented with correspondence with authors. Studies that reported risks of repeat offending in individuals with psychotic disorders (n = 3511) compared with individuals with other psychiatric disorders (n = 5446) and healthy individuals (n = 71?552) were included. Risks of repeat offending were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to examine how risk estimates were affected by various study characteristics including mean sample age, study location, sample size, study period, outcome measure, duration of follow-up, and diagnostic criteria. Results: Twenty-seven studies, which included 3511 individuals with psychosis, were identified. Compared with individuals without any psychiatric disorders, there was a significantly increased risk of repeat offending in individuals with psychosis (pooled OR = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–1.8), although this was only based on 4 studies. In contrast, there was no association when individuals with other psychiatric disorders were used as the comparison group (pooled OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.7–1.3), although there was substantial heterogeneity. Higher risk estimates were found in female-only samples with psychosis and in studies conducted in the United States. Conclusions: The association between psychosis and repeat offending differed depending on the comparison group. Despite this, we found no support for the findings of previous reviews that psychosis is associated with a lower risk of repeat offending. PMID:19959703

  7. Guanfacine for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Simona; Clavenna, Antonio; Reale, Laura; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    To review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the safety and efficacy of guanfacine in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a bibliographic search up to May 2014 was performed using the Cochrane Library?s Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Embase, PsycINFO, and Medline databases, and clinical trials registers. The search terms used were: ["guanfacine"] and ["child" or "adolescent" or "pediatrics"] and ["randomized controlled trial"] and ["Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity" or "Attention Deficit Disorder" or "Attention Hyperactivity Disorder" or "Hyperactivity" or "ADHD"]. A meta-analysis was performed using response, defined as a score ? 2 on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement score, as the outcome measure. In all, 7 out of 48 studies were included, for a total of 1752 participants. All studies compared guanfacine versus placebo, with a duration ranging from 6 to 16 weeks. In all, the Clinical Global Impression Improvement score was reported as a secondary measure. Overall, 694/1177 (59.0%) participants in the guanfacine group benefited from the treatment compared to 192/575 (33.3%) in the placebo group (pooled OR 3.2; 95%CI 2.4-4.1). The participants with at least one adverse event were 948 (82.4%) in the guanfacine and 376 (67.9%) in the placebo group (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6-4.4). Somnolence (OR 4.9), sedation (OR 2.8), and fatigue (OR 2.2), were the adverse events with the greatest risk of occurrence in the guanfacine versus the placebo group. On the basis of seven randomized, placebo controlled trials guanfacine resulted safe and effective in treating children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:25156577

  8. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (< 2 hours) versus long (? 2 hours) average binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  9. Meta-analysis of FKBP5 gene polymorphisms association with treatment response in patients with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan-Feng; Wang, Fang; Feng, Xiao-Liang; Li, Wen-Fei; Tao, Jin-Hui; Pan, Fa-Ming; Huang, Fen; Su, Hong

    2010-10-22

    The aim of our study was to assess the association between FKBP5 gene polymorphisms and treatment response in patients with mood disorders using a meta-analysis. Eight separate studies that included data from 2199 subjects were identified. Meta-analysis was performed for three FKBP5 gene polymorphisms (rs1360780, rs3800373, and rs4713916). A significant association of FKBP5 gene rs4713916 polymorphism and response rate was found in patients with mood disorders (Overall: A versus G: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.06-1.53, P=0.01; GA+AA versus GG: OR=1.32, 95%CI=1.05-1.67, P=0.02. Caucasian: A versus G: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.06-1.55, P=0.01; GA+AA versus GG: OR=1.33, 95%CI=1.04-1.70, P=0.02). However, we did not detect the association between FKBP5 gene rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms and treatment response in patients with mood disorders (P>0.05). This meta-analysis demonstrates that treatment response in patients with mood disorders is associated with FKBP5 gene rs4713916 polymorphism, but not rs1360780 and rs3800373. PMID:20709156

  10. Eating disorders: assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W G; Schlundt, D G

    1985-09-01

    Anorexia and bulimia are eating disorders affecting a significant number of adolescent and young adult women. The core symptoms of both disorders are similar and include a fear of obesity, body image disturbance, erratic eating patterns, and purging. These symptoms produce significant physical and psychologic complications. Both anorexia and bulimia appear to have a common origin in a fear of obesity and dieting. Anorectics, being "successful" dieters, lose a significant amount of weight; whereas bulimics alternate between binges and purges. Treatment for the eating disorders is gradually evolving as clinical research experience accumulates. For anorexia, hospitalization is indicated when weight falls below 15% of ideal, and most investigators agree that therapy for the core symptoms cannot be undertaken until weight is restored. During the impatient stay, a behavior modification program can effectively organize medical, nutritional, and psychologic support, and offers the quickest and most direct route to weight restoration. The nasogastric tube and total parenteral nutrition are used primarily for those who are severely emaciated or who actively resist standard modes of therapy. Inpatient treatment is most effectively and efficiently rendered in a specialized eating disorder unit. Once weight restoration is progressing, behavior therapy for core symptoms is commenced and continued on an outpatient basis. A variety of behavioral techniques are employed, and they are designed primarily to influence anorectic assumptions and beliefs. Although there may be a brief inpatient stay for initiation of treatment, the bulk of therapy for bulimia occurs on an outpatient basis. The available literature indicates that behavioral techniques and antidepressant medication are effective for the symptoms of bulimia. Early identification of core symptoms of both disorders can lead to an initiation of treatment before the core symptoms become ingrained. A potentially more effective intervention lies in efforts to influence the media. As noted, standards for feminine beauty as portrayed in the media have changed significantly over the past 20 years. An attempt at the primary prevention of eating disorders would include efforts to convince the media to change their standards of femininity from cosmetic slimness to a focus on health and physical fitness. These efforts could stem from professional and lay organizations who have the interest and capability to influence policy. PMID:3863731

  11. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

  12. Perfect Illusions: Eating Disorders and the Family

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This Web site is the online companion to the PBS documentary of the same name, which aired February 24, 2003, as part of Eating Disorders Awareness Week. With this "hidden epidemic" affecting millions of people in the US alone, especially young women, this site provides a valuable resource for those wishing to learn more about three common eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. In addition to presenting detailed information for each disorder -- including symptoms, health consequences, and prevention -- the Web site supplies information for seeking help, and other resources such as personal stories from eating disorder sufferers and survivors.

  13. Updated meta-analysis of classical fear conditioning in the anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Duits, Puck; Cath, Danielle C; Lissek, Shmuel; Hox, Joop J; Hamm, Alfons O; Engelhard, Iris M; van den Hout, Marcel A; Baas, Joke M P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) to systematically examine differences in fear conditioning between anxiety patients and healthy controls using meta-analytic methods, and (2) to examine the extent to which study characteristics may account for the variability in findings across studies. Forty-four studies (published between 1920 and 2013) with data on 963 anxiety disordered patients and 1,222 control subjects were obtained through PubMed and PsycINFO, as well as from a previous meta-analysis on fear conditioning (Lissek et al.). Results demonstrated robustly increased fear responses to conditioned safety cues (CS-) in anxiety patients compared to controls during acquisition. This effect may represent an impaired ability to inhibit fear in the presence of safety cues (CS-) and/or may signify an increased tendency in anxiety disordered patients to generalize fear responses to safe stimuli resembling the conditioned danger cue (CS+). In contrast, during extinction, patients show stronger fear responses to the CS+ and a trend toward increased discrimination learning (differentiation between the CS+ and CS-) compared to controls, indicating delayed and/or reduced extinction of fear in anxiety patients. Finally, none of the included study characteristics, such as the type of fear measure (subjective vs. psychophysiological index of fear), could account significantly for the variance in effect sizes across studies. Further research is needed to investigate the predictive value of fear extinction on treatment outcome, as extinction processes are thought to underlie the beneficial effects of exposure treatment in anxiety disorders. PMID:25703487

  14. Facial emotion processing in borderline personality disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amy E; Dickens, Geoffrey L; Picchioni, Marco M

    2014-06-01

    A body of work has developed over the last 20 years that explores facial emotion perception in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). We identified 25 behavioural and functional imaging studies that tested facial emotion processing differences between patients with BPD and healthy controls through a database literature search. Despite methodological differences there is consistent evidence supporting a negative response bias to neutral and ambiguous facial expressions in patients. Findings for negative emotions are mixed with evidence from individual studies of an enhanced sensitivity to fearful expressions and impaired facial emotion recognition of disgust, while meta-analysis revealed no significant recognition impairments between BPD and healthy controls for any negative emotion. Mentalizing studies indicate that BPD patients are accurate at attributing mental states to complex social stimuli. Functional neuroimaging data suggest that the underlying neural substrate involves hyperactivation in the amygdala to affective facial stimuli, and altered activation in the anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal sulcus particularly during social emotion processing tasks. Future studies must address methodological inconsistencies, particularly variations in patients' key clinical characteristics and in the testing paradigms deployed. PMID:24574071

  15. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments. PMID:25455628

  16. Temperament and emotional eating: a crucial relationship in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Godini, Lucia; Mannucci, Edoardo; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

    2015-02-28

    Specific personality traits are related to Eating Disorders (EDs) specific and general psychopathology. Recent studies suggested that Emotional Eating (EE) is a common dimension in all EDs, irrespective of binge eating. The present study was aimed to explore the relationship of temperamental features with EE and eating symptomatology in a sample of EDs patients, adjusting for general psychopathology. One hundred and sixty six female patients were enrolled at the Eating Disorders Outpatient Clinic of the Careggi Teaching-Hospital of Florence. Participants completed the emotional eating scale, the temperament and character inventory, the eating disorder examination questionnaire and the symptom checklist 90-revised. Novelty seeking and self directedness showed significant correlations with EE after adjustment for general psychopathology. Patients with binge eating displayed significant associations between EE and novelty seeking and self directedness. Among patients without binge eating, no significant correlation between EE and temperamental features was observed. Specific temperamental features are associated to EE in EDs. A clear, different pattern of association in patients with different eating attitudes and behavior was found. Considering that treatments of EDs are largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions, focused on emotions and cognitions, the present data provide some hints which could be helpful for the development of more appropriate psychotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25537489

  17. Eating disorders in athletes: managing the risks.

    PubMed

    Currie, Alan; Morse, Eric D

    2005-10-01

    Athletes risk injuries and make personal sacrifices in their education, careers, and personal relationships in pursuit of excellence. Well-prepared athletes and their support teams take steps to minimize these risks. Since the 1980s, it has been apparent that development of an eating disorder is a risk associated with considerable morbidity and significant mortality, and with shorter careers characterized by inconsistency and recurrent injury. How likely is it that an athlete will develop an eating disorder? Who is at risk? Can eating disorders be prevented? How can eating disorders be identified? What are the consequences of developing an eating disorder? What can be done to help an athlete who has an eating disorder? This article attempts to answer these questions. PMID:16169451

  18. American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Juleen K.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered

  19. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  20. Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535

  1. New Global Perspectives on Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Becker

    2004-01-01

    Why devote a special issue of Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry to new global perspectives on eating disorders? First, the public health impact of eating disorders is substantial. These illnesses—which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder—affect over five million Americans (National Institute of Mental Health 1994) and are associated with serious medical and psychiatric comorbidity. In fact, the mortality

  2. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders

  3. The Eating Disorders Outreach Service: Enabling Clinicians Statewide to Treat Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Painter; Warren Ward; Peter Gibbon; Brett Emmerson

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the Eating Disorders Outreach Service (EDOS), which supports clinicians in the treatment and management of eating disorder patients across Queensland. EDOS's mandate is to facilitate intake to the specialist inpatient and outpatient services at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) and to provide eating disorders education and consultation liaison to

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Profiles in Eating Disorder Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriella Milos; Anja Spindler; Ulrich Schnyder

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examines potential overlaps between psychiatric comorbidity (Axis I and II) and scores on the subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) in women with eating disorders (EDs). Method: In a sample of 248 women (72 with anorexia nervosa, 140 with bulimia nervosa, and 36 with eating disorders not otherwise specified), we determined psychiatric comorbidity using the Structured

  5. Factor Structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Interview in Patients With Binge-eating Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos M. Grilo; Ross D. Crosby; Carol B. Peterson; Robin M. Masheb; Marney A. White; Scott J. Crow; Stephen A. Wonderlich; James E. Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) as a primary assessment instrument in studies of eating and weight disorders, little is known about the psychometric aspects of this interview measure. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the EDE interview in a large series of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Participants

  6. Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V.; Lugtenberg, Marlies J.; Smets, Eline; van Schayck, Constant P.; Kramer, Boris W.; Mommers, Monique; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. Methods and Findings Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995–23 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated “dose–response” associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57–1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children) and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children). The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61–3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55–3.12). Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ?3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual confounding. Conclusions There is compelling evidence that preterm birth—particularly very preterm birth—increases the risk of asthma. Given the projected global increases in children surviving preterm births, research now needs to focus on understanding underlying mechanisms, and then to translate these insights into the development of preventive interventions. Review Registration PROSPERO CRD42013004965 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24492409

  7. Eating disorders among high performance athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dexa Stoutjesdyk; Ronna Jevne

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eating disorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes

  8. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  9. Perplexities of treatment resistence in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed. Description The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the eating disorders. Conclusion Treatment resistance in eating disorders is usually predicted by the severity of the core eating disorder psychopathology which develops from an interaction between environmental risk factors with genetic traits and a vulnerable neurobiology. Future investigations of the biological features and neurocircuitry of the core eating disorders psychopathology and behaviors may provide information for more successful treatment interventions. PMID:24199597

  10. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Eating disorders are serious, even life-threatening, medical illnesses that have biological and psychological causes. They are treatable. Recovery is possible. "I tell ...

  11. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  12. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  13. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    DeRamus, Thomas P; Kana, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal-temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations. PMID:25844306

  14. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeRamus, Thomas P.; Kana, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  15. Bulimia: Growing Awareness of an Eating Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudkovitz, Elaine

    1983-01-01

    Describes bulimia, a disorder involving binge eating and purging increasingly prevalent in young women. Reviews the literature and describes symptoms, etiological factors, and treatment considerations and approaches for the disorder. (Author)

  16. Assessment of Eating Disordered Behaviors in Middle School Students Using the Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Affenito; E. J. Khu; K. Carroll

    1998-01-01

    Eating disorders commonly develop during adolescence. In order to devise a prevention\\/education program, it is necessary to assess the presence of eating disordered behaviors in this population. The Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS) was used to gather data on body dissatisfaction, exercise and eating habits and restricting\\/purging behaviors. School and health professionals administered the self-report questionnaire to eighth grade students

  17. Eating patterns in patients with spectrum binge eating disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Kate; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to describe meal and snack frequencies of individuals with recurrent binge eating and examine the association between these eating patterns and clinical correlates. Method Data from 106 women with a minimum diagnosis of recurrent binge eating were utilized. Meal and snack frequencies were correlated with measures of weight, eating disorder features, and depression. Participants who ate breakfast every day (n=25) were compared with those who did not (n=81) on the same measures. Results Breakfast was the least, and dinner the most, commonly consumed meal. Evening snacking was the most common snacking occasion. Meal patterns were not significantly associated with clinical correlates; however, evening snacking was associated with binge eating. Discussion Our findings largely replicated those reported in earlier research. More research is needed to determine the role of breakfast consumption in binge eating. PMID:21661003

  18. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and ?(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. PMID:21896116

  19. Binge eating disorder in extreme obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LKG Hsu; B Mulliken; B McDonagh; S Krupa Das; W Rand; CG Fairburn; B Rolls; MA McCrory; E Saltzman; S Shikora; J Dwyer; S Roberts

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extremely obese binge eating disorder (BED) subjects (BED defined by the Eating Disorder Examination) differ from their extremely obese non-BED counterparts in terms of their eating disturbances, psychiatric morbidity and health status.DESIGN: Prospective clinical comparison of BED and non-BED subjects undergoing gastric bypass surgery (GBP).SUBJECTS: Thirty seven extremely obese (defined as BMI ?40 kg\\/m2) subjects (31

  20. Eating disorders in males: A representative survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Kinzl; C. Traweger; E. Trefalt; B. Mangweth; W. Biebl

    1998-01-01

    Summary   The present study examined the prevalence of eating disorders in a male representative random sample in Tyrol. The data\\u000a were collected by telephone. Of the 1000 men, 8 (0.8%) met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder. An additional\\u000a 42 subjects (4.2%) exhibited a partial binge eating syndrome. These two otherwise widely identical groups of binge eaters\\u000a were

  1. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  2. Factors Associated with Eating Disorders in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Knowles; Faculty Mentor; Frances Smith

    Although various factors associated with eating disorders have been studied, no comprehensive source of research findings was identified in this review. The purpose of this study was to identify and synthesize research findings of factors associated with eating disorders in women published from 1992-2008. These findings may be useful to nurses, other professionals, families, and the public to facilitate the

  3. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  4. A Review of Eating Disorders in Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas B. Hildebrandt

    2005-01-01

    The current review aims to evaluate the literature on eating disorders and athletes with the purpose of making recommendations for sport psychologists and other relevant personnel on how to proceed in identifying, managing, and preventing eating disorders in school settings. Whereas the intention of this review is to make recommendations for secondary educational settings, research on other populations such as

  5. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  6. Alexithymia and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Karukivi; Lea Hautala; Jan Korpelainen; Kirsi-Maria Haapasalo-Pesu; Pirjo-Riitta Liuksila; Matti Joukamaa; Simo Saarijärvi

    2010-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence indicates an association between alexithymia and eating disorder symptoms. This possible association was evaluated in a non-clinical sample of late adolescents. Seven hundred and twenty nine adolescents completed the questionnaire and formed the final sample. Alexithymia was measured using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale and eating disorder symptoms were assessed using the SCOFF questionnaire. The

  7. Cerebral metabolism in major depressive disorder: a voxel-based meta-analysis of positron emission tomography studies.

    PubMed

    Su, Liang; Cai, Yiyun; Xu, Yifeng; Dutt, Anirban; Shi, Shenxun; Bramon, Elvira

    2014-11-19

    BackgroundMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental illness with high lifetime prevalence close to 20%. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have reported decreased prefrontal, insular and limbic cerebral glucose metabolism in depressed patients compared with healthy controls. However, the literature has not always been consistent. To evaluate current evidence from PET studies, we conducted a voxel-based meta-analysis of cerebral metabolism in MDD.MethodData were collected from databases including PubMed and Web of Science, with the last report up to April 2013. Voxel-based meta-analyses were performed using the revised activation likelihood estimation (ALE) software.ResultsTen whole-brain-based FDG-PET studies in MDD were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 188 MDD patients and 169 healthy controls. ALE analyses showed the brain metabolism in bilateral insula, left lentiform nucleus putamen and extra-nuclear, right caudate and cingulate gyrus were significantly decreased. However, the brain activity in right thalamus pulvinar and declive of posterior lobe, left culmen of vermis in anterior lobe were significantly increased in MDD patients.ConclusionOur meta-analysis demonstrates the specific brain regions where possible dysfunctions are more consistently reported in MDD patients. Altered metabolism in insula, limbic system, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and thus these regions are likely to play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:25407081

  8. Using Meta-analysis to Compare the Efficacy of Medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Youths

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    Medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been well researched, but comparisons among agents are hindered by the absence of head-to-head clinical trials. By using meta-analysis, we sought to compare the efficacy of these medications for the symptoms of ADHD. We analyzed published literature on the pharmacotherapy of ADHD to describe the variability of drug–placebo effect sizes and conducted a literature search to identify double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of youths with ADHD that were published after 1979. Meta-analysis regression was used to assess the influence of the medication type on drug effects. We also assessed for publication bias. Thirty-two trials met our criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. These trials involved 16 drugs using 20 different outcome measures of ADHD behaviors. The effect sizes for immediate-release stimulants and long-acting stimulants were similar and were greater than the effect sizes for non-stimulants. There was no evidence of publication bias. Although nearly all of the ADHD medications had significant effects, we found substantial variability. When translated into the costs of treating large numbers of patients, these effect sizes have implications for formulary medication choices. PMID:20140141

  9. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating in Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence, Screening, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hanlan, Margo E.; Griffith, Julie; Patel, Niral

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Recent research indicates higher prevalence rates of eating disorders among people with type 1 diabetes, as compared to their peers without diabetes. Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors – especially insulin omission – are associated with poorer glycemic control and serious risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin in pre-adolescence and continue through early adulthood, as many disordered eating behaviors begin during the transition to adolescence and may persist for years. Available screening tools and treatment options are reviewed. Given the complexity of diabetes management in combination with eating disorder treatment, it is imperative to screen early and often, in order to identify those most vulnerable and begin appropriate treatment in a timely manner. PMID:24022608

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions relevant for young offenders with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, or self-harm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Townsend; Dawn-Marie Walker; Sally Sargeant; Panos Vostanis; Keith Hawton; Olivia Stocker; Jabulani Sithole

    2010-01-01

    Background Mood and anxiety disorders, and problems with self-harm are significant and serious issues that are common in young people in the Criminal Justice System.Aims To examine whether interventions relevant to young offenders with mood or anxiety disorders, or problems with self-harm are effective.Method Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials relevant to young offenders experiencing these

  11. Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable than Autistic Disorder? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondeau, Emelie; Klein, Leslie S.; Masse, Andre; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as…

  12. Attributional style in the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Tamara; Waller, Glenn; Lawson, Rachel

    2006-04-01

    Previous research has shown that patients with eating disorders have a characteristic cognitive bias, making internal attributions when evaluating negative events. However, there is less clarity about their attributions for positive events. There are suggestions that this cognitive style might be influenced by depressed mood. This study examines attributional style in the eating disorders for positive and negative events, independent of covariant effects of depression. Twenty-five eating-disordered women and 26 nonclinical women each completed measures of attributional style, depressed mood, and eating pathology. They also completed a measure of verbal intelligence (to ensure comparability of groups). Women with an eating disorder had a greater tendency to attribute negative situations to the self when compared with nonclinical women, even when differences in depressed mood were controlled for. There were no comparable differences in positive attributional biases. Women with an eating disorder adopt a self-blaming style when evaluating negative events, and such self-blame is likely to contribute to the maintenance of an eating disorder. This suggests that therapy for the eating disorders should include an element that focuses on highlighting and re-evaluating such interpretations. PMID:16614553

  13. Eating and Exercise Disorders in Young College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,…

  14. Eating disorders among adolescents: patterns and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Kagan, D M; Squires, R L

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) estimate the prevalence of disordered eating habits among adolescents; and (b) examine relationships between bingeing -dieting and feelings of psychosocial constraint. Disordered eating was defined as bingeing , highly restrictive dieting, emotional eating, or purging. A 71-item questionnaire was completed by 2,004 high school students. Disordered eating, as a distinct syndrome of behaviors, was found in 2% of all subjects. Seven percent of all subjects (11% of all females) were classified as emotional eaters. The prevalence (once a week or more often) of individual behaviors ranged widely: Bingeing = 20%, purging = 5%, feeling out of control about food = 27%. Factor analyses indicated that bingeing -dieting as a cycle was not a major behavioral pattern among subjects. Dieting vs. uncontrollable eating emerged as separate constellations of behaviors. Dieting was related to endorsement of regulation and constraint. Dieting and compulsive eating were both related to feelings of failure. PMID:6610284

  15. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M; Perrin, Sean

    2011-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature identified 31 studies involving 2,121 young people (aged <18 years) with ASD, and where the presence of anxiety disorder was assessed using standardized questionnaires or diagnostic interviews. Across studies, 39.6% of young people with ASD had at least one comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorder, the most frequent being specific phobia (29.8%) followed by OCD (17.4%) and social anxiety disorder (16.6%). Associations were found between the specific anxiety disorders and ASD subtype, age, IQ, and assessment method (questionnaire versus interview). Implications for the identification and treatment of anxiety in young people with ASD are discussed. PMID:21735077

  16. The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    Review The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders Kent C circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain in obesity or in eating disorders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Obesity Eating Food

  17. Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable Than Autistic Disorder? A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emélie Rondeau; Leslie S. Klein; André Masse; Nicolas Bodeau; David Cohen; Jean-Marc Guilé

    We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline\\u000a search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder\\u000a (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as response criterion. The\\u000a pooled Relative Risk was

  18. Eating Disorders in a Nonclinical Adolescent Population: Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachenmeyer, Juliana Rasic; Muni-Brander, Paulette

    1988-01-01

    Investigated prevalence of adolescent eating disorders across gender, cultural groupings, and socioeconomic status. Administered Eating Attitudes Test, Binge-Eating Questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire to 1,261 high school students. Results indicated high rate of eating disorders in nonclinical adolescent population. Eating disorders

  19. The Prevalence of Subclinical Eating Disorders among Male Cyclists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun K. Riebl; Andrew W. Subudhi; Jeffery P. Broker; Kim Schenck; Jacqueline R. Berning

    2007-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors are typically seen as a problem in females and there are little data assessing their prevalence in males. The objective of the present cross-sectional investigation was to identify subclinical disordered eating patterns and dietary characteristics among competitive male cyclists. A nutritional questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and Survey of Eating Disorders Among Cyclists, were completed by

  20. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

  1. Suicide attempts in women with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, Emily M; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated whether the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts/completions was higher in women with a lifetime history of an eating disorder than in women with no eating disorder and assessed whether eating disorder features, comorbid psychopathology, and personality characteristics were associated with suicide attempts in women with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (ANR), anorexia nervosa, binge-purge subtype (ANBP), lifetime history of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (ANBN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Participants were part of the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (N = 13,035) cohort. Lifetime suicide attempts were identified using diagnoses from the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. General linear models were applied to evaluate whether eating disorder category (ANR, ANBP, ANBN, BN, BED, PD, or no eating disorder [no ED]) was associated with suicide attempts and to identify factors associated with suicide attempts. Relative to women with no ED, lifetime suicide attempts were significantly more common in women with all types of eating disorder. None of the eating disorder features or personality variables was significantly associated with suicide attempts. In the ANBP and ANBN groups, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric conditions was higher in individuals with than without a lifetime suicide attempt. The odds of suicide were highest in presentations that included purging behavior (ANBN, ANBN, BN, and PD), but were elevated in all eating disorders. To improve outcomes and decrease mortality, it is critical to be vigilant for suicide and identify indices for those who are at greatest risk. PMID:24364606

  2. Eating disorders and spirituality in college students.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lauren; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Mechling, Brandy M; MacKain, Sally; Kim-Godwin, Yeounsoo; Leopard, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Associations were examined between eating disorder symptoms and spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of college students. Undergraduate nursing students at a university in a Mid-Atlantic coastal beach community were recruited for the study. A total of 115 students completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS); the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food (SCOFF) screening questionnaire; and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Approximately one quarter of students had positive screens for an eating disorder, and 40% admitted to binging/purging. SWBS scores reflected low life satisfaction and a lack of clarity and purpose among students. A significant association was found between EAT-26 scores and SWBS Existential Well-Being (EWB) sub-scale scores (p = 0.014). SCOFF scores were significantly associated with SWBS EWB scores (p = 0.001). Symptoms of eating disorders were pervasive. Future research that assesses the impact of spiritual factors on eating disorders may help health care providers better understand the unique contributions to the development of eating disorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(1), 30-37.]. PMID:25490775

  3. Effects of Stimulants on Brain Function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rubia, Katya; Alegria, Analucia A.; Cubillo, Ana I.; Smith, Anna B.; Brammer, Michael J.; Radua, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychostimulant medication, most commonly the catecholamine agonist methylphenidate, is the most effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, relatively little is known on the mechanisms of action. Acute effects on brain function can elucidate underlying neurocognitive effects. We tested methylphenidate effects relative to placebo in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during three disorder-relevant tasks in medication-naïve ADHD adolescents. In addition, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI findings of acute stimulant effects on ADHD brain function. Methods The fMRI study compared 20 adolescents with ADHD under either placebo or methylphenidate in a randomized controlled trial while performing stop, working memory, and time discrimination tasks. The meta-analysis was conducted searching PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. Peak coordinates of clusters of significant effects of stimulant medication relative to placebo or off medication were extracted for each study. Results The fMRI analysis showed that methylphenidate significantly enhanced activation in bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/insula during inhibition and time discrimination but had no effect on working memory networks. The meta-analysis, including 14 fMRI datasets and 212 children with ADHD, showed that stimulants most consistently enhanced right IFC/insula activation, which also remained for a subgroup analysis of methylphenidate effects alone. A more lenient threshold also revealed increased putamen activation. Conclusions Psychostimulants most consistently increase right IFC/insula activation, which are key areas of cognitive control and also the most replicated neurocognitive dysfunction in ADHD. These neurocognitive effects may underlie their positive clinical effects. PMID:24314347

  4. Meta-analysis of whole-genome linkage scans of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Badner; E S Gershon

    2002-01-01

    Badner and Gershon (2001) presented a technique of meta-analysis of linkage data that could be applied to published genome scans. It combines the reported P-values of individual studies, after correcting each value for the size of the region containing a minimum P-value. Simulations demonstrated that the type I error rate was at least as low as that for a single

  5. Mindfulness-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Somatization Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Schofield, Kerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been used effectively to treat a variety of physical and psychological disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. Recently, several lines of research have explored the potential for mindfulness-therapy in treating somatization disorders, including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Thirteen studies were identified as fulfilling the present criteria of employing randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of any form of MBT in treating somatization disorders. A meta-analysis of the effects of mindfulness-based therapy on pain, symptom severity, quality of life, depression, and anxiety was performed to determine the potential of this form of treatment. Findings While limited in power, the meta-analysis indicated a small to moderate positive effect of MBT (compared to wait-list or support group controls) in reducing pain (SMD ?=??0.21, 95% CI: ?0.37, ?0.03; p<0.05), symptom severity (SMD ?=??0.40, 95% CI: ?0.54, ?0.26; p<0.001), depression (SMD ?=??0.23, 95% CI: ?0.40, ?0.07, p<0.01), and anxiety (SMD ?=??0.20, 95% CI: ?0.42, 0.02, p?=?0.07) associated with somatization disorders, and improving quality of life (SMD ?=?0.39, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.59; p<0.001) in patients with this disorder. Subgroup analyses indicated that the efficacy of MBT was most consistent for irritable bowel syndrome (p<0.001 for pain, symptom severity, and quality of life), and that mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MCBT) were more effective than eclectic/unspecified MBT. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that MBT may be effective in treating at least some aspects of somatization disorders. Further research is warranted. PMID:23990997

  6. Substance use among women with eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Wiederman; Tamara Pryor

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The results of past research suggest that bulimics are more likely than anorexics to engage in substance use, and that binge eating and\\/or purging may be an indicator of increased likelihood of substance use. We further investigated substance use among women with eating disorders. Method: We compared women with anorexia nervosa (n = 134) to women with bulimia nervosa

  7. Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

  8. School Counselors' Knowledge of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joy A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Findings from 337 school counselors revealed 11 percent rated themselves as very competent in helping students with eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), 49 percent considered themselves moderately competent, 40 percent believed they were not very competent; 75 percent did not believe it was their role to treat students with eating

  9. Eating Disorders: A Means for Seeking Approval?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice Moulton; Michael Moulton; Scott Roach

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the predictive relationship of specific eating disorder symptomology including drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness, perfectionism, interpersonal distrust, low interoceptive awareness, and maturity fears with the need for approval. A total of 495 college students completed an 84-item questionnaire phus demographic information. The questionnaire consisted of the Revised Martin-Larsen Approval Motivation Scale (MLAM) and the Eating

  10. What everyone else is eating: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of informational eating norms on eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2014-03-01

    There is interest in the hypothesis that social norms are a determinant of healthy and unhealthy dietary practices. The objective of our work was to assess the weight of evidence that experimentally manipulated information about eating norms influences food intake and choice. This systematic review of experimental studies examined whether providing information about other peoples' eating habits influences food intake or choices. To inform the review, three electronic databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and the Social Sciences Citation Index) were searched during July 2012. A narrative approach was used to synthesize studies that examined the influence of norms on food choice and meta-analyses were used to synthesize the effect that informational eating norms have on quantity of food consumed. Fifteen experimental studies were reviewed. There was evidence that both high intake norms (Z=3.84; P=0.0001; standardized mean difference 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.63) and low intake norms (Z=2.78; P=0.005; standard mean difference -0.35, 95% confidence interval -0.59 to -0.10) exerted moderate influence on amounts of food eaten. There was consistent evidence that norms influenced food choices; norm information indicating that others make low-energy or high-energy food choices significantly increased the likelihood that participants made similar choices. Information about eating norms influences choice and quantity of food eaten, which could be used to promote healthy changes to dietary behavior. PMID:24388484

  11. Physiologic Screening Test for Eating Disorders/Disordered Eating Among Female Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Black, David R.; Larkin, Laurie J.S.; Coster, Daniel C.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Abood, Doris A.

    2003-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate a physiologic screening test specifically designed for collegiate female athletes engaged in athletic competition or highly athletic performances in order to detect eating disorders/disordered eating. No such physiologically based test currently exists. METHODS: Subjects included 148 (84.5%) of 175 volunteer, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (n = 92), club (n = 15), and dance team (n = 41) athletes 18 to 25 years old who attended a large, Midwestern university. Participants completed 4 tests: 2 normed for the general population (Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Bulimia Test-Revised); a new physiologic test, developed and pilot tested by the investigators, called the Physiologic Screening Test; and the Eating Disorder Exam 12.0D, a structured, validated, diagnostic interview used for criterion validity. RESULTS: The 18-item Physiologic Screening Test produced the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (78%) and was superior to the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (sensitivity = 62%, specificity = 74%) and Bulimia Test-Revised (sensitivity = 27%, specificity = 99%). A substantial number (n = 51, 35%) of athletes were classified as eating disordered/disordered eating. CONCLUSIONS: The Physiologic Screening Test should be considered for screening athletes for eating disorders/disordered eating. The Physiologic Screening Test seems to be a viable alternative to existing tests because it is specifically designed for female athletes, it is brief (4 measurements and 14 items), and validity is enhanced and response bias is lessened because the purpose is less obvious, especially when included as part of a mandatory preparticipation examination. PMID:14737209

  12. Parenting styles and eating disorder pathology.

    PubMed

    Enten, Roni S; Golan, Moria

    2009-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa, and 3 diagnosed ED-NOS. Data was collected using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Significant, negative correlations were found between drive for thinness scores and body dissatisfaction scores and the patient's perception of the father as authoritative. Total patient EDI score was significantly and positively correlated with patient's perception of the father as authoritarian and inversely correlated with her perception of him as authoritative. These results emphasize the importance of fathers' role in the eating disorder pathology, a relatively untapped area of research. PMID:19501782

  13. Psychopharmacologic treatment of eating disorders: emerging findings.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Keck, Paul E

    2015-05-01

    Psychopharmacologic treatment is playing a greater role in the management of patients with eating disorders. In this paper, we review randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other eating disorders over the past 3 years. Fluoxetine remains the only medication approved for an eating disorder, that being BN. RCTs of antipsychotics in AN have had mixed results; the only agent with some evidence of efficacy is olanzapine. One study suggests dronabinol may induce weight gain in AN. Preliminary studies suggest lack of efficacy of alprazolam, dehydroepiandrosterone, or physiologic estrogen replacement in AN; erythromycin in BN; and the opioid antagonist ALKS-33 in BED. In BED with obesity or overweight, bupropion may cause mild weight loss without seizures, and chromium may improve glucose regulation. Also in BED, three RCTs suggest the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine may reduce binge eating episodes, and another RCT suggests intranasal naloxone may decrease time spent binge eating. There remains a disconnection between the size of eating disorders as a public health problem and the lack of pharmacotherapy research of these conditions. PMID:25796197

  14. Learning from Collegiate Athletes who have Recovered from Eating Disorders: Advice to Coaches, Parents, and Other Athletes with Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle; Amy Baltzell

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elicit advice from female collegiate athletes who achieved recovery from an eating disorder for coaches, parents, and other athletes with eating disorders. Participants were 16 female collegiate athletes who had experienced eating disorders. Data was obtained through structured interview questions. Advice for coaches included confronting athletes with a suspected eating disorder and receiving

  15. Lifetime course of eating disorders: design and validity testing of a new strategy to define the eating disorders phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Anderluh; K. Tchanturia; S. Rabe-Hesketh; D. Collier; J. Treasure

    2009-01-01

    Background. Aetiological studies of eating disorders would benefit from a solution to the problem of instability of eating disorder symptoms. We present an approach to defining an eating disorders phenotype based on the retro- spective assessment of lifetime eating disorders symptoms to define a lifetime pattern of illness. We further validate this approach by testing the most common lifetime categories

  16. The offspring of mothers with eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Park; Rob Senior; Alan Stein

    2003-01-01

    There is good evidence that children of parents with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of disturbances in their development. There is considerable research on disorders such as depression and alcohol abuse, but research on the children of parents with eating disorders has only recently emerged. This paper reviews evidence in a number of domains, including genetic factors; pregnancy; the

  17. Vyvanse Approved for Binge-Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... isolation. Vyvanse's safety and effectiveness in treating binge-eating disorder were evaluated in clinical studies involving 724 people. A central nervous system stimulant, Vyvanse could cause serious complications including stroke and heart attack. It ...

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Treatment of Child and Young Person Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Donna L; Monsen, Jeremy J; Thompson, Ellen J; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; Field, Andy

    2013-12-13

    Background: Previous meta-analyses of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for children and young people with anxiety disorders have not considered the efficacy of transdiagnostic CBT for the remission of childhood anxiety. Aim: To provide a meta-analysis on the efficacy of transdiagnostic CBT for children and young people with anxiety disorders. Methods: The analysis included randomized controlled trials using transdiagnostic CBT for children and young people formally diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. An electronic search was conducted using the following databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Current Controlled Trials, Medline, PsycArticles, PsychInfo, and Web of Knowledge. The search terms included "anxiety disorder(s)", "anxi*", "cognitive behavio*, "CBT", "child*", "children", "paediatric", "adolescent(s)", "adolescence", "youth" and "young pe*". The studies identified from this search were screened against the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 20 studies were identified as appropriate for inclusion in the current meta-analysis. Pre- and posttreatment (or control period) data were used for analysis. Results: Findings indicated significantly greater odds of anxiety remission from pre- to posttreatment for those engaged in the transdiagnostic CBT intervention compared with those in the control group, with children in the treatment condition 9.15 times more likely to recover from their anxiety diagnosis than children in the control group. Risk of bias was not correlated with study effect sizes. Conclusions: Transdiagnostic CBT seems effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety in children and young people. Further research is required to investigate the efficacy of CBT for children under the age of 6. PMID:24331028

  19. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151

  20. A meta-analysis of differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder and high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-07-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did individuals with HFA; (b) individuals with AspD had significantly higher VIQ than PIQ; and (c) VIQ was similar to PIQ in individuals with HFA. These findings seem to suggest that AspD and HFA are two different subtypes of Autism. The implications of the present findings to DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder are discussed. PMID:24362849

  1. Bone health in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman-Levin, N; Hochberg, Z; Latzer, Y

    2014-03-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) put adolescents and young adults at risk for impaired bone health. Low bone mineral density (BMD) with ED is caused by failure to accrue peak bone mass in adolescence and bone loss in young adulthood. Although ED patients diagnosed with bone loss may be asymptomatic, some suffer bone pains and have increased incidence of fractures. Adolescents with ED are prone to increased prevalence of stress fractures, kyphoscoliosis and height loss. The clinical picture of the various EDs involves endocrinopathies that contribute to impaired bone health. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by low bone turnover, with relatively higher osteoclastic (bone resorptive) than osteoblastic (bone formation) activity. Bone loss in AN occurs in both the trabecular and cortical bones, although the former is more vulnerable. Bone loss in AN has been shown to be influenced by malnutrition and low weight, reduced fat mass, oestrogen and androgen deficiency, glucocorticoid excess, impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis, and more. Bone loss in AN may not be completely reversible despite recovery from the illness. Treatment modalities involving hormonal therapies have limited effectiveness, whereas increased caloric intake, weight gain and resumption of menses are essential to improved BMD. PMID:24165231

  2. Understanding Eating Disorders among Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Vela, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of the literature on eating disorders (EDs) among Latinas in the U.S and presents data that illustrate symptomatology and associated psychopathology in this group. The current empirical evidence suggests similarities between Latinas and white European-American women in regards to risk factors, symptomatology, psychopathology, and prevalence of EDs. Despite these similarities, Latinas are less likely to report dieting, dietary restriction, and are more likely to be obese compared to white women. Although Latinas report distress associated with EDs, only a small proportion ever seek treatment. Several factors appear to contribute to their under-utilization of services including lack of knowledge, stigma, beliefs about seeking treatment, lack of health insurance, and lack of affordable and accessible treatment services. It is unclear whether the identified differences between white and Latina women are the result of cultural factors or are better explained by disparities in SES. Efforts to meet the treatment needs of Latinas in the U.S. should aim to increase awareness and education about EDs in this population and to address cultural beliefs and norms that may act as barriers to treatment utilization. Further, it is important to educate and train healthcare professionals to be aware that EDs may develop in or affect Latina patients, and to develop accessible, culturally-appropriate and cost-effective evidence-based treatments that can be disseminated through partnerships with primary care providers and community organizations. PMID:24999448

  3. Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating

    E-print Network

    Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating The most common time of life for an eating disorder to develop is between the ages of 17 - 20. This coincides with the college years. Research has shown that as many as a third of college-age women have disordered eating patterns

  4. Review and meta-analysis of antidepressant pharmacogenetic findings in major depressive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Kato; A Serretti

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes pharmacogenetic studies on antidepressant response and side effects. Out of the 17 genes we reviewed, 8 genes were entered into the meta-analysis (SLC6A4, HTR1A, HTR2A, TPH1, gene encoding the ?-3 subunit, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), HTR3A and HTR3B). TPH1 218C\\/C genotype (7 studies, 754 subjects) was significantly associated with a better response (odds ratio, OR=1.62; P=0.005)

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during emotion recognition in social anxiety disorder: an activation likelihood meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hattingh, Coenraad J.; Ipser, J.; Tromp, S. A.; Syal, S.; Lochner, C.; Brooks, S. J.; Stein, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by abnormal fear and anxiety in social situations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a brain imaging technique that can be used to demonstrate neural activation to emotionally salient stimuli. However, no attempt has yet been made to statistically collate fMRI studies of brain activation, using the activation likelihood-estimate (ALE) technique, in response to emotion recognition tasks in individuals with SAD. Methods: A systematic search of fMRI studies of neural responses to socially emotive cues in SAD was undertaken. ALE meta-analysis, a voxel-based meta-analytic technique, was used to estimate the most significant activations during emotional recognition. Results: Seven studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, constituting a total of 91 subjects with SAD, and 93 healthy controls. The most significant areas of activation during emotional vs. neutral stimuli in individuals with SAD compared to controls were: bilateral amygdala, left medial temporal lobe encompassing the entorhinal cortex, left medial aspect of the inferior temporal lobe encompassing perirhinal cortex and parahippocampus, right anterior cingulate, right globus pallidus, and distal tip of right postcentral gyrus. Conclusion: The results are consistent with neuroanatomic models of the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning, and the importance of the limbic circuitry in mediating anxiety symptoms. PMID:23335892

  6. Ethnocultural Identity and Eating Disorders in Women of Color

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane J. Harris; Sue A. Kuba

    1997-01-01

    A review of the literature on ethnocultural identity and eating disorders indicates a relationship between conflicted identity and eating disturbance. This article discusses that relationship by suggesting that eating disorders represent internalized means of oppression for women of color. Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders in women of color are identified. Suggestions for ways in which diagnosis, assessment,

  7. Eating disorder emergencies: understanding the medical complexities of the hospitalized eating disordered patient.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Martina M

    2004-12-01

    Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients. PMID:15571940

  8. College women eating disorder diagnostic profile and DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Alan M; Choate, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    A consistent diagnostic profile describing college women with eating disorders has been well established in the college health and mental health literature. This diagnostic framework traditionally has been associated with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified category. In this article, the authors discuss implications of the recently revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition eating disorder diagnostic categories for the existing college women eating disorder profile. PMID:25257775

  9. Eating disorders and attachment: the effects of hidden family processes on eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francoise Ringer; Patricia McKinsey Crittenden

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This study examined pattern of attachment in cohort of women with an eating disorder to determine what types of self- protective strategies they used, and further whether there was a specific relationship between strategy and diagnosis. Method: The participants were 62 young women with an eating disorder (19 with anorexia nervosa, 26 with bulimia nervosa and 17 with bulimic

  10. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  11. Implicit Family Process Rules in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.

    2009-01-01

    Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…

  12. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alissa A. Haedt-Matt; Pamela K. Keel

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and

  13. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    van Son, Gabriëlle E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I M; van Furth, Eric F; Hoek, Hans W

    2006-12-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response relation with degree of urbanisation and was five times higher in cities than in rural areas. Remarkably, anorexia nervosa showed no association with urbanisation. We conclude that urban life is a potential environmental risk factor for bulimia nervosa but not for anorexia nervosa. These findings provide a promising avenue for further research into the aetiology of eating disorders. PMID:17139044

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Differences in IQ Profiles between Individuals with Asperger's Disorder and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y.; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did…

  15. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Reading Instruction on the Reading Skills of Students with or at Risk of Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.; Mooney, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The findings of a meta-analysis of the effect of reading instruction on the reading skills of students with or at risk of behavioral disorders (BD) are reported. The goal of the synthesis was to extend the work of Coleman and Vaughn by (a) detailing independent variables and outcome measures for each study, (b)including studies sampling from…

  16. Disproportionality of English Learners with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Meta-Analysis with English Learners with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas; Gersten, Russell; Sugai, George; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate representation of English learners in special education has been a longstanding and ongoing concern. However, research examining disproportionate representation of English learners receiving special education services for emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) has been limited. To address this gap, a meta-analysis of…

  17. Association between ANKK1 (rs1800497) polymorphism of DRD2 gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu-Qing; Qiao, Lin; Xue, Xin-Dong; Fu, Jian-Hua

    2015-03-17

    The role of dopamine neurotransmitter in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains controversial. Many molecular studies focusing on dopamine receptors have attempted to analyze the gene polymorphisms involved in dopaminergic transmission. Of these, rs1800497 (TaqIA) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene has been focused on by the most attention. However, this locus has recently been identified within the exon 8 of ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1), giving rise to a Glu713-to-Lys substitution in the putative ANKK1 protein. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to determine whether ANKK1 polymorphism influences the risk of ADHD and examined the relationship between rs1800497 genetic variant and the etiology of ADHD. Relevant case-control studies were retrieved by database searches and selected according to established inclusion criteria. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were performed. A total of 11 studies with 1645 cases and 1641 controls were included. In the dominant model, the rs1800497 locus was associated with ADHD, with a pooled OR of 1.785 (95% CI=1.068-2.984, p=0.027). Subgroup analysis for ethnicity indicated that the polymorphism was associated with ADHD in Africans (OR=3.286, 95% CI=1.434-7.527, p=0.005), but not in East Asians (OR=1.513, 95% CI=0.817-2.805, p=0.188) and Caucasians (OR=1.740, 95% CI=0.928-3.263, p=0.084). However, the results of meta-regression indicated that publication date (p=0.601), source of controls (p=0.685), ethnicity (p=0.755) and diagnostic criteria (p=0.104) could not explain the potential sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis indicates that the rs1800497 locus may be associated with ADHD. These data provide possible references for future case-control studies in childhood disorders. PMID:25641135

  18. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

  19. Bilateral hippocampal volume reduction in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of structural MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade a significant number of studies have reported smaller hippocampal volume in individuals with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relative to control groups, and in some cases hemispheric asymmetries in this effect have been noted. However these reported asymmetries have not been in a consistent direction, and other well-controlled studies have failed to observe any hippocampal volume difference. This paper reports a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in which hippocampal volume was estimated from magnetic resonance images in adult patients with PTSD. After applying a variety of selection criteria intended to minimize potential confounds in pooled effect-size estimates, the meta-analysis included 13 studies of adult patients with PTSD that compared the patients to well-matched control groups, for a total of 215 patients and 325 control subjects. The studies varied with respect to participant age, gender distribution, source of trauma, severity of symptoms, duration of disorder, the nature of the control groups, and the methods employed for volumetric quantification. Despite these differences, pooled effect size calculations across the studies indicated significant volume differences in both hemispheres. On average PTSD patients had a 6.9% smaller left hippocampal volume and a 6.6% smaller right hippocampal volume compared with control subjects. These volume differences were smaller when comparing PTSD patients with control subjects exposed to similar levels of trauma, and larger when comparing PTSD patients to control subjects without significant trauma exposure. Such differences are consistent with the notion that exposure to stressful experiences can lead to hippocampal atrophy, although prospective studies would be necessary to unambiguously establish such a relationship. PMID:15988763

  20. New Frontiers in Endocrinology of Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Palmiero Monteleone

    \\u000a Alterations of both central and peripheral feeding regulatory substances occur in the acute phases of anorexia nervosa (AN)\\u000a and bulimia nervosa (BN) and, generally, reverse after recovery. Some of these alterations are believed not only to sustain\\u000a the altered eating behavior but also to contribute to certain psychopathological aspects and\\/or etiopathogenetic processes\\u000a of eating disorders (EDs). It has been suggested

  1. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population:An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jori H. Reijonen; Helen D. Pratt; Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus

    2003-01-01

    Although eating disorders often begin during adolescence, characteristics of this population can complicate early detection by clinicians. The purpose of this article is to selectively review the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) and International Classification of Diseases (10th

  2. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eating disorders,…

  3. Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2003-01-01

    Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered

  4. The Heritability of Eating Disorders: Methods and Current Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura M. Thornton; Suzanne E. Mazzeo; Cynthia M. Bulik

    \\u000a Family, twin, and adoption studies of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder (BED), and the proposed\\u000a purging disorder presentation (PD) have consistently demonstrated that genetic factors contribute to the variance in liability\\u000a to eating disorders. In addition, endophenotypes and component phenotypes of eating disorders have been evaluated and provide\\u000a further insight regarding genetic factors influencing eating disorders and

  5. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

  6. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  7. The Prevalence of Personality Disorders Among Those with Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy A. Sansone; John L. Levitt; Lori A. Sansone

    2004-01-01

    The genuine prevalence of personality disorders among those with eating disorders is unknown. However, in this paper, we summarize the existing data, with careful acknowledgment of our approach to interpretation as well as the limitations of previous studies. Our findings indicate that obsessive-compulsive personality is the most common personality disorder in restricting-type anorexia nervosa, while borderline personality is the most

  8. Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

  9. A review of eating disorders research in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Unikel; Ietza Bojorquez

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize research findings on eating disorders and the current state of the field in Mexico. Papers published in indexed journals and graduate dissertations were retrieved, using “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “body image,” “binge eating,” “restrained eating,” “weight and shape concern,” and “dieting” as keywords. These were combined with the Boolean operator

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of the Eating Disorder Continuum with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracey L.; Subich, Linda Mezdlo

    2002-01-01

    Men largely are neglected in research on eating disturbances, including research on the eating disorder continuum. This research explored whether the eating disorder continuum provides an accurate representation for men of characteristics related to disturbed eating in women. Results for a sample of 166 men were mixed, offering limited support for…

  11. Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

    2014-05-28

    The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (p<0.001). For DEAS total score, AN and BN patients were similar and all other were different (p<0.001). Similarities suggested between BN and BED were true just for the "Relationship with food" and "Idea of normal eating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes. PMID:24768646

  12. Adrenal Cushing's syndrome may resemble eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Makiko; Nakagami, Taku; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2014-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented extreme weight loss and received an eating disorder diagnosis that was later identified as adrenal Cushing's syndrome. A 32-year-old woman with a 2-year history of an eating disorder was admitted to our psychiatric ward due to dehydration, malnutrition and low weight. Her height and body weight were 152.1 cm and 29.8 kg, respectively (body mass index: 12.8). Her other symptoms included a depressed mood, decreased interest, retardation and suicidal ideation. Standard medical cares were prescribed to treat the depressive symptoms and eating disorder, but the depressive episode and low body weight of the patient persisted. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an unexpected left adrenal gland tumor. Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed based on several endocrinological examinations. After an enucleation of the left adrenal gland tumor, the patient began eating, and her body weight increased gradually. Her body weight increased to 42.0-47.0 kg (body mass index: 18.2-20.3). Her mental and physical conditions had stabilized. This case suggests that adrenal Cushing's syndrome may resemble eating disorders. PMID:25085718

  13. Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, Mary V

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

  14. Eating Disorders Treatment Patterns by Age.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Jaime; Crane, D Russell

    2014-11-20

    This longitudinal, retrospective study examines patterns in eating disorder outpatient mental health treatment by age. Participants (n = 5,445) included patients treated for an eating disorder, with claims for treatment from Cigna, a leading health care insurance provider in the United States. Treatments for individuals 55 and older were less expensive and shorter than for any other age group. Treatments for individuals 44-55 were less expensive than for 15-24. Individual therapy is the most common treatment modality, but younger individuals are likely to receive family therapy. Younger individuals have lower dropout and higher return to care rates. PMID:25412302

  15. Detection, evaluation, and treatment of eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith M. E. Walsh; Mary E. Wheat; Karen Freund

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a MEDLINE search on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating\\u000a disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and

  16. Life Beyond the Eating Disorder: Education, Relationships, and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Millie; Thornton, Laura M.; Root, Tammy L.; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Strober, Michael; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L.; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Plotnicov, Kathy; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated sociodemographic characteristics in women with and without lifetime eating disorders. Method Participants were from a multi-site international study of eating disorders (N = 2096). Education level, relationship status, and reproductive status were examined across eating disorder subtypes and compared with a healthy control group. Results Overall, women with eating disorders were less educated than controls, and duration of illness and age of onset were associated with educational attainment. Menstrual status was associated with both relationship and reproductive status, but eating disorder subtypes did not differ significantly from each other or from healthy controls on these dimensions. Conclusion Differences in educational attainment, relationships, and reproduction do exist in individuals with eating disorders and are differentially associated with various eating disorder symptoms and characteristics. These data could assist with educating patients and family members about long-term consequences of eating disorders. PMID:20143323

  17. Effect of comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder on responses to atomoxetine in children with ADHD: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trial data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Biederman; Thomas J. Spencer; Jeffrey H. Newcorn; Haitao Gao; Denái R. Milton; Peter D. Feldman; Michael M. Witte

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  Up to 60% of children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from comorbid affective or behavioral impairments, the most common condition being oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), which occurs in 40–60% of children with ADHD.Objectives  This post hoc meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of the presence of comorbid ODD symptoms on clinical outcomes among pediatric and adolescent subjects being treated for

  18. Eating Disorders in Men: Underdiagnosed, Undertreated, and Misunderstood

    PubMed Central

    Strother, Eric; Lemberg, Raymond; Stanford, Stevie Chariese; Turberville, Dayton

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a survey of eating disorders in men, highlights the dramatic rise in eating disorders, identifies issues specific to males, and suggests areas for research and intervention. This survey concludes that men with eating disorders are currently under-diagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood by many clinicians who encounter them. Ongoing research addressing these issues is expected to result in assessment tools and treatment interventions that will advance positive outcomes for men with eating disorders. PMID:22985232

  19. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided Self Help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and cost-effective than existing, efficacious BED specialty treatments which are limited in public health utility and impact given their time and expense demands. No existing BED GSH treatment has incorporated affect regulation models of binge eating, which appears warranted given research linking negative affect and binge eating. Integrative Response Therapy (IRT), a new group-based guided self-help treatment, based on the affect regulation model of binge eating, that has shown initial promise in a pilot sample of adults meeting DSM IV criteria for BED, is described. Fifty-four% and 67% of participants were abstinent at post-treatment and three month follow-up respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of binge days over the previous 28 days from baseline to post-treatment [14.44 (±7.16) to 3.15 (±5.70); t=7.71, p<.001; d=2.2] and from baseline to follow-up [14.44 (±7.16) to 1.50 (±2.88); t=5.64, p<.001; d=1.7]. All subscales from both the Eating Disorder Examination – Questionnaire and Emotional Eating Scale were significantly lower at post-treatment compared to baseline. 100% of IRT participants would recommend the program to a friend or family member in need. IRT’s longer-term efficacy and acceptability are presently being tested in a National Institute of Mental Health funded randomized controlled trial. PMID:24605043

  20. Eating Disorders among Indian and Australian University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjostedt, John P.; Schumaker, John F.; Nathawat, S. S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the influx of western-style eating disorders into India, Asia, and the southern Pacific region. Predicted Australian students would have more eating disorder symptoms, but instead, the Indian students showed more symptoms. Concludes substantial evidence of western-style eating disorders appear in the privileged socioeconomic class of…

  1. Eating Disorders in Adulthood Nicole Lurline Mensah1

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Eating Disorders in Adulthood Nicole Lurline Mensah1 , Theresa Rohr-Kirchgraber2 , Nathan of Pediatrics3 The lifetime prevalence of acquiring an Eating Disorder (ED) in the US is 0.6­4.5%. The focus females and 1 male) charts were reviewed from one eating disorders center. Data was extracted using a pre

  2. Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating KELLY L. KLUMP1, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA ABSTRACT Objective. Eating disorders are more common of studies examined these effects by investigating relationships between eating disorder symptoms, prenatal

  3. Barriers to treatment for eating disorders among ethnically diverse women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fary M. Cachelin; Ramona Rebeck; Catherine Veisel; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined barriers to treatment in an ethnically diverse com- munity sample of women with eating disorders. Method: Participants were 61 women (22 Hispanics, 8 Asians, 12 Blacks, 19 Whites) with eating disorders. Diagnosis was determined using the Eating Disorder Examination. Treatment-seeking history, barriers to treatment seek- ing, ethnic identity, and acculturation were assessed. Results: Although 85% of

  4. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  5. Racial Differences in Eating Disorder Attitudes, Cigarette, and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…

  6. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  7. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  8. Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder

  9. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  10. Preventing a Continuum of Disordered Eating: Going beyond the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2007-01-01

    Efforts aimed at the prevention of eating disorders need to consider the context within which these disorders develop and aim to promote not only healthy eating and physical activity but also address mental health factors, such as body image. Exploring the relationship between body image and eating disorders will provide a foundation and further…

  11. Medical Providers' Screening, Training and Intervention Practices for Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deanna Linville; Autumn Benton; Maya ONeil; Katie Sturm

    2010-01-01

    Individuals struggling with an eating disorder are typically first seen by their family physician, yet little is known about how medical providers are trained to work with eating disorders or about their screening and intervention practices (Clarke & Polimeni-Walker, 2004). This study sought to examine frontline medical providers' eating disorder screening and intervention practices as well as their training needs.

  12. Exercise Involvement and Eating-Disordered Characteristics in College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve M. Wolf; T. John Akamatsu

    1994-01-01

    While several reports have suggested a relationship between involvement in regular exercise activity and the presence of eating disorders or eating-disordered characteristics, other research has demonstrated no such association. Methodological difficulties and interpretive differences among researchers contributing to these disparate findings are reviewed. The present study investigated the relationship between exercise involvement and eating-disordered characteristics in 159 “exerciser” and 129

  13. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18–24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:22888181

  14. I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may eat way too much food (known as binge eating ). And people with bulimia may try to make ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Eating Disorders Binge Eating Disorder I Think My Boyfriend Has an Eating ...

  15. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  16. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

  17. Eating Disorders among Women: A Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Deborah L.

    The study and treatment of eating disorders has long been associated with psychoanalytic concepts of rejection of femininity and fear of oral impregnation. Although a theoretical reformulation emphasizing feminist analysis began a decade ago, the extension and application of these ideas has not solidified into a comprehensive treatment…

  18. Seasonal mood patterns in eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul-Missagh Ghadirian; Nadia Marini; Sheila Jabalpurwala; Howard Steiger

    1999-01-01

    There has been an increasing body of research literature suggesting a seasonal pattern of mood fluctuations and eating behavior in bulimic patients. Fornari et al. [5] reported worsening of bulimic symptoms during winter. There is a logical connection between Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and bulimia nervosa as both show increased appetite and carbohydrate craving and probably share a common neurobiologic

  19. Occupational Therapy for Patients with Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary K. Bailey

    1986-01-01

    The role of the occupational therapist and activity therapy programs for patients with eating disorders is described. Evaluation methods are outlined with specific comments related to their implications for patients with diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Rationale for referral to specific activity therapy services is discussed. Group protocols are included. Two case studies demonstrate the utilization of occupational therapy

  20. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... preliminary information on the role and extent such factors as self esteem, resilience, family interactions, peer pressure, the media and dieting might play in its development. Eating disorders and body image is commonly seen as a problem affecting women, but men are also touched by media ...

  1. Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kristin L.

    Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

  2. Disordered Eating in Women of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Maria P. P.

    1990-01-01

    Therapists who assume that eating disorders affect only White middle class females may fail to detect such problems in Blacks and other minority patients. Therapists are encouraged to be more culturally sensitive in treating minority patients for these and other problems. (DM)

  3. Diagnosis and Treatment of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper was designed to provide professional counselors with a comprehensive but concise method of accurately evaluting, interviewing, and planning for treatment of eating disorder clients. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section, Diagnosis, compares, contrasts, and offers clear explanations of the diagnostic criteria for…

  4. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Disorders Inventory2 among Women Seeking Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio A. Tasca; Vanessa Illing; Vanessa Lybanon-Daigle; Hany Bissada; Louise Balfour

    2003-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) when used for women with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) are assessed. The EDI-2 was administered to 144 outpatients seeking treatment for BED and 152 outpatients seeking treatment for Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Most EDI-2 scales had acceptable internal consistence for both the BED and BN samples. EDI-2 scales demonstrated adequate stability within a

  6. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  7. Meta-analysis of naltrexone and acamprosate for treating alcohol use disorders: When are these medications most helpful?

    PubMed Central

    Maisel, Natalya C.; Blodgett, Janet C.; Wilbourne, Paula L.; Humphreys, Keith; Finney, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Although debates over the efficacy of oral naltrexone and acamprosate in treating alcohol use disorders tend to focus on their global efficacy relative to placebo or their efficacy relative to each other, the underlying reality may be more nuanced. This meta-analysis examined when naltrexone and acamprosate are most helpful by testing: (1) the relative efficacy of each medication given its presumed mechanism of action (reducing heavy drinking versus fostering abstinence) and (2) whether different ways of implementing each medication (required abstinence before treatment, detoxification before treatment, goal of treatment, length of treatment, dosage) moderate its effects. Methods A systematic literature search identified 64 randomized, placebo-controlled, English-language clinical trials completed between 1970 and 2009 focused on acamprosate or naltrexone. Results Acamprosate had a significantly larger effect size than naltrexone on the maintenance of abstinence, and naltrexone had a larger effect size than acamprosate on the reduction of heavy drinking and craving. For naltrexone, requiring abstinence before the trial was associated with larger effect sizes for abstinence maintenance and reduced heavy drinking compared to placebo. For acamprosate, detoxification before medication administration was associated with better abstinence outcomes compared to placebo. Conclusions In treatment for alcohol use disorders, acamprosate has been found to be slightly more efficacious in promoting abstinence and naltrexone slightly more efficacious in reducing heavy drinking and craving. Detoxification before treatment or a longer period of required abstinence before treatment is associated with larger medication effects for acamprosate and naltrexone, respectively. PMID:23075288

  8. Men's Experience with Eating Disorders: Uncommon Lives? A Look at the Experiences of Men with Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahonen, Pirkko S.

    The purpose of this study was to examine, describe, and explain experiences of men with eating disorders and to gain understanding of the relevant life issues, perceptions, and attitudes. What are some of the contributing factors and experiences of men who suffer from eating disorders despite the widely held assumption that eating disorders are…

  9. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders., 5 Day Lesson Plan on Eating Disorders. Columbus, OH: National Eating Disorders Association, 1991

  10. Specific and common genes implicated across major mental disorders: a review of meta-analysis studies.

    PubMed

    Gatt, Justine M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Schofield, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Major efforts have been directed at family-based association and case-control studies to identify the involvement of candidate genes in the major disorders of mental health. What remains unknown is whether candidate genes are associated with multiple disorders via pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or if other genes are specific to susceptibility for individual disorders. Here we undertook a review of genes that have been identified in prior meta-analyses examining specific genes and specific mental disorders that have core disruptions to emotional and cognitive function and contribute most to burden of illness- major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD, including panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature review was conducted up to end-March 2013 which included a total of 1519 meta-analyses across 157 studies reporting multiple genes implicated in one or more of the five disorders studied. A total of 134 genes (206 variants) were identified as significantly associated risk variants for MDD, AD, ADHD, SZ or BD. Null genetic effects were also reported for 195 genes (426 variants). 13 genetic variants were shared in common between two or more disorders (APOE e4, ACE Ins/Del, BDNF Val66Met, COMT Val158Met, DAOA G72/G30 rs3918342, DAT1 40-bp, DRD4 48-bp, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, HTR1A C1019G, MTHR C677T, MTHR A1298C, SLC6A4 VNTR and TPH1 218A/C) demonstrating evidence for pleiotrophy. Another 12 meta-analyses of GWAS studies of the same disorders were identified, with no overlap in genetic variants reported. This review highlights the progress that is being made in identifying shared and unique genetic mechanisms that contribute to the risk of developing several major psychiatric disorders, and identifies further steps for progress. PMID:25287955

  11. Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referral by student participants were found. PMID:24044598

  12. Objectification processes and disordered eating in British women and men.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Rachel M

    2009-04-01

    The present study extended the applicability of Objectification Theory to predict disordered eating in British women and men. Participants completed measures of self-objectification, body surveillance, body shame and disordered eating. Path analyses indicated strong support for the theoretical model in women, with body shame fully mediating the relation between self-objectification and disordered eating. Patterns were similar for men with two exceptions; body shame increased with lower self-objectification and disordered eating was directly increased with higher self-objectification. Findings extend Objectification Theory as a useful framework for identifying sociocultural influences on disordered eating in British women and men. PMID:19293301

  13. Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy L. Tylka; Jennifer A. Wilcox

    2006-01-01

    Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower levels of well-being. Therefore, if intuitive eating is a distinct

  14. An investigation of Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Mario; Revah-Levy, Anne; Giquel, Ludovic; Loas, Gwenolé; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Jeammet, Philippe; Corcos, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how far Goodman's addictive disorder criteria were met by individuals with eating disorders according to subtypes. The study provided a cross-sectional comparison among three samples of eating disorders [restricting anorexia nervosa (R-AN), N?=?68; purging anorexia nervosa (P-AN), N?=?42; and bulimia nervosa (BN), N?=?66], a sample of substance-related disorders (SRDs, N?=?48) and a sample of matched controls (N?=?201). Diagnosis of addictive disorder was made following Goodman's criteria. Addictive personality traits were assessed with the Addiction Potential Scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 and with the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale. Results showed that individuals with BN met Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in the same proportion as drug-addicted individuals (65% vs 60%, p?=?NS). They both showed higher rates than R-AN individuals (35%; R-AN versus BN: F?=?11.9, p?disorders compared with P-AN, differences were not significant. Scores on the Sensation Seeking and on the Addictive Potential scales paralleled the distribution of addictive disorders, with individuals with BN and with P-AN showing higher levels than individuals with R-AN. Results showed that a subgroup of individuals with an eating disorder experiences their disorder as an addiction and may deserve specific therapeutic attention. PMID:21834026

  15. A Risk Model for Pre-Adolescent Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Jessica L.; Pearson, Carolyn M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study tested this risk model for disordered eating in pre-adolescent girls: pubertal onset is associated with increases in negative urgency (the personality tendency to act rashly when distressed); negative urgency influences eating disorder symptoms by shaping psychosocial learning (expectancy formation), thus indirectly influencing symptom levels; and many influences on purging are mediated by binge eating. Method 905 fifth grade girls completed questionnaire measures of eating pathology, negative urgency, and dieting/thinness and eating expectancies. Results Binge eating and purging behaviors were present in 5th grade girls. As anticipated, pubertal status was associated with higher levels of negative urgency, negative urgency was associated with each expectancy measure, quadratic dieting/thinness and eating expectancies were associated with binge eating, and binge eating was associated with purging. Discussion It is important and feasible to develop risk models for pre-adolescent eating disordered behaviors. Our model that integrates puberty, personality, and psychosocial learning appears promising. PMID:21997422

  16. Sleep and Quality of Life in Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer D. Lundgren; John P. O’Reardon; Kelly C. Allison; Carrie D. Spresser

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are well-recognized eating disorders clinically. Night eating syndrome (NES)\\u000a and binge eating disorder (BED) are also of considerable importance and are increasingly recognized in the clinic, because\\u000a of the distress they cause and their links with obesity. Each of these four eating disorders has the capacity to disturb sleep\\u000a and in that respect

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity to the Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…

  18. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pharmacological Treatment of the Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit behaviors and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to determine the relative efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD by identifying all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD. We located seven trials involving 225 children. A random effects meta-analysis of four methylphenidate trials showed methylphenidate to be effective for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD (ES = .67). Several adverse events were greater for children were taking methylphenidate compared to placebo. An individual trial of clonidine and two trials of atomoxetine suggest these agents may also be effective in treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD. PMID:23468071

  19. INPATIENT COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT OF EATING DISORDER PATIENTS WITH DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Levin; Edward Spauster

    Although several investigations have noted an association between eating disorders and dissociative disorders, little work has addressed the treatment of patients with both conditions. As an inpatient ser- vice focused on severely-ill eating disorder patients, it became nec- essary to diagnose and treat concomitant dissociative disorders. We describe a cognitive-behavioral inpatient program developed and specifically adapted to treat eating disorder

  20. Different Methods for Assessing the Features of Eating Disorders in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder: A Replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; G. Terence Wilson

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare different methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder (BED).Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 47 participants with BED were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) Interview and completed the EDE-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) at baseline. A total of 37 participants prospectively self-monitored their eating behaviors daily for 4 weeks and then

  1. A Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Features of Eating Disorders in Patients With Binge Eating Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; G. Terence Wilson

    2001-01-01

    The authors compared 3 methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview and completed the EDE Questionnaire (EDE–Q) at baseline. Participants prospectively self-monitored their eating behaviors daily for 4 weeks and then completed another EDE–Q. The EDE and the EDE–Q were significantly correlated on

  2. World Trade Center Disaster Exposure-Related Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Responders and Civilians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  3. Concordance of white matter and gray matter abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: a voxel-based meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Palermo, Sara; D'Agata, Federico; Diano, Matteo; Bianco, Francesca; Duca, Sergio; Keller, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    There are at least two fundamental unanswered questions in the literature on autism spectrum disorders (ASD): Are abnormalities in white (WM) and gray matter (GM) consistent with one another? Are WM morphometric alterations consistent with alterations in the GM of regions connected by these abnormal WM bundles and vice versa? The aim of this work is to bridge this gap. After selecting voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging studies comparing autistic and normally developing groups of subjects, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to estimate consistent brain alterations in ASD. Multidimensional scaling was used to test the similarity of the results. The ALE results were then analyzed to identify the regions of concordance between GM and WM areas. We found statistically significant topological relationships between GM and WM abnormalities in ASD. The most numerous were negative concordances, found bilaterally but with a higher prevalence in the right hemisphere. Positive concordances were found in the left hemisphere. Discordances reflected the spatial distribution of negative concordances. Thus, a different hemispheric contribution emerged, possibly related to pathogenetic factors affecting the right hemisphere during early developmental stages. Besides, WM fiber tracts linking the brain structures involved in social cognition showed abnormalities, and most of them had a negative concordance with the connected GM regions. We interpreted the results in terms of altered brain networks and their role in the pervasive symptoms dramatically impairing communication and social skills in ASD patients. PMID:23894001

  4. World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  5. Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

    2001-01-01

    Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

  6. Disordered eating and the transition to college: A prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen D. Vohs; Todd F. Heatherton; Marcia Herrin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: A longitudinal study was conducted to examine whether the transition to college changed eating disorder symptoms and related attitudes. Method: Participants were 342 women who completed an in-depth survey in the spring of their senior year of high school and again during their first year of college. We assessed changes in body self- perception, eating-related attitudes, and disordered eating

  7. A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mae Lynn Reyes-Rodríguez; Margarita Sala; Ann Von Holle; Claudia Unikel; Cynthia M. Bulik; Luis Cámara-Fuentes; Alba Suárez-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus. Self-report instruments were used to explore ED symptoms (the Eating

  8. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Stice; Melissa Fisher; Erin Martinez

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the EDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based diagnoses, convergent validity with risk factors for eating

  9. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  10. A meta–analysis of functional neuroimaging in obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Whiteside; John D. Port; Jonathan S. Abramowitz

    2004-01-01

    Recent neurobiological models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that a dysfunction in orbitofrontal–subcortical circuitry underlies the etiology of this disorder. Much of the empirical support for these theories comes from studies using neuroimaging techniques to compare brain activity in OCD patients with that in non-OCD controls. Qualitative reviews of this literature implicate the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. In

  11. Content specificity of attention bias to threat in anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pergamin-Hight, Lee; Naim, Reut; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-02-01

    Despite the established evidence for threat-related attention bias in anxiety, the mechanisms underlying this bias remain unclear. One important unresolved question is whether disorder-congruent threats capture attention to a greater extent than do more general or disorder-incongruent threat stimuli. Evidence for attention bias specificity in anxiety would implicate involvement of previous learning and memory processes in threat-related attention bias, whereas lack of content specificity would point to perturbations in more generic attention processes. Enhanced clarity of mechanism could have clinical implications for the stimuli types used in Attention Bias Modification Treatments (ABMT). Content specificity of threat-related attention bias in anxiety and potential moderators of this effect were investigated. A systematic search identified 37 samples from 29 articles (N=866). Relevant data were extracted based on specific coding rules, and Cohen's d effect size was used to estimate bias specificity effects. The results indicate greater attention bias toward disorder-congruent relative to disorder-incongruent threat stimuli (d=0.28, p<0.0001). This effect was not moderated by age, type of anxiety disorder, visual attention tasks, or type of disorder-incongruent stimuli. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Implications for threat bias in anxiety and ABMT are discussed. PMID:25462110

  12. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

  13. Altered brain reward circuits in eating disorders: chicken or egg?

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2013-10-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are severe psychiatric disorders with high mortality. Our knowledge about the neurobiology of eating disorders is very limited, and the question remains whether alterations in brain structure or function in eating disorders are state related, remnants of the illness or premorbid traits. The brain reward system is a relatively well-characterized brain circuitry that plays a central role in the drive to eat and individuals with current or past eating disorders showed alterations in those pathways compared to controls. Here we propose that structural and functional alterations in the insula and frontal cortex, including orbitofrontal and cingulate regions, areas that contribute to reward and anxiety processing, could predispose to developing an eating disorder and that adaptive changes in those circuits in response to malnutrition or repeated binge eating and purging could further promote illness behavior, hinder recovery and contribute to relapse. PMID:23963630

  14. Altered Brain Reward Circuits in Eating Disorders: Chicken or Egg?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are severe psychiatric disorders with high mortality. Our knowledge about the neurobiology of eating disorders is very limited, and the question remains whether alterations in brain structure or function in eating disorders are state related, remnants of the illness or premorbid traits. The brain reward system is a relatively well-characterized brain circuitry that plays a central role in the drive to eat and individuals with current or past eating disorders showed alterations in those pathways compared to controls. Here we propose that structural and functional alterations in the insula and frontal cortex, including orbitofrontal and cingulate regions, areas that contribute to reward and anxiety processing, could predispose to developing an eating disorder and that adaptive changes in those circuits in response to malnutrition or repeated binge eating and purging could further promote illness behavior, hinder recovery and contribute to relapse. PMID:23963630

  15. Efficacy of turmeric in the treatment of digestive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Digestive disorders pose significant burdens to millions of people worldwide in terms of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Turmeric has been traditionally used for conditions associated with the digestive system, and its therapeutic benefits were also confirmed in clinical studies. However, rigorous systematic review on this topic is severely limited. Our study aims to systematically review the therapeutic and adverse effects of turmeric and its compounds on digestive disorders, including dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods/Design This study will include both randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of turmeric or its compounds in comparison to a placebo or any other active interventions for digestive disorders without any restrictions on participant age or language of publication. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients that have experienced treatment success. Secondary outcomes are the prevalence of an individual symptom of digestive disorders, the proportion of patients who experienced relapse, the number of physician visits/hospitalization due to digestive disorders, health-related quality of life and the proportion of patients who experienced adverse events. Relevant studies will be identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, Dissertations & Theses Database and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials from their inception to August 31, 2013. In addition, grey literature such as information published on drug regulatory agencies websites and abstracts/proceedings from conferences will also be reviewed. A calibration exercise will be conducted in a process of study screening, whereby two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts from the literature search. Any conflicts will be resolved through a subsequent team discussion. The same process will be adopted in data abstraction and methodological quality appraisal by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We will describe study and patient characteristics, risk of bias/methodological quality results, and outcomes of the included studies. If we have sufficient data and homogeneity, a random effects meta-analysis will be performed. Discussion Our results will help patients and healthcare practitioners to make informed decisions when considering turmeric as an alternative therapy for digestive disorders. Trial registration PROSPERO registry number: CRD42013005739. PMID:24973984

  16. Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?

    PubMed

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B?=?-0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B?=?0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception. PMID:25450896

  17. Innegligible musculoskeletal disorders caused by zoledronic acid in adjuvant breast cancer treatment: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Bin Zhou; Peng-Ling Zhang; Xiao-An Liu; Tao Yang; Wei He

    2011-01-01

    Background  Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is widely used for preventing bone loss in early breast cancer patients. However, the adverse effects\\u000a caused by ZOL itself should not be neglected. Musculoskeletal disorders were common after ZOL administration and distressing\\u000a to the patients. Up to now, no precise estimation of musculoskeletal disorders has been made.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Relevant randomized clinical trials were selected by searching the

  18. The efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for primary sleep disorders a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Buscemi; Ben Vandermeer; Nicola Hooton; Rena Pandya; Lisa Tjosvold; Lisa Hartling; Glen Baker; Terry P. Klassen; Sunita Vohra

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exogenous melatonin has been increasingly used in the management of sleep disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in the management of primary sleep disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DATA SOURCES: A number of electronic databases were searched. We reviewed the bibliographies of included studies and relevant reviews and\\u000a conducted hand-searching.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled

  19. Effectiveness of psychotropic medications in the maintenance phase of bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard; Günther, Oliver; Locklear, Julie; Ekman, Mattias; Miltenburger, Carolin; Chatterton, Mary Lou; Åström, Mikael; Paulsson, Björn

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of maintenance treatments for bipolar disorder. Placebo-controlled or active comparator bipolar maintenance clinical trials of ?6 months' duration with at least 15 patients/treatment group were identified using Medline, EMBASE, clinicaltrials.gov, and Cochrane databases (1993 to July 2010). The main outcome measure was relative risk for relapse for patients in remission. Twenty trials (5,364 patients) were identified. Overall, lithium and quetiapine were the most studied agents (eight and five trials, respectively). The majority of studies included patients who had previously responded to treatment for an acute episode. All interventions, with the exception of perphenazine+mood stabilizer, showed a relative risk for manic/mixed or depressive relapse below 1.0, although there was variation in the statistical significance of the findings vs. placebo. No monotherapy was associated with a significantly reduced risk for both manic/mixed and depressed relapse. Of the combination treatments, only quetiapine+lithium/divalproex, was associated with a significantly reduced risk vs. comparator (placebo+lithium/valproate) for relapse at both the manic/mixed and depressed poles of bipolar illness. Limitations for the analysis include differences in study durations and definitions of relapse. In conclusion, available maintenance therapies show considerable variation in efficacy. The efficacy of lithium and divalproex has been confirmed, but newer therapies, such as a number of atypical antipsychotics were also shown to be effective in bipolar disorder. Efficacy of all maintenance interventions needs to be balanced against the safety and tolerability profiles of individual agents. PMID:21733231

  20. Childhood trauma, borderline personality, and eating disorders: a developmental cascade.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the nature and role of trauma in relationship to borderline personality disorder and eating disorders. As is clinically evident, trauma can result in a variety of psychological consequences. These consequences include both Axis I and II disorders. Among the Axis II disorders, trauma appears to heighten the risk for the development of borderline, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, and even schizotypal personality disorders. Likewise, trauma may heighten the risk for developing an eating disorder. There appear to be complex inter-relationships among trauma, borderline personality disorder, and eating disorders. In this article, we attempt to summarize these inter-relationships. PMID:17710570

  1. Linking "Big" Personality Traits to Anxiety, Depressive, and Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotov, Roman; Gamez, Wakiza; Schmidt, Frank; Watson, David

    2010-01-01

    We performed a quantitative review of associations between the higher order personality traits in the Big Three and Big Five models (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, disinhibition, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness) and specific depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD) in adults. This approach resulted in 66…

  2. Child-Parent Interventions for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…

  3. Pharmacologic Treatments for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Howard Y.; Potter, Mona P.; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Yorks, Dayna M.; Petty, Carter R.; Wozniak, Janet R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of literature has documented pediatric bipolar disorder to be a severely impairing form of psychopathology. However, concerns remain as to the inadequacy of the extant literature on its pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, treatment studies have not been systematically reviewed for treatment effects on core and associated…

  4. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  5. Linking Big Personality Traits to Anxiety, Depressive, and Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Kotov; Wakiza Gamez; Frank Schmidt; David Watson

    2010-01-01

    We performed a quantitative review of associations between the higher order personality traits in the Big Three and Big Five models (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, disinhibition, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness) and specific depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD) in adults. This approach resulted in 66 meta-analyses. The review included 175 studies published from 1980 to 2007, which yielded 851 effect

  6. Antiepileptic Medications in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirota, Tomoya; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hollander, Eric; Kishi, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine,…

  7. Unidentified Language Deficits in Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollo, Alexandra; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Low language proficiency and problem behavior often co-occur, yet language deficits are likely to be overlooked in children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine prevalence and severity of the problem. Across 22 studies, participants included 1,171 children ages 5-13 with formally…

  8. Sleep in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis of polysomnographic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Sadeh; Lee Pergamin; Yair Bar-Haim

    2006-01-01

    Summary The links between sleep and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been a topic for intense ongoing research and clinical interest. Previous narrative literature reviews conveyed a consensus that parents of children with ADHD are more likely to report sleep problems in their children in comparison to parents of control children. However, when objective measures are considered the results appear

  9. Motor Coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Kimberly A.; Hass, Chris J.; Naik, Sagar K.; Lodha, Neha; Cauraugh, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Are motor coordination deficits an underlying cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Database searches identified 83 ASD studies focused on motor coordination, arm movements, gait, or postural stability deficits. Data extraction involved between-group comparisons for ASD and typically developing controls (N = 51). Rigorous…

  10. Developmental Meta-Analysis of the Functional Neural Correlates of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Daniel P.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Seymour, Karen E.; Laird, Angela R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Barrett, Rowland P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a pressing need to elucidate the brain-behavior interactions underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASD) given the marked rise in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has begun to address this need, but few fMRI studies have evaluated age-related changes in ASD. Therefore, we conducted…

  11. Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison with Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitte, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of (cognitive) behavioral therapy ([C]BT) for generalized anxiety disorder was investigated and compared with the efficacy of pharmacological therapy using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 65 (C)BT studies and pharmacological studies were included. (C)BT was more effective than control conditions. The results of the comparison…

  12. The Neural Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An ALE Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Steven G.; Bannon, Katie; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and commonly studied forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Causal models of ADHD have long implicated dysfunction in fronto-striatal and frontal-parietal networks supporting executive function, a hypothesis that can now be examined…

  13. “After a workout …” Beliefs about exercise, eating and appearance in female exercisers with and without eating disorder features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zara Lipsey; Stephen B. Barton; Angela Hulley; Andrew J. Hill

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study investigated the relationship between exercise and eating disorder features in a community sample of adult women with and without eating disorder psychopathology. The research focus was on the cognitions of exercisers who scored high and low on eating disorder symptoms. It was hypothesized that women with eating disorder symptoms would have more negative thoughts and beliefs about

  14. Recent research of relationships among eating disorders and personality disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos M. Grilo

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on recent research examining the relationships among eating disorders (ED) and personality disorders (PD).\\u000a Studies that have examined rates of PD in patients with ED and rates of ED in patients with PD have generally reported high\\u000a rates of diagnostic co-occurrence, although the marked inconsistency and variability in rates across studies is striking.\\u000a Methodologic limitations and conceptual

  15. Behavioral versus pharmacological treatments of obsessive compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Kobak; John H. Greist; James W. Jefferson; David J. Katzelnick; Henry J. Henk

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide a quantitative analysis of the relative efficacy of all five currently available serotonin\\u000a reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and behavior therapy [exposure and response prevention (ERP)] for obsessive compulsive disorder.\\u000a The relationship between effect size and methodological characteristics was also empirically examined. A search was conducted\\u000a of several computerized databases covering the dates from

  16. Linking "big" personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kotov, Roman; Gamez, Wakiza; Schmidt, Frank; Watson, David

    2010-09-01

    We performed a quantitative review of associations between the higher order personality traits in the Big Three and Big Five models (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, disinhibition, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness) and specific depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD) in adults. This approach resulted in 66 meta-analyses. The review included 175 studies published from 1980 to 2007, which yielded 851 effect sizes. For a given analysis, the number of studies ranged from three to 63 (total sample size ranged from 1,076 to 75,229). All diagnostic groups were high on neuroticism (mean Cohen's d = 1.65) and low on conscientiousness (mean d = -1.01). Many disorders also showed low extraversion, with the largest effect sizes for dysthymic disorder (d = -1.47) and social phobia (d = -1.31). Disinhibition was linked to only a few conditions, including SUD (d = 0.72). Finally, agreeableness and openness were largely unrelated to the analyzed diagnoses. Two conditions showed particularly distinct profiles: SUD, which was less related to neuroticism but more elevated on disinhibition and disagreeableness, and specific phobia, which displayed weaker links to all traits. Moderator analyses indicated that epidemiologic samples produced smaller effects than patient samples and that Eysenck's inventories showed weaker associations than NEO scales. In sum, we found that common mental disorders are strongly linked to personality and have similar trait profiles. Neuroticism was the strongest correlate across the board, but several other traits showed substantial effects independent of neuroticism. Greater attention to these constructs can significantly benefit psychopathology research and clinical practice. PMID:20804236

  17. Intimate Partner Violence as a Risk Factor for Mental Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline M. Golding

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the prevalence of mental health problems among women with a history of intimate partner violence. The weighted mean prevalence of mental health problems among battered women was 47.6% in 18 studies of depression, 17.9% in 13 studies of suicidality, 63.8% in 11 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 18.5% in 10 studies of alcohol abuse,

  18. Serotonin 1A receptor gene and major depressive disorder: an association study and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taro Kishi; Tomoko Tsunoka; Masashi Ikeda; Kunihiro Kawashima; Tomo Okochi; Tsuyoshi Kitajima; Yoko Kinoshita; Takenori Okumura; Yoshio Yamanouchi; Toshiya Inada; Norio Ozaki; Nakao Iwata

    2009-01-01

    Several genetic studies have shown an association between the 5-HT1A receptor gene (HTR1A) and major depressive disorder (MDD); however, results have been rather inconsistent. Moreover, to our knowledge, no association study on HTR1A and MDD in the Japanese population has been reported. Therefore, to evaluate the association between HTR1A and MDD, we conducted a case–control study of Japanese population samples

  19. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Design Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995–2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Main outcome measures Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. Results 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17?000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI ?0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Conclusions Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. PMID:25432903

  20. Tonsillectomy versus Tonsillotomy for Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children: A Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Fu, Yangyang; Feng, Yanmei; Guan, Jian; Yin, Shankai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tonsillotomy has gained popular acceptance as an alternative to the traditional tonsillectomy in the management of sleep-disordered breathing in children. Many studies have evaluated the outcomes of the two techniques, but uncertainty remains with regard to the efficacy and complications of tonsillotomy versus a traditional tonsillectomy. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and complications of tonsillotomy versus tonsillectomy, in terms of the short- and long-term results. Methods We collected data from electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The following inclusion criteria were applied: English language, children, and prospective studies that directly compared tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy in the management of sleep disordered breathing. Subgroup analysis was then performed. Results In total, 10 eligible studies with 1029 participants were included. Tonsillotomy was shown to be advantageous over tonsillectomy in short-term measures, such as a lower hemorrhage rate, shorter operation time, and faster pain relief. In long-term follow-up, there was no significant difference in resolution of upper-airway obstructive symptoms, the quality of life, or postoperative immune function between the tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy groups. The risk ratio of SDB recurrence was 3.33 (95% confidence interval = 1.62 6.82, P = 0.001), favoring tonsillectomy at an average follow-up of 31 months. Conclusions Tonsillotomy may be advantageous over tonsillectomy in the short term measures and there are no significant difference of resolving obstructive symptoms, quality of life and postoperative immune function. For the long run, the dominance of tonsillotomy may be less than tonsillectomy with regard to the rate of sleep-disordered breathing recurrence. PMID:25807322

  1. Acupuncture for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myeong Soo Lee; Tae-Young Choi; Jong-In Kim; Lakhyung Kim; Edzard Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Objective  To assess the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment option for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The literatures were searched using 15 databases, including MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Central\\u000a Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, six Korean medical databases and two Chinese databases\\u000a without language restritions. Prospective controlled clinical studies of any type

  2. Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media

    PubMed Central

    Spettigue, Wendy; Henderson, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction This paper provides a review of the role of the media in the development, maintenance, prevention, and treatment of eating disorders. Method The literature on gambling in youth on the internet was reviewed. It explores: (1) the role of the media in providing a social context for the development of eating disorders, (2) the role of the media in the etiology of eating disorder pathology, (3) the ways in which the media is used by patients suffering from eating disorders, and (4) the role that awareness of the media can have in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Results This review demonstrates that the media does contribute to the development of eating disorders. Conclusion This review highlights the need for media literacy and media activism to help change the current normative body discontent of women in the Western world. PMID:19030149

  3. Medication management of pediatric eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Reinblatt, Shauna Pencer; Redgrave, Graham W; Guarda, Angela S

    2008-04-01

    This article provides an overview of psychopharmacological treatments for pediatric eating disorders (EDs). Although EDs usually begin in adolescence, there are few pharmacological treatment trials specific to this age group and a paucity of controlled data. Empirical evidence suggests that psychological, behavioural and family interventions should be the primary modalities of treatment for these conditions. In severely underweight patients behavioural weight restoration should be attempted before pharmacological intervention, especially since starvation is known to aggravate obsessional and depressive symptomatology. Evidence from controlled trials supports the use of antidepressants for the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adults; however, similar studies have not yet been performed in youths. For anorexia nervosa (AN), there are no pharmacotherapies of proven efficacy in either adults or youths. Nonetheless, clinical experience and uncontrolled evidence suggests that some children and adolescents may benefit from thoughtful use of psychotropic medications on an individual basis in the context of a multimodal treatment plan. Regarding binge eating disorder (BED), adult literature shows positive short-term effects on binge eating for both pharmacological (especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and behavioural interventions, but unclear effects on weight. Clearly, psychopharmacological interventions for pediatric EDs would benefit from more research. PMID:18386210

  4. Placebo group improvement in trials of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders: A multivariate meta-analysis examining change over time

    PubMed Central

    Del Re, AC; Maisel, Natalya; Blodgett, Janet; Wilbourne, Paula; Finney, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective Placebo group improvement in pharmacotherapy trials has been increasing over time across several pharmacological treatment areas. However, it is unknown to what degree increasing improvement has occurred in pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorders or what factors may account for placebo group improvement. This meta-analysis of 47 alcohol pharmacotherapy trials evaluated (1) the magnitude of placebo group improvement, (2) the extent to which placebo group improvement has been increasing over time, and (3) several potential moderators that might account for variation in placebo group improvement. Method Random-effects univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted that examined the magnitude of placebo group improvement in the 47 studies and several potential moderators of improvement: (a) publication year, (b) country in which the study was conducted, (c) outcome data source/type, (d) number of placebo administrations, (e) overall severity of study participants, and (f) additional psychosocial treatment. Results Substantial placebo group improvement was found overall and improvement was larger in more recent studies. Greater improvement was found on moderately subjective outcomes, with more frequent administrations of the placebo, and in studies with greater participant severity of illness. However, even after controlling for these moderators, placebo group improvement remained significant, as did placebo group improvement over time. Conclusion Similar to previous pharmacotherapy placebo research, substantial pre- to post-test placebo group improvement has occurred in alcohol pharmacotherapy trials, an effect that has been increasing over time. However, several plausible moderator variables were not able to explain why placebo group improvement has been increasing over time. PMID:23857312

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Metabolic Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Alex J.; Vancampfort, Davy; Sweers, Kim; van Winkel, Ruud; Yu, Weiping; De Hert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have high levels of medical comorbidity and cardiovascular risk factors. The presence of 3 or more specific factors is indicative of metabolic syndrome, which is a significant influence upon future morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify the prevalence and predictors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults with schizophrenia and related disorders, accounting for subgroup differences. A PRISMA systematic search, appraisal, and meta-analysis were conducted of 126 analyses in 77 publications (n = 25?692). The overall rate of MetS was 32.5% (95% CI = 30.1%–35.0%), and there were only minor differences according to the different definitions of MetS, treatment setting (inpatient vs outpatient), by country of origin and no appreciable difference between males and females. Older age had a modest influence on the rate of MetS (adjusted R 2 = .20; P < .0001), but the strongest influence was of illness duration (adjusted R 2 = .35; P < .0001). At a study level, waist size was most useful in predicting high rate of MetS with a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 78.8%. Sensitivity and specificity of high blood pressure, high triglycerides, high glucose and low high-density lipoprotein, and age (>38 y) are shown in supplementary appendix 2 online. Regarding prescribed antipsychotic medication, highest rates were seen in those prescribed clozapine (51.9%) and lowest rates of MetS in those who were unmedicated (20.2%). Present findings strongly support the notion that patients with schizophrenia should be considered a high-risk group. Patients with schizophrenia should receive regular monitoring and adequate treatment of cardio-metabolic risk factors. PMID:22207632

  6. Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Gradient of Severity in Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Claire S.; Nava, Caroline; Polge, Anne; Gauthier, Julie; Huguet, Guillaume; Lumbroso, Serge; Giuliano, Fabienne; Stordeur, Coline; Depienne, Christel; Mouzat, Kevin; Pinto, Dalila; Howe, Jennifer; Lemière, Nathalie; Durand, Christelle M.; Guibert, Jessica; Ey, Elodie; Toro, Roberto; Peyre, Hugo; Mathieu, Alexandre; Amsellem, Frédérique; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, I. Carina; Rappold, Gudrun A.; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Maestrini, Elena; Galan, Pilar; Heron, Delphine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rastetter, Agnès; Brice, Alexis; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Laffargue, Fanny; Lespinasse, James; Chiesa, Jean; Rivier, François; Bonneau, Dominique; Regnault, Beatrice; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Sanlaville, Damien; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Edery, Patrick; Perrin, Laurence; Tabet, Anne Claude; Schmeisser, Michael J.; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Coleman, Mary; Sato, Daisuke; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ?1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability—more than 1 in 50—warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice. PMID:25188300

  7. Prevalence of REM sleep behavior disorder in multiple system atrophy: a multicenter study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Fernandez-Cordon, Clara; Coon, Elizabeth A.; Low, Phillip A.; Miglis, Mitchell G.; Jaradeh, Safwan; Bhaumik, Arijit K.; Dayalu, Praveen; Urrestarazu, Elena; Iriarte, Jorge; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Objectivey Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia frequently affecting patients with synucleinopathies but its exact prevalence in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is unclear. Whether questionnaires alone are sufficient to diagnose RBD is also unknown. Methods Cross-sectional study of patients with probable MSA from six academic centers in the US and Europe. RBD was ascertained clinically and with polysomnography; and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines for studies published before September 2014 that reported the prevalence of RBD in MSA. A random-effects model was constructed using weighted prevalence proportions. Only articles in English were included. Studies were classified into those that ascertained the presence of RBD in MSA clinically and with polysomnography. Case reports or case series (?5 patients) were not included. Results Forty-two patients completed questionnaires and underwent polysomnography. Of those, 32 (76.1%) had clinically-suspected RBD and 34 (81%) had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. Two patients reported no symptoms of RBD but had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The primary search strategy yielded 374 articles of which 12 met the inclusion criteria The summary prevalence of clinically suspected RBD was 73% (95% CI, 62%-84%) in a combined sample of 324 MSA patients. The summary prevalence of polysomnography-confirmed RBD was 88% (95% CI, 79%-94%) in a combined sample of 217 MSA patients. Interpretation Polysomnography-confirmed RBD is present in up to 88% of patients with MSA. RBD was present in some patients that reported no symptoms. More than half of MSA patients report symptoms of RBD before the onset of motor deficits. PMID:25739474

  8. Sex Roles and Eating Disorders: Evidence for Two Independent Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Lauren

    Because such eating disorders as anorexia and bulimia have been found to be more common in women than in men, much recent research on these disorders has examined their relationship to gender roles. Some evidence exists supporting the existence of two types of eating disorders; one associated with stereotypically feminine concerns, the other…

  9. Eating Disorders in Childhood: Prevention and Treatment Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are chronic clinical mental disorders that are disruptive to the psychological and social development of children and adolescents. They can be difficult to prevent and treat and are considered among the most chronic and medically lethal of mental disorders. Research suggests that the incidence and prevalence of eating

  10. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  11. Eating disorders in men: a review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Rhys Jones; John F Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders have long been perceived to occur primarily in women; few disorders in general medicine or psychiatry exhibit such a skew in gender distribution. Men and women with eating disorders share common risk factors and exhibit some overlap in clinical presentation, but important differences do exist. Determining which factors best explain these differences remain uncertain. Furthermore, despite a marked

  12. Pro-eating disorder websites: facts, fictions and fixes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Sharpe; Peter Musiat; Olivia Knapton; Ulrike Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Pro-eating disorder websites are online communities of individuals who do not consider eating disorders to be serious mental illnesses requiring treatment. People visit these websites to meet other like-minded individuals, to share tips and tricks on how to lose weight and how to otherwise maintain the symptomatology of the disorder. This paper aims to review what is actually

  13. Eating disorders and irritable bowel syndrome: is there a link?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Perkins; S. Keville; U. Schmidt; T. Chalder

    2005-01-01

    ObjectiveThe relationship between eating disorders (ED) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood. We wanted to determine the prevalence of IBS in a large sample of eating disordered individuals, examine the timing of onset of these disorders and assess whether there are any predictors of IBS symptoms in ED sufferers.

  14. A Content Analysis of Popular Magazine Articles on Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Inch; Noorfarah Merali

    2006-01-01

    This study tested two hypotheses about popular magazine articles on eating disorders: (a) anorexics would be profiled more often than bulimics due to their conformity to the thin beauty ideal projected in the Western media, and (b) disordered behaviors used to achieve weight loss would be mentioned more often than their physical consequences. Forty-two popular magazine articles on eating disorders

  15. Features of eating disorder among male-to-female transsexuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deenesh Khoosal; Chris Langham; Bob Palmer; Tim Terry; Manjunath Minajagi

    2009-01-01

    We found that during their journey of transition from male to female, people with gender identity disorder do not report higher levels of drive for thinness, bulimia or body dissatisfaction than the general population or people with eating disorders on the Eating Disorder Inventory. Instead, they report significantly lower levels of drive for thinness and bulimia when compared to biological

  16. Nutritional Status of Female Athletes with Subclinical Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHERINE A BEALS; MELINDA M MANORE

    1998-01-01

    Objective To assess the energy and nutritional status of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders and compare them with that of control subjects and standard norms.Design Group classification (subclinical eating disorder or control) was based on responses to a health and diet history questionnaire, a battery of self-report eating disorder questionnaires, and an in-depth interview. Energy and nutrient intakes and

  17. Online consulting service for eating disorders—analysis and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Grunwald; Juliane C. Busse

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of the use of a free online consulting service for eating disorders at the German “Information and Consulting Server for Eating Disorders” (http:\\/\\/www.ab-server.de) revealed that there exists a considerable demand for advice and information. The anonymity of the Internet supports those persons affected with an eating disorder, who turn to qualified personnel in the sense of a first

  18. Arts-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J. Frisch; Debra L. Franko; David B. Herzog

    2006-01-01

    Arts-based therapies are increasingly being employed, in conjunction with empirically valid traditional therapies, in the residential treatment of eating disorders. A systematic database search of arts-based therapies in the treatment of eating disorders was conducted. In addition, program staff at 22 residential eating disorder treatment programs were contacted to provide information regarding arts-based therapy utilization rates. Of the 19 programs

  19. Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K.W.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the treatment of those often detrimental disorders. PMID:22532388

  20. Informant Agreement for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Intellectual Disability: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stratis, Elizabeth A; Lecavalier, Luc

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated informant agreement on emotional and behavior problems and social skills in youth with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability using meta-analytic methods. Forty-nine studies were included, consisting of 107 effect sizes. The mean weighted effect size across all raters and all behaviors was .36, reflecting moderate agreement. Consistent with meta-analyses in typically developing youth, pairs of similar informants (e.g., parent-parent) demonstrated higher agreement compared to pairs of different raters (e.g., parent-teacher). With all rater pairs combined, agreement was significantly higher for externalizing problems ([Formula: see text] = .42) than either internalizing problems ([Formula: see text] = .35) or social skills ([Formula: see text] = .30). Several factors appear to moderate the level of agreement among informants, including the youth's diagnosis, age, and IQ. PMID:25253177

  1. Significantly lower nerve growth factor levels in patients with major depressive disorder than in healthy subjects: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Tu, Kun-Yu; Cheng, Yu-Shian; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Tseng, Ping-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since its discovery several decades ago, nerve growth factor (NGF) has been found to play roles in different areas, such as neurology, endocrinology, and immunology. There is some evidence linking NGF and psychiatry, including the role of NGF in subjects’ response to stress, the alteration of NGF in different emotional states, and the penetration of NGF across the blood–brain barrier under specific conditions. There are many inconsistent findings regarding the differences in NGF in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) at the present time. The aim of our study was to clarify whether NGF levels are different in MDD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Methods We conducted a thorough literature search and compared peripheral NGF levels between MDD and HC through meta-analysis, and investigated possible confounding variables through meta-regression. Results Seven studies were brought into the current meta-analysis comparing peripheral NGF in MDD and HCs. The main result was that the NGF levels were significantly lower in MDD than in HCs and that this had an inverse correlation with mean age and disease severity. In addition, meta-analysis of four articles found that the peripheral NGF levels did not change significantly before and after treatment. Conclusion Our study highlights the significant differences in peripheral NGF levels in patients with MDD. However, further exploration of the dynamic changes in peripheral NGF along with the disease course, and specific studies investigating the correlation of NGF in the peripheral and CNS environments are still needed. PMID:25897228

  2. Detecting disease-associated genes with confounding variable adjustment and the impact on genomic meta-analysis: With application to major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Detecting candidate markers in transcriptomic studies often encounters difficulties in complex diseases, particularly when overall signals are weak and sample size is small. Covariates including demographic, clinical and technical variables are often confounded with the underlying disease effects, which further hampers accurate biomarker detection. Our motivating example came from an analysis of five microarray studies in major depressive disorder (MDD), a heterogeneous psychiatric illness with mostly uncharacterized genetic mechanisms. Results We applied a random intercept model to account for confounding variables and case-control paired design. A variable selection scheme was developed to determine the effective confounders in each gene. Meta-analysis methods were used to integrate information from five studies and post hoc analyses enhanced biological interpretations. Simulations and application results showed that the adjustment for confounding variables and meta-analysis improved detection of biomarkers and associated pathways. Conclusions The proposed framework simultaneously considers correction for confounding variables, selection of effective confounders, random effects from paired design and integration by meta-analysis. The approach improved disease-related biomarker and pathway detection, which greatly enhanced understanding of MDD neurobiology. The statistical framework can be applied to similar experimental design encountered in other complex and heterogeneous diseases. PMID:22458711

  3. Validation of eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q)--Spanish version--for screening eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Javier Labrador, Francisco; Raich, Rosa María

    2012-07-01

    This research examines the internal consistency, convergent validity, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the Spanish version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Self-Report Questionnaire (S-EDE-Q), as a screening questionnaire for eating disorders (ED) in a community sample. Participants were 1543 male and female Spanish-speaking students (age range: 12-21 years), who volunteered to complete the S-EDE-Q and the EAT-40. The Spanish version of the Eating Disorders Examination (S-EDE) interview, 12th edition, was administered to 602 of the students. Acceptable internal consistency for the four subscales of the S-EDE-Q was obtained (alpha > or = .74). Corrected point-biserial correlation performed with the 22 items included in the S-EDE-Q subscales showed acceptable values for all the items. The EAT-40 Dieting subscale correlated highly and positively with the four S-EDE-Q subscales (r > or = .70). Acceptable results in sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value when compared with the EDE were found. Correlation between S-EDE and S-EDE-Q diagnoses was positive and significant. Overall, results support the psychometric adequacy of the S-EDE-Q as a screening questionnaire for ED in community samples. PMID:22774455

  4. Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Wilcox, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower…

  5. Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

    2009-01-01

    Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…

  6. A Tale of Eating: Writing as a Pathway out of an Eating Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Fiona

    1994-01-01

    Presents a prose-poetry tale which examines the use of writing as a pathway out of an eating disorder. Highlights the need for persons with an eating problem to find their own voice and describe their experiences in their own words rather than the restrictive narrative of an eating problem. Stresses the value of eliciting reflective, as well as…

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life in Women with Eating Disorders: Association with Subjective and Objective Binge Eating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet D. Latner; Joanna K. Vallance; Geoffrey Buckett

    2008-01-01

    This study examined health-related quality of life (QOL) and its association with different forms of binge eating in 53 women\\u000a with eating disorders. Participants had enrolled in treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder,\\u000a or other eating disorders not otherwise specified and completed measures of QOL, eating-related psychopathology, and mood\\u000a disturbance. Eating- and mood-related psychopathology, and to a

  8. Are bodybuilders at risk for an eating disorder?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Goldfield; Dan W. Harper; Arthur G. Blouin

    1998-01-01

    Several sports and activities have been associated with an increased risk of eating disorders. Bodybuilding, a sport in which eating, body weight, and shape concerns appear to be prevalent, has grown considerably in popularity with prevalence estimates in excess of 5 million participants in America alone. This article reviews the scientific literature that has examined eating and weight control practices

  9. Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Ha, Sandie; Roth, Jeffrey; Kearney, Greg; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Xu, Xiaohui

    2014-11-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia) have a substantial public health impact. Maternal exposure to high levels of air pollution may trigger HDP, but this association remains unclear. The objective of our report is to assess and quantify the association between maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ?10, 2.5 ?m) on HDP risk. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Contents, Global Health, and Cochrane were searched (last search: September, 2013). After a detailed screening of 270 studies, 10 studies were extracted. We conducted meta-analyses if a pollutant in a specific exposure window was reported by at least four studies. Using fixed- and random-effects models, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for each pollutant with specific increment of concentration. Increases in risks of HDP (OR per 10 ppb = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30) and preeclampsia (OR per 10 ppb = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17) were observed to be associated with exposure to NO2 during the entire pregnancy, and significant associations between HDP and exposure to CO (OR per 1 ppm = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.45) and O3 (OR per 10 ppb = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.13) during the first trimester were also observed. Our review suggests an association between ambient air pollution and HDP risk. Although the ORs were relatively low, the population-attributable fractions were not negligible given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution.

  10. Efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for secondary sleep disorders and sleep disorders accompanying sleep restriction: meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Buscemi; Ben Vandermeer; Nicola Hooton; Rena Pandya; Lisa Tjosvold; Lisa Hartling; Sunita Vohra; Terry P Klassen; Glen Baker

    2006-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in managing secondary sleep disorders and sleep disorders accompanying sleep restriction, such as jet lag and shiftwork disorder. Data sources 13 electronic databases and reference lists of relevant reviews and included studies; Associated Professional Sleep Society abstracts (1999 to 2003). Study selection The efficacy review included

  11. Effectiveness of programs for reducing the stigma associated with mental disorders. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Parsons, Alison; Reid, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The stigma associated with mental disorders is a global public health problem. Programs to combat it must be informed by the best available evidence. To this end, a meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of existing programs. A systematic search of PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases yielded 34 relevant papers, comprising 33 randomized controlled trials. Twenty-seven papers (26 trials) contained data that could be incorporated into a quantitative analysis. Of these trials, 19 targeted personal stigma or social distance (6,318 participants), six addressed perceived stigma (3,042 participants) and three self-stigma (238 participants). Interventions targeting personal stigma or social distance yielded small but significant reductions in stigma across all mental disorders combined (d=0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.39, p<0.001) as well as for depression (d=0.36, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60, p<0.01), psychosis (d=0.20, 95% CI: 0.06-0.34, p<0.01) and generic mental illness (d=0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.50, p<0.01). Educational interventions were effective in reducing personal stigma (d=0.33, 95% CI: 0.19-0.42, p<0.001) as were interventions incorporating consumer contact (d=0.47, 95% CI: 0.17-0.78, p<0.001), although there were insufficient studies to demonstrate an effect for consumer contact alone. Internet programs were at least as effective in reducing personal stigma as face-to-face delivery. There was no evidence that stigma interventions were effective in reducing perceived or self-stigma. In conclusion, there is an evidence base to inform the roll out of programs for improving personal stigma among members of the community. However, there is a need to investigate methods for improving the effectiveness of these programs and to develop interventions that are effective in reducing perceived and internalized stigma. PMID:24890069

  12. The Common Traits of the ACC and PFC in Anxiety Disorders in the DSM-5: Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhengjia; Zhang, Tao; Du, Mingying; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (GA), and specific phobia (SP) are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. Methods A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. Results Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs) were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA), drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. Conclusion Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and fear, and the importance of the ventral anterior cingulate (ACC)/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating anxiety symptoms. PMID:24676455

  13. Weak central coherence in eating disorders: A step towards looking for an endophenotype of eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Lopez; Kate Tchanturia; Daniel Stahl; Janet Treasure

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has found that women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have weak coherence. The aim of this study was to examine whether women who had recovered from an eating disorder (ED) also had weak coherence. A total of 42 recovered ED women and 42 healthy women were assessed with a battery of five neuropsychological tests that measure aspects

  14. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders your physical body weight or shape. #12;© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission

  15. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders this instead of any diet, and you're likely to maintain a healthy weight and avoid eating disorders. Listen

  16. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders to be thin can quickly spin out of control and become a serious, life-threatening eating disorder. Just

  17. Risk of major adverse perinatal outcomes in women Risk of major adverse perinatal outcomes in women with eating disorders with eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NADIA MICALI; EMILY SIMONOFF; JANET TREASURE

    Low birth weight, prematurity and higher miscarriage rates prematurity and higher miscarriage rates have previously been reported in women have previously been reported in women with eating disorders. with eating disorders. Aims Aims To determine whether women To determine whether women with a history of eating disorders are at with a history of eating disorders are at higher risk of

  18. Distinguishing Between Risk Factors for Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Purging Disorder.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D

    2014-09-19

    Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model, this significant indirect effect was not moderated by eating disorder group. The results support a prospective model of risk that applies to bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. Common prevention approaches may be possible for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. PMID:25233874

  19. Cultural Factors in Collegiate Eating Disorder Pathology: When Family Culture Clashes With Individual Culture

    E-print Network

    Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T

    2008-01-01

    to the risk of eating disorders when women of non-AsianBecause eating disorders disproportionately affect women, 27women participat- ed. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires on cultural value orientations, enmeshment, and eating disorder

  20. Cultural factors in collegiate eating disorder pathology: When family culture clashes with individual culture

    E-print Network

    Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T

    2008-01-01

    to the risk of eating disorders when women of non-AsianBecause eating disorders disproportionately affect women, 27women participat- ed. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires on cultural value orientations, enmeshment, and eating disorder

  1. The Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey: A brief measure of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin M. von Ranson; Kelly L. Klump; William G. Iacono; Matt McGue

    2005-01-01

    This article describes details of the development and psychometric characteristics of a brief self-report inventory for assessing attitudes and behaviors symptomatic of eating disorders that is currently in use in a longitudinal study of over 700 families with 11-year-old or 17-year-old twin girls. The Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey (MEBS), formerly the Minnesota Eating Disorder Inventory, is a 30-item measure developed

  2. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

  3. Eating patterns and disorders in a college population: Are college women's eating problems a new phenomenon?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharlene Hesse-Biber

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between gender differences in eating patterns among college students and the disorders as clinically defined. A considerable number of college women but few men in our sample show behavioral patterns associated with an eating disorder (anorexia or bulimia). Our findings for women are in the moderate to high range for these symptoms, compared with other

  4. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, Baoliang; XIANG, Yutao; CAO, Xiaolan; LI, Yan; ZHU, Junhong; CHIU, Helen F. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiction who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treating substance abuse problems. Aim Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. Methods We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R software. Results The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. The pooled lifetime prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30% (95%CI: 23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I2 =95%, p<0.001). Men had a higher prevalence than women (44% vs. 21%), and injection heroin users had higher prevalence than those who smoked heroin (44% vs. 27%). Studies that were methodologically stronger had higher reported prevalence of ASPD among heroin dependent individuals. Conclusions There are substantial methodological problems in the available literature about ASPD in Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence, but we estimate that about one-third of them meet criteria for ASPD. Further work is needed to increase clinicians’ awareness of this issue; to compare the pathogenesis, treatment responsiveness and recidivism of those with and without ASPD; and to develop and test targeted interventions for this difficult-to-treat subgroup of individuals with heroin dependence. PMID:25477719

  5. Resistance to treatment in eating disorders: a critical challenge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Special Issue “Treatment resistance in Eating Disorders” gathers together the contributions provided by several experienced groups of researchers in the field of Eating Disorders (EDs). The main topic is addressed from multiple perspectives ranging from pathogenesis (including developmental and maintaining factors) to treatment. An explicative model of resistance in EDs is also proposed. PMID:24229426

  6. Evidence-Based Practice for Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Jaquelyn Liss

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the status of evidence-based practice (EBP) for the treatment of students with eating disorders in university and college counseling centers. Several issues affecting the application of the research findings to service delivery for eating disordered students will be addressed. These include discussion of…

  7. Predicting Eating Disorders in Women: A Preliminary Measurement Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundholm, Jean K; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified items from Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) that differentiated eating-disordered women (n=173) currently receiving treatment for bulimia from non-eating-disordered university women (n=265). Results identified a list of statements related to social withdrawal and depression that may be appropriate for use in assessing a…

  8. A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.…

  9. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

  10. Eating disorders and obesity: two sides of the same coin?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEMMA DAY; ANDREW TERNOUTH; DAVID A. COLLIER

    The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesi- ty. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family- based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical

  11. EATING DISORDERS IN ADOLESCENCE: INFORMATION FOR PARENTS AND EDUCATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine Keca; Indian Prairie

    Overview An eating disorder is a psychiatric illness characterized by an all-consuming desire to be thin and an intense fear of weight gain. Eating disorders can cause dangerous medical problems. The fear of weight gain is so great that the person may feel compelled to either limit food intake to dangerously small amounts or to use other compensatory methods (laxatives,

  12. InhonorofNationalEatingDisordersAwarenessWeek Sponsoredand

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    InhonorofNationalEatingDisordersAwarenessWeek Sponsoredand hostedby: Body Acceptance Movement. From overcoming an eating disorder to winning three National Dance Championships, Ragen's journeyWithFat.org, and is an o cial blogger for NBC's iVillage on topics of body image, beauty and women's health. Her work has

  13. Detection and management of eating disorders during pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra L Franko; Emily B Spurrell

    2000-01-01

    Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are associated with potential negative consequences during pregnancy, including higher rates of miscarriage, low birth weight, obstetric complications, and postpartum depression. Women with eating disorders are reluctant to disclose symptoms to health care providers, so it is important for obstetric clinicians to be aware of warning signs and assessment techniques to

  14. Features associated with excessive exercise in women with eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemal Shroff; Lauren Reba; Laura M. Thornton; Federica Tozzi; Kelly L. Klump; Wade H. Berrettini; Harry Brandt; Steven Crawford; Scott Crow; Manfred M. Fichter; David Goldman; Katherine A. Halmi; Craig Johnson; Allan S. Kaplan; Pamela Keel; Maria LaVia; James Mitchell; Alessandro Rotondo; Michael Strober; Janet Treasure; D. Blake Woodside; Walter H. Kaye; Cynthia M. Bulik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Excessive exercise and motor restlessness are observed in a sub- stantial number of patients with eating disorders. This trait has been studied extensively among animal models of activity anorexia nervosa (AN) and may hold particular interest as an endophe- notype for AN. We explored features asso- ciated with excessive exercise across sub- types of eating disorders. Method: Participants were

  15. Body fat perception in eating-disordered men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Mangweth; Armand Hausmann; Thomas Walch; Alexandra Hotter; Claudia I. Rupp; Wilfried Biebl; James I. Hudson; Harrison G. Pope

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We sought to assess the relative roles of body fat ideals and body fat perception in men with eating disorders. Method: We compared 27 men meeting criteria for a current eating disorder (17 with anorexia nervosa and 10 with bulimia nervosa), 21 male mountain climbers, and 21 control men, using a computerized test of body image, the ''somatomorphic matrix.''

  16. Eating disorders in diverse lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. Feldman; Ilan H. Meyer

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study estimates the prevalence of eating disorders in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women, and examines the association between participation in the gay community and eating disorder prevalence in gay and bisexual men. Method: One hundred and twenty six white heterosexuals and 388 white, black, Latino LGB men and women were sampled from community venues. DSM-

  17. A family history study of binge-eating disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa R. R. Lilenfeld; Rebecca Ringham; Melissa A. Kalarchian; Marsha D. Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Family studies of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have yielded important information about the etiologies of these eating disorders. By contrast, little is known about familial factors of etiologic importance for binge-eating disorder (BED). The purpose of the current family history study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid psychopathology in a non–treatment seeking female sample of 31 probands with

  18. QT Interval and QT Dispersion in Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Takimoto; Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi; Hiroaki Kumano; Gaku Yamanaka; Tadashi Sasaki; Hiroyuki Suematsu; Yuzo Nagakawa; Tomifusa Kuboki

    2004-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are thought to be risk factors for cardiac sudden death secondary to arrhythmia. Results in previous studies on QT interval and QT dispersion, markers of fatal arrhythmia, have been inconsistent. Methods: We prospectively examined 179 female eating disorder patients, being over 18 years old and diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria between January 1995 and December 2002,

  19. Acculturation and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…

  20. Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.…

  1. Small victories: Prevention of eating disorders among athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline S. Powers; Craig Johnson

    1996-01-01

    Eating disorders are more common among competitive athletes. Risk factors that increase vulnerability to eating disorders include both “appearance thinness” and “performance thinness.” Prevention efforts directed to athletes have increased in the last few years and several examples of small victories are described, including prohibitions against steroid use in body builders and actions taken by the International Olympics Committee and

  2. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  3. Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The excessive influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation--referred to as overvaluation--is considered by some a central feature across eating disorders but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined shape/weight overvaluation in 399 consecutive patients with BED. Participants completed semistructured…

  4. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  5. Acculturation and Eating Disorders in a Mexican American Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2006-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…

  6. Relationships between alexithymia and psychological characteristics associated with eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme J. Taylor; James D. A. Parker; R. Michael Bagby; Michael P. Bourke

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between alexithymia and psychological characteristics and behaviors that are commonly associated with eating disorders. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) were administered to a group of 48 female patients with anorexia nervosa, a matched comparison group of 30 normal women, and an unmatched comparison group of 116 male and

  7. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Ousley; Elizabeth Diane Cordero; Sabina White

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and undergraduate women. Methods: In a random sample of undergraduates, the authors categorized respondents by

  8. Alexithymia and eating disorders: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24999402

  9. Mood, food, traits, and restraint: an experimental investigation of negative affect, borderline personality, and disordered eating

    E-print Network

    Ambwani, Suman

    2009-05-15

    Eating disorders and borderline personality disorder involve several overlapping features, such as impulsivity, negative affectivity, and dissociation. However, few studies have specifically assessed how eating pathology and borderline...

  10. Stress-induced laboratory eating behavior in obese women with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2012-04-01

    Aim of the study was to compare the microstructural eating behavior of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED) after stress induction in laboratory. Seventy-one female subjects were investigated (mean BMI 36.9). Thirty-five fulfilled criteria for BED. A 2×2 factorial design with repeated measurement (stress vs. no stress) on the second factor was applied. Stress was induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and chocolate pudding served as laboratory food. Variables of eating behavior were measured by a universal eating monitor (UEM). Only in participants with BED stress was associated with an increase in the initial eating rate and a diminished deceleration of eating at the end of the meal. Generally, BED subjects ate with larger size of spoonfuls during the laboratory meal than non BED controls. The eating behavior of obese patients with binge eating disorder seems to be significantly affected by stress. The stress-induced eating behavior of BED patients is characterized by a stronger motivation to eat (indicated by a fast initial eating rate) as well as by a lack of satiety perception (indicated by less deceleration of eating rate). PMID:22200410

  11. Risk factors and patterns of onset in binge eating disorder

    PubMed Central

    Manwaring, Jamie L; Hilbert, Anja; Wilfley, Denise E; Pike, Kathleen M; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

    2006-01-01

    Objective The current study examined risk factors in women with binge eating disorder (BED) who began binging before dieting (binge-first [BF]) compared with women with BED who began dieting before binging (diet-first [DF]). It further aimed to replicate findings regarding eating disorder and general psychopathology among BF versus DF subtypes. Method One hundred fifty-five women with BED completed the Oxford Risk Factor Interview to retrospectively assess risk factors occurring before eating disturbance onset. Clinical interview assessed eating disorder and general psychopathology. Results Overall, no significant differences in risk factors emerged between the groups. The BF group had a significantly earlier onset of BED than the DF group. In contradistinction to previous studies, the DF group endorsed more eating disorder psychopathology and lifetime diagnosis of any substance use disorder. Conclusion Limited support was seen for different risk factors in BF versus DF women, suggesting similar etiologic pathways in both subtypes. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:16231343

  12. A Preliminary Examination of a Nonpurging Compensatory Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Heather A.; Holland, Lauren A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlates of a compensatory eating disorder (CED) characterized by recurrent nonpurging compensatory behaviors in the absence of objectively large binge episodes among normal weight individuals who endorse undue influence of weight/shape on self-evaluation as possible indicators of clinical significance and distinctiveness. Method Women with CED (n=20), women with bulimia nervosa (BN) (n=20), and controls (n=20) completed an interview and questionnaires assessing eating disorder and general psychopathology and weight history. Results Compared to controls, women with CED reported significantly greater body image disturbance and disordered eating, higher anxiety proneness, increased perfectionism, and greater weight suppression. Compared to BN, CED was associated with significantly less body image disturbance, disordered eating, weight suppression, and lower likelihood of being overweight in childhood. However, CED and BN did not differ on anxiety proneness or perfectionism. Discussion CED merits further examination to determine whether it is a clinically significant and distinct eating disorder. PMID:24105678

  13. Teasing History, Onset of Obesity, Current Eating Disorder Psychopathology, Body Dissatisfaction, and Psychological Functioning in Binge Eating Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara D. Jackson; Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to examine associations among teasing history, onset of obesity, current eating disorder psychopathology, body dissatisfaction, and psychological functioning in women with Binge Eating Disorder (BED).Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects were 115 female adults who met DSM-IV criteria for BED. Measurements assessing teasing history (general appearance [GAT] and weight and size [WST] teasing),

  14. Eating Disorder Symptomatology: Prevalence among Latino College Freshmen Students

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Franko, Debra L.; Matos-Lamourt, Anguelique; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Von Holle, Ann; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis R.; Rodríguez-Angleró, Dianisa; Cervantes-López, Sarah; Suárez-Torres, Alba

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in first-year students at the University of Puerto Rico. Method Responses to the Bulimia Test Revised (BULIT-R), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were analyzed in a sample of 2,163 freshman students. Results The percentage of students at or above the clinical cut-off points was 3.24% for the BULIT-R, 9.59% for the EAT-26 and 1.88% met the cut-off point for both instruments. The 36.44% of the students who screen positive on eating disorders measures scored 18 or more on the BDI and 5.93% on this group presented high suicidal risk based on their responses to BDI items assessing suicidal thoughts. Discussion Eating disorder symptoms occur frequently in Puerto Rican college students, and prevention, detection, and treatment efforts are needed. PMID:20455253

  15. Antipsychotic treatment for children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Pagsberg, A K; Tarp, S; Glintborg, D; Stenstrøm, A D; Fink-Jensen, A; Correll, C U; Christensen, R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotic treatment in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) lacks a rich evidence base, and efforts to rank different drugs concerning their efficacy have not proven any particular drug superior. In contrast to the literature regarding adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS), comparative effectiveness studies in children and adolescents are limited in number and size, and only a few meta-analyses based on conventional methodologies have been conducted. Methods and analyses We will conduct a network meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate antipsychotic therapies for EOS to determine which compounds are efficacious, and to determine the relative efficacy and safety of these treatments when compared in a network meta-analysis. Unlike a contrast-based (standard) meta-analysis approach, an arm-based network meta-analysis enables statistical inference from combining both direct and indirect comparisons within an empirical Bayes framework. We will acquire eligible studies through a systematic search of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Clinicaltrials.gov and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. Eligible studies should randomly allocate children and adolescents presenting with schizophrenia or a related non-affective psychotic condition to an intervention group or to a control group. Two reviewers will—independently and in duplicate—screen titles and abstracts, complete full text reviews to determine eligibility, and subsequently perform data abstraction and assess risk of bias of eligible trials. We will conduct meta-analyses to establish the effect of all reported therapies on patient-relevant efficacy and safety outcomes when possible. Ethics and dissemination No formal ethical procedures regarding informed consent are required as no primary data collection is undertaken. The review will help facilitate evidence-based management, identify key areas for future research, and provide a framework for conducting large systematic reviews combining direct and indirect comparisons. The study will be disseminated by peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42013006676. PMID:25304189

  16. A meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders following vaccines administered from 1994 through 2000 in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Geier; Mark R. Geier

    BACKGROUND: Thimerosal is an ethylmercury-containing compound (49.6% mercury by weight) used as at the preservative level in vaccines (0.005% to 0.01%). METHODS: Statistical modeling in a meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for neurodevelopment dis- orders (NDs) reported following Diphtheria-Tetanus-whole-cell-Pertussis (DTP) vaccines in comparison to Diphtheria-Tetanus-whole-cell-Pertussis-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (DTPH) vaccines (administered: 1994-1997) and following

  17. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders will avoid categorizing foods as either "good" or "bad." I will not associate guilt or shame with eating

  18. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders to solve problems, establishing goals, and contributing to life. View exercise and balanced eating

  19. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    , and binge eating disorder. Genuine awareness will help you avoid judgmental or mistaken attitudes about food© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEating

  20. Filaggrin gene defects and risk of developing allergic sensitisation and allergic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether filaggrin gene defects, present in up to one in 10 western Europeans and North Americans, increase the risk of developing allergic sensitisation and allergic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, ISI Science Citation Index, BIOSIS, ISI Web of Knowledge, UK National Research Register, clinical trials.gov, the Index to Theses and Digital dissertations, and grey literature using OpenSIGLE. Study selection Genetic epidemiological studies (family, case-control) of the association between filaggrin gene defects and allergic sensitisation or allergic disorders. Data extraction Atopic eczema or dermatitis, food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and anaphylaxis, along with relevant immunological variables relating to the risk of allergic sensitisation as assessed by either positive skin prick testing or increased levels of allergen specific IgE. Data synthesis 24 studies were included. The odds of developing allergic sensitisation was 1.91 (95% confidence interval 1.44 to 2.54) in the family studies and 1.57 (1.20 to 2.07) in the case-control studies. The odds of developing atopic eczema was 1.99 (1.72 to 2.31) in the family studies and 4.78 (3.31 to 6.92) in the case-control studies. Three studies investigated the association between filaggrin gene mutations and allergic rhinitis in people without atopic eczema: overall odds ratio 1.78 (1.16 to 2.73). The four studies that investigated the association between filaggrin gene mutations and allergic rhinitis in people with atopic eczema reported a significant association: pooled odds ratio from case-control studies 2.84 (2.08 to 3.88). An overall odds ratio for the association between filaggrin gene mutations and asthma in people with atopic eczema was 2.79 (1.77 to 4.41) in case-control studies and 2.30 (1.66 to 3.18) in family studies. None of the studies that investigated filaggrin gene mutations and asthma in people without atopic eczema reported a significant association; overall odds ratio was 1.30 (0.7 to 2.30) in the case-control studies. The funnel plots suggested that publication bias was unlikely to be an explanation for these findings. No studies investigated the association between filaggrin gene mutations and food allergy or anaphylaxis. Conclusions Filaggrin gene defects increase the risk of developing allergic sensitisation, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis. Evidence of the relation between filaggrin gene mutations and atopic eczema was strong, with people manifesting increased severity and persistence of disease. Filaggrin gene mutations also increased the risk of asthma in people with atopic eczema. Restoring skin barrier function in filaggrin deficient people in early life may help prevent the development of sensitisation and halt the development and progression of allergic disease. PMID:19589816

  1. The Canadian Eating Disorder Program Survey – Exploring Intensive Treatment Programs for Youth with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Mark; Strike, Melanie; Pinhas, Leora; Gomez, Rebecca; Elliott, April; Ferguson, Patricia; Gusella, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore and describe philosophies and characteristics of intensive eating disorder (ED) treatment programs based in tertiary care institutions across Canada. Method: A ninety-item survey examining ED services for adolescents was developed, piloted, and completed by 11 programs across Canada. Information pertaining to program characteristics and components, governance, staffing, referrals, assessments, therapeutic modalities in place, nutritional practices, and treatment protocols were collected. Results: The results highlight the diversity of programming available but also the lack of a unified approach to intensive eating disorder treatment in youth. Conclusions: This report provides important baseline data that offers a framework that programs can use to come together to establish assessment and treatment protocols as well as a process for outcome evaluation. Continued collaboration will be essential moving forward to ensure Canadian youth, regardless of geographic location, receive the necessary treatment required to attain and sustain recovery. PMID:24223051

  2. Does feminism serve a protective function against eating disorders?

    PubMed

    Guille, C; Chrisler, J C

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two hundred seventeen women completed the Kinsey Sexual Orientation Scale, the Feminist Identity Scale, and three questionnaires that measured eating attitudes and behaviors. Lesbian participants were significantly more likely than heterosexual participants to work actively to improve the status of women, and they were less likely than heterosexuals to report attitudes and behaviors that are associated with eating disorders. Older women were more committed to feminist activism than younger women. Although feminist identity scores did not directly predict eating attitudes and behaviors, evidence suggests that feminism may serve a protective function against eating disorders in lesbians. PMID:24786436

  3. Current and Emerging Drug Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483

  4. Efficacy of Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Patients with Posttraumatic-Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ren; Chu, Hsin; Chung, Min-Huey; Chen, Su-Ru; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed the first meta-analysis of clinical studies by investigating the effects of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients treated during the past 2 decades. Methods We performed a quantitative meta-analysis on the findings of 26 randomized controlled trials of EMDR therapy for PTSD published between 1991 and 2013, which were identified through the ISI Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature electronic databases, among which 22, 20, 16, and 11 of the studies assessed the effects of EMDR on the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress, respectively, as the primary clinical outcome. Results The meta-analysis revealed that the EMDR treatments significantly reduced the symptoms of PTSD (g?=??0.662; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.887 to ?0.436), depression (g?=??0.643; 95% CI: ?0.864 to ?0.422), anxiety (g?=??0.640; 95% CI: ?0.890 to ?0.390), and subjective distress (g?=??0.956; 95% CI: ?1.388 to ?0.525) in PTSD patients. Conclusion This study confirmed that EMDR therapy significantly reduces the symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients. The subgroup analysis indicated that a treatment duration of more than 60 min per session was a major contributing factor in the amelioration of anxiety and depression, and that a therapist with experience in conducting PTSD group therapy was a major contributing factor in the reduction of PTSD symptoms. PMID:25101684

  5. Dimensional assessment of personality pathology in patients with eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliot M Goldner; Suja Srikameswaran; Marsha L Schroeder; W. John Livesley; C. Laird Birmingham

    1999-01-01

    This study examined patients with eating disorders on personality pathology using a dimensional method. Female subjects who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorder (n=136) were evaluated and compared to an age-controlled general population sample (n=68). We assessed 18 features of personality disorder with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology — Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Factor analysis and cluster analysis were

  6. A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between Self-Reported Presence and Anxiety in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r?=?.28; 95% CI: 0.18–0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r?=?.50; 95% CI: 0.30–0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r?=?.001; 95% CI: ?0.19–0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors. PMID:24801324

  7. Eating disorders. A review and update.

    PubMed Central

    Haller, E

    1992-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are prevalent illnesses affecting between 1% and 10% of adolescent and college age women. Developmental, family dynamic, and biologic factors are all important in the cause of this disorder. Anorexia nervosa is diagnosed when a person refuses to maintain his or her body weight over a minimal normal weight for age and height, such as 15% below that expected, has an intense fear of gaining weight, has a disturbed body image, and, in women, has primary or secondary amenorrhea. A diagnosis of bulimia nervosa is made when a person has recurrent episodes of binge eating, a feeling of lack of control over behavior during binges, regular use of self-induced vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, strict dieting, or vigorous exercise to prevent weight gain, a minimum of 2 binge episodes a week for at least 3 months, and persistent overconcern with body shape and weight. Patients with eating disorders are usually secretive and often come to the attention of physicians only at the insistence of others. Practitioners also should be alert for medical complications including hypothermia, edema, hypotension, bradycardia, infertility, and osteoporosis in patients with anorexia nervosa and fluid or electrolyte imbalance, hyperamylasemia, gastritis, esophagitis, gastric dilation, edema, dental erosion, swollen parotid glands, and gingivitis in patients with bulimia nervosa. Treatment involves combining individual, behavioral, group, and family therapy with, possibly, psychopharmaceuticals. Primary care professionals are frequently the first to evaluate these patients, and their encouragement and support may help patients accept treatment. The treatment proceeds most smoothly if the primary care physician and psychiatrist work collaboratively with clear and frequent communication. PMID:1475950

  8. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

  9. Emotional Eating, Alexithymia, and Binge-Eating Disorder in Obese Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Pinaquy; Henri Chabrol; Chantal Simon; Jean-Pierre Louvet; Pierre Barbe

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between alexithymia and emotional eating in obese women with or without Binge Eating Disorder (BED).Research Methods and Procedures: One hundred sixty-nine obese women completed self-report questionnaires, including the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Stress Perceived Scale, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The presence of BED, screened

  10. Chocolate craving and disordered eating. Beyond the gender divide?

    PubMed

    Hormes, Julia M; Orloff, Natalia C; Timko, C Alix

    2014-12-01

    Chocolate craving in women has previously been linked to disordered eating behaviors. A relatively higher prevalence of eating disorder pathology may account for the fact that chocolate craving is significantly more common in women in North America, compared to many other countries. While support for a causal role of disordered eating in the etiology of craving in women is growing, little is known about the extent to which food cravings are associated with disordered eating behaviors in men. This study was designed to systematically assess the impact of gender and chocolate craving on measures of attitudes to chocolate, responsiveness to food cues in the environment, body shape dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and eating disorder and general pathology. Undergraduate men and women (n?=?645, 37.2% male) were invited to complete self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, height and weight, food cravings, dietary attitudes and behaviors, along with eating disorder and general pathology. Data suggest that the relationship between chocolate craving and disordered eating behaviors in men is the opposite of what has previously been observed in women: compared to non-cravers, male chocolate cravers reported significantly more guilt related to craving, but were significantly less likely to diet and reported lower levels of dietary restraint, less frequent weight fluctuations, and fewer symptoms of eating disorders. Findings indicate that a positive relationship between disordered eating behaviors and chocolate craving may be unique to women (and potentially women in North America). Findings have important implications for our understanding of cultural and psychosocial factors involved in the etiology of food cravings. PMID:25173065

  11. Eating disorders among college women: prevention, education, and treatment responses.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, A M; Bergholz, K; Dore, T; Salimi, L

    1998-03-01

    Eating-related problems, particularly among college women, represent a significant health concern on university campuses. Body image dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, and unhealthy weight management are prevalent among even normal-weight students, but discussions of broad college health interventions in this area have been limited. Two conceptual tools that are useful in developing a comprehensive health center response to eating disorders in the college setting are described. The diagnosis of Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified is suggested as a framework for defining target populations and eating problems requiring intervention, and a picture of the prototypical eating problem candidate is developed. A multiple-level model of intervention that includes preventive, intermediate, and remedial responses to varied forms of eating-related concerns is described. The intervention model is illustrated with examples, and limitations of the method are discussed. PMID:9558818

  12. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between anxiety and cannabis use/cannabis use disorders in the general population. Methods A total of N?=?267 studies were identified from a systematic literature search (any time- March 2013) of Medline and PsycInfo databases, and a hand search. The results of 31 studies (with prospective cohort or cross-sectional designs using non-institutionalised cases) were analysed using a random-effects meta-analysis with the inverse variance weights. Lifetime or past 12-month cannabis use, anxiety symptoms, and cannabis use disorders (CUD; dependence and/or abuse/harmful use) were classified according to DSM/ICD criteria or scores on standardised scales. Results There was a small positive association between anxiety and either cannabis use (OR?=?1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p?=?.006; N?=?15 studies) or CUD (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.23-2.31, p?=?.001; N?=?13 studies), and between comorbid anxiety?+?depression and cannabis use (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40, p?=?.004; N?=?5 studies). The positive associations between anxiety and cannabis use (or CUD) were present in subgroups of studies with ORs adjusted for possible confounders (substance use, psychiatric illness, demographics) and in studies with clinical diagnoses of anxiety. Cannabis use at baseline was significantly associated with anxiety at follow-up in N?=?5 studies adjusted for confounders (OR?=?1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54, p?=?.01). The opposite relationship was investigated in only one study. There was little evidence for publication bias. Conclusion Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalised members of the general population of 10 countries. PMID:24884989

  13. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kadish, Yael Adira

    2012-04-01

    A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed. PMID:22489814

  14. Eating disorder symptom severity scale: a new clinician rated measure.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Katherine A; Buchholz, Annick; Perkins, Julie; Norwood, Sarah; Obeid, Nicole; Spettigue, Wendy; Feder, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the clinician-rated Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale (EDS(3)), created to address a gap in measurement options for youth with eating disorders. The EDS(3) is modeled on the Childhood Severity and Acuity of Psychiatric Illness Scales (Lyons, J. S, 1998). Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution and accounted for 78% of the variance, and internal consistency within the subscales was good (Cronbach alphas: 0.69 to 0.93). The EDS(3) is a valid and reliable measure designed for clinicians to help assess the severity of a youth's eating disorder and to facilitate outcomes research. PMID:20603733

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of level 3 portable sleep tests versus level 1 polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    El Shayeb, Mohamed; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Stafinski, Tania; Pawluk, Lawrence; Menon, Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Greater awareness of sleep-disordered breathing and rising obesity rates have fueled demand for sleep studies. Sleep testing using level 3 portable devices may expedite diagnosis and reduce the costs associated with level 1 in-laboratory polysomnography. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of level 3 testing compared with level 1 testing and to identify the appropriate patient population for each test. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies of level 3 versus level 1 sleep tests in adults with suspected sleep-disordered breathing. We searched 3 research databases and grey literature sources for studies that reported on diagnostic accuracy parameters or disease management after diagnosis. Two reviewers screened the search results, selected potentially relevant studies and extracted data. We used a bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model to estimate summary diagnostic accuracy parameters. Results: We included 59 studies involving a total of 5026 evaluable patients (mostly patients suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea). Of these, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was high, ranging between 0.85 and 0.99 across different levels of disease severity. Summary sensitivity ranged between 0.79 and 0.97, and summary specificity ranged between 0.60 and 0.93 across different apnea–hypopnea cut-offs. We saw no significant difference in the clinical management parameters between patients who underwent either test to receive their diagnosis. Interpretation: Level 3 portable devices showed good diagnostic performance compared with level 1 sleep tests in adult patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and no unstable comorbidities. For patients suspected of having other types of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep disorders not related to breathing, level 1 testing remains the reference standard. PMID:24218531

  16. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory in Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normals. Only weak support was found for concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Recommends combination of…

  17. Nibbling and Picking in Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Masheb, Robin M.; Roberto, Christina A.; White, Marney A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine the clinical utility of nibbling behavior, defined as eating in an unplanned and repetitious manner between meals and snacks without a sense of loss of control, in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Methods Two-hundred seventeen (N=217) consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese patients with BED were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Nibbling frequency was examined in relation to current weight, eating disorder psychopathology and eating patterns. Results Results found that nibbling/picking was not related to body mass index, objective bulimic, subjective bulimic, or overeating episodes, food avoidance, sensitivity to weight gain, or any subscales of the EDE. However, nibbling/picking was significantly related to frequency of morning and afternoon snacking (r = .21, p = .002; r = .27, p < .001). Discussion The assessment of nibbling/picking behaviors among individuals with BED might not provide clinically significant information. PMID:24183128

  18. Effect of psychological treatment on attentional bias in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Cooper, Zafra; Palmer, Robert L; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of these studies were (a) to investigate the relationship between attentional bias and eating disorders and (b) examine the impact of psychological treatment on attentional bias. Method: The first study compared performance on a pictorial dot probe of 82 female patients with clinical eating disorders and 44 healthy female controls. The second study compared the performance of 31 patients with eating disorder on the same task before and after receiving 20 weeks of standardized cognitive behavior therapy. Twenty-four patients with eating disorder served as wait-list controls Results: With the exception of neutral shape stimuli, attentional biases for eating, shape, and weight stimuli were greater in the patient sample than the healthy controls. The second study found that attentional biases significantly reduced after active treatment only. Conclusion: Attentional biases may be an expression of the eating disorder. The question of whether such biases warrant specific intervention requires further investigation. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 PMID:18213684

  19. A Pilot Investigation of the Relation of Perceived Mutuality to Eating Disorders in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Sanftner; Mary Tantillo; Larry Seidlitz

    2004-01-01

    Relational theory predicts that lack of mutuality in important relationships leads to the development of psychological problems, including eating disorders. We sought to explore the association between perceived mutuality in relationships with partners and friends and eating disorders. Participants were 74 women, 35 with an eating disorder diagnosis and 39 non-psychiatric controls. The eating disorder group reported lower perceived mutuality

  20. Perception of Parental Acceptance in Women With Binge Eating Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina L. Dominy; W. Brad Johnson; Christopher Koch

    2000-01-01

    The authors contribute to the validating literature for binge eating disorder (BED) by examining perceptions of parents and satisfaction with life among obese women with and without BED. Participants were female patients, recruited through a private medical clinic, who were assigned to groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and scores on the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight

  1. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  2. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  3. Eating-related disorders in patients with advanced cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Strasser; John Ellershaw

    2003-01-01

    Patients with advanced incurable illnesses and their families are frequently concerned about not eating enough and a decline in physical functioning. Eating-related disorders were reviewed for a workshop at the 4th San Salvatore Meeting on Palliative Care in Switzerland, with the purpose of discussing new findings relating to the understanding and treatment of such problems. The topics discussed were patient

  4. Investigation of schema modes in the eating disordered population 

    E-print Network

    Jenkins, Gwenllian

    2009-01-01

    Many eating disordered patients fail to respond to traditional cognitive behaviour therapy. As a result it has been suggested that further research needs to be completed to determine the cognitive processes and ...

  5. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete. PMID:25014386

  6. Guidelines for Group Therapy with Eating Disorder Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Genie O.; Sanders, Claud D.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a rationale for group psychotherapy with eating disorder victims and discusses therapists' characteristics and style, and group climate and strategies. Suggests specific interventions for each complex counseling issue. (LLL)

  7. [New questions and their solution in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Papezová, H

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders represent a continuum in the pathological feeding behaviour with anorexia and severe malnutrition as one extreme and with psychogenic overeating and atypical forms of Eating disorders accompanied with obesity as the second extreme. World-wide epidemical spread of obesity and consequences of obesity frequently results in neglection of eating disorders problems and in apprehension of obesitologists that the Eating disorders prevention could challenge their efforts in the prevention of obesity. Because the scientific approach can enrich both fields, possibilities to improve cooperation between them in the fields of clinical and preventive care are studied. They are based on the recognition of common risk factors and in the more effective and aimed prevention and therapy. Some new discoveries in this field are discussed. PMID:16634474

  8. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise implications for treatment to be drawn. Additional research should also be undertaken to specify which of the alexithymic dimensions are specifically relevant to the course and outcome of ED, and to identify treatment protocols producing a significantly greater efficacy in ED patients with relevant alexithymic traits. PMID:25565909

  9. Eating Disorders: A Review of the Literature with Emphasis on Medical Complications and Clinical Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyn Patrick

    Abstract Eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and atypical eating disorder (eating disorder not otherwise specified or NOS), are estimated to occur in 5-10 million young and adult women and one million males in the United States. The etiology of eating ,disorders is complex ,and appears,to include ,predisposing ,genetic factors and serotonin dysregulation, as well as psychological

  10. Eating Pathology, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Overeating in Obese Adults with Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gianini, Loren M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship among emotional regulation, emotional overeating, and general eating pathology in a treatment seeking sample of adults with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Method The sample was composed of 326 adults (248 women, 78 men) who were obese and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as part of a larger assessment battery. Results A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that difficulties with emotion regulation accounted for unique variance in both emotional overeating and general eating pathology above and beyond sex and negative affect. Discussion Emotion regulation may play a significant role in the maintenance of emotional overeating and eating pathology in obese adults with BED. PMID:23910772

  11. Assessing quality of life in eating disorder patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Mond; C. Owen; P. J. Hay; B. Rodgers; P. J. V. Beumont

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine quality of life among subgroups of eating disorder patients. Method: Self-report questionnaires which included two quality of life measures were completed by 87 individuals referred for treatment to the Australian Capital Territory Eating Disorders Day Program. Health-related quality of life, as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form Mental Component Summary scale, and subjective quality

  12. Longstanding underweight eating disorder: Associated features and treatment outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Calugi; Riccardo Dalle Grave; Giulio Marchesini

    2012-01-01

    The clinical features and the response to inpatient cognitive-behavior treatment (I-CBT) of underweight individuals with either longstanding or more recent-onset eating disorder have rarely been compared. We compared the psychopathological profile and the response to I-CBT of 37 female patients with longstanding eating disorder (?10 years, L-ED) and 58 with shorter disease duration. Individuals with L-ED had higher age, baseline

  13. Is self-esteem the primary predictor of disordered eating?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen E. Shea; Mary E. Pritchard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether self-esteem is the primary predictor of disordered eating. A survey measured levels of self-esteem and a variety of other health behaviors in 196 male and 263 female undergraduate students. We conducted stepwise regressions to determine which of several variables (self-esteem, high stress, poor coping skills, maladaptive perfectionism, gender) best predicted disordered eating. The results indicated that

  14. Protective Factors for Eating Disorders in Female College Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy L. Zucker; Leslie G. Womble; Donald A. Mlliamson; Lori A. Perrin

    1999-01-01

    Sundgot-Borgen (1993) hypothesized that participants in refereed sports, e.g., basketball, may be at lower risk for the development of eating disorders in comparison to those participating in judged sports, e.g., gymnastics. This study tested this hypothesis. Structured interviews and self-report questionnaires were employed to assess the presence of eating disorder diagnoses, the presence of body weight and shape concerns, psychopathology,

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of Peer-Mediated and Video-Modeling Social Skills Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis in Single-Case Research Using HLM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Cui, Ying; Parrila, Rauno

    2011-01-01

    Social interaction is a fundamental problem for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Various types of social skills interventions have been developed and used by clinicians to promote the social interaction in children with ASD. This meta-analysis used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the effectiveness of peer-mediated and…

  16. Assessing motivation to change in eating disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa are often ambivalent about their eating disorder symptoms. Therefore, a lack of motivation to change is a frequent problem in the treatment of eating disorders. This is of high relevance, as a low motivation to change is a predictor of an unfavourable treatment outcome and high treatment dropout rates. In order to quantify the degree of motivation to change, valid and reliable instruments are required in research and practice. The transtheoretical model of behaviour change (TTM) offers a framework for these measurements. Objective This paper reviews existing instruments assessing motivation to change in eating disorders. Method We screened N?=?119 studies from the databases Medline and Psycinfo found by combinations of the search keywords ‘eating disorder’, ‘anorexia nervosa’, ‘bulimia nervosa’, ‘motivation’, ‘readiness to change’, ‘assessment’, ‘measurement’, and ‘questionnaire’. Results Ultimately, n?=?15 studies investigating psychometric properties of different assessment tools of motivation to change in eating disorders were identified. Reviewed instruments can be divided into those assessing the stages of change according to the TTM (6 instruments) and those capturing decisional balance (3 instruments). Overall, the psychometric properties of these instruments are satisfactory to good. Discussion Advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of the reviewed assessment tools are discussed. So far, the TTM provides the only framework to assess motivation to change in eating disorders. PMID:24999416

  17. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys. PMID:19447351

  18. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

  19. Interpersonal Influences on Late Adolescent Girls’ and Boys’ Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-01-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys’ and girls’ symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16–19 years of age (N = 199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents’, mothers’ and friends’ reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents’ perceptions and friends’ reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys. PMID:19447351

  20. [Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders: what will DSM-5 feature?].

    PubMed

    de Zwaan, M; Herzog, W

    2011-09-01

    The diagnostic criteria of the classic eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by both a high validity and clinical utility. However, up to 50% of patients in specialized eating disorder centers do not meet the full diagnostic criteria and are relegated to the residual diagnosis "eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)". Eating disorders are more varied and variable than the ICD-10 or DSM-IV criteria suggest. This article describes the suggested modifications of the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders for the DSM-5. The DSM-5 abstains from setting a specific numerical standard for weight for AN and reduces the required minimum frequency for BN and binge eating disorder (BED) to once a week over the last 3 months. This will likely reduce the number of cases in the EDNOS category. In addition, the DSM-5 provides brief descriptions of several conditions of potential clinical significance without providing detailed criteria in order to stimulate additional research. PMID:21879399

  1. Prospective Associations of Early-Onset Axis I Disorders with Developing Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Dick, Danielle M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Raevuori, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the developmental relationships of adolescent-onset Axis I mental disorders and eating disorders. Method 1318 adolescent twins born 1983-87 completed a professionally administered semi-structured psychiatric interview at age 14 and a questionnaire follow-up at age 17.5. Results Eating disorders at age 17.5 were significantly predicted by major depressive disorder (MDD, odds ratio [OR] 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-15.3), and generalized anxiety disorders (GAD, OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.8-15.6) at age 14, when baseline eating disorders were excluded. Early-onset MDD in combination with GAD increased the likelihood of developing eating disorders compared to either mood or anxiety disorders alone. Similar risks and trends were evident in within-family-analyses of twin pairs discordant for baseline predictors and eating disorder outcome. Conclusions Depressive and generalized anxiety disorders manifest at age 14 predict future eating disorders. Analysis of discordant twins suggested that early-onset depressive and generalized anxiety disorders prospectively relate to eating disorders in adolescence, even after familial factors are taken into account. PMID:19059509

  2. Depression modulates non-eating-disordered psychopathology in eating-disordered patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida F. Dancyger; Suzanne R. Sunday; Katherine A. Halmi

    1997-01-01

    The general psychopathology in subgroups of inpatients with eating disorders was investigated with the MMPI. One hundred and sixty-three females were diagnosed according to both DSM-III-R and DSM-IV into four subgroups: 1a) DSM-III-R anorexia nervosa-restricting subtype (AN-R), 1b) DSM-IV anorexia nervosa-restricting subtype (AN-R), 2a) DSM-III-R anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (AN-B), and 2b) DSM-IV anorexia nervosa binge\\/purge type (AN-BP), 3)

  3. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Negative Affect, and Personality Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Brownstone, Lisa M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Printz, Katherine S.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study explored the clinical meaningfulness of distinguishing subjective (SBE) from objective binge eating (OBE) among individuals with threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). We examined relations between OBEs and SBEs and eating disorder symptoms, negative affect, and personality dimensions using both a group comparison and a continuous approach. Method Participants were 204 adult females meeting criteria for threshold/subthreshold BN who completed questionnaires related to disordered eating, affect, and personality. Results Group comparisons indicated that SBE and OBE groups did not significantly differ on eating disorder pathology or negative affect, but did differ on two personality dimensions (cognitive distortion and attentional impulsivity). Using the continuous approach, we found that frequencies of SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, diuretic use frequency, depressive symptoms, anxiety, social avoidance, insecure attachment, and cognitive distortion. Discussion SBEs in the context of BN may indicate broader areas of psychopathology. PMID:23109272

  4. Reliability and validity of the Conditional Goal Setting in Eating Disorders Scale (CGS-EDS) among adults with eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hunna J. Watson; Bronwyn C. Raykos; Susan M. Byrne; Anthea Fursland; Paula R. Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-report measure of Conditional Goal Setting (CGS) for use among individuals with eating disorders, the Conditional Goal Setting in Eating Disorders Scale (CGS-EDS). The CGS-EDS assesses the degree to which an individual believes that the achievement of happiness is contingent upon the attainment of body shape and weight goals.

  5. The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project: development and debut of a paediatric clinical eating disorder registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project is an ongoing registry study made up of a sequential cross-sectional sample prospectively recruited over 17 years, and is designed to answer empirical questions about paediatric eating disorders. This paper introduces the HOPE Project, describes the registry sample to-date, and discusses future directions and challenges and accomplishments. The project and clinical service were established in a tertiary academic hospital in Western Australia in 1996 with a service development grant. Research processes were inbuilt into the initial protocols and data collection was maintained in the following years. Recognisable progress with the research agenda accelerated only when dedicated research resources were obtained. The registry sample consists of consecutive children and adolescents assessed at the eating disorder program from 1996 onward. Standardised multidisciplinary data collected from family intake interview, parent and child clinical interviews, medical review, parent, child and teacher psychometric assessments, and inpatient admission records populate the HOPE Project database. Results The registry database to-date contains 941 assessments, of whom 685 met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder at admission. The majority of the sample were females (91%) from metropolitan Perth (83%). The cases with eating disorders consist of eating disorders not otherwise specified (68%), anorexia nervosa (25%) and bulimia nervosa (7%). Among those with eating disorders, a history of weight loss since illness onset was almost universal (96%) with fear of weight gain (71%) common, and the median duration of illness was 8 months. Conclusions Over the next five years and more, we expect that the HOPE Project will make a strong scientific contribution to paediatric eating disorders research and will have important real-world applications to clinical practice and policy as the research unfolds. PMID:24999409

  6. Persecutors or Victims? The Moral Logic at the Heart of Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Giordano

    2003-01-01

    Eating Disorders, particularly anorexia and bulimia, are of immense contemporary importance and interest. News stories depicting the tragic effects of eating disorders command wide attention. Almost everybody in society has been touched by eating disorders in one way or another, and contemporary obsession with body image and diet fuels fascination with this problem. It is unclear why people develop eating

  7. Comparison of psychological placebo and waiting list control conditions in the assessment of cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, Zhipei; ZHANG, Li; JIANG, Jiangling; LI, Wei; CAO, Xinyi; ZHOU, Zhirui; ZHANG, Tiansong; LI, Chunbo

    2014-01-01

    Background There is ongoing debate about the efficacy of placebos in the treatment of mental disorders. In randomized control trials (RCTs) about the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, the administration of a psychological placebo or placement on a waiting list are the two most common control conditions. But there has never been a systematic comparison of the clinical effect of these different strategies. Aim Compare the change in symptom severity among individuals treated with cognitive behavioral therapy, provided a psychological placebo, or placed on a waiting list using data from RCTs on generalized anxiety disorder. Methods The following databases were searched for RCTs on generalized anxiety disorder: PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, Chongqing VIP, Wanfang, Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database, and Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services. Studies were selected based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and the quality of each included study – based on the risk of bias and the level of evidence – was formally assessed. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan5.3 and network meta-analyses comparing the three groups were conducted using R. Results Twelve studies with a combined sample size of 531 were included in the analysis. Compared to either control method (placebo or waiting list), cognitive behavioral therapy was more effective for generalized anxiety disorder. Provision of a psychological placebo was associated with a significantly greater reduction of symptoms than placement on a waiting list. Eight of the studies were classified as ‘high risk of bias’, and the overall level of evidence was classified as ‘moderate’, indicating that further research could change the overall results of the meta-analysis. Conclusions RCTs about the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders are generally of moderate quality; they indicate the superiority of CBT but the results cannot, as yet, be considered robust. There is evidence of a non-negligible treatment effect of psychological placebos used as control conditions in research studies. This effect should be considered when designing and interpreting the results of randomized controlled trials about the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:25642106

  8. A comparison of Black and White women with Binge Eating Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen M. Pike; Faith-Anne Dohm; R. H. Striegel-Moore; D. E. Wilfley; C. G. Fairburn

    2001-01-01

    Binge eating disorder was introduced in DSM-IV as a psychiatric disorder needing further study. This community-based study describes the relationship between race and clinical functioning in black and white women with and without binge eating disorder.

  9. Recent advances in neuroimaging to model eating disorder neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2015-04-01

    The eating disorders (EDs) anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED) are severe psychiatric disorders with high mortality. There are many symptoms, such as food restriction, episodic binge eating, purging, or excessive exercise that are either overlapping or lie on opposite ends of a scale or spectrum across those disorders. Identifying how specific ED behaviors are linked to particular neurobiological mechanisms could help better categorize ED subgroups and develop specific treatments. This review provides support from recent brain imaging research that brain structure and function measures can be linked to disorder-specific biological or behavioral variables, which may help distinguish ED subgroups, or find commonalities between them. Brain structure and function may therefore be suitable research targets to further study the relationship between dimensions of behavior and brain function relevant to EDs and beyond the categorical AN, BN, and BED distinctions. PMID:25749747

  10. Body image dissatisfaction and eating symptoms in mothers of adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cobelo, A Weisz; de Chermont Prochnik Estima, C; Nakano, E Yoshio; Conti, M Aparecida; Cordás, T Athanássios

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess body dissatisfaction and eating symptoms in mothers of eating disorder (ED) female patients and to compare results with those of a control group. The case group consisted of 35 mothers of female adolescents (aged between 10 and 17 yrs) diagnosed with ED who attended the Interdisciplinary Project for Care, Teaching and Research on Eating Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence (PROTAD) at Clínicas Hospital Institute of Psychiatry of the Universidade de São Paulo Medical School. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected. Eating symptoms were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and body image was assessed by the Body Image Questionnaire (BSQ) and Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS). The case group was compared to a control group consisting of 35 mothers of female adolescents (between 10 and 17 years) who attended a private school in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. With regard to EAT, BSQ and FRS scores, we found no statistically significant differences between the two groups. However, we found a positive correlation between BMI and BSQ scores in the control group (but not in the case group) and a positive correlation between EAT and FRS scores in the case group (but not in the control group). It appears to be advantageous to assess body image by combining more than one scale to evaluate additional components of the construct. PMID:21406945

  11. Get your own mirror. Investigating how strict eating disordered women are in judging the bodies of other eating disordered women.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Martijn, Carolien; Schepers, Jan; Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has shown that eating disordered women lack a self-serving body image bias and largely make self-defeating social comparisons. These factors influence how eating disordered women feel about their bodies, and may also influence treatment for disordered eating. In group mirror exposure therapy, women inevitably compare their own bodies to other women's bodies. Yet, how eating disordered women view their own bodies in relation to other women's bodies has never been investigated. This study investigated how subjects high in eating disorder symptoms ("high symptomatics") view the bodies of other women and of other high symptomatics specifically. Twelve high symptomatics and 13 low symptomatics viewed photos of, and rated the attractiveness of, their own and other participants' bodies. The results show that low symptomatics rated both other women's bodies and other low symptomatic bodies specifically as less attractive, but not as fatter, than their own bodies. In contrast, high symptomatics rated both other women's bodies and other high symptomatic bodies specifically as equally (un)attractive, but as thinner than their own bodies. These results suggest that high symptomatics lack a self-serving body image bias when it comes to aspects of weight specifically. Considering weight is a self-relevant dimension to eating disordered women, the impact of these self-defeating comparisons may be especially negative and may impede treatment progress. PMID:23623779

  12. Patterns of maternal feeding and child eating associated with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren Reba-Harrelson; Ann Von Holle; Robert M. Hamer; Leila Torgersen; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Cynthia M. Bulik

    2010-01-01

    The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms.

  13. The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the ?-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the ?-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors. PMID:22524510

  14. Stress response and binge eating disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marci E. Gluck

    2006-01-01

    In clinical practice, obese patients report stress as a primary trigger for binge eating. However, the biological mechanism underlying this relationship is poorly understood. This paper presents, a theoretical overview of how cortisol secretion, a major component of the stress response, could play a role in binge eating, given that exogenous glucocorticoids can lead to obesity by increasing food intake.

  15. Personality and affectivity characteristics associated with eating disorders: a comparison of eating disordered, weight-preoccupied, and normal samples.

    PubMed

    Podar, I; Hannus, A; Allik, J

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of personality and emotional experience to self-reported eating attitudes in a group of patients with clinically diagnosed eating disorders, a weight-reduction training group (Weight Watchers), and a control group without body weight problems. Participants in this study (N = 114) completed Estonian versions of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2; Garner, 1991), NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1989), and Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, Expanded Form (Watson & Clark, 1994). Data demonstrated validity of the Estonian version of EDI-2 in its ability to identify problems on a continuum of disordered eating behavior. Among the Big Five personality dimensions, Neuroticism made the largest contribution to EDI-2 subscales. Two other dimensions, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, also predispose individuals to eating problems. Personality traits made a larger contribution to the self-reported eating pathology than the self-rated effects experienced during the last few weeks. It was argued that personality dispositions have a larger relevancy in the etiology of eating disorders than emotional state. PMID:10497805

  16. Eating disorder symptoms among Japanese female students in 1982, 1992 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Nin, Kazuko; Noma, Shunichi

    2014-09-30

    To study transcultural differences in eating disorders, we examined eating disorder symptoms and point prevalence of eating disorders among Japanese female students in 1982, 1992 and 2002. In 1982, 1992 and 2002, a total of 10,499 Japanese female students, aged 16-23 years, were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Diagnosis of an eating disorder was made on the basis of DSM-IV criteria. On almost all measures, there were significant increases of a disordered attitude about fear of gaining weight, body perception disturbance and problematic eating behaviors over time. The point prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified significantly increased over time. These results suggest that the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms and the point prevalence of eating disorders were increasing among Japanese female students in 2002. Changing socio-cultural factors in Japan may explain the dramatic increase of eating disorders over time. PMID:24889844

  17. Subclinical eating disorders and their comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders in adolescent girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyne Touchette; Adina Henegar; Nathalie T. Godart; Laura Pryor; Bruno Falissard; Richard E. Tremblay; Sylvana M. Côté

    2011-01-01

    The present study assesses the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders and examines their comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders in a sample of adolescent girls. A DSM-III-R computerized self-reported interview was administered to 833 adolescent girls (mean age=15.7±0.5years) from a population sample to assess the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders, major depression, dysthymia, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorders. The

  18. A description of disordered eating behaviors in Latino males

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis; Suárez-Torres, Alba

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (ED) in Latino males. Participants 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) system. Method Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus. Self report instruments were used to explore ED symptoms (EAT-26 & BULIT-26) and depression (BDI). Results Overall, 2.26% scored above the cut-off point on the BULIT-R and 5.08% score above the cut-off point on the EAT-26. Of the males, 4.43% reported sufficient frequency and severity to approximate DSM-IV criteria for BN. Depression symptomatology was found in those who scored above the cut-off point on both instruments of ED. Conclusion College health practitioners should be aware of disordered eating in Latino males and include them in efforts to detect disordered eating behaviors in college students. PMID:21308586

  19. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    PubMed Central

    Loas, Gwenole

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care. PMID:25485152

  20. Smoking behavior characteristics of non-selected smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) history: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Guillaume, Sebastien; Quantin, Xavier; Macgregor, Alexandra; Lopez, Régis; Courtet, Philippe; Bernard, Paquito; Bailly, Daniel; Abbar, Mocrane; Leboyer, Marion; Boyer, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    It is unclear whether adult smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder history (CH) have more severe smoking behavior than non-CH smokers, while it is clearly suggested that CH adolescents have more severe smoking behavior than CH adolescents. The aim of the present comprehensive meta-analysis is to determine whether CH smokers have more severe smoking behavior characteristics than those without and the effect of age on the association between CH and smoking behavior. We included all case-control studies and first round data collection of observational studies addressing the difference in smoking behavior characteristics of CH smokers versus non-CH smokers, with validated scales or structured interviews, without any language or date restriction. Nine studies (including 365 smokers with CH and 1,708 smokers without) were included. Compared to non-CH smokers, CH smokers smoked significantly more cigarettes [standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.15, 95 % CI 0.01-0.28, p = 0.04] and began to regularly smoke earlier (SMD = -0.28, 95 % CI -0.49; -0.07, p = 0.01) but were not significantly more nicotine dependent (SMD = 0.23, 95 % CI -0.04 to 0.48, p = 0.08). After removing the single adolescent study, the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared, and subgroups analyses confirmed that the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared as age increased. Our meta-analysis illustrates a clinically important link between CH and tobacco smoking in adolescence but not later in life. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm this finding, as only two studies included participants with a mean age below 20 years. PMID:24619241