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1

???????????????????-?????? Consumer values of eating-out and fast food restaurant consumption in  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent year, along with the economic growth and the increase in the national income and the changes in social structure and family type. Fast-food industry continues to be growing and has gradually influenced people's eating habits. People eating out are on the increase. There are now 700 fast food restaurant in Taiwan. This study investigated the relationships between consumer

Yi-Wen Wang; Ming-Tsung Lee

2

Fast food tips (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

3

Eating Behaviors, Obesity, and Litigation: Should Casual-Food Restaurant Operators Heed the Warnings to their Fast-Food Counterparts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

McDonald's has weathered attacks over its alleged contribution to the obesity epidemic. Similar concerns may be at hand for casual restaurant operators. Students (N = 605) from a two-year college and a four-year university were surveyed to compare eating behaviors and menu selections in fast-food versus casual restaurants. Actual mean calorie consumption was significantly higher in casual restaurant meals than

Molly J. Dahm; Amy R. Shows; Aurelia V. Samonte

2010-01-01

4

Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

2012-01-01

5

"Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

Ioannou, Soula

2009-01-01

6

Eating Healthy Ethnic Food  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents/Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to ... Aim for a Healthy Weight Pocket Guide to Eating Healthy on the Go features tips on ordering ...

7

Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India  

PubMed Central

Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746

2013-01-01

8

Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special emphasis is placed on how food reinforcement

Leonard H. Epstein; John J. Leddy; Jennifer L. Temple; Myles S. Faith

2007-01-01

9

Tempting food words activate eating simulations  

PubMed Central

This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

Papies, Esther K.

2013-01-01

10

Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.  

PubMed

Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996

Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

2007-06-01

11

Fast food (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

12

Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

2007-01-01

13

Fast food: friendly?  

PubMed

Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast food, we examined the possibility of imaginative selection of fast food, which would attenuate the potentially unfavorable nutrient composition. We present a sample menu to demonstrate that it is possible to design a fast food menu that provides reasonable level of essential nutrients without exceeding the caloric recommendations. We would like to alert health-care professionals that fast food need not be forbidden under all circumstances, and that a fresh look at the role of fast food may enable its inclusion in meal planning for those who depend on it out of necessity, while adding flexibility. PMID:17342073

Rice, S; McAllister, E J; Dhurandhar, N V

2007-06-01

14

Fast food: friendly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast

S Rice; E J McAllister; N V Dhurandhar

2007-01-01

15

Relationship of attitudes toward fast food and frequency of fast-food intake in adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fast food and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults (94% white, 65% women, 70% married, 42% with college educated). Attitudes toward fast food was measured using an 11-item, 4-dimensional scale: perceived convenience of fast food (alpha=0.56); fast food is fun and social (alpha=0.55); fast food perceived as unhealthful (alpha=0.45); and dislike toward cooking (alpha=0.52). Frequency of fast-food intake was found to be significantly associated with age (odds ratios (OR)=0.981, P=0.001), gender (men>women), and marital status of the participants (single>married/partnered and divorced/separated/widowed). Additionally, frequency of fast-food intake was also found to be significantly associated with perceived convenience of fast food (OR=1.162, P<0.001) and dislike toward cooking (OR=1.119, P<0.001) but not with perceived unhealthfulness of fast food (OR=0.692, P=0.207). These findings suggest public education regarding the unhealthfulness of fast food may not influence fast food consumption. Interventions targeting the issue of convenience and quick or efficient preparation of nutritious alternatives to fast food could be more promising. PMID:19247277

Dave, Jayna M; An, Lawrence C; Jeffery, Robert W; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

2009-06-01

16

Make Fast Food Friendlier  

MedlinePLUS

Tips to Make Fast Food Friendlier for Kids Updated:Oct 13,2014 Finding it hard to feed your children nutritious meals between all your ... reheated or eaten on the road. But when fast food is your only option, try these tips to ...

17

You Are What You Eat: Food Values and Valuing Food  

E-print Network

You Are What You Eat: Food Values and Valuing Food Tuesday, November 19, 2013 · 12:00 pm ­ 1:30 pm us for a panel presentation that will explore the values of food. Topics range from the impact of Mexican culture on food to the religious significance of kosher cooking. Panelists include: · Rachel Jones

18

Marketing strategies for fast-food restaurants: a customer view  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a major food consumption trend in the USA and Canada is that more people are eating more meals outside their homes. It is predicted that this trend will accelerate in the future. As a result, fast-food markets will offer greater growth opportunities for marketers. Presents consumers? perceptions of and preferences for fast-food restaurants in the USA and

Ali Kara; Erdener Kaynak; Orsay Kucukemiroglu

1995-01-01

19

Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special emphasis is placed on how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are relevant to understanding excess energy intake and obesity and how they provide a framework for examining factors that may influence eating and are outside of those that may regulate energy homeostasis. Methods to measure food reinforcement are reviewed, along with factors that influence the reinforcing value of eating. Contributions of neuroscience and genetics to the study of food reinforcement are illustrated by using the example of dopamine. Implications of food reinforcement for obesity and positive energy balance are explored, with suggestions for novel approaches to obesity treatment based on the synthesis of behavioral and pharmacological approaches to food reinforcement. PMID:17723034

Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

2008-01-01

20

Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... are open Serving Picnic Food: Keep it COLD / HOT Keeping food at proper temperatures - indoor and out - ... water as ice melts and replace ice frequently. HOT FOOD Hot food should be kept hot, at ...

21

My Child Only Eats Certain Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many young children display some sort of picky eating. Although most children's diets will eventually consist of an adequate number of foods, some children's diets may not change without intervention. Children with limited diets typically have difficulty consuming new foods because they have some stomach discomfort, have limited oral-motor skills,…

Berkowitz, Merrill; Kerwin, Mary Louise; Feldstein, Melissa

2008-01-01

22

Cost of Eating: Whole Foods Versus Convenience Foods in a Low-income Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Financial limitations in low-income populations, those at highest risk for poor health outcomes, may preclude adherence to recommended dietary guidelines. We examine the financial burden of shopping for foods to meet national dietary recommendations in a supermarket compared to eating primarily in a fast-food restaurant. Methods: Using a single-parent, low-income model, we obtained whole food costs (healthy)

Andrew J. McDermott; Mark B. Stephens

2010-01-01

23

Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

24

Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments.

25

Food after deprivation rewards the earlier eating.  

PubMed

Food intake can be increased by learning to anticipate the omission of subsequent meals. We present here a new theory that such anticipatory eating depends on an associative process of instrumental reinforcement by the nutritional repletion that occurs when access to food is restored. Our evidence over the last decade from a smooth-brained omnivore has been that food after deprivation rewards intake even when those reinforced ingestive responses occur long before the physiological signals from renewed assimilation. Effects of food consumed after self-deprivation might therefore reward extra eating in human beings, through brain mechanisms that could operate outside awareness. That would have implications for efforts to reduce body weight. This food reward mechanism could be contributing to the failure of the dietary component of interventions on obesity within controlled trials of the management or prevention of disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. PMID:22841813

Booth, David A; Jarvandi, Soghra; Thibault, Louise

2012-12-01

26

U.S. Kids Getting Fewer Daily Calories from Fast Food  

MedlinePLUS

... important because it helps researchers understand trends in fast food consumption among kids. "We have known that kids eat ... launched their research to gain understanding of how fast food consumption by kids might be changing. "We also wanted ...

27

Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings

Frans J. Kok; Cees de Graaf

2010-01-01

28

Eating When There is Not Enough to Eat: Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Among Food-Insecure Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We explored differences in adolescents' eating habits, percep- tions, and dietary intakes by food security status. '• Methods. As part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), we surveyed 4746 multiethnic middle and high school students in 31 pririiarily urban schools in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, area during the 1998-1999 academic year. Participants completed in-class surveys. We used multiple regression

Rachel Widome; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Peter J. Hannan; Jess Haines

2009-01-01

29

Fast-food consumption, diet quality, and neighborhood exposure to fast food: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000-2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45-84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or > or =1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2-3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food > or =1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%-61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%-17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful. PMID:19429879

Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Jacobs, David R; Franco, Manuel

2009-07-01

30

From fear of eating to appetite for life: food and eating in an anorectic mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to describe ex-anorectic patients' relationship with food and eating. Why and how do young women develop a twisted idea of eating and food? How do they describe their relationship with food and eating? The causes of anorexia are collected from the narratives of 11 Finnish women who have survived their own anorexic trip as

Marika Savuskoski; Satu Uusiautti; Kaarina Määttä

2012-01-01

31

Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Boutelle KN, Birkeland RW, Hannan PJ, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors.

32

Fast-Food Environments and Family Fast-Food Intake in Nonmetropolitan Areas  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent–parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fast food at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eat fast food compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07,1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. Conclusions In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake. PMID:22608373

Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

2012-01-01

33

Promotion and Fast Food Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food

Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

2009-01-01

34

Food Safety in Fast Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that health department inspections of fast-food restaurants may not be sufficient to ensure compliance with food safety regulations, managers must be vigilant in ensuring conformity with practices that safeguard public health. This case study of one fast-food employee's experience at three different fast-food restaurants suggests that employees' training and supervision require more attention to safety procedures. Greater manager accountability

Lauren Dundes; Tamiko Swann

2008-01-01

35

Eating habits and behaviors  

MedlinePLUS

... events where food is served You stop at fast-food restaurants for breakfast and choose high fat, high ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of ...

36

Development and Features EatSafe: Modular Portable Food Sensor  

E-print Network

. The convenience of the EatSafe Sensor allows for this. PRONE TO FOOD-POISONING Seniors, children, pregnant womenDevelopment and Features EatSafe: Modular Portable Food Sensor ECE-Rady Design Competition FOOD INDUSTRY Every year >76 million people become sick from the consumption of contaminated food. PACKAGING

California at San Diego, University of

37

ETH ZURICH 2012 Eating tomorrow rethinking the world food  

E-print Network

IARU GSP ETH ZURICH 2012 Eating tomorrow ­rethinking the world food system Akiko Segawa ETH: Eating tomorrow ­rethinking the world food system 1st week: lectures at Emmental 2nd and 3rd week: Food waste case study at ETH Course Data 2nd and 3rd week: Food waste case study at ETH ETH ETH CV

Miyashita, Yasushi

38

Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. Design and subjects: In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and ?10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Results: Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00–1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Conclusion: Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing. PMID:23208414

Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

2012-01-01

39

What's in the Food You Eat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How many calories are in an egg and cheese muffin? A serving of grapefruit? These are pressing questions, whether they are for personal use or for someone who might be in one of the healthcare fields. The "What's in the Food You Eat" database was created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and it contains nutrient profiles for 13,000 foods commonly eaten in the U.S. Visitors can use the online search tool to look for various food products, and they can just type in words like "orange", "yogurt", or "salmon". The engine will return a list of suggested items, and visitors can also focus their search by using food codes from the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). A guide to the FNDDS codes is also available online here for consultation.

40

Food purchasing sites. Repercussions for healthy eating.  

PubMed

Changes in the food system are associated with the increase in consumption of foods with low nutritional value in recent decades. Data on food purchasing for household consumption, collected from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE--Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) Household Budget Survey (HBS) in 2002-3, were used to describe the contribution of food purchasing sites (FPS) to the diet of Brazilian families. All the 241 distinct FPS mentioned in the HBS were grouped into ten categories, according to the nature of the products available. Food acquisitions were organized into seven groups. Supermarkets and hypermarkets accounted for 49% of the acquisitions and were the main source of six out of the seven food groups. Street markets and greengroceries stood out in the acquisitions of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 39% of this market. The large contribution of supermarkets and hypermarkets to the diet shows the need for healthy eating promotion policies aiming at these locations. Street markets and greengroceries represent important allies for healthy eating. PMID:23835229

Costa, Janaína Calu; Claro, Rafael M; Martins, Ana Paula B; Levy, Renata B

2013-11-01

41

Does Frequent Eating Out Cause Undesirable Food Choices? Association of Food Away from Home with Food Consumption Frequencies and Obesity among Korean Housewives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship among socioeconomic factors, frequency of food away from home (FAFH) and food-consumption patterns of 1,070 housewives, and the association of those factors with obesity, using data from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although lower intakes of fruits, meats, and fast foods were associated with seldom eating out, no consistent pattern was

Mi Kyung Choi; Tae Yoon Kim; Jin-Sook Yoon

2011-01-01

42

Factors Affecting Expenditures for Food Away From Home in Commercial Establishments By Type of Eating Place and Meal Occasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the relationships among sociodemographic and economic characteristics of households and food spending in restaurants. Spending was analyzed separately by type of eating place and by meal occasion. Meal occasions are defined as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, and types of eating places are defined as fast food, family type, atmosphere, cafeteria, coffee shops, and take-out from restaurants.

Stephen J. Hiemstra; Woo Gon Kim

1995-01-01

43

Fast food\\/organic food: Reflexive tastes and the making of 'yuppie chow'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic food consumption is one of several new trends in eating read as active opposition to industrialized food provision. While fast food consumption is characterized by compulsive gluttony, manifest in fat bodies, alternative consumption practices are seen to be driven by conscious reflexivity, such that consumers monitor, reflect upon and adapt their personal conduct in light of its perceived consequences.

Julie Guthman

2003-01-01

44

Eating Disorders: About More Than Food  

MedlinePLUS

Order a free hardcopy What are eating disorders? The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, and their variants, all feature serious disturbances in eating behavior and ...

45

Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food.  

E-print Network

chain when eating out 60 percent of the time. This trend is a result of more women employed outside the home, a higher per capita disposable income and more leisure time. Although they may cost more than the same meals prepared at home, fast food res..., riboflavin and calories because of the meat group and bread-cereal group foods often included. Research in the Washington, D. C. area in July 1976 demonstrated that seven meals from the same chain and corresponding meals prepared at home were similar...

Sweeten, Mary K.

1980-01-01

46

Sociodemographic differences in fast food price sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Importance Fiscal food policies (e.g., taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. Objective We estimated subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardio-metabolic outcomes, hypothesizing inverse associations between fast food price with fast food consumption, BMI, and insulin resistance and stronger associations among blacks (vs. whites) and participants with relatively lower education or income. Design 20-year follow-up (5 exams) in a biracial U.S. prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/86–2005/06, baseline n=5,115). Participants Aged 18–30 at baseline; designed for equal recruitment by race (black/white), educational attainment, age, and gender. Exposures Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) temporally- and geographically-linked to study participants’ home address at each exam. Main outcome and measures Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week; BMI (kg/m2) from clinical assessment of weight and height; homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin. Covariates included individual- and community-level social and demographic factors. Results In repeated measures regression, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were non-linear (quadratic, p<0.001), with significant inverse estimated effects on consumption at higher prices; estimates varied according to race (interaction term p=0.04), income (p=0.07), and education (p=0.03). For example, at the 10th percentile of price ($1.25/serving), blacks and whites had mean fast food consumption (times/week) of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.3) and 1.6 (1.5–1.7), respectively, while at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.9 (1.8–2.0) and 1.5 (1.4–1.6). We observed differential price effects on HOMA-IR (inverse for lower educational status and at middle income) and BMI (inverse for blacks, lower education, and middle income; positive for whites, high education, and high income). Conclusions We found greater fast food price sensitivity on fast food consumption and insulin resistance among sociodemographic groups that have a disproportionate burden of chronic disease. Our findings have implications for fiscal policy approaches related to diet, particularly with respect to possible effects of fast food taxes among populations with diet-related health disparities. PMID:24424384

Meyer, Katie A.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Shikany, James M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

2014-01-01

47

Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

48

Fast Food Facts: Interactive Food Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before grabbing a quick bite at a fast food eatery, curious diners may want to check this site, provided by Olen Publishing, and based on the Fast Food Facts handbook, which is published by the Minnesota Attorney General's Office. Food Finder allows users to search any of nineteen fast food restaurants from Arby's to White Castle. Any or all restaurants can be searched on food names, maximum calories, percent calories from fat, and maximum sodium, fat, and cholesterol. Then simply "fire up the deep fryer." To browse all products of all restaurants, simply fire up the deep fryer without entering any search terms. This fun and informative (if slightly frightening) site tallies the cost of that next fast food meal to your health.

1998-01-01

49

Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.  

PubMed

Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and ?(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; P<0.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

2014-04-01

50

Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…

Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

2002-01-01

51

Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently ‘healthy’ meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together

S Stender; J Dyerberg; A Astrup

2007-01-01

52

Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R(2)?=?.57) and patients (R(2)?=?.55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p?eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one's tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one's PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. PMID:25169880

Boggiano, M M; Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Soleymani, T; Daniel, S; Vinson, L D; Lokken, K L; Wingo, B C; Morse, A

2014-12-01

53

Eating Disorders: No Longer Trapped by Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to document disordered eating patterns and prevalence rates to assess the current extent of the problem among college students. The Undergraduate Student Health Risk Appraisal Survey, with a Disordered Eating Subscale, generated such information. A randomized stratified study (n=320) of students at a major university ascertained disordered eating patterns, documented diagnosed eating disorders, and

Sara Oswalt; Helen M. Welle-Graf

54

Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association.

55

Parental eating behaviours, home food environment and adolescent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods: longitudinal findings from Project EAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine longitudinal associations of parental report of household food availability and parent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods with adolescent intakes of the same foods. This study expands upon the limited research of longitudinal studies examining the role of parents and household food availability in adolescent dietary intakes. Design: Longitudinal study. Project EAT-II followed an ethnically and

Chrisa Arcan; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Peter Hannan; Patricia van den Berg; Mary Story; Nicole Larson

2007-01-01

56

Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

2010-01-01

57

Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

2010-08-01

58

Peer Effects, Fast Food Consumption and Adolescent Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We first propose a social interaction model of fast food consumption using a

Bernard Fortin; Myra Yazbeck

2011-01-01

59

Body Mass Index, Neighborhood Fast Food and Restaurant Concentration, and Car Ownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic\\u000a access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who\\u000a rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations\\u000a are associated with body

Sanae Inagami; Deborah A. Cohen; Arleen F. Brown; Steven M. Asch

2009-01-01

60

WHAT'S IN THE FOOD YOU EAT SEARCH TOOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The release of the online search tool, What's In The Foods We Eat Search Tool, expands the use of a valuable dietary research tool, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS), to the general public and nutrition professionals. Release 1.0 of the FNDDS was used to process food intake...

61

The Food We Eat: An Evaluation of Food Items Input into an  

E-print Network

The Food We Eat: An Evaluation of Food Items Input into an Electronic Food Monitoring Application participants in a chronic kidney disease (stage 5) population input food items into an electronic intake monitoring application. Participants scanned food item barcodes or voice recorded food items they consumed

Connelly, Kay

62

Enhancing hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation stimulates eating in food-deprived mice.  

PubMed

Hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO) has long been implicated in the control of eating. Nevertheless, direct evidence for a causal relationship between changes in hepatic FAO and changes in food intake is still missing. Here we tested whether increasing hepatic FAO via adenovirus-mediated expression of a mutated form of the key regulatory enzyme of mitochondrial FAO carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1mt), which is active but insensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA, affects eating and metabolism in mice. CPT1mt expression increased hepatocellular CPT1 protein levels. This resulted in an increase in circulating ketone body levels in fasted CPT1mt-expressing mice, suggesting an increase in hepatic FAO. These mice did not show any significant changes in cumulative food intake, energy expenditure, or respiratory quotient after 4-h food deprivation. After 24-h food deprivation, however, the CPT1mt-expressing mice displayed increased food intake. Thus expression of CPT1mt in the liver increases hepatic FAO capacity, but does not inhibit eating. Rather, it may even stimulate eating after prolonged food deprivation. These data do not support the hypothesis that an increase in hepatic FAO decreases food intake. PMID:25427767

Mansouri, Abdelhak; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Ramachandran, Deepti; Arnold, Myrtha; Leitner, Claudia; Prip-Buus, Carina; Langhans, Wolfgang; Morral, Núria

2015-01-15

63

Food portion patterns and trends among U.S. children and the relationship to total eating occasion size, 1977-2006.  

PubMed

Food and beverage portion sizes are related to childhood obesity. We examined trends in food portion sizes and the association with total meal sizes among U.S. children. We selected children 2- to 18-y-old (n = 31,337) from 4 nationally representative surveys of food intake between 1977-1978 and 2003-2006. We assessed portion sizes (kcal and g) of selected key foods (soft/fruit drinks, salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, Mexican fast foods, and hot dogs), the total energy from eating occasions that included key foods, and portion sizes of the selected key foods by source (stores, restaurants, and fast-food locations). These foods represented over one-third of children's energy intake in 2003-2006. Portion sizes increased significantly over the 30-y period and increases in pizza were particularly pronounced in the last decade [+176 kcal (736 kJ). Energy from eating occasions including pizzas and soft drinks increased, as did the proportion of energy from these foods in an eating occasion. Hamburgers and cheeseburgers increased in portion size and eating occasion size, but the proportion of these foods in the total eating occasions did not increase. Portion sizes of other key foods increased, although the total energy from eating events that included them remained constant (e.g. Mexican fast-foods, French fries, fruit drinks) or decreased (e.g. salty snacks, desserts). Portion sizes increased across all food sources (stores, restaurants, and fast foods) for soft drinks and pizzas but only at fast-food locations for French fries. Portion sizes continue to grow for selected foods. Fast-food chains appear to be linked with less healthful portion size increases for selected foods. PMID:21525258

Piernas, Carmen; Popkin, Barry M

2011-06-01

64

Why Go Local? Buying and eating locally grown foods foods that  

E-print Network

Why Go Local? Buying and eating locally grown foods ­ foods that are produced near you ­ that are often not produced by large farmers or sold by big food chains. When Do I Buy Local Foods? Outside A Consumer's Guide to Buying Healthful, Locally Produced Foods in Virginia Nick Rose, Graduate Student

Liskiewicz, Maciej

65

Effect of fast food consumption on dietary intake and likelihood of meeting MyPyramid recommendations in adults: Results from What We Eat In America, NHANES, 2003-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fast food (FF) consumption on food and nutrient intakes and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Adults 19-50 years of age (n=2,160) who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls in the What We ...

66

"Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.  

PubMed

"Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. PMID:25205078

Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

2014-11-01

67

Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.  

PubMed

Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

2015-01-01

68

Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh  

PubMed Central

Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

2015-01-01

69

Fast Food - the early years  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the development of UK outlets of a major fast food chain, from inauguration in1974 until 1990, after which industry structure changed somewhat. The chain effectivelyintroduced the counter-service burger concept. Locational spread across local authoritydistrict markets is explained by the characteristics of the areas where the outlets are sited. Ofspecial interest is the effect of scale economies, measured by

Michael Waterson; Joanne Sault; Otto Toivanen

70

A Device for Detecting and Counting Bites of Food Taken by a Person During Eating  

E-print Network

, including helping a user with obesity, eating disorders or eating rate problems. Index Terms--Eating monitorA Device for Detecting and Counting Bites of Food Taken by a Person During Eating Yujie Dong1, Adam was recorded of subjects eating, and synchronized with our device, in order to evaluate its performance

Hoover, Adam

71

Examining the Relationship between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating. PMID:23751246

Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2013-01-01

72

Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5?lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size?=?1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

2015-04-01

73

Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

1988-01-01

74

Saudi Consumer Preference of Fast Food Outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study empirically examines the attributes of fast food restaurants that influence the consumer preference of fast food outlets in Saudi Arabia. Based on the existing literature and an examination of the socio-cultural and economic environment of Saudi Arabia, two hypotheses have been developed. The hypotheses are that the fast food restaurant attributes of nutrition, price, taste, speed, delivery service,

Shahid N. Bhuian

2000-01-01

75

Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

2009-01-01

76

Marketing Fast Food: Impact of Fast Food Restaurants in Children's Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.The objectives of this study were (1) to determine fast food restaurant prevalence in hospitals with pediatric residencies and (2) to evaluate how hospital environment affects purchase and perception of fast food. METHODS.We first surveyed pediatric residency programs regarding fast food restau- rants in their hospitals to determine the prevalence of fast food restaurants in these hospitals. We then surveyed

Hannah B. Sahud; Helen J. Binns; William L. Meadow; Robert R. Tanz

2010-01-01

77

Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.  

PubMed

Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294

Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

2011-12-01

78

Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches.  

PubMed

Food and eating environments likely contribute to the increasing epidemic of obesity and chronic diseases, over and above individual factors such as knowledge, skills, and motivation. Environmental and policy interventions may be among the most effective strategies for creating population-wide improvements in eating. This review describes an ecological framework for conceptualizing the many food environments and conditions that influence food choices, with an emphasis on current knowledge regarding the home, child care, school, work site, retail store, and restaurant settings. Important issues of disparities in food access for low-income and minority groups and macrolevel issues are also reviewed. The status of measurement and evaluation of nutrition environments and the need for action to improve health are highlighted. PMID:18031223

Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Glanz, Karen

2008-01-01

79

Would Students Prefer to Eat Healthier Foods at School?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to elucidate students' perceptions of school food environments and to assess correlations between perceptions and purchasing and consumption behaviors at school. Methods: Seventh and ninth graders (n = 5365) at 19 schools in multiethnic, low-income California communities participating in the Healthy Eating Active…

Gosliner, Wendi; Madsen, Kristine A.; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B.

2011-01-01

80

After the Bell: Calories, energy, and the food you eat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity is a growing problem in the United States, and has recently reached epidemic proportions. Part of the solution in controlling obesity is to make students aware of the amount and type of food they eat. In this activity, students will calculate the average amount of energy that a body consumes per hour, which will help them defeat obesity through education.

Daniel Ness

2006-02-01

81

The impact of food branding on children's eating behavior and obesity.  

PubMed

Branding is a technique used by the food industry to create a recognizable image to attract consumers and hopefully boost sales of the product. Children recognize food brands from a young age, but their impact on the development of eating behaviors and obesity is unclear. In addition, the notion that some branding techniques may be used to increase intake of healthful foods, like fruits and vegetables, has not been rigorously investigated. Three laboratory-based intake studies designed to test the impact of common food brands on children's eating habits are presented. In the first study, four to six year-old children (n=43) were exposed to ad libitum test-meals where foods were presented either with or without their associated branding. In the second study, a novel food brand based Stroop task was developed and tested to assess children's cognitive response to food brands, and following this procedure, seven to nine year-old children (n=41) ate ad libitum test-meals consisting of foods packaged with or without a logo from a popular fast food restaurant. Finally, a pilot intervention was conducted with four to five year-old children (n=16) to demonstrate the efficacy of using licensed (spokes) characters to package and promote intake of fruits and vegetables. These studies demonstrate that branding is an important influence on what and how much children eat, but some children may be more susceptible to these influences than others. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence that child age, sex, and obesity has on response to food branding and marketing. PMID:22450261

Keller, Kathleen L; Kuilema, Laura G; Lee, Norman; Yoon, Joyce; Mascaro, Brittany; Combes, Anne-Laure; Deutsch, Bryan; Sorte, Kathryn; Halford, Jason C G

2012-06-01

82

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2009-01-01

83

Nutritional challenges and health implications of takeaway and fast food.  

PubMed

Consumption of takeaway and fast food continues to increase in Western societies and is particularly widespread among adolescents. Since food is known to play an important role in both the development and prevention of many diseases, there is no doubt that the observed changes in dietary patterns affect the quality of the diet as well as public health. The present review examines the nutritional characteristics of takeaway and fast food items, including their energy density, total fat, and saturated and trans fatty acid content. It also reports on the association between the consumption of such foods and health outcomes. While the available evidence suggests the nutrient profiles of takeaway and fast foods may contribute to a variety of negative health outcomes, findings on the specific effects of their consumption on health are currently limited and, in recent years, changes have been taking place that are designed to improve them. Therefore, more studies should be directed at gaining a firmer understanding of the nutrition and health consequences of eating takeaway and fast foods and determining the best strategy to reduce any negative impact their consumption may have on public health. PMID:23590707

Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Davies, Ian G; Stevenson, Leonard

2013-05-01

84

Observed sex differences in fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to 24 years of age, enrolled at a Midwestern university served

Kristin L. Morse; Judy A. Driskell

2009-01-01

85

Eating, food and the female body in the media and medicine: A feminist analysis of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The above quote sums up the way in which dominant conceptions of femininity filter through social practice and can become literally reflected in one's physical body and bodily habits. This essay seeks to examine how women come to embody social ideals concerning food, eating habits, appearance and 'femininity' itself. In particular it will seek to clarify how interpretations of eating

Eleanor Carey

86

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

87

Fast food influences among Hispanic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fast food influences such as restaurant frequency and restaurant choice among Hispanic women residing in Houston Texas. We also evaluated associations between BMI and frequency of fast food consumption. Methods: Data was obtained from the BOUNCE program and baseline data was evaluated from mothers enrolled in the study. Descriptive analysis and

Karolina Murguia

2009-01-01

88

Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.<\\/span>Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that

P. W. J. Sneijder

2006-01-01

89

The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students  

PubMed Central

Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1?km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1?km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1?km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers. PMID:23391296

2013-01-01

90

Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

2011-01-01

91

Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children  

PubMed Central

The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295

Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.

2014-01-01

92

Eating well with Canada's Food Guide (2007): development of the food intake pattern.  

PubMed

A food intake pattern specifying amounts and types of food was created for Canada's revised food guide, Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (2007), using a two-step modeling process. In step one, food composites were manipulated to develop a food intake pattern. The second step used the step one food intake pattern to create 500 simulated diets for each of 16 age and gender groups. The resulting nutrient content distributions were evaluated relative to Dietary Reference Intake reference values. The modeling cycled between these two steps until a satisfactory pattern was achieved. The final pattern reflects modeling, a review of associations between foods and chronic disease, and input received during consultation. PMID:17503710

Katamay, Stefa W; Esslinger, Krista A; Vigneault, Michel; Johnston, Janice L; Junkins, Beth A; Robbins, Linda G; Sirois, Isabelle V; Jones-Mclean, Elaine M; Kennedy, Anne F; Bush, Mary A A; Brulé, Danielle; Martineau, Chantal

2007-04-01

93

Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.  

PubMed

In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. PMID:25310889

Elliott, Charlene

2014-11-01

94

Risky Eating Behaviors of Young Adults—Implications for Food Safety Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Par- ticipants (N4,343) completed a risky eating question- naire by

CAROL BYRD-BREDBENNER; JACLYN MAURER ABBOT; VIRGINIA WHEATLEY; DONALD SCHAFFNER; CHRISTINE BRUHN; LYDIA BLALOCK

95

Risky Eating Behaviors of Young Adults—Implications for Food Safety Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Participants (N=4,343) completed a risky eating questionnaire by indicating which

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Jaclyn Maurer Abbot; Virginia Wheatley; Donald Schaffner; Christine Bruhn; Lydia Blalock

2008-01-01

96

Fast Food and Nutritional Perceptions in the Age of “Globesity”: Perspectives from the Provincial Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the influence of corporate fast food expands outside of the U.S. and Europe, many of the health problems previously associated with Western eating habits and nutritional regimes are beginning to proliferate across the developing world. Significantly, their rise serves as a troubling indicator of the “globesity” that threatens to overwhelm existing health care systems worldwide. To better understand the

Ty Matejowsky

2009-01-01

97

Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership.  

PubMed

Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Census data and information on locations of fast food and other restaurants with the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study database, which consists of 2,156 adults sampled from 63 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate associations between body mass index (BMI), fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership after adjustment for individual-level factors and socioeconomic characteristics of residential neighborhoods. A high concentration of local restaurants is associated with BMI. Car owners have higher BMIs than non-car owners; however, individuals who do not own cars and reside in areas with a high concentration of fast food outlets have higher BMIs than non-car owners who live in areas with no fast food outlets, approximately 12 lb more (p = 0.02) for an individual with a height of 5 ft. 5 in. Higher restaurant density is associated with higher BMI among local residents. The local fast food environment has a stronger association with BMI for local residents who do not have access to cars. PMID:19533365

Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A; Brown, Arleen F; Asch, Steven M

2009-09-01

98

Enjoy Your Food, but Eat Less: 10 Tips to Enjoying Your Meal  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 choose to eat some foods more or less often Choose more vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and fat-free or 1% milk and dairy ... top with cinnamon. enjoy your food, but eat ... and fruits and smaller portions of protein and grains. And don’t forget dairy—include fat-free ...

99

Why healthy eating is bad for young people’s health: Identity, belonging and food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into young people and healthy eating has focussed on identifying the ‘barriers’ to healthy eating and on developing interventions to address them. However, it has tended to neglect the emotional, social and symbolic aspects of food for young people, and the roles food might play in adolescence. This paper explores these issues, reporting findings from a qualitative study which

Martine Stead; Laura McDermott; Anne Marie MacKintosh; Ashley Adamson

2011-01-01

100

'Eating, eating is always there': food, consumerism and cardiovascular disease. Some evidence from Kerala, south India.  

PubMed

The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice. PMID:21153961

Wilson, Caroline

2010-12-01

101

Big Macs and Healthy Teens? Exploring Fast Food as Part of a Healthy Adolescent Lifestyle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the set of activities, explorations, and discussions described here, students apply healthy eating information when they make nutrition choices both at home and when eating out. These lessons introduce considerations such as portion size and caloric nutrients, while also exploring tools and resources for understanding both nutritional guidelines and for evaluating the nutritional value of a food. This progression of data collection and analysis culminates with students applying their knowledge as they author position statements that answer the question, "Is it possible to include fast food as part of a healthy lifestyle?"

Michael Harms

2009-03-01

102

Fast Food and Body Weight among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between consumption of fast food and sweets on overweight among U.S. adolescents; and (2) how consumption of different types of food and physical exercise is associated with parental education and other background variables. The data were based on cross-sectional, national survey study…

Ding, Cody; Parks, Sue

2007-01-01

103

Global Perspectives on Fast-Food History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fast food industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…

Smith, Andrew F.

104

Affect Regulation and Food Intake in Bulimia Nervosa: Emotional Responding to Food Cues After Deprivation and Subsequent Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation

Birgit I. Mauler; Alfons O. Hamm; Almut I. Weike; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier

2006-01-01

105

The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the health consequences of changes in the supply of fast food using the exact geographical location of fast food restaurants. Specifically, we ask how the supply of fast food affects the obesity rates of 3 million school children and the weight gain of over 1 million pregnant women. We find that among 9th grade children, a fast food

Janet Currie; Stefano DellaVigna; Enrico Moretti; Vikram Pathania

2009-01-01

106

Attentional Bias to Food Cues in Youth with Loss of Control Eating  

PubMed Central

Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5±2.3y; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7± .73) with (n=47) and without (n=29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p = .01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. PMID:25435490

Shank, Lisa M.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Hannallah, Louise M.; Field, Sara E.; Vannucci, Anna; Bongiorno, Diana M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania; Demidowich, Andrew; Kelly, Nichole R.; Cassidy, Omni; Simmons, W. Kyle; Engel, Scott G.; Pine, Daniel S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

2014-01-01

107

Attentional bias to food cues in youth with loss of control eating.  

PubMed

Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5?±?2.3 years; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7?±?.73) with (n?=?47) and without (n?=?29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p?=?.01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. PMID:25435490

Shank, Lisa M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise M; Field, Sara E; Vannucci, Anna; Bongiorno, Diana M; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Demidowich, Andrew; Kelly, Nichole R; Cassidy, Omni; Simmons, W Kyle; Engel, Scott G; Pine, Daniel S; Yanovski, Jack A

2015-04-01

108

Course Syllabus: Food for thought: The cognitive science of eating H205 Honors Seminar (for freshmen)  

E-print Network

Seminar on Food Choice, Politics, and Freedom to discuss how the conversation about good and bad foodCourse Syllabus: Food for thought: The cognitive science of eating H205 Honors Seminar (for will be distributed each week in class or online Course description People spend a lot of time thinking about food

Indiana University

109

Vitamin profile of cooked foods: how healthy is the practice of ready-to-eat foods?  

PubMed

During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P < 0.05). The cooking losses were 34.6, 30, 52.2, 45.9 and 32.2% in case of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, beta-carotene and folic acid respectively. Irrespective of whether it is ready-to-eat or a lunch/dinner food item, the contribution of vegetables in the preparations was found to make a marked impact on the vitamin profile. While results justify the concept of a food pyramid, emphasis needs to be given to types of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins; preferably in their uncooked form, rather than considering their total consumption. PMID:11951583

Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi

2002-05-01

110

The Positive Impact of Mindful Eating on Expectations of Food Liking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive role of mindful raisin-eating in participants’ expectation of liking of raisins, other foods, and nonfood stimuli\\u000a was tested across two experiments. The present study examined the relation between mindful raisin-eating and the affective\\u000a evaluation of food and nonfood items (i.e., the degree to which individuals expect to or think they will like a food or nonfood\\u000a item). In

Phan Y. Hong; David A. Lishner; Kim H. Han; Elizabeth A. Huss

2011-01-01

111

The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Anderson A, Dewar J, Marshall D, Cummins S, Taylor M, Dawson J, Sparks L. The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items.

112

Eat your troubles away: electrocortical and experiential correlates of food image processing are related to emotional eating style and emotional state.  

PubMed

Emotional eating, a trait-like style of food intake in response to negative emotion states, represents an important aspect of overeating and eating related psychopathology. The mechanisms of emotional eating both on experiential and neuronal levels are not well delineated. We recorded event related potentials (ERPs) while individuals with high or low emotional eating style (HEE, n=25; LEE, n=20) viewed and rated pictures of high-caloric food during neutral state vs. negative idiosyncratic emotion induction. Craving ratings increased in HEE and decreased in LEE during negative relative to neutral states. ERPs to food pictures showed an enhanced late positive potential (LPP) over parieto-occipital regions for HEE compared to LEE. Emotional state modulated food picture evoked ERPs over right frontal regions in HEE only. This suggests that appetitive food processing is susceptible to both concurrent emotion and habitual eating style which is of relevance for overeating in healthy and abnormal eating. PMID:24361542

Blechert, Jens; Goltsche, Julia E; Herbert, Beate M; Wilhelm, Frank H

2014-02-01

113

Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES  

PubMed Central

Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors. Conclusion Although we found an independent association between fast food purchasing and access to a wider variety of fast food restaurant, density and proximity were not significant predictors. The methods used in our study are an advance on previous analyses. PMID:19473503

Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

2009-01-01

114

Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

2013-08-01

115

Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Sharkey JR, Johnson CM, Dean WR, Horel SA. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults.

116

Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. PMID:20186718

Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

2010-01-01

117

Negotiating food choice: parents' perception of children's eating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a qualitative study exploring parents' attitudes and perceptions of their role in their children's eating habits in schools in Angus, Scotland. Parents believed they had different degrees of influence on their children's eating habits. This article will examine these different perceptions of parental responsibility for children's eating habits to explore how parents viewed their influence

E. Mei-Li Roberts

118

`You are what you eat': historical changes in ideas about food and identity*  

E-print Network

`You are what you eat': historical changes in ideas about food and identity* Steven Shapin Harvard, the relations between aliment and identity - personal and national - were understood in terms of Galenical and identity. There is a saying that `You are what you eat'. It exists in some variant in many languages

Shapin, Steven

119

A case study of middle school food policy and persisting barriers to healthful eating.  

PubMed

Decreasing access to competitive foods in schools has produced only modest effects on adolescents' eating patterns. This qualitative case study investigated persistent barriers to healthful eating among students attending an ethnically diverse middle school in a working-class urban neighborhood that had banned on campus competitive food sales. Participant observations, semi-structured interviews and document reviews were conducted. Unappealing school lunches and easily accessible unhealthful foods, combined with peer and family influences, increased the appeal of unhealthy foods. Areas for further inquiry into strategies to improve urban middle school students' school and neighborhood food environments are discussed. PMID:24735212

Jara, Eddy; Ozer, Emily J; Seyer-Ochi, Ingrid

2014-01-01

120

The availability of healthy food options in fast food outlets in six rural counties  

E-print Network

chain fast food stores were more likely than other fast food stores to offer healthy options (78.9% v. 42.4%, pchain fast food stores were also more likely than other fast food stores to offer healthy breakfast options (26% v. 13.9%, p...

Creel, Jennifer Sue

2009-05-15

121

Enhanced Striatal Dopamine Release During Food Stimulation in Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [11C]raclopride were

Gene-Jack Wang; Allan Geliebter; Nora D. Volkow; Frank W. Telang; Jean Logan; Millard C. Jayne; Kochavi Galanti; Peter A. Selig; Hao Han; Wei Zhu; Christopher T. Wong; Joanna S. Fowler

2011-01-01

122

Access and Affordability Saskatchewan Food Banks Explore the Cost of Healthy Eating  

E-print Network

healthy, nutritious food. Additionally, the Steering Committee focused on conducting a literature reviewAccess and Affordability Saskatchewan Food Banks Explore the Cost of Healthy Eating Executive;Executive Summary What is the purpose of this report? The purpose of the food security research project

Argerami, Martin

123

Eating in Space: Food for Thought. EG-2011-08-00005-SSC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the thousands of questions that need to be answered before astronauts travel to distant planets and asteroids are questions related to the astronauts themselves. How much food will they need and what foods can they take? We are fortunate on Earth to have an amazing variety of foods to eat. When astronauts do go to Mars and other…

Vogt, Gregory L.; Shearer, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

124

Moral Overtones of Food: Judgments of Others Based on What They Eat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether eating healthy or unhealthy foods gives rise to moral judgments about the consumer. Subjects were presented one of four bogus profiles of a person, differing only in gender and foods consumed, and rated the target on morality. Results confirmed that food choices influenced the raters' moral judgments. (RJM)

Stein, Richard I.; Nemeroff, Carol J.

1995-01-01

125

Diazepam-induced eating and lever pressing for food in sated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Found in 8 experiments with male Wistar rats that diazepam (2.5 mg\\/kg) produced vigorous eating but not drinking in sated Ss. The effect was found with familiar food in both test box and home cage and during both day and night. Ss trained under food deprivation leverpressed for food but not water under diazepam; the rate of response was dose

Roy A. Wise; Vivien Dawson

1974-01-01

126

The relationship between fast food and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public debate regarding the role of government in lowering obesity often focuses on the fact that rising obesity prevalence is evident in all states. This article focuses on the hypothesized link between obesity and fast food employment by examining data on all states over 2001–2009 and controlling for other factors that may influence obesity prevalence. Our examination indicates no support

Michael L. Marlow; Alden F. Shiers

2012-01-01

127

Barney and breakfast: messages about food and eating in preschool television shows and how they may impact the development of eating behaviours in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children’s television shows and found that non?nutritious foods are as common as

Leslie Margaret Anderson; Jim Anderson

2010-01-01

128

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... food (often junk food) at once, usually in secret. Sometimes they eat food that is not cooked ... also evidence that eating disorders may run in families. Although part of this may be genetics, it's ...

129

Obesity and the Built Environment: Does the Density of Neighborhood Fast-Food Outlets Matter?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine variation in obesity among older adults relative to the joint influences of density of neighborhood fast-food outlets and residents' behavioral, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics. Design Cross-sectional and multilevel design. Setting Census block groups, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, within the metropolitan region's Urban Growth Boundary in Portland, Oregon. Subjects A total of 1,221 residents (mean age=65 years old) recruited randomly from 120 neighborhoods (48% response rate). Measures A Geographic Information System-based measure of fast-food restaurant density across 120 neighborhoods was created. Residents within the sampled neighborhoods were assessed with respect to their body mass index (BMI), frequency of visits to local fast-food restaurants, fried food consumption, levels of physical activity, self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables, household income, and race/ethnicity. Analyses Multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Significant associations were found between resident-level individual characteristics and the likelihood of being obese (BMI?30) for neighborhoods with a high-density of fast-food restaurants in comparison to those with a low density: odds ratios [OR] for obesity, 95% confidence interval [CI] were: 1.878 (CI=1.006-3.496) for weekly visits to local fast-food restaurants; 1.792 (CI=1.006-3.190) for not meeting physical activity recommendations; 1.212 (CI=1.057-1.391) for low confidence in eating healthy food; and 8.057 (CI=1.705-38.086) for non-Hispanic black residents. Conclusion Increased density of neighborhood fast-food outlets was associated with unhealthy lifestyles, poorer psychosocial profiles, and increased risk of obesity among older adults. PMID:19149426

Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deb

2009-01-01

130

Determining Empirical Thresholds for “Definitely Large” Amounts of Food for Defining Binge-Eating Episodes  

PubMed Central

Binge episodes involve “definitely large” amounts of food, yet limited data exist regarding the upper limits of food consumption in non-binge eating episodes. Study 1 examined the concurrent validity of a self-report measure developed to measure “usual” food consumption. Results support good concurrent validity for most items across response versions. Study 2 identified the upper limits of normal food consumption (i.e., 85th percentile of participants’ largest reported usual servings). Thresholds differed across types of foods, and men reported higher thresholds than women for several foods. Type of food and gender should be considered when assessing for “definitely large” amounts of food. PMID:24983483

Forney, K. Jean; Holland, Lauren A.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Keel, Pamela K.

2015-01-01

131

It's who I am and what we eat. Mothers' food-related identities in family food choice.  

PubMed

This study aimed to understand mothers' everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26-53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother's photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother's food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children's food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers' food choices were more disconnected from their children's. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

Johnson, Cassandra M; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Alex McIntosh, W; Kubena, Karen S

2011-08-01

132

Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing.  

PubMed

Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain. PMID:25475348

Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej

2015-03-01

133

Consumer characteristics influencing fast food consumption in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turkish fast food industry has grown rapidly since the 1980s. There are now more than 700 fast food restaurants in Turkey. Using the data from a consumer survey, this study investigates the relationship between consumers’ fast food consumption frequency and their socio-economic\\/demographic characteristics and attitudes. Using Chi-square test of independence, the study compares consumers’ fast food consumption frequencies of

Cuma Akbay; Gulgun Yildiz Tiryaki; Aykut Gul

2007-01-01

134

Design of Health Eating System Based on Web Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the pace of life gradually accelerated nowadays, fast-food becomes more and more popular in daily life, which would lead unhealthy eating habit. In order to solve this problem, we present a proposal of healthy eating analyzing and recommender system based on web data mining, which would track your eating habit and recommend the types of foods that improve your

Xiaocheng Li; Xin Liu; Zengjie Zhang; Yongming Xia; Songrong Qian

2010-01-01

135

Sweet preference predicts mood altering effect of and impaired control over eating sweet foods.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine association between hedonic response to sweet taste and a mood altering effect associated with eating sweet foods and impaired control over eating sweets. Participants (n=163, 39% males) rated a series of sucrose solutions for intensity of sweetness and palatability and completed a newly developed 12-item Sweet Taste Questionnaire (STQ). It was shown that STQ identifies two factors in the individual's attitude towards sweet foods: sensitivity to the mood altering effect of sweets and impaired control over eating sweet foods. Individuals preferring the taste of the strongest offered sucrose concentration reported a stronger mood altering effect associated with eating of sweet foods and were more likely to have an impaired control over eating sweets than the rest of the group. Women generally had higher scores on both factors compared to men. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that hedonic response to sweet taste is associated with elevated sensitivity to mood altering effects of sweet foods and impaired control over eating sweets. PMID:16843219

Kampov-Polevoy, Alexey B; Alterman, Arthur; Khalitov, Elena; Garbutt, James C

2006-08-01

136

Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite.  

PubMed

Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior. PMID:25009514

Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

2014-01-01

137

Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite  

PubMed Central

Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior. PMID:25009514

Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A.; Ohla, Kathrin

2014-01-01

138

Availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at a fast-food restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Given the link between eating out, poor diets, and obesity, we assessed the availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at the largest fast-food restaurant in the U.S., McDonald's. Method. In August 2004, we visited 29 of 33 (88%) of the McDonald's outlets in Washington, DC and visually inspected the premises, as well as asked cashiers or restaurant managers whether they

Margo G. Wootan; Melissa Osborn; Claudia J. Malloy

2006-01-01

139

PFID: PITTSBURGH FAST-FOOD IMAGE DATASET , Kapil Dhingra3  

E-print Network

PFID: PITTSBURGH FAST-FOOD IMAGE DATASET Mei Chen1 , Kapil Dhingra3 , Wen Wu2 , Lei Yang2 , Rahul://pfid.intel-research.net ABSTRACT We introduce the first visual dataset of fast foods with a total of 4,545 still images, 606 stereo of volunteers. This work was motivated by research on fast food recognition for dietary assessment. The data

Sukthankar, Rahul

140

CONVENIENCE, ACCESSIBILITY, AND THE DEMAND FOR FAST FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the growth in demand for fast food. A distinguishing characteristic of fast food is its convenience; in today's pervasive marketplace, consumers need not travel far to find a fast food outlet. This greater availability translates into a decrease in the full price of obtaining a meal, which contributes to greater consumption. Market-level data are used to estimate

Mark D. Jekanowski; James K. Binkley; James S. Eales

2001-01-01

141

Price Dispersion and Accessibility: A Case study of Fast Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines spatial variation in the price and accessibility of fast food across a major urban area. We use novel data on the price of a representative fast food meal and the location of fast food restaurants belonging to one of three major chains in the District of Columbia and its surrounding suburbs. These data are used to test

Hayden Stewart; David E. Davis

2005-01-01

142

Prejudgments of those who eat a “healthy” versus an “unhealthy” food for breakfast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do\\u000a these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a “good” or a “bad” food? For the present study\\u000a we attempted to expand our understanding of the impact of categorical thinking concerning the health value of foods. Respondents

Michael E. Oakes; Carole S. Slotterback

2004-01-01

143

Eat fit. Get big? How fitness cues influence food consumption volumes.  

PubMed

Fitness cues on food packages are a common marketing practice in the food sector. This study aims to find out whether and how fitness cues influence food consumption. The results of two field studies show that, even though eating fitness-cued food does not help consumers become more fit, the claims on the packaging increase both serving size and actual food consumption. This effect is mediated by serving size inferences. Also, consumers feel less guilty and perceive themselves closer to desired fitness levels after having consumed the food. The findings show that packaging cues relating to energy expenditure can increase energy intake despite the fact that consumers are not engaged in any actual physical activity while eating the food. PMID:23395603

Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Kettenbaum, Myriam; Klicker, Kristina

2013-06-01

144

CDC Vital Signs: Making Food Safer to Eat  

MedlinePLUS

... Ensure that food production and service facilities adopt proven preventive measures and enforce food safety laws and ... contamination when raising livestock or food animals. Adopt proven preventive measures for food safety plans in all ...

145

Food Security Concerns Among Young People: Impact on Eating Behaviors and Weight Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current article aims to examine the extent of food security concerns experienced by adolescents in New Zealand in 2007 and examine the impact of food security on student eating behaviors and weight status. Data were collected as part of a national health and well-being survey of secondary school students in New Zealand. More than one third of secondary school

Jennifer Utter; Simon Denny; Elizabeth Robinson; Tasileta Teevale; Sue Crengle; Shanthi Ameratunga; Terry Fleming

2012-01-01

146

The Science ofWhatWe Eat: Can you find the chemistry in food?  

E-print Network

't function either if we don't eat. Food gives us energy (from our bodies breaking down the proteins, fats require chemical preservatives and/or artificial colors and flavors so that they last well and taste good on your snack packaging. See how the different foods compare in terms of fats, vitamins, sugar etc

Pedersen, Tom

147

Contaminant migration from food packaging laminates used for heat and eat meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

EU legislation requires that components from food contact plastics should not migrate significantly into the food. The nature and extent of species migrating from laminated materials used for packaging heat and eat meals have been investigated. Selected target analytes included additives incorporated into the polyolefin, e.g. the Irganox and Irgafos antioxidants, the diisocyanate and polyol residues from the adhesive and

Graham Lawson; Campbell T. Barkby; Carolyn Lawson

1996-01-01

148

Obesity, the Economic Meltdown, and the Gut Feeling for the Foods We Choose to Eat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary recommendations typically emphasize minimizing the intake of highly palatable, energy dense foods, but this may be very difficult in some persons experiencing stress. Non-homeostatic regulation of food intake, such as habitually eating more or less in response to emotional stimuli, can affe...

149

Impact of eating frequency by adolescents on food intake and meeting MyPyramid recommendations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adolescents’ eating frequency on their intake of food groups and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid food guidance system. Adolescents 12-19 years old (n=4,357) who completed one 24-hour dietary recall in What W...

150

Identification of Essential Food Skills for Skill-Based Healthful Eating Programs in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were…

Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra

2011-01-01

151

"Eat more foods that grow on plants and less that are processed in plants."  

E-print Network

"Eat more foods that grow on plants and less that are processed in plants." Make it a Healthy New work week. Look for ways to change the Pick, Prep, and Portion of foods in your diet! More Portion Calorie Fat Less Portion Calorie Fat Baked Chicken Breast 6oz 200 Cal 4gm Deep-Fried Chicken 6 oz 440 Cal

Hardy, Christopher R.

152

Why did I eat that? Perspectives on food decision making and dietary restraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers trying to watch or restrict what they eat face a battle each day as they attempt to navigate the food-rich environments in which they live. Due to the complexity of food decision making, consumers are susceptible to a wide range of social, cognitive, affective, and environmental forces determined to interrupt their intentions to restrict their dietary intake. In this

Melissa G. Bublitz; Laura A. Peracchio; Lauren G. Block

2010-01-01

153

The effect of shift-work on food intake and eating habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work on food intake and eating patterns in order to assess the impact of this on health. A total of 36 shift workers were measured anthropometrically and were asked to complete food diaries for six consecutive days, and a lifestyle questionnaire. The results revealed night workers did not

S. L. Reeves; E. Newling-Ward; C. Gissane

2004-01-01

154

Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

155

Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.  

PubMed

With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311

Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

2014-09-01

156

Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures\\u000a of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and\\u000a weekly consumption of fast-food meals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery\\u000a stores, from the 2006 Brazos

Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

2011-01-01

157

College Freshmen Do Not Eat Within Food Pyramid Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students may develop unhealthy eating habits during their freshman year. Poor eating habits or exercise regimens and lifestyle choices could lead to chronic disease later in life. We previously reported that 44 [18 males (41%) and 26 females (59%)] freshmen gained an average of 2.8±2.7kg (6.2±5.9?) during their first year of college, rather than the “The Freshman Fifteen” commonly

D. H. Holben; J. T. Hassell; J. P. Holcomb

1998-01-01

158

Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants  

PubMed Central

Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

Elbel, Brian

2013-01-01

159

Why healthy eating is bad for young people's health: identity, belonging and food.  

PubMed

Research into young people and healthy eating has focussed on identifying the 'barriers' to healthy eating and on developing interventions to address them. However, it has tended to neglect the emotional, social and symbolic aspects of food for young people, and the roles food might play in adolescence. This paper explores these issues, reporting findings from a qualitative study which explored the meanings and values young people attached to food choices, particularly in school and peer contexts. As part of a larger study into young people's relationships with food brands, 12 focus groups were conducted with young people aged 13-15 in the North East of England. The focus groups found that young people used food choices to help construct a desired image, as a means of judging others, and to signal their conformity with acceptable friendship and peer norms. Importantly, the findings suggested that the social and symbolic meanings associated with healthy eating conflicted with processes and values which are of crucial importance in adolescence, such as self-image and fitting in with the peer group. In other words, it was emotionally and socially risky to be seen to be interested in healthy eating. Interventions need not only to make healthy eating easier and more available, but also to address young people's emotional needs for identity and belonging. PMID:21429646

Stead, Martine; McDermott, Laura; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Adamson, Ashley

2011-04-01

160

Food selection and intake of obese women with binge-eating disorder1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied food selection and intake of 19 women (body mass index (in kg\\/rn2) < 30), 10 of whom met proposed DSM-IV criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED). All subjects ate two multicourse meals in the laboratory, and were given tape-recorded instructions at each meal either to binge or eat in a normal fashion. Subjects with BED consumed signifi- cantly more

Susan Zelitch Yanovski; Melissa Leet; Jack A Yanovski; Harry R Kissileff; B Timothy Walsh

161

Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

2010-01-01

162

Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... meals . Serve a variety of healthy foods and snacks. Be a role model by eating healthy yourself. ... eat fruits, vegetables, and grains less likely to snack on unhealthy foods less likely to smoke, use ...

163

The meaning of food and eating among home parenteral nutrition-dependent adults with intestinal failure: a qualitative inquiry.  

PubMed

Using content and interpretative phenomenological analysis, we explored the meaning of food and eating from the perspective of adults receiving home parenteral nutrition (PN). The aim of this research was to obtain a deeper understanding of how issues related to food and eating influence quality of life (QOL). Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted between May 2006 and January 2007 with 24 adults with intestinal failure and home PN dependency. The analysis revealed themes relevant to eating behaviors, hunger and thirst, strategies for dining in restaurants, and a perception of wasting money because of malabsorbed food. Three patterns of eating emerged: eating for survival, eating for health benefits, and eating for socialization. A proposed model illustrates how these eating patterns are linked to QOL. Being able to eat and enjoy food is an important ingredient for good self-reported QOL. Measurements of QOL for this population may be enhanced with inclusion of a food and eating domain. The social and emotional context of food and mealtimes is an important component to address in the nutrition care plan for PN-dependent adults. PMID:21034881

Winkler, Marion F; Wetle, Terrie; Smith, Carol; Hagan, Elizabeth; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Touger-Decker, Riva

2010-11-01

164

Food Deserts' and 'Food Swamps' in Hillsborough County, Florida: Unequal Access to Supermarkets and Fast-Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that the suburbanization of supermarkets has created `food deserts', defined as areas where socially disadvantaged individuals lack access to nutritious food outlets. Additionally, the growing presence of fast-food restaurants has created `food swamps', or areas where socially disadvantaged individuals encounter an overabundance of unhealthy food outlets. While previous studies have analyzed either `food deserts' or `food swamps'

Dana Beth Stein

2011-01-01

165

Ghrelin increases the motivation to eat, but does not alter food palatability  

PubMed Central

Homeostatic eating cannot explain overconsumption of food and pathological weight gain. A more likely factor promoting excessive eating is food reward and its representation in the central nervous system (CNS). The anorectic hormones leptin and insulin reduce food reward and inhibit related CNS reward pathways. Conversely, the orexigenic gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin activates both homeostatic and reward-related neurocircuits. The current studies were conducted to identify in rats the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusions on two distinct aspects of food reward: hedonic valuation (i.e., “liking”) and the motivation to self-administer (i.e., “wanting”) food. To assess hedonic valuation of liquid food, lick motor patterns were recorded using lickometry. Although ghrelin administration increased energy intake, it did not alter the avidity of licking (initial lick rates or lick-cluster size). Several positive-control conditions ruled out lick-rate ceiling effects. Similarly, when the liquid diet was hedonically devalued with quinine supplementation, ghrelin failed to reverse the quinine-associated reduction of energy intake and avidity of licking. The effects of ghrelin on rats' motivation to eat were assessed using lever pressing to self-administer food in a progressive-ratio paradigm. Ghrelin markedly increased motivation to eat, to levels comparable to or greater than those seen following 24 h of food deprivation. Pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 eliminated ghrelin-induced increases in lever pressing, without compromising generalized licking motor control, indicating a role for D1 signaling in ghrelin's motivational feeding effects. These results indicate that ghrelin increases the motivation to eat via D1 receptor-dependent mechanisms, without affecting perceived food palatability. PMID:22673784

Overduin, Joost; Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Bennett-Jay, Jennifer; Kittleson, Sepideh

2012-01-01

166

NPR: Nutrition Labels for Fast Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from National Public Radio's Morning Edition, offers a look at legislation proposed in Congress that would require fast food and other chain restaurants to provide nutritional information for their menu items. The website offers complete audio of the story, which aired earlier this month. Visitors will also find a short article on the topic, links to related stories from NPR, and a set of Web resources. The site also provides a downloadable report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest -- a sizeable document that provides in-depth information on the subject, and even includes menu mock-ups.

167

NPR: Nutrition Labels for Fast Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from National Public Radio's Morning Edition, offers a look at legislation proposed in Congress that would require fast food and other chain restaurants to provide nutritional information for their menu items. The website offers complete audio of the story, which aired earlier this month. Visitors will also find a short article on the topic, links to related stories from NPR, and a set of Web resources. The site also provides a downloadable report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest -- a sizeable document that provides in-depth information on the subject, and even includes menu mock-ups.

2007-12-12

168

Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education…

Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

2007-01-01

169

Using Fast Food Nutrition Facts to Make Healthier Menu Selections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fast food nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fast food restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…

Turley, Jennifer

2009-01-01

170

Promotion and Fast Food Demand: Where's the Beef?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. This study weighs into the debate by specifying and estimating a discrete\\/continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and

Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

2007-01-01

171

Ecological momentary assessment of obesogenic eating behavior: combining person-specific and environmental predictors. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Obesity has been promoted by a food environment that encourages excessive caloric intake. An understanding of how the food environment contributes to obesogenic eating behavior in different types of individuals may facilitate healthy weight control efforts.

172

Opioid-Dependent Anticipatory Negative Contrast and Binge-Like Eating in Rats with Limited Access to Highly Preferred Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binge eating and an increased role for palatability in determining food intake are abnormal adaptations in feeding behavior linked to eating disorders and body weight dysregulation. The present study tested the hypothesis that rats with limited access to highly preferred food would develop analogous opioid-dependent learned adaptations in feeding behavior, with associated changes in metabolism and anxiety-like behavior. For this

Pietro Cottone; Valentina Sabino; Luca Steardo; Eric P Zorrilla

2008-01-01

173

Why do People Eat what they do? Approaches to Food and Diet from a Social Science Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I utilize anthropological ideas about food which take account of its symbolism and meaning as well as its materiality. Differences in entitlements to food are considered in class and gender in western and Third-World countries. The question Why do people eat what they do? is explored in relation to the relative failure of healthy eating campaigns in

Pat Caplan

1996-01-01

174

Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments

Lukar E Thornton; Rebecca J Bentley; Anne M Kavanagh

2009-01-01

175

Fast Food Consumption and Academic Growth in Late Childhood.  

PubMed

Objective. The objective of this study is to examine the associations between fast food consumption and the academic growth of 8544 fifth-grade children in reading, math, and science. Method. This study uses direct assessments of academic achievement and child-reported fast food consumption from a nationally representative sample of kindergartners followed through eighth grade. Results. More than two thirds of the sample reported some fast food consumption; 20% reported consuming at least 4 fast food meals in the prior week. Fast food consumption during fifth grade predicted lower levels of academic achievement in all 3 subjects in eighth grade, even when fifth grade academic scores and numerous potential confounding variables, including socioeconomic indicators, physical activity, and TV watching, were controlled for in the models. Conclusion. These results provide initial evidence that high levels of fast food consumption are predictive of slower growth in academic skills in a nationally representative sample of children. PMID:25480321

Purtell, Kelly M; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

2014-12-01

176

Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

Kish, Stacy

2008-01-01

177

Eat this, not that! Parental demographic correlates of food-related parenting practices  

PubMed Central

To understand how parents of adolescents attempt to regulate their children’s eating behaviors, the prevalence of specific food-related parenting practices (restriction, pressure-to-eat) by sociodemographic characteristics (parent gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, and household income) were examined within a population-based sample of parents (n=3709) of adolescents. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the association between parent sociodemographic characteristics and parental report of food restriction and pressure-toeat. Overall, findings suggest that use of controlling food-related parenting practices , such as pressuring children to eat and restricting children’s intake, is common among parents of adolescents, particularly among parents in racial/ethnic minority subgroups, parents with less than a high school education, and parents with a low household income. Results indicate that that social or cultural traditions, as well as parental access to economic resources, may contribute to a parent’s decision to utilize specific food-related parenting practices. Given that previous research has found that restriction and pressure-to-eat food-related parenting practices can negatively impact children’s current and future dietary intake, differences in use of these practices by sociodemographic characteristics may contribute, in part, to the disparities that exist in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents by their race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. PMID:23022556

Loth, Katie A.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2013-01-01

178

Towards an understanding of young people's conceptualisation of food and eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young people's perceptions of food were explored in this qualitative research project. Eighty-one adolescents aged 13 or 14 years participated in semi-structured individual interviews in which the meaning of and associated beliefs concerning foods were examined. The findings indicate that many young people conceptualise and classify foods into either 'healthy' or 'fast' foods. Data analysis indicated that the percerved social

Richard G Watt; Aubrey Sheiham

1997-01-01

179

Eating Behaviors, Mental Health, and Food Intake are Associated with Obesity in Older Congregate Meal Participants  

PubMed Central

The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ? 30kg/m2) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ? 43 inches for men and ? 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American’s Act (OAA) congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food groups group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Fischer, Joan G.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2015-01-01

180

Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder  

SciTech Connect

Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

2011-01-13

181

Curbside eating : mobilizing food trucks to activate public space  

E-print Network

In the past 5 years, cities across the United States have seen the rise of a new form of street vending: the modern food truck. Nearly overnight, food trucks have become an expected and anticipated occurrence in many ...

Sheppard, Alison Marguerite

2013-01-01

182

The Ocean Book: Food Chains...Come and Eat!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)

Science Activities, 1989

1989-01-01

183

Mindless Eating: The 200 Daily Food Decisions We Overlook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How aware are people of food-related decisions they make and how the environment influences these decisions? Study 1 shows that 139 people underestimated the number of food-related decisions they made--by an average of more than 221 decisions. Study 2 examined 192 people who overserved and overate 31% more food as a result of having been given an…

Wansink, Brian; Sobal, Jeffery

2007-01-01

184

The Uncompetitive N-methyl-D-Aspartate Antagonist Memantine Reduces Binge-Like Eating, Food-Seeking Behavior, and Compulsive Eating: Role of the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.  

PubMed

Binge-eating disorder is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable consumption of palatable food within brief periods of time. The role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system in hedonic feeding is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on palatable food-induced behavioral adaptations using a rat model, which mimics the characteristic symptomatology observed in binge-eating disorder. For this purpose, we allowed male Wistar rats to respond to obtain a highly palatable, sugary diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1?h a day, under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Upon stabilization of food responding, we tested the effects of memantine on the Chow and Palatable food groups' intake. Then, we tested the effects of memantine on food-seeking behavior, under a second-order schedule of reinforcement. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of memantine on the intake of food when it was offered in an aversive, bright compartment of a light/dark conflict test. Finally, we evaluated the effects of memantine on FR1 responding for food, when microinfused into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell or core. Memantine dose-dependently decreased binge-like eating and fully blocked food-seeking behavior and compulsive eating, selectively in the Palatable food group. The drug treatment did not affect performance of the control Chow food group. Finally, intra-NAcc shell, but not core, microinfusion of memantine decreased binge-like eating. Together, these findings substantiate a role of memantine as a potential pharmacological treatment for binge-eating disorder. PMID:25381776

Smith, Karen L; Rao, Rahul R; Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Valenza, Marta; Giuliano, Chiara; Everitt, Barry J; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

2015-01-01

185

REFRIGERATED READY-T0-EAT (RTE) FOODS: MICROBIOLOGICAL CONCERNS AND CONTROL MEASURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods contaminated with L. monocytogenes have been linked to several severe listeriosis outbreaks. The contamination was mainly traced to post-process contamination. Due to the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow at refrigerated temperatures and the non-necessity fo...

186

Are You What You Eat? An inside Look at High-Tech Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to…

Miller, Roxanne Greitz

2007-01-01

187

`Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C. Berridge  

E-print Network

`Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C Brainstem Parabrachial nucleus Dopamine Opioid Addiction What brain reward systems mediate motivational? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic `liking', such as the existence

Berridge, Kent

188

Food and Eating Practices during the Transition from Secondary School to New Social Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how the new social contexts experienced by young people after leaving school are related to everyday food practices and eating habits. Findings from in-depth interviews with 31 young people aged 16-24 years studying at a college of further education in South East England are used to explore the role of new social spaces and…

Wills, Wendy J.

2005-01-01

189

Eating the food of the ancestors: place, tradition, and tourism in a Chinese frontier river town  

Microsoft Academic Search

ourism eats the food prepared by our ancestors,' says Jun Mingyu, a restaurateur in a remote region of south-west China. A tireless advocate of tourism development in his small riverside town, Jun is also a fine cook and runs a successful inn patronized by local truckers and international tourists alike. His story ultimately forms the backbone of this essay, and

Tim Oakes

1999-01-01

190

ENSURING THE SAFETY OF COMPLEX READY-TO-EAT FOODS USING IRRADIATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other complex RTE food products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on raw meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data...

191

Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

2013-01-01

192

Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

193

Food intake, hunger, and satiety after preloads in women with eating disorders13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake, food selection, macronutrient intake, sensory-specific satiety, and ratings ofhunger and satiety were measured after high- and low-energy salad preloads (2414 Id, or 172 U) or no preload to determine whether patients with eating disorders compensate appropriately for different energy intakes. Subjects were female patients with a DSM-III-R diag- nosis of anorexia nervosa with bulimic features or bulimia ner-

Barbara J Rolls; Arnold E Andersen; Timothy H Moran; Amy L McNelis; Hope C Baier; Ingrid C Fedoroff

194

Time Spent on Home Food Preparation and Indicators of Healthy Eating  

E-print Network

restaurants showed no differences across groups. 11 Discussion The present results indicate that healthier food consumption patterns may have an associated time cost. In this study, healthier food consumption patterns, characterized by more... $ per person per week Eating out 22.8 ± 2.7 16.4 ± 2.3 15.1 ± 2.3 in general linear models containing respondent’s age, gender, race, employment status, educational...

Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

2014-01-01

195

Increasing Healthy Eating vs. Reducing High Energy-dense Foods to Treat Pediatric Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The objective was to compare targeting increased eating of healthy foods vs. reducing intake of high energy-dense foods within the context of a family-based behavioral weight control program.Methods and Procedures:Forty-one 8–12 year-old children >85th BMI percentile were randomly assigned to a 24-month family-based behavioral treatment that targeted increasing fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy vs. reducing intake of high energy-dense

Leonard H. Epstein; Rocco A. Paluch; Meghan D. Beecher; James N. Roemmich

2008-01-01

196

Eating Out When You Have Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... fat content. This information is available in many chain restaurants (you may need to ask for it) ... out for words like "jumbo," "supersize," "deluxe," or "value" when eating at your favorite fast-food joint ...

197

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design: In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained

Jennifer L. Harris; John A. Bargh; Kelly D. Brownell

2009-01-01

198

Brand Name Logo Recognition of Fast Food and Healthy Food among Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are\\u000a well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition,\\u000a food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry\\u000a is among the leaders in

Elva Arredondo; Diego Castaneda; John P. Elder; Donald Slymen; David Dozier

2009-01-01

199

Eating attitudes and food intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16?±?2.5 SD years) completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.8?±?2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70%) did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5?±?13.5 SD) and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491?±?471 SD kcal/day (31?±?10 SD kcal/kg), with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients. PMID:23237333

2012-01-01

200

Health: Comparing Calories in Fast Food Burgers and Chicken  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use a box and whisker plot to represent data in a comparison of hamburgers and chicken sandwiches from three leading fast-food restaurants. Then they will make conclusions about the varying number of calories in fast food.

2010-01-01

201

LifeandHealthInsurance IndustryInvestmentsin FastFood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension be- tween profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an indus- try that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food compa- nies.

Arun V. Mohan; Danny McCormick; Steffie Woolhandler; David U. Himmelstein; J. Wesley Boyd

202

Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste,

Teija Aarnio; Anne Hämäläinen

2008-01-01

203

SERVICE QUALITY PERCEPTIONS IN FAST-FOOD RESTAURANTS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of intense competition fast-food restaurants are increasingly recognizing the importance to continuously improve their service quality to retain and attract customers. This study explores the potential dimensions of service quality in fast-food restaurants (FFRs) in China. The \\

Hong Qin

204

Inequality in obesigenic environments: fast food density in New York City. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New York City.

205

An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects  

PubMed Central

Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

2011-01-01

206

‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or incentive salience systems important to appetite, such as mesolimbic dopamine systems and opioid motivation circuits that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots. Finally, it considers some potential ways in which ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ might relate to eating disorders. PMID:19336238

Berridge, Kent C.

2009-01-01

207

Memory updating in sub-clinical eating disorder: Differential effects with food and body shape words.  

PubMed

The present study investigated how eating disorder (ED) relevant information is updated in working memory in people with high vs. low scores on a measure of eating disorder pathology (the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, EDE-Q). Participants performed two memory updating tasks. One was a neutral control task using digits; the other task involved food words and words relating to body-shape, and provided measures of updating speed and post-updating recall. We found that high EDE-Q participants (1) showed no sign of general memory updating impairment as indicated by performance in the control task; (2) showed a general recall deficit in the task involving ED-relevant stimuli, suggesting a general distraction of cognitive resources in the presence of ED-related items; (3) showed a relative facilitation in the recall of food words; and (4) showed quicker updating toward food words and relatively slower updating toward body-shape-related words. Results are discussed in the context of cognitive theories of eating disorders. PMID:25682363

Fenton, Olivia; Ecker, Ullrich K H

2015-04-01

208

Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis  

PubMed Central

The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

Hawkes, Corinna

2009-01-01

209

Differential associations of fast food and restaurant food consumption with 3-y change in body mass index: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Away-from-home food consumption has rapidly in- creased,thoughlittleisknownabouttheindependentassociationsof restaurantfoodandfastfoodintakewithbodymassindex(BMI)and BMI change. Objective: The aim was to compare the associations of restaurant food and fast food consumption with current and 3-y changes in BMI. Design: Multivariate linear regression models, with control for de- mographic and lifestyle factors, were used to examine cross- sectional and longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating with BMI

Kiyah J Duffey; Penny Gordon-Larsen; David R Jacobs Jr; O Dale Williams; Barry M Popkin

210

The study of food addiction using animal models of binge eating?  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes evidence of “food addiction” using animal models of binge eating. In our model of sucrose bingeing, behavioral components of addiction are demonstrated and related to neurochemical changes that also occur with addictive drugs. Evidence supports the hypothesis that rats can become dependent and “addicted” to sucrose. Results obtained when animals binge on other palatable foods, including a fat-rich food, are described and suggest that increased body weight can occur. However, the characterization of an addiction-like behavioral profile in animals with binge access to fat requires further exploration in order to dissociate the effect of increased body weight from the diet or schedule of feeding. PMID:20849896

Avena, Nicole M.

2015-01-01

211

Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Food Energy Density and Higher Consumption of Sugary and Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Methods Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ?18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Results Compared to individuals with ?1 OREB, those with ?5 OREB had a higher food energy density (? 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001) and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (? 7; 95% CI ?7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05) and of alcoholic beverages (? 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001). Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. Conclusions OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake. PMID:24204756

Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E.; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

2013-01-01

212

Environmental Microbiology: Bacteria & Fungi on the Foods We Eat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The near daily news reports on food-borne diseases caused by contaminated produce, dairy, or meats suggests to the public that the safety of the U.S. food supply is in jeopardy. These reports, as well as a general distrust in federal agencies due in part to mad cow disease and toxigenic forms of "E. coli" in ground beef, have resulted in an…

Segner, Suzanne; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

2007-01-01

213

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

214

Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.  

PubMed

The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos. PMID:18830690

Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

2009-02-01

215

Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

2009-01-01

216

All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?  

PubMed Central

Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially nesting European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster). We aimed to determine whether this unconsumed food is an indicator of unlimited food supply, the result of mistakes during food transfer between parents and chicks or foraging selectivity of chicks. Therefore, we investigated the amount of dropped food for each nest in relation to reproductive performance and parameters reflecting parental quality. Our data suggest that parents carry more food to the nest than chicks can eat and, hence, food is not limited. This assumption is supported by the facts that there is a positive relationship between dropped food found in a nest and the number of fledglings, nestling age, and chick health condition and that the amount of dropped food is independent of colony size. There is variation in the amount of dropped food within colonies, suggesting that parent foraging efficiency may also be an important determinant. Pairs nesting in the center of a colony performed better than those nesting on the edge, which supports the assumption that quality differences between parents are important as well. However, dropped food cannot be used as an indicator of local food availability as (1) within-colony variation in dropped food is larger than between colony variation and, (2) the average amount of dropped food is not related to colony size. PMID:25691970

Hoi, Herbert; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta

2015-01-01

217

Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice  

PubMed Central

Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

2014-01-01

218

The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate  

PubMed Central

Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P?=?0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P?=?0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981

Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H.; Hollis, James H.

2013-01-01

219

Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?  

PubMed

Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment. PMID:25027288

Macdiarmid, Jennie I

2014-08-01

220

Impulsivity in Binge Eating Disorder: Food Cues Elicit Increased Reward Responses and Disinhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Binge eating disorder (BED) represents a distinct eating disorder diagnosis. Current approaches assume increased impulsivity to be one factor leading to binge eating and weight gain. We used eye tracking to investigate both components of impulsivity, namely reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous behaviour towards food in BED for the first time. Methods Overweight and obese people with BED (BED+; n?=?25), without BED (BED?; n?=?26) and healthy normal-weight controls (NWC; n?=?25) performed a free exploration paradigm measuring reward sensitivity (experiment 1) and a modified antisaccade paradigm measuring disinhibited, rash-spontaneous behaviour (experiment 2) using food and nonfood stimuli. Additionally, trait impulsivity was assessed. Results In experiment 1, all participants located their initial fixations more often on food stimuli and BED+ participants gazed longer on food stimuli in comparison with BED? and NWC participants. In experiment 2, BED+ participants had more difficulties inhibiting saccades towards food and nonfood stimuli compared with both other groups in first saccades, and especially towards food stimuli in second saccades and concerning sequences of first and second saccades. BED? participants did not differ significantly from NWC participants in both experiments. Additionally, eye tracking performance was associated with self-reported reward responsiveness and self-control. Conclusions According to these results, food-related reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous behaviour, as the two components of impulsivity, are increased in BED in comparison with weight-matched and normal-weight controls. This indicates that BED represents a neurobehavioural phenotype of obesity that is characterised by increased impulsivity. Interventions for BED should target these special needs of affected patients. PMID:24146885

Schag, Kathrin; Teufel, Martin; Junne, Florian; Preissl, Hubert; Hautzinger, Martin; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth

2013-01-01

221

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior Jennifer L. Harris, John A. Bargh, and Kelly D. Brownell  

E-print Network

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior Jennifer L. Harris, John A. Bargh of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute

Bargh, John A.

222

Food Advertising and Eating Disorders: Marketing Body Dissatisfaction, the Drive for Thinness, and Dieting in Women's Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…

Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.

1999-01-01

223

Eating patterns of children in the Delta: Developing a child food frequency questionnaire for this rural impoverished population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The epidemic of obesity and health risks for children currently present challenges in estimating food intakes and developing appropriate interventions. Obtaining eating patterns is important. No child food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are specific to the Delta. Food intake data collected previous...

224

How Emotions Expressed by Adults' Faces Affect the Desire to Eat Liked and Disliked Foods in Children Compared to Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were…

Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie

2012-01-01

225

Food Is More Than Just Something To Eat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet lists the major nutrients, discusses the role each plays in the body, and lists some of the foods that each nutrient can be found in. An explanation of the relationship between nutrients and energy, how the body gets the nutrients it needs from the diet, and the nutrients needed from before birth until the later years is included. A…

Grocery Manufacturers of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

226

The Demand for Healthy Eating: Supporting a Transformative Food "Movement"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To the extent that social science scholarship engages real-world developments it remains grounded and better able to resist elite agendas. With this in mind this article argues for the critical encounter with what I argue is the most significant struggle around food and agriculture today--the amorphous and broad-based movement that strives to…

Winson, Anthony

2010-01-01

227

Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience

Jennifer S Creel; Joseph R Sharkey; Alex McIntosh; Jenna Anding; J Charles Huber

2008-01-01

228

Women’s regulation styles for eating behaviors and outcomes: The mediating role of approach and avoidance food planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article was to examine the role played by different orientations in planning for eating behaviors as mediators\\u000a of the relationship between regulation styles and eating behaviors. In Study 1, a new scale was developed to assess approach\\u000a food planning and avoidance food planning. Results from confirmatory analyses (N = 241) supported the two-factor structure of the scale. In

Nancy Otis; Luc G. Pelletier

2008-01-01

229

The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

2011-01-01

230

The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument.

231

Portion sizes and obesity: responses of fast-food companies.  

PubMed

Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current sizes of sodas, French fries, and hamburgers at three leading chains and comparing them to sizes observed in 1998 and 2002. Although McDonald's recently phased out its largest offerings, current items are similar to 1998 sizes and greatly exceed those offered when the company opened in 1955. Burger King and Wendy's have increased portion sizes, even while health authorities are calling for portion size reductions. Fast-food portions in the United States are larger than in Europe. These observations suggest that voluntary efforts by fast-food companies to reduce portion sizes are unlikely to be effective, and that policy approaches are needed to reduce energy intake from fast food. PMID:17585324

Young, Lisa R; Nestle, Marion

2007-07-01

232

Attentional biases for food stimuli in external eaters: possible mechanism for stress-induced eating?  

PubMed

External eaters reportedly increase snack intake when stressed, which could be due to an attentional shift towards food stimuli. Attentional biases for food stimuli were tested in high and low external eaters in stress and control conditions, using a computerised Stroop. A significant interaction was observed between external eating group and condition for snack word bias. This suggested that low external eaters have a greater bias for snack words when unstressed and that stressed, high external eaters have a greater bias for snack words than stressed, low external eaters, which could contribute to stress-induced snack intake in high external eaters. PMID:18448197

Newman, Emily; O'Connor, Daryl B; Conner, Mark

2008-09-01

233

SLOW FOOD LESSONS IN THE FAST FOOD MIDWEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the latter half o f t he twentieth c entury, the A merican food system wa s tr ansformed by a technological revolution in American agriculture. While these changes provided benefits such as lower-cost food, it also generated concerns that the unconditional embrace of technology would harm rural communities and the environment. Additional concerns were raised about food quality

HEATHER MCILVAINE-NEWSAD; WES TER N I L L I NOI S UNI; V ER S I TY; CHRISTOPHER D. MERRETT; WILLIAM MAAKESTAD; PATRICK MCLAUGHLIN

234

Issues in-depth: Are you what you eat? An inside look at high-tech food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to increase the safety of food supply, create foods that are more appealing to eat and easier to produce, and increase crop yields. This article will summarize a few hot topics in food science, address what is currently known about the safety of these processes, and present resources on the subject to use with your students.

Roxanne Greitz Miller

2007-04-01

235

Fast Food, Race\\/Ethnicity, and Income A Geographic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: Using geographic information system software, all fast-food restaurants within the city limits of New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2001 were mapped. Buffers around census tracts were generated to simulate 1-mile and 0.5-mile \\

Jason P. Block; Richard A. Scribner; Karen B. DeSalvo

2004-01-01

236

Swedish students' interpretations of food symbols and their perceptions of healthy eating. An exploratory study.  

PubMed

This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an "inauthenticity discourse" where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully. PMID:25017131

Neuman, Nicklas; Persson Osowski, Christine; Mattsson Sydner, Ylva; Fjellström, Christina

2014-11-01

237

Life and health insurance industry investments in fast food.  

PubMed

Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions. PMID:20395572

Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley

2010-06-01

238

Fast food and financial impatience: a socioecological approach.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the prevalence of fast-food restaurants in the social ecology are associated with greater financial impatience at the national, neighborhood, and individual level. Study 1 shows that the proliferation of fast-food restaurants over the past 3 decades in the developed world was associated with a historic shift in financial impatience, as manifested in precipitously declining household savings rates. Study 2 finds that households saved less when living in neighborhoods with a higher concentration of fast-food restaurants relative to full-service restaurants. With a direct measure of individuals' delay discounting preferences, Study 3 confirms that a higher concentration of fast-food restaurants within one's neighborhood is associated with greater financial impatience. In line with a causal relationship, Study 4 reveals that recalling a recent fast-food, as opposed to full-service, dining experience at restaurants within the same neighborhood induced greater delay discounting, which was mediated behaviorally by how quickly participants completed the recall task itself. Finally, Study 5 demonstrates that pedestrians walking down the same urban street exhibited greater delay discounting in their choice of financial reward if they were surveyed in front of a fast-food restaurant, compared to a full-service restaurant. Collectively, these data indicate a link between the prevalence of fast food and financial impatience across multiple levels of analysis, and suggest the plausibility of fast food having a reinforcing effect on financial impatience. The present investigation highlights how the pervasiveness of organizational cues in the everyday social ecology can have a far-ranging influence. PMID:23773044

DeVoe, Sanford E; House, Julian; Zhong, Chen-Bo

2013-09-01

239

"Is It Okay to Eat a Dog in Korea...like China?" Assumptions of National Food-Eating Practices in Intercultural Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a small body of research which shows how intercultural communication is constituted in and through talk-in-interaction, and can be made relevant or irrelevant by interactants on a moment-by-moment basis. Our paper builds on this literature by investigating how cultural assumptions of national food-eating practices are deployed, contested…

Brandt, Adam; Jenks, Christopher

2011-01-01

240

Food deprivation and emotional reactions to food cues: implications for eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined emotional responding to food cues. In experiment 1, normal college students were assigned to 0-, 6- or 24-h of food deprivation prior to presentations of standard emotional and food-related pictures. Food deprivation had no impact on responses elicited by standard emotional pictures. However, subjective and psychophysiological reactions to food pictures were affected significantly by deprivation. Importantly, food-deprived

David J. Drobes; Erica J. Miller; Charles H. Hillman; Margaret M. Bradley; Bruce N. Cuthbert; Peter J. Lang

2001-01-01

241

Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation-substitution or concentration? — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and all chains combined.

242

Heterocyclic amine content in fast-food meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterocyclic aromatic amines are sometimes formed during the cooking of muscle meats, and their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are of potential concern in the aetiology of human cancer. In a large survey of the heterocyclic amine content of foods, fried or charbroiled hamburgers, fried chicken, chicken breast sandwiches, fish sandwiches and breakfast sausages were purchased from fast-food restaurants. At least

M. G. Knize; R. Sinha; N. Rothman; E. D. Brown; C. P. Salmon; O. A. Levander; P. L. Cunningham; J. S. Felton

1995-01-01

243

Knowledge of Fats\\/Oils and Fat Content of Foods by Fast Food Restaurant Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire was developed focusing on food preparation and types of fats\\/oils, knowledge of fats\\/oils and fat content of foods. The questionnaire was validated by a group of seven foodservice professionals and was pilot tested with ten local restaurant managers. A nationwide sample of 100 fast food restaurant chains located in the 100 largest metropolitan areas of the country was

C. Bednar; D. Czajka-Narins; F. Elahi

1998-01-01

244

Binge Eating Disorder Binge Eating Disorder  

E-print Network

(BED) is a type of eating disorder not otherwise specified and is characterized by recurrent binge eating without the regular use of compensatory measures to counter the binge eating. Binge Eating Disorder is characterized by: ? Frequent episodes of eating large quantities of food in short periods

Heart Disease

245

Ambivalence toward palatable food and emotional eating predict weight fluctuations. Results of a longitudinal study with four waves.  

PubMed

Weight fluctuations pose serious challenges to people's health. Research suggests that the interplay between cognitive dietary restraint and counter-regulative overeating impairs weight control. In a random sample from the general population (N?=?2733, 49% male), a longitudinal survey was conducted over 4 consecutive years (2010-2013). Self-reported weight was used to calculate the variance of three weight changes from one wave to the next. Separate regression analyses for women and men were conducted. The dependent variable was weight fluctuation, and the independent variables were eating styles (emotional, external, and restrained) and ambivalence toward palatable food. Age and weight changes between the fourth and first years were controlled. A significant positive effect of emotional eating for men and women, and a significant positive effect of ambivalence for women, were found. Participants who demonstrated high levels of emotional eating, and women who had high levels of ambivalence in the beginning of the study, had more extreme relative weight fluctuations in the consecutive years than did persons with low levels of emotional eating or women with low levels of ambivalence. Restrained and external eating had no effect. The results suggest that emotional eating and ambivalence toward palatable food need to be addressed to prevent health-damaging weight fluctuations. Furthermore, ambivalence toward palatable food was revealed as an additional overeating tendency beyond emotional eating that must be considered to understand the interplay between dietary restraint and overeating. PMID:25464025

Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

2015-02-01

246

Eating Disorders About eating disorders  

E-print Network

of binge eating followed by purging (vomiting, use of laxatives, fasting or vigorous exercise with body weight and shape. Binge eating disorder (BED) is a condition that resembles bulimia nervosa in that individuals binge eat and experience feelings of being out of control. Unlike bulimia, however, BED

Leistikow, Bruce N.

247

Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. METHODS: Data

Joseph R Sharkey; Scott Horel; Daikwon Han; John C Huber Jr

2009-01-01

248

Fast foods, energy density and obesity: a possible mechanistic link.  

PubMed

Fast foods are frequently linked to the epidemic of obesity, but there has been very little scientific appraisal of a possible causal role. Here we review a series of studies demonstrating that the energy density of foods is a key determinant of energy intake. These studies show that humans have a weak innate ability to recognise foods with a high energy density and to appropriately down-regulate the bulk of food eaten in order to maintain energy balance. This induces so called 'passive over-consumption'. Composition data from leading fast food company websites are then used to illustrate that most fast foods have an extremely high energy density. At some typical outlets the average energy density of the entire menus is approximately 1100 kJ 100 g(-1). This is 65% higher than the average British diet (approximately 670 kJ 100 g(-1)) and more than twice the energy density of recommended healthy diets (approximately 525 kJ 100 g(-1)). It is 145% higher than traditional African diets (approximately 450 kJ 100 g(-1)) that probably represent the levels against which human weight regulatory mechanisms have evolved. We conclude that the high energy densities of many fast foods challenge human appetite control systems with conditions for which they were never designed. Among regular consumers they are likely to result in the accidental consumption of excess energy and hence to promote weight gain and obesity. PMID:14649369

Prentice, A M; Jebb, S A

2003-11-01

249

Emotional Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown

Michael Macht; Gwenda Simons

250

Mathematical modeling the cross-contamination of food pathogens on the surface of ready-to-eat meats while slicing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The knowledge regarding food pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.) surface transfer on ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meat and the slicer used for slicing different RTE products are needed to ensure RTE food safety. The objectives of this study were to investigat...

251

CONSIDERATIONS FOR ESTABLISHING SAFETY-BASED CONSUME-BY DATE LABELS FOR REFRIGERATED READY-TO-EAT FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to provide advice on the requisite scientific parameters for establishing safety-based use-by dates for refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods to help reduce the incidence of foodborne illness. ...

252

Tackling the true prevalence and levels of listeria monocytogenes: market basket surveys of ready-to-eat retail foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Listeria monocytogenes remains a serious threat to public health due to its prevalence, persistence, and pathogenicity in our food supply, particularly when associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. For the past decade or so, considerable resources have been directed to reduce human illness attribut...

253

Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Before you eat, think about what goes  

E-print Network

Eat Right Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Before you, low-fat dairy products and lean protein foods contain the nutrients you need without too many calories. Every bit adds up and health benefits increase as you spend more time being active. Children and teens

Oklahoma, University of

254

Isotopic consequences of consumer food choice: Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios in foods from fast food restaurants versus supermarkets  

E-print Network

Isotopic consequences of consumer food choice: Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios in foods isotopes Hydrogen Oxygen American diet Fast food Supermarket a b s t r a c t We investigated geographic and materials. These investigations exploit predictable variations in the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (d2

Ehleringer, Jim

255

Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service Surveillance of Ready-to-Eat Foods and Processing Facilities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A panel of 501 Listeria monocytogenes obtained from Food Safety and Inspection Service monitoring of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were subtyped by multilocus genotyping (MLGT) and by sequencing the virulence gene inlA. MLGT analyses confirmed that clonal lineages associated with previous epidemic outbr...

256

L'univers des fast-foods Lorsque l'ethnologue entre dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une irrsistible envie de  

E-print Network

L'univers des fast-foods Lorsque l'ethnologue entre dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une irrésistible envie de mesurer l'étendue des enjeux qui y pratique alimentaire des fast-foods est de manière incontournable liée à une certaine culture de la

Boyer, Edmond

257

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do you know about healthy eating? Check out the sites below to learn what you should and should not be eating on a daily basis. Before we get started let's see what knowledge you have about healthy eating. What do you think are some of the most healthy foods for you? Do you like to eat these foods? Now look at the sites below and answer the following questions. Blast Off Dining Decisions Nutrients Your Body Neeeds What were some good food choices ...

Miss Sweet

2012-05-03

258

Restrained eating is related to accelerated reaction to high caloric foods and cardiac autonomic dysregulation.  

PubMed

Cognitive bias to food-cues and cardiac autonomic dysregulation have both been related to disordered eating behavior in previous research. The present study investigated two possible measures of self-regulatory ability in restrained eaters: resistance to distractor interference and vagal-cardiac control. Young women (N=47) performed a flanker task involving high caloric food-cues or neutral pictures. Vagal-cardiac activity was calculated from baseline heart rate recordings at rest. Restrained eaters did not differ from unrestrained eaters in resistance to distractor interference. However, restrained eaters showed shorter reaction times to high-calorie food-cues as compared to neutral pictures than unrestrained eaters. This attentional bias was further related to low dieting success. Moreover, restrained eating was associated with low parasympathetic activation and sympathovagal imbalance, independent of current body mass. Both attentional bias and cardiac autonomic dysregulation were related to self-reported weight fluctuations. Results are discussed in terms of possible adverse consequences of weight cycling in young women and low self-regulatory ability in restrained eaters. PMID:22142510

Meule, Adrian; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

2012-04-01

259

Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. METHODS: The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File

Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

2011-01-01

260

Eating everything except food (PICA): A rare case report and review  

PubMed Central

PICA is an act or habit of eating non-food items such as stone, bricks, chalk, soap, paper, soil etc., It occurs in children who actually start seeing the world through the oral cavity. There are many theories behind it such as iron and zinc deficiency etc., We as dentists should be able to diagnose and treat such conditions, as they may cause ill-effects to the developing dentition. This case report attempt to highlights the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of pica. PMID:24818086

Advani, Shweta; Kochhar, Gulsheen; Chachra, Sanjay; Dhawan, Preeti

2014-01-01

261

The neurobiological underpinnings of obesity and binge eating: a rationale for adopting the food addiction model.  

PubMed

The food addiction model of overeating has been proposed to help explain the widespread advancement of obesity over the last 30 years. Parallels in neural substrates and neurochemistry, as well as corresponding motivational and behavioral traits, are increasingly coming to light; however, there are still key differences between the two disorders that must be acknowledged. We critically examine these common and divergent characteristics using the theoretical framework of prominent drug addiction models, investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of both behaviors in an attempt to justify whether classification of obesity and binge eating as an addictive disorder is merited. PMID:23098895

Smith, Dana G; Robbins, Trevor W

2013-05-01

262

Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... some tips for healthy eating. Buying and Preparing Food When the person with Alzheimer’s disease lives with you: • Buy healthy ... and whole-grain products. Be sure to buy foods that the person likes and can eat. • Give the person choices ...

263

Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets  

PubMed Central

Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify potential targets for intervention. PMID:19040722

Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

2008-01-01

264

The prime time diet: a content analysis of eating behavior and food messages in television program content and commercials.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze messages related to food and eating behavior as presented on prime time television (8:00-11:00 pm) both in programming and commercials. Food references occurred an average of 4.8 times per 30 minutes of programming time. Over half (60 percent) of all food references in programs were for low nutrient beverages and sweets. The prime time diet is inconsistent with dietary guidelines for healthy Americans. PMID:2343968

Story, M; Faulkner, P

1990-01-01

265

Effect of drinking compared with eating sugars or whey protein on short-term appetite and food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:It is hypothesized that a solid form of food or food components suppresses subjective appetite and short-term food intake (FI) more than a liquid form.Objective:To compare the effect of eating solid vs drinking liquid forms of gelatin, sucrose and its component mixtures, and whey protein, on subjective appetite and FI in young men.Design and subjects:A randomized crossover design was used

T Akhavan; B L Luhovyy; G H Anderson

2011-01-01

266

Food choice in disorders of eating behavior: correlations with the psychopathological aspects of the diseases.  

PubMed

Eating disorders (ED) are characterized by alterations in food choice and in the quantity and quality of nutrient intake. In a population of 124 female patients with ED (anorexia nervosa restricting subtype [AN-R, n=37]; AN bingeing-purging subtype [AN-BP, n=18]; bulimia nervosa purging subtype [BN-P, n=40]; and binge eating disorder [BED, n=29]) and healthy age-matched controls ([C], n=20) we compared food choice and macronutrient intake with psychopathologic symptoms of the disorders. Data were collected from the probands' 7-day food diaries and the scores from two assessment scales (Eating Disorder Inventory-2 [EDI-2] and Temperament and Character Inventory-revised [TCI-R]) that measure symptom domains, dimensions of personality and character dimensions, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to the nutritional data and scale scores. When compared to the values for the control group, intake of animal proteins (grams) was significantly lower for all patient groups, intake of lactoproteins was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP than BN-P and BED groups, intake of vegetal proteins was higher for the AN-R, AN-BP, BN-P and BED groups, intake of dietary fats was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP subtype groups, and intake of total carbohydrates and oligosaccharides was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP groups, and oligosaccharides also for the BED, when calculated in grams but not when expressed in percent. When studied as percent values animal proteins were lower in patients than in controls, lactoprotein in BN-P and BED, vegetal proteins higher in all the patients, fat lower in AN-R and AN-BP, while carbohydrates did not differ between patients and controls. Significant correlations emerged between food choice and TCI-R and EDI-2 scale scores. Food choice in ED might depend on alterations in neurotransmitter peptides, neuropeptides, and peripheral peptides, which regulate and are regulated by macronutrient intake and underlie psychological and temperamental alterations. PMID:24703769

Segura-García, Cristina; De Fazio, Pasquale; Sinopoli, Flora; De Masi, Roberta; Brambilla, Francesca

2014-07-01

267

Contaminant migration from food packaging laminates used for heat and eat meals.  

PubMed

EU legislation requires that components from food contact plastics should not migrate significantly into the food. The nature and extent of species migrating from laminated materials used for packaging 'heat and eat' meals have been investigated. Selected target analytes included additives incorporated into the polyolefin, e.g. the Irganox and Irgafos antioxidants, the diisocyanate and polyol residues from the adhesive and oligomeric material from the nylon. The results identified a wide range of migrants arising from each of the individual components of the laminate. Some of the migrants have been identified as precursors of the principal components of the laminate as well as those anticipated from a knowledge of the laminate construction. The levels of migration for those components identified and quantified has been well below the legal limits. Some significant migrant species have been however left unidentified by this investigation. PMID:15048438

Lawson, G; Barkby, C T; Lawson, C

1996-02-01

268

Food-related impulsivity in obesity and binge eating disorder--a systematic review.  

PubMed

Impulsivity towards food has been recognized as a potential factor leading to increased food intake in obesity. Patients suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) form a specific subgroup of obese people that might be characterized by increased impulsivity. These assumptions, although, have yet to be verified. Therefore, this review evaluates evidence for food-related impulsivity in obese people with and without BED and examines possible differences between both populations. More precisely, evidence for the two components of impulsivity is analyzed separately: evidence for reward sensitivity, specifically, the urge for appetitive stimuli and evidence for rash-spontaneous behaviour such as acting disinhibited with no regard for the consequences. Our search resulted in 51 articles demonstrating generally increased food-related impulsivity. We found particular emphasis on increased reward sensitivity in obese people, which appeared to be more pronounced in people with BED. There was little and conflicting evidence, however, concerning increased rash-spontaneous behaviour in obese people without BED, but consistent evidence of an increase in obese people with BED. All in all, the evidence supports the view that BED represents a specific phenotype of obesity with increased food-related impulsivity. Taking these specific deficits into account can enhance the effectiveness of weight reduction programmes and psychotherapy. PMID:23331770

Schag, K; Schönleber, J; Teufel, M; Zipfel, S; Giel, K E

2013-06-01

269

Irradiation of ready-to-eat foods at USDA'S Eastern Regional Reasearch Center-2003 update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation is a safe and effective method for eliminating bacterial pathogens from food products and disinfestation of fruits and vegetables. Since 1980 research has been conducted at USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center pertaining to the elimination of food-borne pathogens from meat, poultry, fruit and vegetable products. Recent work has focused on elimination of pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from ready-to-eat (RTE) food products including hot dogs, bologna, lettuce, cilantro, sprouts and seeds, and frozen vegetables. The ionizing radiation dose required to eliminate those pathogens from RTE foods has been found to be commodity, formulation and temperature dependent. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from RTE food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and organoleptic quality have also been determined. A review of the studies conducted at USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center in 2002 and 2003 is presented in this article.

Sommers, Christopher; Fan, Xuetong; Niemira, Brendan; Rajkowski, Kathleen

2004-09-01

270

Safe Eats: an evaluation of the use of social media for food safety education.  

PubMed

Many undergraduate students are cooking for the first time, and they need to learn safe food practices to reduce their risk of foodborne illness. Social media tools are being utilized to disseminate public health messages, but limited research has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of these tools for food safety education. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a social media-based intervention for young adults to improve food safety attitudes, practices, and knowledge. Preliminary surveys were conducted and online focus groups were convened to guide design of this social media intervention. College students (710) were included in treatment and control groups. Results from pretests and posttests indicate that participation in the "Safe Eats" Facebook intervention leads to improvements in food safety attitudes, practices, and knowledge. Although students reported that they learned more from the intervention than from a traditional lecture, the combination of lecture and Facebook resulted in higher knowledge scores than those resulting from the intervention alone. Participants who spent more time on the Facebook page had greater improvements in food safety attitudes and practices. PMID:22856569

Bramlett Mayer, Ashley; Harrison, Judy A

2012-08-01

271

Virulent bacteriophage for efficient biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods.  

PubMed

Food-borne Listeria monocytogenes is a serious threat to human health, and new strategies to combat this opportunistic pathogen in foods are needed. Bacteriophages are natural enemies of bacteria and are suitable candidates for the environmentally friendly biocontrol of these pathogens. In a comprehensive set of experiments, we have evaluated the virulent, broad-host-range phages A511 and P100 for control of L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) and WSLC 1001 (serovar 1/2a) in different ready-to-eat (RTE) foods known to frequently carry the pathogen. Food samples were spiked with bacteria (1 x 10(3) CFU/g), phage added thereafter (3 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(8) PFU/g), and samples stored at 6 degrees C for 6 days. In liquid foods, such as chocolate milk and mozzarella cheese brine, bacterial counts rapidly dropped below the level of direct detection. On solid foods (hot dogs, sliced turkey meat, smoked salmon, seafood, sliced cabbage, and lettuce leaves), phages could reduce bacterial counts by up to 5 log units. Variation of the experimental conditions (extended storage over 13 days or storage at 20 degrees C) yielded similar results. In general, the application of more phage particles (3 x 10(8) PFU/g) was more effective than lower doses. The added phages retained most of their infectivity during storage in foods of animal origin, whereas plant material caused inactivation by more than 1 log(10). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that virulent broad-host-range phages, such as A511 and P100, can be very effective for specific biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in contamination-sensitive RTE foods. PMID:19011076

Guenther, Susanne; Huwyler, Dominique; Richard, Simon; Loessner, Martin J

2009-01-01

272

[Eating disorders].  

PubMed

Abstract Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

2015-02-01

273

‘Is it okay to eat a dog in Korea…like China?’ Assumptions of national food-eating practices in intercultural interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a small body of research which shows how intercultural communication is constituted in and through talk-in-interaction, and can be made relevant or irrelevant by interactants on a moment-by-moment basis. Our paper builds on this literature by investigating how cultural assumptions of national food-eating practices are deployed, contested and co-constructed in an online, voice-based chat room. Using conversation analysis,

Adam Brandt; Christopher Jenks

2011-01-01

274

Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known concerning the dietary habits of eating disordered women during pregnancy that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective To examine the nutrient and food group intake of women with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) during pregnancy and compare their intake to women with no eating disorders. Design Data on 30,040 mother-child pairs are from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was used in cross-sectional analyses. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire during the first half of pregnancy. Statistical testing by eating disorder categories with the non-eating disorder category as the referent group were conducted using log (means) adjusted for confounding and multiple comparisons. Food group differences were conducted using a Wilcoxon two-sided normal approximation test also adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results Women with BED before and during pregnancy had higher intakes of total energy, total mono-saturated and saturated fat, and lower intakes of folate, potassium, and vitamin C compared to the referent (p<.02). Women with incident BED during pregnancy had higher total energy and saturated fat intake compared to the referent (p=.01). Several differences emerged in food group consumption between women with and without eating disorders including intakes of artificial sweeteners, sweets, juice, fruits and fats. Conclusions Women with BN before and during pregnancy and those with BED before pregnancy exhibit dietary patterns different from women without eating disorders, that are reflective of their symptomatology, and may influence pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18469258

Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert; Torgersen, Leila; Knopf-Berg, Cecilie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

2009-01-01

275

Simulation Study on the Queuing System in a Fast-Food Restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast-food industry has experienced prosperous growth over the last three decades. In fast-food operations, the term “fast” refers to “quickservice.” The customers coming to a fast-food restaurant do not expect to wait for a long time to receive the food service. The waiting time for customers to receive the food service becomes one of the key quality characteristics in

Chao-Yu Chou; Hui-Rong Liu

1999-01-01

276

Mood, food, traits, and restraint: an experimental investigation of negative affect, borderline personality, and disordered eating  

E-print Network

Eating disorders and borderline personality disorder involve several overlapping features, such as impulsivity, negative affectivity, and dissociation. However, few studies have specifically assessed how eating pathology and borderline...

Ambwani, Suman

2009-05-15

277

Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Service Curriculum on Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Grocery Shop, Prepare Food, and Eat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Shop, Cook and Eat curriculum was designed to provide education about concepts of empowerment and assistive technology for grocery shopping, preparing food, and eating. The curriculum included examples and hands-on demonstrations of assistive technology devices for grocery shopping, food

Hermann, Janice R.; Johnston, Jan H.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Jaco, Linda

2012-01-01

278

can I eat at King's Buildings?  

E-print Network

option and fast food counter including hot bagels, hot flatbread, and burgers. On the ground floor the food offering is for those looking for a more substantial meal than a snack. LOCATION 6 ­ KINGWhere can I eat at King's Buildings? #12;LOCATION 1 ­ KING'S BUILDINGS CENTRE Opening times: 7.30am

Edinburgh, University of

279

Home Food Availability, Parental Dietary Intake, and Familial Eating Habits Influence the Diet Quality of Urban Hispanic Children  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Methods: Hispanic children, 10–14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. Results: The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had “good” scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that “need improvement” (HEI, 51–80), and 14% had “poor” scores (HEI, <50). Children with lower HEI scores had sugar-sweetened beverages available at home and participated in family meals while watching television more frequently, when compared with children with higher HEI scores. Conclusions: Home food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health. PMID:25259675

Adams, Alexandra K.; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

2014-01-01

280

Social modeling of eating: a review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice.  

PubMed

A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571

Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J

2015-03-01

281

Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast?  

E-print Network

, such as slow or incom- plete fermentation, `off flavors' and poor maintenance of yeast vitality. Recent studies applications of yeast biotechnology, including alcoholic fermentation, bread pro- duction and the fabricationGlucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast? Kevin J. Verstrepen1,2 , Dirk

282

Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content Researchers tracked popular items from 3 major ... Mundell Wednesday, December 31, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Sodium Nutrition Weight Control WEDNESDAY, Dec. 31, 2014 (HealthDay ...

283

Modeling repurchase frequency and customer satisfaction for fast food outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although customer satisfaction and loyalty have attracted a lot of attention in service management research, relatively few studies have examined the impact of waiting time and service quality on customer satisfaction and repurchase frequency. In this study, we model the relationships between customer satisfaction, repurchase frequency, waiting time and other service quality factors in fast food outlets. The results indicate

Agnes K. Y. Law; Y. V. Hui; Xiande Zhao

2004-01-01

284

Virulence and resistance gene profiles of staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat foods.  

PubMed

Staphylococcal food poisoning represents the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. Oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins from food can result in emesis and diarrhea and can be fatal in children and the elderly. Few data have been available on the characteristics and sources of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. In this study, we used a DNA microarray to determine virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles of S. aureus from RTE foods. A total of 267 S. aureus strains isolated from 244 RTE foods were investigated. The isolates originated from precooked foods (41% of isolates), meat and fish products (17%), cheese (13%), delicatessen salads (8%), sandwiches and canapés (8%), confectionery and bakery products (6%), and various other RTE foods (7%). Eleven samples (5%), of which 9 were raw milk cheeses, contained > 10(5) CFU/g, which is considered a health risk. Four S. aureus strains were associated with intoxications; three cases were linked to consumption of cheese and one case was linked to consumption of potato salad. DNA microarray results revealed that one-third of the tested strains had at least one major enterotoxin gene (sea through see). We also detected the toxic shock syndrome gene (18% of isolates) and various genes conferring antimicrobial resistance, including genes involved in resistance to beta-lactams (blaZ, 72% of isolates), methicillin (mecA, 1% of isolates), and vancomycin (vanB, 1% of isolates). S. aureus strains were most frequently assigned to clonal complex (CC) 30 (17% of isolates), CC8 (12%), CC15 (11%), and CC45 (10%), which are commonly detected in humans colonized or infected with S. aureus. Although a large proportion of the tested food items contained milk, we did not detect CC705, the most prevalent clonal complex among S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk. Our results suggest that S. aureus isolates from RTE foods do not commonly originate from animals but more likely come from food handlers who contaminate foods. PMID:24988036

Baumgartner, Andreas; Niederhauser, Isabel; Johler, Sophia

2014-07-01

285

Food safety issues and training methods for ready-to-eat foods in the grocery industry.  

PubMed

As Americans have become more pressed for time, the use of convenient, simplified meals become a way of life. One aspect of this trend, known as Home Meal Replacement (IIMR), has increased in sales since its inception. Between 1999 and 2001, the average annual expenditure per consumer rose 5.6 pereent, and $958 per person per year was spent in 2002. Along with this growth, food safety risks may have increased. The study reported here examined efforts being undertaken by grocery and convenience stores to control the wholesomeness of INR food items. After a convenience sample of 500 grocery store executives was identified, a 32-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to the executives. The results indicate that the industry has taken food safety seriously with only 10 pereent reporting that they have no food safety training. The executives cited employee turnover as a major concern in food safety today, along with lack of food safety knowledge of the consumer and improper holding temperatures. PMID:16312253

Binkley, Margaret; Ghiselli, Richard

2005-10-01

286

Factors Predicting Staying in School to Eat Lunch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…

Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

2011-01-01

287

Factors predicting staying in school to eat lunch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of “staying in school to eat lunch”

Dominique Beaulieu; Gaston Godin

2011-01-01

288

Time to eat: the relationship between the number of people eating and meal duration in three lunch settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an observational study of customers in three different types of lunch settings: a worksite cafeteria, a fast-food restaurant, and a moderately priced restaurant, and assessed the relationship between meal duration and the number of people eating at each table (group size). Results suggest a significant positive correlation between group size and meal duration, collapsing over eating settings. Analysis

Rick Bell; Patricia L Pliner

2003-01-01

289

Prevalence, molecular characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. in Chinese ready-to-eat foods.  

PubMed

Cronobacter spp. are foodborne pathogens that cause rare but life-threatening diseases in neonates and infants; they can also cause disease in adults. Cronobacter spp. contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods has been reported previously. However, to date, the prevalence and contamination levels of these bacteria in RTE foods in China have not yet been determined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in RTE foods marketed in China. Two-hundred and eighty RTE food samples were collected from different producers and retailers and analyzed using quantitative methods. The isolates obtained were identified to the species level based on fusA sequences, and were subtyped using a PCR-based serotyping technique. Selected isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial sensitivity determination. Of 280 samples tested, 52 (18.6%) were positive for Cronobacter spp. The contamination levels were less than 110MPN/g for 78.8% (41/52) of the samples. The results of the O-antigen serotyping for 111 isolates showed that Cronobacter sakazakii serogroup O2 (28 isolates) was the most prevalent serotype. MLST analyses produced 41 sequence types (STs), including 20 novel STs. ST8 was the most prevalent ST (9 isolates) followed by ST4 (5 isolates). Antimicrobial sensitivity testing showed that 84.5% and 46.5% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin G and cephalothin, respectively; in contrast, all of the tested isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Cronobacter spp. prevalence in RTE foods in China, and the findings of our study nonetheless suggested that Cronobacter spp. contamination of Chinese RTE foods poses a potential risk for the consumer. Thus, the study highlights the significance of developing more effective control strategies during the manufacturing process. PMID:25828706

Xu, Xiaoke; Li, Chengsi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Yang, Guangzhu

2015-07-01

290

Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella in ready-to-eat food in Catalonia, Spain.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella are pathogenic bacteria that can contaminate food products during or after processing. Ready-to-eat (RTE) food does not undergo any treatment to ensure its safety before consumption, and therefore risk of foodborne disease must be considered if these pathogens are present in the food. To evaluate the prevalence of these pathogens in RTE food, 140 RTE fish product samples, 501 RTE meat product samples, 462 RTE dairy samples, and 123 RTE dishes and desserts, providing a total of 1,226 samples, were collected from retail stores and food industry and analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes. A total of 1,379 samples consisting of 187 RTE fish products and 569 RTE meat products, 484 RTE dairy products, and 139 RTE dishes and desserts were collected and analyzed for the presence of Salmonella. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 20% of frozen Atlantic bonito small pies, 7.9% of smoked salmon samples, 11.1% of the pork luncheon meat samples, 6.2% of frozen chicken croquettes, 16.9% of cured dried sausage samples, 12.5% of cooked ham samples, and 20% of cooked turkey breast samples. L. monocytogenes was also found to be present in 1.3% of fresh salty cheese samples and 15.1% of frozen cannelloni samples. Salmonella was isolated from 1.2% of smoked salmon samples, 1.5% of frozen chicken croquettes, 2% of cooked ham samples, and 11.1% of cured dried sausage samples. Overall, occurrence of these pathogens in RTE foods was similar to that previously reported in the literature. PMID:18468047

Cabedo, L; Picart i Barrot, L; Teixidó i Canelles, A

2008-04-01

291

The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet?123  

PubMed Central

Background: Although fast food consumption has been linked to adverse health outcomes, the relative contribution of fast food itself compared with the rest of the diet to these associations remains unclear. Objective: Our objective was to compare the independent associations with overweight/obesity or dietary outcomes for fast food consumption compared with dietary pattern for the remainder of intake. Design: This cross-sectional analysis studied 4466 US children aged 2–18 y from NHANES 2007–2010. Cluster analysis identified 2 dietary patterns for the non–fast food remainder of intake: Western (50.3%) and Prudent. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models examined the association between fast food consumption and dietary pattern for the remainder of intake and estimated their independent associations with overweight/obesity and dietary outcomes. Results: Half of US children consumed fast food: 39.5% low-consumers (?30% of energy from fast food) and 10.5% high-consumers (>30% of energy). Consuming a Western dietary pattern for the remainder of intake was more likely among fast food low-consumers (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.85) and high-consumers (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.60, 3.05) than among nonconsumers. The remainder of diet was independently associated with overweight/obesity (?: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 10.5), whereas fast food consumption was not, and the remainder of diet had stronger associations with poor total intake than did fast food consumption. Conclusions: Outside the fast food restaurant, fast food consumers ate Western diets, which might have stronger associations with overweight/obesity and poor dietary outcomes than fast food consumption itself. Our findings support the need for prospective studies and randomized trials to confirm these hypotheses. PMID:24153348

Poti, Jennifer M; Duffey, Kiyah J

2014-01-01

292

Simple Conceptual Model for Fast-Food Restaurant (after Robinson 2004) Problem statement: A fast-food restaurant is experiencing problems with one of its branches in its  

E-print Network

Simple Conceptual Model for Fast-Food Restaurant (after Robinson 2004) Problem statement: A fast-food restaurant is experiencing problems with one of its branches in its network. Customers regularly complain that this is not the result of shortages in food, but a shortage of service personnel. Objective(s): The number of service

Aickelin, Uwe

293

PUREED MEAL PLAN (4 WEEKS) IF A FOOD OR BEVERAGE IS NOT ON THIS LIST DO NOT EAT IT  

E-print Network

and one at a time to test tolerance. · No gum ( can cause blockage) · Stop eating or drinking when full FOODS ** 3 MEALS DAILY ** - Puree chicken or turkey (no skin) - Puree Fish, water packed tuna - Soft PLAN FLUIDS 6 -8 cups of non carbonated sugar free beverage *THROUGHOUT THE DAY* - Water - Unsweetened

Goldman, Steven A.

294

Think before you eat: Calories and exercise equivalents presented on menus at point-of-choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although calorie information at the point-of-purchase at fast food restaurants is proposed as a method to decrease calorie choices and combat obesity, research results have been mixed. Much of the supportive research has weak methodology, and is limited. There is a demonstrated need to develop better techniques to assist consumers to make lower calorie food choices. Eating at fast food

Charles Stuart Platkin

2009-01-01

295

Think Before You Eat: Calories and Exercise Equivalents Presented on Menus at Point-of-Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although calorie information at the point-of-purchase at fast food restaurants is proposed as a method to decrease calorie choices and combat obesity, research results have been mixed. Much of the supportive research has weak methodology, and is limited. There is a demonstrated need to develop better techniques to assist consumers to make lower calorie food choices. Eating at fast food

Charles Stuart Platkin

2009-01-01

296

Eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behaviour.\\u000a Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures\\u000a where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries\\u000a like India. As Western socioculturel ideals become

Dilip R. Patel; Elaine L Phillips; Helen D. Pratt

1998-01-01

297

Benchmarking the service quality of fast-food restaurant franchises in the USA : A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To help fast-food restaurants enhance their competitiveness and then increase their market share, the purpose of this paper is to measure the service performances of fast-food restaurant franchises in the USA and identify salient factors influencing the service performances of fast-food restaurants over time. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper develops a set of benchmarks that helps fast-food restaurants monitor

Hokey Min; Hyesung Min

2011-01-01

298

Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008, Tables 1-4  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The four table sets include national estimates of mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns (FP) consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,529 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2007-2...

299

Food Patterns Equivalent Intakes from Food: Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010; Tables 1-4  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The four table sets include national estimates of mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns (FP) consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 9,042 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2009-1...

300

An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 food poisoning associated with eating beef.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 infection in Shropshire in May 1995 was identified when four isolates were noted to be from members or supporters of a local football team that had held several social functions in the same week. The subsequent investigation identified 16 people with gastrointestinal symptoms and 12 with microbiologically confirmed infection. The outbreak was complex, associated with several social functions on different days, but infection was associated with eating beef at a public house. A number of errors were detected in the cooking, storage, and handling of the implicated food. The investigation identified beef as the vehicle of infection in this outbreak but was unable to show whether it was the original source of infection or whether cross or manual contamination occurred in the kitchen. PMID:8917992

Davies, A; O'Neill, P; Towers, L; Cooke, M

1996-10-11

301

www.arts.canterbury.ac.nz/internships Project Title: Density of Fast Food  

E-print Network

www.arts.canterbury.ac.nz/internships Project Title: Density of Fast Food Outlets and Health of the density of fast food outlets needs to be carried out and an agreement reached on density on issues with site and academic advisers, the intern will conduct a stock take of fast food outlets in: o CBD (within

Hickman, Mark

302

CHANGES IN SERUM LEPTIN LEVELS DURING FASTING AND FOOD LIMITATION IN STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS).  

E-print Network

CHANGES IN SERUM LEPTIN LEVELS DURING FASTING AND FOOD LIMITATION IN STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS collected during experimental food limitation and complete fasting trials conducted on subadult Steller sea) and then every 7 d during 28 d of food restriction (each after overnight fasts). Blood chemistry and physical

303

The global burger war: Russians are looking for the best fast food option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fast food market and customer attitudes in Russia, and outline successful and questionable strategies of the Western fast food companies in their attempt to penetrate the Russian market. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The objective has been achieved by reviewing the first Russian entry of the Belgian-French fast food chain “Quick” by

Nikolai V. Ostapenko

2011-01-01

304

The Buying Behavior and Marketing Practices of Fast Food Markets in Metro Manila, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study is concerned in identifying and comparing the different buying behaviors of Filipino consumers and the marketing practices adopted by eight selected fast food companies in relation with the four P's of marketing. The fast food industry is a sub-sector of the larger restaurant industry. There are 15,000 fast food restaurants operating in Metro Manila. The most common tools

Kuang-Jung Chen

1996-01-01

305

Food addiction in a Spanish sample of eating disorders: DSM-5 diagnostic subtype differentiation and validation data.  

PubMed

Although the concept of 'food addiction' (FA) has raised growing interest because of evidence for similarities between substance dependence and excessive food intake, there is a lack of studies that explore this construct among the wide spectrum of eating disorders (EDs). Besides providing validation scores of a Spanish version of the Yale FA Scale (YFAS-S), this study examined the prevalence of 'FA' among ED subtypes compared with healthy-eating controls (HCs) and the association between 'FA' scores, eating symptomatology and general psychopathology. A sample of 125 adult women with ED, diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 criteria, and 82 healthy-eating women participated in the study. All participants were assessed with the YFAS-S, the ED Inventory-2 and the Symptom Checklist-Revised. Results showed that the internal structure of the one-dimensional solution for the YFAS-S was very good (??=?0.95). The YFAS-S has a good discriminative capacity to differentiate between ED and controls (specificity?=?97.6% and sensitivity (Se)?=?72.8%; area under receiver operating characteristic curve?=?0.90) and a good Se to screen for specific ED subtypes. YFAS-S scores were associated with higher levels of negative affect and depression, higher general psychopathology, more severe eating pathology and greater body mass index. When comparing the prevalence of 'FA' between ED subtypes, the lowest prevalence of 'FA', measured with the YFAS-S, was for the anorexia nervosa (AN) restrictive subtype with 50%, and the highest was for the AN binge-purging subtype (85.7%), followed by bulimia nervosa (81.5%) and binge eating disorder (76.9%). In conclusion, higher YFAS-S scores are associated with bingeing ED-subtype patients and with more eating severity and psychopathology. Although the 'FA' construct is able to differentiate between ED and HC, it needs to be further explored. PMID:25139680

Granero, Roser; Hilker, Ines; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Sauchelli, Sarah; Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Dieguez, Carlos; Soriano, José; Salcedo-Sánchez, Cristina; Casanueva, Felipe F; De la Torre, Rafael; Menchón, José M; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

2014-11-01

306

Relation between Changes in Neural Responsivity and Reductions in Desire to Eat High-Calorie Foods Following Gastric Bypass Surgery  

PubMed Central

Reductions in reward-related (e.g., striatal) neural activation have been noted following obesity surgery. It has been speculated that these postoperative neural changes may be related to documented postoperative changes in food preferences; however, this relation has not been previously established. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and rating scales were used to assess neural responsivity, desire to eat (i.e., wanting) and liking for high- and low- calorie food cues in 14 females 1 mo pre and 1 mo post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Pre to post RYGB changes in all variables were assessed, and postoperative changes in neural responsivity were regressed on postoperative changes in desire to eat and liking of foods. Results revealed significant postoperative reductions in mesolimbic (e.g., striatal) neural responsivity, desire to eat (wanting) and liking for high- relative to low- calorie food cues. Postoperative reductions in mesolimbic responsivity were associated with postoperative reductions in wanting, but not liking, for high- vs. low- calorie foods. Interestingly, reductions in food wanting were also related to reductions in inhibitory (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) activation following RYGB. Results are consistent with the hypothesized delineation between wanting and liking, supporting the notion that that wanting, but not liking, is processed through the dopaminergic reward pathway. Concurrent reductions in both reward-related and inhibitory activation predicted reductions in desire to eat might suggest that less dietary inhibition was elicited to resist potential overconsumption as the anticipated reward value of high-calorie foods decreased following RYGB. PMID:22406414

Ochner, Christopher N.; Stice, Eric; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Afifi, Ladan; Geliebter, Allan; Hirsch, Joy; Teixeira, Julio

2012-01-01

307

A national study of the association between neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets and the diet and weight of local residents.  

PubMed

Differential locational access to fast-food retailing between neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status has been suggested as a contextual explanation for the social distribution of diet-related mortality and morbidity. This New Zealand study examines whether neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets is associated with individual diet-related health outcomes. Travel distances to the closest fast-food outlet (multinational and locally operated) were calculated for all neighbourhoods and appended to a national health survey. Residents in neighbourhoods with the furthest access to a multinational fast-food outlet were more likely to eat the recommended intake of vegetables but also be overweight. There was no association with fruit consumption. Access to locally operated fast-food outlets was not associated with the consumption of the recommended fruit and vegetables or being overweight. Better neighbourhood access to fast-food retailing is unlikely to be a key contextual driver for inequalities in diet-related health outcomes in New Zealand. PMID:18499502

Pearce, Jamie; Hiscock, Rosemary; Blakely, Tony; Witten, Karen

2009-03-01

308

Selenium content of convenience and fast foods in Ayrshire, Scotland.  

PubMed

Selenium concentrations were determined via hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in more than 100 convenience and fast foods including 34 vegetarian dishes. The foods were purchased mainly in Ayrshire, Scotland but some came from other parts of the UK. The results indicate a considerable amount of selenium in certain mushrooms, spinach, fish, offals and chicken-based products. The selenium content of beef- and pork-based products was generally somewhat lower. Vegetarians having a sufficient intake of mushrooms (in particular button and closed cap mushrooms) and spinach do not seem to be at risk of selenium deficiency provided of course that the selenium in mushrooms, in particular, is bioavailable. PMID:8574861

Molnár, J; MacPherson, A; Barclay, I; Molnár, P

1995-11-01

309

Eat Right  

MedlinePLUS

... g., black beans, garbanzo beans, kidney beans, pinto beans, split peas, lentils). Top of Page What should I eat less of? Eat fewer foods that are high in sugar, such as: Fruit-flavored drinks. Sodas. Tea or coffee sweetened with sugar. Use less salt in cooking ...

310

Stress-induced laboratory eating behavior in obese women with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to compare the microstructural eating behavior of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED) after stress induction in laboratory. Seventy-one female subjects were investigated (mean BMI 36.9). Thirty-five fulfilled criteria for BED. A 2×2 factorial design with repeated measurement (stress vs. no stress) on the second factor was applied. Stress was induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and chocolate pudding served as laboratory food. Variables of eating behavior were measured by a universal eating monitor (UEM). Only in participants with BED stress was associated with an increase in the initial eating rate and a diminished deceleration of eating at the end of the meal. Generally, BED subjects ate with larger size of spoonfuls during the laboratory meal than non BED controls. The eating behavior of obese patients with binge eating disorder seems to be significantly affected by stress. The stress-induced eating behavior of BED patients is characterized by a stronger motivation to eat (indicated by a fast initial eating rate) as well as by a lack of satiety perception (indicated by less deceleration of eating rate). PMID:22200410

Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

2012-04-01

311

Child body mass index, obesity, and proximity to fast food restaurants. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Objectives. Using a sample of elementary and middle school students, we examined the associations between body mass index (BMI), obesity, and measures of the proximity of fast food and full service restaurants to students' residences. We controlled for socioeconomic status using a novel proxy measure based on housing values. Methods. We used BMI and obesity measures based on height and weight data collected as part of a school health assessment along with geocoded data on addresses of residences and food establishments.

312

Fast Fats: A Nutritional Analysis of America's Obsession with Fast Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Few will disagree that fast foods are a staple in the diets of many Americans. Even our nation's schools feature vending machines full of foods that are high in calories, short on nutrition, and all too easy to buy. With busy lifestyles and complicated schedules, what are the long term effects of a diet high in saturated fats? What about all the "good carbs" and "bad carbs" we have been hearing so much about?In this three part lesson, students will examine nutrition labels for caloric intake using various snack foods. Then, they will determine the number of calories in a food item. Finally, they will conduct a research project in which they examine the food choices of their classmates.

Rachelle Kean (AAAS; )

2008-05-01

313

Strategic Brand Evaluations Among Fast-Food Franchises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, first of all, tests the Brisoux-Laroche brand categorization paradigm and the Bliemel price-quality evaluation model in the context of the choice of fast-food restaurants. It also examines the need for and possible benefits of subcategorizing the Brisoux-Laroche brand categories. The results support the hypothesized profiles of the four Brisoux-Laroche brand categories (i.e., evoked, hold, foggy, and reject) and

Michel Laroche; Roy Toffoli

1999-01-01

314

Non-lactic acid, contaminating microbial flora in ready-to-eat foods: a potential food-quality index.  

PubMed

The bacteriological profile of 87 samples of commercially available ready-to-eat (RTE) dairy and meat-products, packaged sandwiches and salads was obtained by testing for aerobic colony count, for lactic acid bacterial (LAB) count, for the presence and the extent of non-LAB microflora (contaminating microflora), and by testing for certain food-borne pathogens. The pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and sulfite-reducing clostridia were not detected in any of the analysed samples. Whereas only three samples (3.4%) were deemed unacceptable for consumption for exceeding the established pathogen tolerance levels (for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), several samples were found to contain non-lactic acid contaminating microflora of considerable magnitude. The log10 cfu g(-1) counts for contaminating microflora in the food categories examined were as follows: hard cheeses 4.85 (SD 1.17); semi-hard cheeses 5.39 (SD 1.37); soft cheeses 5.13 (SD 1.03); whey cheeses 6.55 (1.24); fermented meat-products 4.18 (SD 1.48); heat-treated meat-products 3.47 (SD 1.99); salads 3.37 (SD 1.56) and sandwiches 5.04 (SD 0.96). Approximately 1 in every 30 to 80 bacterial cells found on different types of cheeses and salads was a non-LAB microorganism; the respective ratios for fermented meat-products, heat-treated meat-products and sandwiches were 1 in 6, 2.5 and 15. The assessment of the contaminating microflora magnitude at various steps during the manufacture and distribution of RTE foods can serve as an index for monitoring the microbiological quality of the starting materials, the sanitation efficacy during processing and possible temperature abuse during processing, transportation or storage. PMID:16942992

Angelidis, A S; Chronis, E N; Papageorgiou, D K; Kazakis, I I; Arsenoglou, K C; Stathopoulos, G A

2006-02-01

315

Isotopic consequences of consumer food choice: Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios in foods from fast food restaurants versus supermarkets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated geographic trends in the isotopic composition of the modern American diet, purchasing paired food items from fast food restaurants and supermarkets across the USA. We observed large ranges in ?2H and ?18O values, suggesting variation in the region-of-origin for beef, wheat, and potatoes. Mean restaurant meal ?2H and ?18O values (?114 and 22.6‰, respectively) were similar to supermarket

Lesley A. Chesson; David W. Podlesak; Brad R. Erkkila; Thure E. Cerling; James R. Ehleringer

2010-01-01

316

Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits.  

PubMed

Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, which can induce palatable "comfort" food consumption, may trigger or reinforce neural pathways leading to stronger reactions to highly rewarding foods. We implemented functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether chronic stress influences activation in reward, motivation and executive brain regions in response to pictures of high calorie and low calorie foods in thirty women. On separate lab visits, we also assessed food intake from a snack food buffet and circulating cortisol. In women reporting higher chronic stress (HCS), pictures of high calorie foods elicited exaggerated activity in regions of the brain involving reward, motivation, and habitual decision-making. In response to pictures of high calorie food, higher chronic stress was also associated with significant deactivation in frontal regions (BA10; BA46) linked to strategic planning and emotional control. In functional connectivity analysis, HCS strengthened connectivity between amygdala and the putamen, while LCS enhanced connectivity between amygdala and the anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex (BA10). A hypocortisolemic signature and more consumption of high calorie foods from the snack buffet were observed in the HCS group. These results suggest that persistent stress exposure may alter the brain's response to food in ways that predispose individuals to poor eating habits which, if sustained, may increase risk for obesity. PMID:23954410

Tryon, Matthew S; Carter, Cameron S; Decant, Rashel; Laugero, Kevin D

2013-08-15

317

Assessing foods offered to children at child-care centers using the Healthy Eating Index-2005  

PubMed Central

The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) has been applied primarily to assess the quality of individual-level diets, but was recently applied to environmental-level data. Currently, no studies have applied the HEI-2005 to foods offered in child-care settings. This cross-sectional study used the HEI-2005 to assess the quality of foods/beverages offered to preschool children (three-five years old) in child-care centers. Two days of dietary observations were conducted, and 120 children (six children per center) were observed, at 20 child-care centers in North Carolina between July 2005 and January 2006. Data were analyzed between July 2011 and January 2012 using t-tests. The mean total HEI-2005 score (59.12) was significantly (p<0.01) lower than the optimal score of 100, indicating the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children. All centers met the maximum score for milk. A majority also met the maximum scores for total fruit (17 of 20 centers), whole fruit (15 of 20 centers), and sodium (19 of 20 centers). Mean scores for total vegetable (mean=2.26±1.09), dark green/orange vegetables and legumes (mean=0.20±0.43), total grain (mean=1.09±1.25), whole grain (mean=1.29±1.65), oils (mean=0.44±0.25), and meat/beans (mean=0.44±0.25) were significantly (p<0.01) lower than the maximum scores recommended. Mean scores for saturated fat (mean=3.32±3.41; p<0.01), and calories from solid fats and added sugars (mean=14.76±4.08; p<0.01) suggest the need to decrease the provision of foods high in these components. These findings indicate the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children at the centers to ensure that foods provided contribute to children’s daily nutrition requirements. PMID:23773561

Erinosho, Temitope O.; Ball, Sarah C.; Hanson, Phillip P.; Vaughn, Amber E.; Ward, Dianne Stanton

2013-01-01

318

Worry or craving? A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.  

PubMed

Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating. PMID:25311212

Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

2014-10-14

319

Impact of Simulated Ostracism on Overweight and Normal-Weight Youths’ Motivation to Eat and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age = 13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants’ responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths’ health behaviors. PMID:21094193

Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C.; Nitecki, Lauren A.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Germeroth, Lisa J.; Roemmich, James N.

2010-01-01

320

An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

2013-01-01

321

Islamic Fasting and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 h\\/day. Fasting includes avoidance of drinking liquids and eating foods. The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting. Methods: Related abstracts from 1960 to 2009 were obtained from Medline and

Fereidoun Azizi

2010-01-01

322

Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether reported fast-food consumption over the previous year is associated with higher childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Design Secondary analysis from a multicentre, multicountry cross-sectional study (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Phase Three). Subjects and methods Parents/guardians of children aged 6–7 completed questionnaires which included questions about their children's asthma and allergies, fast-food consumption, height and weight. Adolescents aged 13–14 completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire asked “In the past 12?months, how often on average did you (your child) eat fast-food/burgers?” The responses were infrequent (never/only occasionally), frequent (once/twice a week) or very frequent (three or more times per week). A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and fast-food consumption, adjusting for Gross National Income per capita by country, measurement type (whether heights/weights were reported or measured), age and sex. Results 72?900 children (17 countries) and 199?135 adolescents (36 countries) provided data. Frequent and very frequent fast-food consumption was reported in 23% and 4% of children, and 39% and 13% of adolescents, respectively. Children in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.15 and 0.22?kg/m2 higher than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Male adolescents in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.14 and 0.28?kg/m2 lower than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Female adolescents in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.19?kg/m2 lower than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Conclusions Reported fast-food consumption is high in childhood and increases in adolescence. Compared with infrequent fast-food consumption, frequent and very frequent consumption is associated with a higher BMI in children. Owing to residual confounding, reverse causation and likely misreporting, the reverse association observed in adolescents should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25488096

Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

2014-01-01

323

Fast food and fast games : An ethnographic exploration of food consumption complexity among the videogames subculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand how food is used to create identity and community for gamers during core rituals. These meanings are to be explored within the broader context of subcultural experience in an investigation of the motives and the self-concept dynamics underlying this symbolic consumer behaviour. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses an interpretive research

James M. Cronin; Mary B. McCarthy

2011-01-01

324

Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.  

PubMed

There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (?85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. PMID:21439918

Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

2011-07-01

325

Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms). PMID:11902388

Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone

2002-03-01

326

Consumption, health attitudes and perception toward fast food among Arab consumers in Kuwait: gender differences.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume "double" burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their "fast food" classification. PMID:25363129

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

2014-11-01

327

Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other "heat and eat" multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a "frankfurter on a roll", a "beef cheeseburger on a bun" and a "vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun" was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log 10 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat" sandwich products.

Sommers, Christopher H.; Boyd, Glenn

2006-07-01

328

Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food, especially dairy products, meat, and fish, is the primary source of environmental exposure to dioxins in the general population. Little data exists on dioxin levels in the popular and widely consumed “fast foods”. Data presented in a previously published pilot study was limited to measuring only the levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in three types of U.S. fast food.

Arnold Schecter; Lingjun Li

1997-01-01

329

Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation—substitution or concentration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and

Laura Macdonald; Steven Cummins; Sally Macintyre

2007-01-01

330

The Impact of Caloric Information on College Students' Fast Food Purchasing Intentions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Fast food establishments are available on many college campuses and, as a result, many students consume foods that are high in calories and contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Purpose: This study measured college students' knowledge of the calorie content for fast food items and whether the provision of calorie information for…

Zigmont, Victoria; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

2015-01-01

331

Fast food costs and adolescent body mass index: Evidence from panel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability

Lisa M. Powell

2009-01-01

332

Meal patterns and food choices of young African-American men: understanding eating within the context of daily life.  

PubMed

Although young African-American men are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, participation in competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American men. This study explored the activities of young African-American men to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited that included five groups of African-American men aged 15 to 22 years (N=106): high school athletes and nonathletes, college athletes and nonathletes, and nonstudents. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices during the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, nonstudent status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American men that take into consideration how school, athletics, and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods. PMID:21872697

Savoca, Margaret R; Martine, Tara L; Morton, Tiffany B; Johnson, Lakeisha T; Bell, Nancy M; Aronson, Robert E; Wallace, Debra C

2011-09-01

333

Meal patterns and food choices of young African American men: understanding eating within the context of daily life  

PubMed Central

Although young African-American males are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American males. This study explored the activities of young African-American males to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited which included five groups of African-American males (15–22 years of age, n=106): high school athletes and non-athletes, college athletes and non-athletes, and non-students. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices over the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, non-student status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American males which take into consideration how school, athletics and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods. PMID:21872697

Flint, Tara L.; Morton, Tiffany B.; Johnson, Lakeisha T.; Bell, Nancy M.; Aronson, Robert E.; Wallace, Debra C.

2011-01-01

334

Measuring food access in Melbourne: access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Access to healthy food can be an important determinant of a healthy diet. This paper describes the assessment of access to healthy and unhealthy foods using a GIS accessibility programme in a large outer municipality of Melbourne. Access to a major supermarket was used as a proxy for access to a healthy diet and fast food outlet as proxy for access to unhealthy food.

335

Fast food costs and adolescent body mass index: evidence from panel data. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability of full-service restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and commercial physical activity-related facilities.

336

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

337

Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children . However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children's and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels

B Elbel; J Gyamfi; R Kersh

2011-01-01

338

INACTIVATION OF PATHOGENS IN COMPLEX READY-TO-EAT FOODS USING GAMMA IRRADIATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other “heat and eat” multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on raw meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. ...

339

Examine the relationship between the Promotion of Healthy Eating and the Food that is consumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy eating is a major concern of the public and has been under-researched for decades. A successful healthy eating campaign can help to raise awareness and in the long run, prevent and minimize long-term diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer. This can also reduce the burden on the National Health Service. For all of these reasons,

Vivian Wong

2006-01-01

340

Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women’s eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos’ and a patriarchal gender order that limits women’s mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women’s access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Methods Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. Results The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women’s access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Conclusions Rising food prices and resultant food insecurity due to insufficient incomes are negating the recent efforts that have increased women’s knowledge of healthy eating during pregnancy and their gendered empowerment. In order to maintain the gains in nutritional knowledge and women’s increased mobility and decision-making capacity; policy must also consider the global political economy of food in the creation of the new development goals. PMID:24069937

2013-01-01

341

Dysfunctions of leptin, ghrelin, BDNF and endocannabinoids in eating disorders: beyond the homeostatic control of food intake.  

PubMed

A large body of literature documents the occurrence of alterations in the physiology of both central and peripheral modulators of appetite in acute patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Until more recently the role of most of the appetite modulators in the control of eating behavior was conceptualized solely in terms of their influence on homeostatic control of energy balance. However, it is becoming more and more evident that appetite modulators also affect the non-homeostatic cognitive, emotional and rewarding component of food intake as well as non food-related reward, and, recently, AN and BN have been pathophysiologically linked to dysfunctions of reward mechanisms. Therefore, the possibility exists that observed changes in appetite modulators in acute AN and BN may represent not only homeostatic adaptations to malnutrition, but also contribute to the development and/or the maintenance of aberrant non-homeostatic behaviors, such as self-starvation and binge eating. In the present review, the evidences supporting a role of leptin, ghrelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and endocannabinoids in the homeostatic and non-homeostatic dysregulations of patients with AN and BN will be presented. The reviewed literature is highly suggestive that changes in the physiology of these modulators may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of eating disorders by providing a possible link between motivated behaviors, reward processes, cognitive functions and energy balance. PMID:23313276

Monteleone, Palmiero; Maj, Mario

2013-03-01

342

Exploration Linking Self-Reported Disordered Eating and Wellness in Undergraduate Health Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University campus environments are conducive to the development of disordered eating in students. Busy schedules, easy access to fast food, and the transition from high school to college contribute to the development of disordered eating in university students. This researcher explored whether a relationship exists between self-reported disordered…

Owens, Pamela K.

2009-01-01

343

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using websites and interactive games students will discover how eating healthy effects their bodies. Healthy eating is important in helping our bodies function at their best! Follow the links below and then answer the questions in our Healthy Foods project folder on our class wiki! VisitDining Decisionsand play a fun game where you will load your lunch tray with healthy choices. How do your current lunch choices ...

Mrs. Smith

2011-12-12

344

Dietary-induced binge eating increases prefrontal cortex neural activation to restraint stress and increases binge food consumption following chronic guanfacine.  

PubMed

Binge eating is a prominent feature of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Stress or perceived stress is an often-cited reason for binge eating. One notion is that the neural pathways that overlap with stress reactivity and feeding behavior are altered by recurrent binge eating. Using young adult female rats in a dietary-induced binge eating model (30 min access to binge food with or without 24-h calorie restriction, twice a week, for 6 weeks) we measured the neural activation by c-Fos immunoreactivity to the binge food (vegetable shortening mixed with 10% sucrose) in bingeing and non-bingeing animals under acute stress (immobilization; 1 h) or no stress conditions. There was an increase in the number of immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stressed animals previously exposed to the binge eating feeding schedules. Because attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) medications target the mPFC and have some efficacy at reducing binge eating in clinical populations, we examined whether chronic (2 weeks; via IP osmotic mini-pumps) treatment with a selective alpha-2A adrenergic agonist (0.5 mg/kg/day), guanfacine, would reduce binge-like eating. In the binge group with only scheduled access to binge food (30 min; twice a week; 8 weeks), guanfacine increased total calories consumed during the 30-min access period from the 2-week pre-treatment baseline and increased binge food consumption compared with saline-treated animals. These experiments suggest that mPFC is differentially activated in response to an immobilization stress in animals under different dietary conditions and chronic guanfacine, at the dose tested, was ineffective at reducing binge-like eating. PMID:25158105

Bello, Nicholas T; Walters, Amy L; Verpeut, Jessica L; Caverly, Jonathan

2014-10-01

345

Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet  

PubMed Central

Background Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population. PMID:25490960

Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

2014-01-01

346

Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... Stuff Be a Partner Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating Sometimes it’s hard to make smart food choices . ... Go4Life to help you overcome barriers to healthy eating. Does food taste different? Your sense of taste ...

347

Examination of food reward and energy intake under laboratory and free-living conditions in a trait binge eating subtype of obesity  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Trait binge eating has been proposed as a “hedonic subtype” of obesity characterized by enhanced food liking and wanting, and a preference for high-fat sweet foods in the laboratory. The current study examined the influence of trait binge eating in overweight or obese women on eating behavior under laboratory and free-living conditions over a 48-h period. Methods: In a matched pairs design, 24 overweight or obese females (BMI: 30.30 ± 2.60 kg/m2; Age: 25.42 ± 3.65 years) with high or low scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BSE) were divided into one of two groups; Obese Binge (O-B) and Obese Non-binge (O-NB). Energy intake was assessed using combined laboratory energy intake measures and 24-h dietary recall procedures. Liking and wanting were assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). Results: There was a significant association between overall energy consumed, and energy consumed from snack foods under laboratory and free-living conditions. O-B exhibited a greater preference for sweet snack foods in their laboratory and free-living eating behavior. These findings were supported by greater laboratory-based measures of wanting and craving for this food type in O-B. In addition, O-B consumed significantly more energy than their estimated daily energy requirements in the laboratory suggesting that they over-consumed compared to O-NB. Conclusions: The measurement concordance between laboratory and free-living based energy intake supports the validity of laboratory-based test meal methodologies Variation in trait binge eating was associated with increased craving and wanting for high-fat sweet foods and overconsumption in the laboratory. These findings support the use of trait binge eating as a common hedonic subtype of obesity and extend the relevance of this subtype to habitual patterns of energy intake. PMID:24155732

Dalton, Michelle; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham S.

2013-01-01

348

Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

349

The Influence of Physical and Social Contexts of Eating on Lunch-Time Food Intake among Southern Ontario, Canada, Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who…

Woodruff, Sarah J.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McGoldrick, Kathryn

2010-01-01

350

What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

2009-01-01

351

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None; )

2006-10-31

352

Receptivity to Television Fast-Food Restaurant Marketing and Obesity Among U.S. Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768

McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

2013-01-01

353

Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Energy, Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content, United States, 1996–2013  

PubMed Central

Introduction Excess intakes of energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat are associated with increased risk for cardiometabolic syndrome. Trends in fast-food restaurant portion sizes can inform policy decisions. We examined the variability of popular food items in 3 fast-food restaurants in the United States by portion size during the past 18 years. Methods Items from 3 national fast-food chains were selected: French fries, cheeseburgers, grilled chicken sandwich, and regular cola. Data on energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content were collated from 1996 through 2013 using an archival website. Time trends were assessed using simple linear regression models, using energy or a nutrient component as the dependent variable and the year as the independent variable. Results For most items, energy content per serving differed among chain restaurants for all menu items (P ? .04); energy content of 56% of items decreased (? range, ?0.1 to ?5.8 kcal) and the content of 44% increased (? range, 0.6–10.6 kcal). For sodium, the content of 18% of the items significantly decreased (? range, ?4.1 to ?24.0 mg) and the content for 33% increased (? range, 1.9–29.6 mg). Absolute differences were modest. The saturated and trans fat content, post-2009, was modest for French fries. In 2013, the energy content of a large-sized bundled meal (cheeseburger, French fries, and regular cola) represented 65% to 80% of a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet, and sodium content represented 63% to 91% of the 2,300-mg-per-day recommendation and 97% to 139% of the 1,500-mg-per-day recommendation. Conclusion Findings suggest that efforts to promote reductions in energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat intakes need to be shifted from emphasizing portion-size labels to additional factors such as total calories, frequency of eating, number of items ordered, menu choices, and energy-containing beverages. PMID:25551184

Urban, Lorien E.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fierstein, Jamie L.; Gary, Christine E.

2014-01-01

354

Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed. PMID:25186250

Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

2015-01-01

355

The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Smoyer-Tomic KE, Spence JC, Raine KD, Amrhein C, Cameron N, Yasenovskiy V, Cutumisu N, Hemphill E, Healy J. The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets.

356

Food restriction leads to binge eating dependent upon the effect of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates food intake and energy metabolism. It has also been suggested that mutations in the human BDNF gene and its receptor TrkB account for disturbed eating and obesity. The Met-allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with eating disorders, but the underlying mechanism of its contribution is not known. We report herewith that the

Kirsti Akkermann; Kelli Hiio; Inga Villa; Jaanus Harro

2011-01-01

357

Neighborhood playgrounds, fast food restaurants, and crime: relationships to overweight in low-income preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We examined the relationship between overweight in preschool children and three environmental factors—the proximity of the children's residences to playgrounds and to fast food restaurants and the safety of the children's neighborhoods. We hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods were more likely to be overweight.Methods. This was a

Hillary L Burdette; Robert C Whitaker

2004-01-01

358

From the Cover: Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in fast food: Signatures of corn and confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We

A. Hope Jahren; Rebecca A. Kraft

2008-01-01

359

The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a longitudinal survey of fast food restaurants in Texas, the authors examine the impact of recent changes in the federal minimum wage on a low-wage labor market The authors draw four main conclusions. First, the survey results indicate that less than 5 percent of fast food restaurants use the new youth subminimum wage even though the vast

Lawrence F. Katz; Alan B. Krueger

1992-01-01

360

Market Potential of a Fast-Food Outlet Against Location Based on Customer Traveling Distance Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how best to estimate the market potential of a fast-food outlet based on customer traveling distance profiles. We selected two outlets from a fast-food chain in Hong Kong, one located in a business district, the other in an urban area, as typical demonstrations. According to the hourly sales indices of either outlet, sales can be categorized into

Francis Kit-Nam Leung; Carmen Ka-Man Cheuk

2000-01-01

361

College Students' Perceptions of Fast Food Restaurant Menu Items on Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Examining the beliefs about fast food and health, especially the consequences of fast food intake (FFI) on health, among college students will be a crucial factor in turning the tide on current morbidity and mortality statistics. Purpose: This article examines the results of a survey among Midwestern college-aged students about their…

Stockton, Susan; Baker, David

2013-01-01

362

An Examination of Situational Crime Prevention Strategies Across Convenience Stores and Fast-Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the efficacy of situational crime prevention (SCP) strategies on convenience store safety has received considerable attention, the security of fast-food restaurants has been virtually ignored. This study was based on a population of convenience stores (n = 295) and fast-food restaurants (n = 321) in Charlotte, North Carolina. The study examined whether the crime control strategies commonly recommended to

M. Lyn Exum; Joseph B. Kuhns; Brad Koch; Chuck Johnson

2010-01-01

363

Service Quality in the Malaysian Fast Food Industry: An Examination Using DINESERV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses calls in the literature for the external validation of Western-based marketing concepts and theory in the East. Using DINESERV, the relationships between service quality, overall service quality perceptions, customer satisfaction, and repurchase intentions in the Malaysian fast food industry are examined. A questionnaire was administered to Malaysian fast food consumers at a large university, resulting in findings

Ursula-Sigrid Bougoure; Meng-Keang Neu

2010-01-01

364

Friction variation in common working areas of fast-food restaurants in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction variation has been related to employees' perception of slipperiness in a field study conducted in fast-food restaurants. However, details of friction variation in actual workplaces have not been reported in the literature. This field study investigated friction variations in 10 fast-food restaurants in the USA. The results indicated that friction reductions in a step exceeding 10% were proportional to

Wen-Ruey Chang; Alfred Filiaggi; Yueng-Hsiang Huang

2008-01-01

365

Thinking about Eating Food Activates Visual Cortex with Reduced Bilateral Cerebellar Activation in Females with Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Background Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have aberrant cognitions about food and altered activity in prefrontal cortical and somatosensory regions to food images. However, differential effects on the brain when thinking about eating food between healthy women and those with AN is unknown. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examined neural activation when 42 women thought about eating the food shown in images: 18 with AN (11 RAN, 7 BPAN) and 24 age-matched controls (HC). Results Group contrasts between HC and AN revealed reduced activation in AN in the bilateral cerebellar vermis, and increased activation in the right visual cortex. Preliminary comparisons between AN subtypes and healthy controls suggest differences in cortical and limbic regions. Conclusions These preliminary data suggest that thinking about eating food shown in images increases visual and prefrontal cortical neural responses in females with AN, which may underlie cognitive biases towards food stimuli and ruminations about controlling food intake. Future studies are needed to explicitly test how thinking about eating activates restraint cognitions, specifically in those with restricting vs. binge-purging AN subtypes. PMID:22479499

Brooks, Samantha J.; O'Daly, Owen; Uher, Rudolf; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael; Williams, Steven C. R.; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C.

2012-01-01

366

Over consumption of fat by college students: The fast food connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students (416) in an introductory nutrition class were surveyed to determine how college students categorize foods and to establish the relationships between fat intake (3?day diet record), everyday food choices and fat practices (frequency survey), and fast?food use (attendance and food consumption). Factor analysis of everyday food choices resulted in five groupings, three high?fat and two low?fat. Males averaged

Ann A. Hertzler; Ryland Webb; Robert B. Frary

1995-01-01

367

Does access to fast food lead to super-sized pregnant women and whopper babies? — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Rise in the availability of fast-food restaurants has been blamed, at least partly, for the increasing obesity in the U.S. The existing studies of obesity have focused primarily on children, adolescents, and adults, and this paper extends the literature by raising a little-studied question and using nationally representative data to answer it. It examines the relationship between the supply of fast-food restaurants and weight gain of pregnant women and their newborns.

368

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that contain ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have an ...

369

Bats eat as many bugs as birds do  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects are fast food for birds flying through tropical forests, which munch on them all day long. But things aren't much safer for the bugs at night, two groups of scientists found out recently. It turns out that bats eat lots of insects when the sun goes down in the forests. In fact, they may eat as many insects as the birds do during the day.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2008-04-03

370

Effect of changes to the school food environment on eating behaviours and/or body weight in children: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. PMID:25266705

Driessen, C E; Cameron, A J; Thornton, L E; Lai, S K; Barnett, L M

2014-12-01

371

Saints, sinners and non-believers: the moral space of food. A qualitative exploration of beliefs and perspectives on healthy eating of Irish adults aged 50-70.  

PubMed

Food choices can involve a moral element of which healthy eating has come to play a major part in recent years. This research aimed to explore the moral space of food for older adults in order to understand how they conceptualise and negotiate various moral demands in the context of their general food lives. In-depth interviews on the lived experience of food and eating were conducted with a purposive sample of 50 adults aged 50-70, who varied by dietary quality and health status. An inductive thematic analysis was carried out. Three major themes representing aspects of the "moral space of food" were identified. This moral space was influenced by old religious and secular moralities which have become intertwined with new moralities of "healthism", a trend towards encouraging personal responsibility for health. Participants sought to maintain moral congruence by keeping their behaviour within moral boundaries through balance and moderation. Some resisted immoral positioning by highlighting their own autonomy or by challenging healthist ideology. A fundamental tension exists between the concept of healthy eating as desirable to remain a moral person while simultaneously being equated with sacrifice of pleasure and enjoyment. Healthist ideology perpetuates this tension, problematising enjoyment of food and bodies of those outside of the "norm". Attempting to address negative moralistic undertones of healthy eating messages may help to engage public interest in nutrition. PMID:24184539

Delaney, Mary; McCarthy, Mary B

2014-02-01

372

Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility. PMID:19758736

Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

2009-11-01

373

Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment.  

PubMed

Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach-as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members-were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10-14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J

2013-08-01

374

Time course and reversibility of changes in the gizzards of red knots alternately eating hard and soft food.  

PubMed

The ability to change organ size reversibly can be advantageous to birds that perform long migrations. During winter, red knots (Calidris canutus) feed on shellfish and carry a muscular gizzard that weighs 10% of their body mass. Gizzard size decreases when these birds eat soft foods, e.g. while breeding in the tundra. We studied the reversibility and time course of such changes using ultrasonography. Two groups of shellfish-adapted knots (N=9 and N=10) were fed alternately a hard and a soft food type. Diet switches elicited rapid reversible changes. Switches from hard to soft food induced decreases to 60% of initial gizzard mass within 8.5 days, while switches to hard food induced increases in gizzard mass to 147% within 6.2 days. A third group of knots (N=11), adapted to soft food for more than 1 year, initially had very small gizzards (25% of the mass of shellfish-adapted gizzards), but showed a similar capacity to increase gizzard size when fed shellfish. This is the first non-invasive study showing rapid digestive organ adjustments in non-domesticated birds. PMID:11441058

Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W; Koolhaas, A; Piersma, T

2001-06-01

375

Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment  

PubMed Central

Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach—as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members—were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10–14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J.

2013-01-01

376

Persuading people to eat less junk food: a cognitive resource match between attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing.  

PubMed

This study investigated the interactive effects of attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing on persuading people to eat less junk food. Within the heuristic-systematic model of information processing, an attitudinal ambivalence (ambivalent or univalent toward eating junk food) by health message framing (advantage- or disadvantage-framed appeals) between-subjects experiment was conducted to explore a cognitive resource-matching effect and the underlying mediation processes. Ambivalent individuals reported a higher level of cognitive elaboration than univalent individuals did. The disadvantage frame engendered more extensive cognitive elaboration than the advantage frame did. Ambivalent individuals were more persuaded by the disadvantage frame and, for them, cognitive elaboration mediated the persuasion process via the systematic route. Univalent individuals were equally persuaded by the advantage frame and the disadvantage frame and, for them, neither the perceived frame valence nor cognitive elaboration mediated persuasion. Discussion of the null results among the univalent group leads to a response-reinforcement explanation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24597561

Yan, Changmin

2015-01-01

377

Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and\\/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be safe, high quality and maintain all or most of the nutritional value

Delilah Wood; Tina Williams; Gregory Glenn; Zhongli Pan; William Orts; Tara McHugh

2010-01-01

378

You Are What You Eat: Genetically Modified Foods, Integrity, and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, the moral debateconcerning genetically modified foods (GMF) hasfocused on extrinsic consequentialist questionsabout the health effects, environmental impacts,and economic benefits of such foods. Thisextrinsic approach to the morality of GMF isdependent on unsubstantiated empirical claimsand fails to account for the intrinsic moralvalue of food and food choice and theirconnection to the agent's concept of the goodlife. I develop a

Assya Pascalev

2003-01-01

379

Eating disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

380

Exposure to 'healthy' fast food meal bundles in television advertisements promotes liking for fast food but not healthier choices in children.  

PubMed

Due to regulatory changes, fast food companies often depict healthy foods in their television advertisements to children. The present study examined how exposure to advertising for 'healthy' meal bundles to children influenced the selection of food in children. A total of fifty-nine children (thirty-seven males) aged 7-10 years (8·8 (sd 0·9) years) took part in the present study. The within-participant, counterbalanced design had two conditions: control (exposure to ten toy adverts across two breaks of five adverts each) and experimental (the middle advert in each break replaced with one for a McDonald's Happy Meal® depicting the meal bundle as consisting of fish fingers, a fruit bag and a bottle of mineral water). Following viewing of the adverts embedded in a cartoon, children completed a hypothetical menu task that reported liking for McDonald's food and fast food, in general. Nutritional knowledge, height and weight of the children were measured. There was no significant difference between the two advert conditions for the nutritional content of the meal bundles selected. However, children's liking for fast food, in general, increased after exposure to the food adverts relative to control (P= 0·004). Compared to children with high nutritional knowledge, those with low scores selected meals of greater energy content (305 kJ) after viewing the food adverts (P= 0·016). Exposure to adverts for 'healthy' meal bundles did not drive healthier choices in children, but did promote liking for fast food. These findings contribute to debates about food advertising to children and the effectiveness of related policies. PMID:25716646

Boyland, Emma J; Kavanagh-Safran, Melissa; Halford, Jason C G

2015-03-01

381

Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. OBJECTIVE: To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. METHODS: Data on median household

Philip M Hurvitz; Anne V Moudon; Colin D Rehm; Laura C Streichert; Adam Drewnowski

2009-01-01

382

Customer Health Perceptions of Selected Fast-Food Restaurants According to Their Nutritional Knowledge and Health Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though many researchers and media report about the unhealthy nature of fast foods, American people have developed a taste for fast foods. Americans also have an increased interest for nutrition in fast food, as they have become more health conscious. These studies claimed that the trend was that consumers wanted low calorie and light and low fat menu items. In

JungJin Hwang; David Cranage

2010-01-01

383

The associations between emotional eating and consumption of energy-dense snack foods are modified by sex and depressive symptomatology.  

PubMed

In recent years, emotional eating (EmE) has incited substantial research interest as an important psychologic determinant of food intake and overweight. However, little is known about factors that might modulate its relations with dietary habits. The objective of this study was to examine the association between EmE and consumption of energy-dense snack food and assess the 2-way interaction of EmE with sex and depressive symptoms. A total of 7378 men and 22,862 women from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (France, 2009-2013) who completed ?6 self-reported 24-h food records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. EmE was evaluated via the revised 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The associations between EmE and energy-dense food consumption were assessed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Higher EmE was associated with higher consumption of energy-dense snacks and, in particular, with consumption of sweet-and-fatty foods across most categories studied. However, these associations were stronger in women with depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.43, 2.20; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.26) compared with those without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.69; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.61). In contrast, the significant positive associations observed in men without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.52; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.48) were not found in men with depressive symptoms. In conclusion, in women, EmE was positively associated with consumption of energy-dense snack food, particularly in those with depressive symptoms. For men, the relation between EmE and energy-dense snack foods was found only in those without depressive symptoms. These findings call for consideration of the psychologic state when targeting unhealthy dietary habits, especially in women. This trial was registered at eudract.ema.europa.eu as 2013-000929-31. PMID:24850627

Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

2014-08-01

384

An Experiment Analysis of the Impact of Advertising and Food Packaging on Women's Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is considered a national epidemic and is associated with increased eating behavior and decreased physical activity. Research has demonstrated biological underpinnings, but the dramatic increase in prevalence rates in recent decades (Flegal et al., 2002) suggests that environmental influences also contribute (Hill et al., 2008). This led researchers to speculate about the impact of our purported “Toxic Environment,” in

Amy S Collings

2008-01-01

385

Public support for restrictions on fast food company sponsorship of community events.  

PubMed

This study investigated community attitudes to fast food companies' sponsorship of community events. The aim was to inform future efforts to introduce greater restrictions on these marketing activities to reduce child obesity. While previous research has focused on the sponsorship of sporting events, the present study included all community events and gauged public support for fast food company sponsorships in general as well as specific sponsorship activities such as securing event naming rights, advertising on event premises, and distributing free items to children in the form of food and redeemable vouchers. A large and diverse sample of Western Australian adults (n=2,005) responded to a community attitudes telephone survey that included questions relating to event sponsorship. Almost half of the respondents reported that the promotion of fast foods is inappropriate at community events, and only a third considered it appropriate at events where children are likely to be present. Around two-thirds agreed that promoting fast foods at such events sends contradictory messages to children and just a quarter of respondents considered it acceptable for free fast food to be distributed at events or for children to be rewarded for participation with fast food vouchers. The results suggest that efforts to reduce child obesity that involve restrictions on the sponsorship of community events by organisations promoting unhealthy foods may be supported by a substantial proportion of the population. PMID:23017320

Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

2012-01-01

386

"I'm ready to eat and grab whatever I can get": Determinants and patterns of African American men's eating practices.  

PubMed

This article examines determinants and patterns of African American men's dietary practices. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze data from nine exploratory focus groups conducted with 83 urban, middle-aged and older African American men from southeast Michigan. The men distinguished between healthy and unhealthy foods and "meals" versus other instances of eating. Eating patterns and content differed depending on the meal, work and family schedules, food availability, and whether it was a weekday or weekend. When eating alone or outside the home, men prioritized convenience and preferences for tasty, unhealthy foods. Men often reported skipping breakfast or lunch and grabbing snacks or fast food during the day. They emphasized sharing dinner with their spouses and families-usually a home-cooked, "healthy" meal. On weekends, spouses often cooked less and men snacked and dined out more frequently. Sunday dinners involving favorite, unhealthy comfort foods were the highlight of men's eating practices. African American men tended not to follow healthy eating recommendations because of their busy lives, reliance on spouses to prepare food, and preferences for unhealthy foods. These findings suggest that healthy eating interventions must consider how the contexts of African American men's lives shape their eating practices. PMID:22773618

Griffith, Derek M; Wooley, Alana M; Allen, Julie Ober

2013-03-01

387

Ramadan fasting and the goals of sports nutrition around exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramadan fasting, involving abstinence from fluid and food from sunrise to sundown, results in prolonged periods without nutrient intake and inflexibility with the timing of eating and drinking over the day. Dietary choices may also change due to special eating rituals. Although nutrition guidelines are specific to the sport, to the periodized training and competition calendar, and to the individual,

Louise M. Burke; Christine King

2012-01-01

388

"Eating at Us": Representations of Knowledge in the Activist Documentary Film "Food, Inc."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing on social movement learning and environmental adult education invokes particular views on knowledge that need further examination and development in relation to food social movements. Although food social movements take different forms, the paper argues that the politics of food knowledge is at the centre of many of these movements.…

Flowers, Rick; Swan, Elaine

2011-01-01

389

Meanings of Food, Eating and Health in Punjabi Families Living in Vancouver, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: South Asians living in western countries have increased risk for developing diet-related chronic disease compared to Caucasians of European heritage. To increase understanding of social and cultural factors associated with their food habits, this study examined the meanings of food, health and well-being embedded in the food practices…

Chapman, Gwen E; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Beagan, Brenda L

2011-01-01

390

Acute compensatory eating following exercise is associated with implicit hedonic wanting for food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of exercise to promote weight loss could potentially be undermined by its influence on explicit or implicit processes of liking and wanting for food which in turn alter food preference. The present study was designed to examine hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms involved in the acute effects of exercise on food intake. 24 healthy female subjects were recruited to

G. Finlayson; E. Bryant; J. E. Blundell; N. A. King

2009-01-01

391

International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods. PMID:22838731

2012-01-01

392

Kidney Health Eating Right for  

E-print Network

Kidney Health Eating Right for National Kidney Disease Education Program Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) hat you eat and drink can help slow down chronic kidney disease. Some foods are better for your kidneys than others. Cooking and preparing your food from scratch can help you eat

Bandettini, Peter A.

393

THANKSGIVING Eating together, eating alone  

E-print Network

to Christians of the allegorical tale of The Last Supper ­ not to mention all of the rites of sacrament born of this evolution has been facilitated by the increasing ethnic diversity of American society, which has led fast-food chains are populating the globe). My own evolution away from fast food and toward social

Albright, Tom

394

Anaphylaxis After Eating Italian Pizza Containing Buckwheat as the Hidden Food Allergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract A 20-year-old woman developed anaphylaxis after eating pizza on 4 different occasions in 2 restaurants. Both restaurants made their pizza dough with a mixture of wheat and buckwheat fl ours. A prick-to-prick test with buckwheat fl our was positive. Skin prick tests and specifi c immunoglobulin E responses to soybean and peanut were weakly positive while the response

E Heffl; G Guida; I Badiu; F Nebiolo; G Rolla

395

GS 455534 selectively suppresses binge eating of palatable food and attenuates dopamine release in the accumbens of sugar-bingeing rats.  

PubMed

Binge eating palatable foods has been shown to have behavioral and neurochemical similarities to drug addiction. GS 455534 is a highly selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitor that has been shown to reduce alcohol and cocaine intake in rats. Given the overlaps between binge eating and drug abuse, we examined the effects of GS 455534 on binge eating and subsequent dopamine release. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a sugar (experiment 1) or fat (experiment 2) binge eating diet. After 25 days, GS 455534 was administered at 7.5 and 15 mg/kg by an intraperitoneal injection, and food intake was monitored. In experiment 3, rats with cannulae aimed at the nucleus accumbens shell were maintained on the binge sugar diet for 25 days. Microdialysis was performed, during which GS 455534 15 mg/kg was administered, and sugar was available. Dialysate samples were analyzed to determine extracellular levels of dopamine. In experiment 1, GS 455534 selectively decreased sugar intake food was made available in the Binge Sugar group but not the Ad libitum Sugar group, with no effect on chow intake. In experiment 2, GS 455534 decreased fat intake in the Binge Fat group, but not the Ad libitum Fat group, however, it also reduced chow intake. In experiment 3, GS 455534 attenuated accumbens dopamine release by almost 50% in binge eating rats compared with the vehicle injection. The findings suggest that selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors may have the therapeutic potential to reduce binge eating of palatable foods in clinical populations. PMID:24603339

Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Paredes, Daniel; von Loga, Isabell; Murray, Susan M; Wang, Miaoyuan; Arolfo, Maria P; Yao, Lina; Diamond, Ivan; Avena, Nicole M

2014-04-01

396

Food Sustainability Education as a Route to Healthier Eating: Evaluation of a Multi-Component School Programme in English Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promising approaches to the promotion of healthier eating among children in primary school settings include the opportunity to practise practical cooking and growing, promoting the take up of healthier school meals and nutritional education. However, less is known about the potential for strategies that integrate approaches through a focus on food

Jones, M.; Dailami, N.; Weitkamp, E.; Salmon, D.; Kimberlee, R.; Morley, A.; Orme, J.

2012-01-01

397

Control Yourself or Just Eat What You Like? Weight Gain Over a Year Is Predicted by an Interactive Effect of Response Inhibition and Implicit Preference for Snack Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Previous research showed a strong relation between response inhibition, overeating and overweight. It was shown that people with ineffective response inhibition are more susceptible to the temptations of palatable food, eat more and are more often overweight or obese. In addition the results of several studies suggest that what needs to be inhibited may be an affect-driven motivation for

Chantal Nederkoorn; Katrijn Houben; Wilhelm Hofmann; Anne Roefs; Anita Jansen

2010-01-01

398

The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, body mass index, and responses to sweet and salty fatty foods: a twin study of genetic and environmental associations1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relation between body weight and energy-dense foods remains unclear. Objective: We estimated the effects of genetic and environmental factorsoncognitiveandemotionalaspectsofdietingbehavior,body massindex(BMI),andresponsestofattyfoodsandontheirrelations. Design: A total of 1326 adult twin persons (aged 17-82 y; 17% M and 83% F) from the United Kingdom and Finland completed the revised version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ- R18)andreportedthelikinganduse-frequencyof4sweet-and-fatty and salty-and-fatty food items (6

Kaisu Keskitalo; Hely Tuorila; Tim D Spector; Lynn F Cherkas; Antti Knaapila; Jaakko Kaprio; Karri Silventoinen; Markus Perola

399

What's NOT to eat--food adulteration in the context of human biology.  

PubMed

Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well-studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of Western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage, and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant polychlorinated biphenyls in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in nonurban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning. PMID:22262531

Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V; Cook, Katsi

2012-01-01

400

What's NOT to eat- Food adulteration in the context of human biology  

PubMed Central

Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant PCBs in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in non-urban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning. PMID:22262531

Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Cook, Katsi

2011-01-01

401

USDA updates nutrient values for fast food pizza  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of quick service pizza has increased as Americans are spending more on food away from home. Pizza is consistently a primary Key Food in the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) because it is a contributor of more than 14 nutrients of public health significance to the...

402

Regular consumption from fast food establishments relative to other restaurants is differentially associated with metabolic outcomes in young adults.  

PubMed

Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and plasma triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). We used 3 waves of data (exam y 7, 10, and 20) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, a prospective cohort study of black and white young adults [aged 25-42 y in 1992-93, n = 3643 (men, 1659; women, 1984)]. Individuals in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of baseline (defined as the mean of y 7 and 10) fast food consumption had higher y 20 weight [adjusted mean (95% CI): 5.6 kg (CI, 2.1, 9.2); P = 0.002], HOMA-IR [0.9 (CI, 0.4, 1.3); P < 0.001], waist circumference [5.3 cm (CI, 2.8, 7.9); P < 0.000], TG concentrations [0.25 mmol/L (CI, 0.10, 0.40), 22.7 mg/dL (CI, 9.1, 36.3); P = 0.001], and lower HDL-C concentrations [-0.014 mmol/L (CI, -0.215, -0.067), 5.4 mg/dL (CI, -8.3, -2.6); P < 0.000]. Baseline restaurant consumption was unrelated to y 20 outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant (P < 0.05) and fast food intake (P < 0.001) was associated with 13-y changes in body weight [0.09 kg (CI, 0.02, 0.17) and 0.15 kg (CI, 0.06, 0.24), respectively] and waist circumference [0.08 cm (CI, 0.02, 0.14) and 0.12 cm (CI, 0.04, 0.20), respectively]. Fast food consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes. PMID:19776183

Duffey, Kiyah J; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R; Popkin, Barry M

2009-11-01

403

I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do?  

MedlinePLUS

... may eat way too much food (known as binge eating ). And people with bulimia may try to make ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Eating Disorders Binge Eating Disorder I Think My Boyfriend Has an Eating ...

404

A Comparison of Company Owned and Franchised Fast Food Outlet Performance: Insights from Health Inspection Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares the performance of franchised and company owned fast food outlets located within the same region in the\\u000a USA. These outlets are inspected by the same team of health inspectors who use a standardized 44 item scale derived from Federal\\u000a Drug Administration guidelines. Analysis of the health inspection scores received by the fast food outlets over approximately\\u000a two

Roy L. Beheler; Seth W. Norton; Kabir C. Sen

405

Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.  

PubMed

A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36?h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS. PMID:25349245

de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

2015-01-01

406

Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (? = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (? = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

2013-01-01

407

Eating Well and Losing Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools & Resources Stroke More Eating Well and Losing Weight Updated:May 20,2014 Eating the right foods ... risk of future heart problems. Good nutrition and weight control are a crucial part of your treatment ...

408

Television advertising and branding. Effects on eating behaviour and food preferences in children.  

PubMed

Television provides one of the first, and most intimate, experiences of commercial food promotion. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the effects of television advertising on children's brand preferences are well established. However, its effect on actual food intake and the food choices in children of various weight statuses has only recently been characterised. Despite regulation, children in the UK are exposed to considerable numbers of food adverts on television. These are predominantly for foods high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS), which are marketed to children using promotional characters and themes of fun. Such adverts have been shown to cause significant increases in intake, particularly in overweight and obese children, and enhanced preference for high carbohydrate and high fat foods in children who consume the greatest amounts of televisual media. PMID:22421053

Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

2013-03-01

409

Exposure to food advertising on television: Associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey–Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to

Tatiana Andreyeva; Inas Rashad Kelly; Jennifer L. Harris

2011-01-01

410

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

411

Restaurant Cuisine, Fast Food and Ethnic Edibles: An Empirical Note on Household Meal Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

G. S. Becker's model of time inputs in household production is tested in this paper utilizing home versus restaurant food production and consumption. Tests of the model show that both the ratio of restaurant to total meal consumption and the ratio of fast food to restaurant meals are positively related to the opportunity costs of the household. Further, the authors

John Keith Watson

1991-01-01

412

Neighborhood Deprivation and Access to Fast Food Retailing A National Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed to those for access to healthier food outlets. Methods: Data were collected on

Jamie Pearce; Tony Blakely; Karen Witten; Phil Bartie

413

The Taiwanese are Just Like Australians in Their Loyalty to Fast Food Outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite big differences in culture, types of food, retail environments and the brands on offer, the loyalty of Australian and Taiwanese consumers to fast food outlets is nearly identical. In both countries, a third of buyers purchase from the same branded outlet twice in a row, while two thirds buy from a different outlet, usually of a bigger brand. This

Dag Bennett

2004-01-01

414

Perceived service quality in fast-food restaurants: empirical evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this study is to modify the SERVPERF scale by incorporating the additional dimension of recoverability, and to empirically test and refine the modified SERVPERF instrument using survey data from China. The study aims to assess the potential antecedents of customer satisfaction in the fast food industry in China. The antecedents include service quality, food quality,

Hong Qin; Victor R. Prybutok; Qilan Zhao

2010-01-01

415

Service quality, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions in fast-food restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to explore the potential dimensions of service quality, and examine the relationship among service quality, food quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions in fast-food restaurants (FFRs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The construct reliability and validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was employed to estimate the relationship among

Hong Qin; Victor R. Prybutok

2009-01-01

416

Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits following occasionally ingestion of animal tissue (hypothesis 3).

Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

2005-10-01

417

Food security, selection, and healthy eating in a Pacific Community in Auckland New Zealand.  

PubMed

When an infant is brought home to the family, it is often a time of emotional, economic and physical stress due to the extra demands placed on parents. Household food security means "access at all times to enough and nutritionally appropriate food to provide the energy and nutrients needed to maintain an active and healthy life". Questions about food security were asked of 1376 Pacific Island mothers (as part of the Pacific Island Family Study) approximately six weeks after the birth of their baby. Due to lack of money food sometimes ran out in 39.8% of households and in a further 3.8% food often ran out. Variety of foods was limited by lack of money in 39.3%. Foods that were still bought when money was limited included bread (97%), milk (95%), meat and chicken (91%), vegetables and fruit (83%), rice or pasta (82%), breakfast cereals (69%), fish or shellfish (50%) and biscuits or chips (44%). Alcohol (1%), soft drinks (11%), ice cream (12%) and fruit juice (21%) were the least often bought. Energy density (MJ/kg) and nutrient-density of typical foods limited by lack of money were analysed. Rice, bread and fatty meats provided the most calories per dollar and fruit and vegetables the least. The best protein-value for money was from minced beef, chicken and tinned tuna and the most fibre-rich foods included baked beans and mixed vegetables. Food security is a major problem for Pacific families. The environment of food availability, choice and cost requires attention to help close the health gap. PMID:17704026

Rush, Elaine; Puniani, Naita; Snowling, Neil; Paterson, Janis

2007-01-01

418

Fast Food Consumption and Gestational Diabetes Incidence in the SUN Project  

PubMed Central

Background Gestational diabetes prevalence is increasing, mostly because obesity among women of reproductive age is continuously escalating. We aimed to investigate the incidence of gestational diabetes according to the consumption of fast food in a cohort of university graduates. Methods The prospective dynamic “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) cohort included data of 3,048 women initially free of diabetes or previous gestational diabetes who reported at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and March 2011. Fast food consumption was assessed through a validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fast food was defined as the consumption of hamburgers, sausages, and pizza. Three categories of fast food were established: low (0–3 servings/month), intermediate (>3 servings/month and ?2 servings/week) and high (>2 servings/week). Non-conditional logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. Results We identified 159 incident cases of gestational diabetes during follow-up. After adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, total energy intake, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease/hypertension at baseline, parity, adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern, alcohol intake, fiber intake, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption, fast food consumption was significantly associated with a higher risk of incident gestational diabetes, with multivariate adjusted OR of 1.31 (95% conficence interval [CI]:0.81–2.13) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.13–3.06) for the intermediate and high categories, respectively, versus the lowest category of baseline fast food consumption (p for linear trend: 0.007). Conclusion Our results suggest that pre-pregnancy higher consumption of fast food is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes. PMID:25215961

Dominguez, Ligia J.; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Gea, Alfredo; Barbagallo, Mario; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

2014-01-01

419

Do our patients have enough to eat?: Food insecurity among urban low-income cancer patients.  

PubMed

This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of food insecurity among a cohort of underserved oncology patients at New York City cancer clinics. A demographic survey and the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module were administered. A multivariate General Linear Model Analysis of Covariance was used to evaluate predictors of food insecurity. Four hundred and four (404) completed the surveys. Nearly one-fifth (18%) had very low, 38% low, 17% marginal, and 27% high food security. The Analysis of Covariance was statistically significant (F[7, 370] = 19.08; p < .0001; R-Square = 0.26). Younger age, Spanish language, poor health care access, and having less money for food since beginning cancer treatment were significantly associated with greater food insecurity. This cohort of underserved cancer patients had rates of food insecurity nearly five times those of the state average. More research is needed to understand better the causes and impact of food insecurity among cancer and chronic disease patients. PMID:25130231

Gany, Francesca; Lee, Trevor; Ramirez, Julia; Massie, Dana; Moran, Alyssa; Crist, Michael; McNish, Thelma; Winkel, Gary; Leng, Jennifer C

2014-08-01

420

Be Heart Smart! Eat Foods Lower in Saturated Fats and Cholesterol  

E-print Network

A high content of saturated fat can be found in some foods that come from plants such as: · palm kernel oil · palm oil · coconut oil · cocoa butter Limit Trans Fatty Acids Trans fatty acids are produced when vegetable oils are processed to make "hydrogenated oil." Many foods contain partially hydrogenated

Liskiewicz, Maciej

421

“Just looking at food makes me gain weight”: Experimental induction of thought–shape fusion in eating-disordered and non-eating-disordered women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thought–shape fusion (TSF) is a cognitive distortion that can be induced experimentally and is associated with eating pathology. The current study was conducted in order to elucidate the effects of TSF induction in females with eating disorders (n=35), as well as in restrained eaters (n=38) and unrestrained eaters (n=39). It was hypothesized that TSF induction would result in anxiety, guilt,

Jennifer S. Coelho; Jacqueline C. Carter; Traci McFarlane; Janet Polivy

2008-01-01

422

Stimulus-response compatibility tests of implicit preference for food and body image to identify people at risk for disordered eating: a validation study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to incorporate implicit measures of relevant social cognition into eating disorder research. Fifty-three females diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED), and 41 at-risk females were recruited via ED support websites, along with 23 healthy females for comparison. Computerised online tests assessing subconscious normative ideal body image (IBI-BIAT) and personalised self-identification body image (PBI-BIAT) associations and food preferences (FP-AAT) were administered, followed by the modified version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Anthropometric data, age, need for social approval, self-reported measures of self-esteem, normative perception and body image satisfaction were recorded. Self-reported diagnosed ED status was corroborated with BMI and EDE-Q. Diagnostic performance of the implicit measures was assessed with ROC analysis. Those diagnosed with ED showed significantly stronger automatic preferences for and self-identification with thin body image, compared to healthy females, but no differences were found in food preferences. The IBI-BIAT showed better diagnostic power than PBI-BIAT, correctly classifying 87% of the diagnosed participants. No correlation was found between IBI-BIAT and the explicit measures. The results suggest that the underlying subconscious social cognitive factors of pathological eating are linked to body image, not to food items per se. PMID:25464068

Khan, Saira; Petróczi, Andrea

2015-01-01

423

Getting my child to eat the right amount. Mothers' considerations when deciding how much food to offer their child at a meal.  

PubMed

Feeding young children successfully requires parenting skills, trust that children will eat, and nutrition and child development knowledge to ensure that foods and the amounts offered are developmentally appropriate. Mothers are often responsible for determining how much food is offered to their children; however, the influences on mothers' decisions regarding how much to offer their children - their motivations, goals for feeding and child consumption - have not been investigated. Study aims included gathering qualitative data regarding mothers' decisional processes related to preparing a dinner meal plate for her preschooler. Low income mothers (n?=?15 African American and n?=?15 Latina mothers) were recruited from preschools in the Denver, CO metropolitan area to participate in semi-structured interviews. Mothers prepared a plate for their preschooler and were asked about influences on their decisions about portion sizes and their expectations for children's eating. Data were coded by 2 independent coders using a consensus coding process and analyzed by investigators. Three themes emerged: (1) portion sizes differ for children who are "good" eaters and "picky" eaters; (2) mothers know the "right amounts" to serve their child; and (3) mothers have emotional investments in their children's eating. Some influencing factors were child-centered (e.g. child's likes and dislikes, "picky" and "good" eaters, and foods previously eaten in the day) and some related to adult expectations and concerns (nutrient content and waste). Interventions focusing on portion size may be more effective if tailored to the mothers' perceptions regarding her child's eating characteristics. PMID:25510530

Johnson, Susan L; Goodell, L Suzanne; Williams, Kimberly; Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O

2015-05-01

424

"You must eat the salad because it is nutritious". Argumentative strategies adopted by parents and children in food-related discussions at mealtimes.  

PubMed

At mealtimes, the evaluation of the appropriate (or not appropriate) behavior concerning the food is often assumed as a topic of discourse. The aim of this study is to single out the argumentative strategies used by parents with their children and by children with their parents in order to convince the other party to eat or not to eat a certain food. Within a data corpus constituted by 30 video-recorded meals of 10 middle to upper-middle-class Swiss and Italian families, we selected a corpus of 77 argumentative discussions between parents and children arisen around a food-related issue. Data are presented through discursive excerpts of argumentative discussions that were found within the data corpus and analyzed through the pragma-dialectical model of critical discussion. The results of this study show that the feeding practices in families with young children during mealtimes are argumentatively co-constructed by participants. In most cases parents put forward arguments based on the quality (e.g., very good, nutritious, salty, or not good) and quantity (e.g., too little, quite enough, or too much) of food to convince their children to eat. Similarly, children put forward arguments based on the quality and quantity of food to convince their parents to change their standpoint, although their view on the issue is the opposite of that of their parents. PMID:24216487

Bova, Antonio; Arcidiacono, Francesco

2014-02-01

425

Food for Thought: Ego-dystonicity and Fear of Self in Eating Disorders.  

PubMed

Degree of ego-dystonicity in obsessions is clinically relevant to the conceptualization and treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Obsessive-compulsive disorder research has suggested that the transformation of intrusive thoughts into obsessions is linked to the degree to which intrusive thoughts threaten core perceptions of the self. This study aims to explore the relationship between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions in ED patients and a fear of self, the link between ED symptom severity and ego-dystonicity in obsessions, and differences between non-clinical and individuals with EDs in the presence of ego-dystonic thoughts and a fear of self. Ego-dystonicity (Ego-dystonicity Questionnaire (EDQ)) and feared self (Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ)) degrees were measured in a clinical sample (n?=?57 with EDs) and a non-clinical sample (n?=?45). EDQ and FSQ scores were highly correlated in both samples. EDQ scores were not significantly correlated to ED symptom severity with the exception of the EDQ Irrationality subscale, which was strongly related to compulsion severity. Participants with an ED had significantly higher EDQ and FSQ scores compared with controls. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25728327

Purcell Lalonde, Magali; O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick; Coelho, Jennifer S

2015-05-01

426

Documentary on Fast Food Sparks Both Criticism and Intrigue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Morgan Spurlock's recent documentary and extended nutrition experiment has garnered great attention, both in the United States and abroad. By now, most people know that the documentary consists of him making his way to McDonalds and eating there several times a day for 30 days in a row. Since its release, the film has also done quite well, as it passed the 200-screen week this past week, and has already grossed over $6 million. Things continue to look positive for Spurlock as he has recently signed a tentative book deal, and has also just signed a deal to create a one-hour reality television show. All is not completely tranquil, as a number of critics and other pundits have begun to embark on their own separate projects that emphasize personal responsibility when it comes to eating habits and such matters. One such critic is Soso Whaley, an animal trainer based in Washington, DC, who is making her own documentary where she also eats at McDonald's for thirty days. The twist is that she eats the healthier options available on their menu, and as a result loses weight and her cholesterol also drops significantly. She plans to enter her film in the Sundance Film Festival as well, thereby keeping the ball rolling on the whole debate for at least another year.The first link leads to a good piece in the Guardian that talks both about the film itself and the interesting response from a number of parties, including critics of Mr. Spurlock's message and methods. The second link offers a recent interview transcript with Mr. Spurlock that includes answers to such thorny questions as: What book are you currently reading?. The third link will take visitors to the site that provides information on the documentary being made by Soso Whaley that attempts to debunk Spurlock's work. The fourth link leads to one conservative thinktank's webpage that attempts to address some of the inherent scientific problems with Spurlock's work. The fifth link (which is probably the most fun) is the link to the Super Size Me homepage, where visitors can view a trailer for the film and view stills from the movie. The sixth and final link leads to a listing of America's "fattest and fittest" cities for the year 2004, provided by Men's Health magazine. The "fattest" city, as determined by the survey, is Detroit, while the "fittest" happens to be Honolulu. [KMG

427

Food & Retail on Campus Never Stand Still Facilities Management  

E-print Network

) QUadranglE BUilding ­ lg Wide range of fresh, fast and tasty food. Various cuisines. The Whitehouse (C15Food & Retail on Campus Never Stand Still Facilities Management Eat, drink, shop, relax! #12;Keen place! #12;UNSW's Kensington Campus has a large variety of food and general retail services, including

New South Wales, University of

428

"Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

2009-01-01

429

The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97?g/100?g; p?food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1?g/100?g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

2014-12-01

430

Special Handling for Ready-to-Eat, Refrigerated Foods: Reducing the Risks of Foodborne Listeria  

MedlinePLUS

... the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Reducing the Risks of Foodborne Listeria - Easy as . . . Available in ( PDF - ... the refrigerator clean is also important! Who's At Risk People with weakened immune systems are not able ...

431

Getting consumers to eat more whole-grains: The role of policy, information, and food manufacturers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 Dietary Guidelines were unique because they offered quantitative recommendations for consumption of whole-grains. This case study examines the hypothesis that the changed recommendations were responsible for the recent increase in retail sales and consumption of whole-grain food products. We find that release of the Dietary Guidelines and related media attention did increase availability and sales of whole-grain foods.

Lisa Mancino; Fred Kuchler; Ephraim Leibtag

2008-01-01

432

Effect of light intensity on food detection in captive great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).  

PubMed

Bats are known for their well-developed echolocation. However, several experiments focused on the bat visual system have shown evidence of the importance of visual cues under specific luminosity for different aspects of bat biology, including foraging behavior. This study examined the foraging abilities of five female great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus, under different light intensities. Animals were given a series of tasks to test for discrimination between a food target against an inedible background, under light levels similar to the twilight illumination (18lx), the full moon (2lx) and complete darkness (0lx). We found that the bats required a longer time frame to detect targets under a light intensity similar to twilight, possibly due to inhibitory effects present under a more intense light level. Additionally, bats were more efficient at detecting and capturing targets under light conditions similar to the luminosity of a full moon, suggesting that visual cues were important for target discrimination. These results demonstrate that light intensity affects foraging behavior and enables the use of visual cues for food detection in frugivorous bats. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25153795

Gutierrez, Eduardo de A; Pessoa, Valdir F; Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Pessoa, Daniel M A

2014-11-01

433

Food is taking center stage in health. Not that food choices weren't always important your mom told you to eat those veggies for a reason.  

E-print Network

to lowering risk of advanced AMD. Just another reason Dr. Carr touts the importance of "developing good eating eyes is to eat a balanced diet high in fruits and vegetables, but also low in saturated fats and sugar

Burke, Peter

434

The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction  

PubMed Central

Background: Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Methods: Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. Results: We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). Interpretation: The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health. PMID:22508978

Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

2012-01-01

435

Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…

Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

2000-01-01

436

healthy eating CHEAP AND EASY  

E-print Network

example eating healthy foods more often offering meals and snacks at regular times, and giving your kids a variety of foods at meals and snacks. children NEED HEALTHY FOOD healthy eating doesn't mean forcing kids for healthy snacks as well as healthy meals. Fresh fruits in season, raw vegetables, cheese, popcorn, crackers

437

Effects of Fast Food Branding on Young Children's Taste Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The mean±SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37±0.45 (median, 0.20; in- terquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (P.001), indicating that children preferred the tastes of foods and drinks if they thought they were from McDonald's. Moderator analysis found significantly greater effects of branding among children with more televi- sion sets in their homes

Thomas N. Robinson; Dina L. G. Borzekowski; Donna M. Matheson; Helena C. Kraemer

2007-01-01

438

Fast food in ant communities: how competing species find resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of foraging behavior is crucial to understanding higher level community dynamics; in particular, there is\\u000a a lack of information about how different species discover food resources. We examined the effect of forager number and forager\\u000a discovery capacity on food discovery in two disparate temperate ant communities, located in Texas and Arizona. We defined\\u000a forager discovery capacity as the

Jessica M. C. Pearce-Duvet; Martin Moyano; Frederick R. Adler; Donald H. Feener Jr

439

Re-embodying Eating  

PubMed Central

Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

2014-01-01

440

Genotoxicity of processed food items and ready-to-eat snacks in Finland.  

PubMed

Processed foods are an insufficiently characterized source of chemical mutagens for consumers. Here, we evaluated the genotoxicity of selected food products in Finland. Mutagenicity was determined by the standard plate incorporation assay followed by methylcellulose overlay and treat-and-wash assays, using the Salmonella strains TA 100 and 98 with and without metabolic activation. Generally, the mutagenic activity of food samples was low, but exhibited lot-wise variation. Cold cuts of cold-smoked beef, grilled turkey, and smoked chicken (a single batch of each) were mutagenic in all three assays with the TA 100 strain with and without metabolic activation, indicating the mutagenic effect was not secondary to histidine release from the food products. However, none of the food extracts showing mutagenic potential induced DNA damage in vitro using the Comet Assay. Our findings imply that in Finland today, there are still products the production methods of which should be refined to reduce the potential risk of mutagenicity to consumers. PMID:24874377

Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

2014-11-01

441

Microbiological hazard analysis of ready-to-eat meats processed at a food plant in Trinidad, West Indies  

PubMed Central

Background A bacteriological assessment of the environment and food products at different stages of processing was conducted during the manufacture of ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken franks, chicken bologna and bacon at a large meat processing plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Methods Samples of air, surfaces (swabs), raw materials, and in-process and finished food products were collected during two separate visits for each product type and subjected to qualitative or quantitative analysis for bacterial zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator organisms. Results Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen detected in pre-cooked products (mean counts = 0.66, 1.98, and 1.95 log10CFU/g for franks, bologna, and bacon, respectively). This pathogen was also found in unacceptable levels in 4 (16.7%) of 24 post-cooked samples. Fifty percent (10 of 20) of pre-cooked mixtures of bacon and bologna were contaminated with Listeria spp., including four with L. monocytogenes. Pre-cooked mixtures of franks and bologna also contained E. coli (35 and 0.72 log10 CFU/g, respectively) while 5 (12.5%) of 40 pre-cooked mixtures of chicken franks had Salmonella spp. Aerobic bacteria exceeded acceptable international standards in 46 (82.1%) of 56 pre-cooked and 6 (16.7%) of 36 post-cooked samples. Both pre-and post-cooking air and surfaces had relatively high levels of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, including equipment and gloves of employees. A drastic decrease in aerobic counts and Staphylococcus aureus levels following heat treatment and subsequent increase in counts of these bacteria are suggestive of post-cooking contamination. Conclusion A relatively high level of risk exists for microbial contamination of RTE meats at the food plant investigated and there is a need for enhancing the quality assurance programs to ensure the safety of consumers of products manufactured at this plant. PMID:23878681

Syne, Stacey-Marie; Ramsubhag, Adash; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.

2013-01-01

442

The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders  

E-print Network

Review The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders Kent C circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain in obesity or in eating disorders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Obesity Eating Food

Berridge, Kent

443

The United States food supply is not consistent with dietary guidance: evidence from an evaluation using the Healthy Eating Index-2010.  

PubMed

The US food system is primarily an economic enterprise, with far-reaching health, environmental, and social effects. A key data source for evaluating the many effects of the food system, including the overall quality and extent to which it provides the basic elements of a healthful diet, is the Food Availability Data System. The objective of the present study was to update earlier research that evaluated the extent to which the US food supply aligns with the most recent federal dietary guidance, using the current Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and food supply data extending through 2010. The HEI-2010 was applied to 40 years of food supply data (1970-2010) to examine trends in the overall food supply as well as specific components related to a healthy diet, such as fruits and vegetables. The HEI-2010 overall summary score hovered around half of optimal for all years evaluated, with an increase from 48 points in 1970 to 55 points (out of a possible 100 points) in 2010. Fluctuations in scores for most individual components did not lead to sustained trends. Our study continues to demonstrate sizable gaps between federal dietary guidance and the food supply. This disconnect is troublesome within a context of high rates of diet-related chronic diseases among the population and suggests the need for continual monitoring of the quality of the food supply. Moving toward a food system that is more conducive to healthy eating requires consideration of a range of factors that influence food supply and demand. PMID:25441965

Miller, Paige E; Reedy, Jill; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

2015-01-01

444

Risky Food Safety Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Bmi and Lower Healthy Eating Self-Efficacy and Intentions among African American Churchgoers in Baltimore  

PubMed Central

Background There are an estimated 9.4 million cases of foodborne illness each year. Consumers have a key role in preventing foodborne illness, but differences in the practice of food safety behaviors exist, increasing risk for certain groups in the population. Identifying groups who are more likely to practice risky food safety behaviors can assist in development of interventions to reduce the disease burden of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships of health indicators and psychosocial factors with self-reported food safety behaviors. Methods and Findings Data were collected via questionnaire from 153 African Americans who attend churches in Baltimore City. Individuals reported high overall concern with food safety (mean score: 0.80±0.49 on a scale of ?1 to +1) and practiced food safety behaviors with moderate overall frequency (mean score: 5.26±4.01 on a scale of ?12 to +12), with considerable variation in reported frequencies depending on the food safety behavior. After adjusting for demographic variables, food safety behaviors were significantly associated with BMI and psychosocial variables. Riskier food safety behaviors were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) (??=??0.141 95%CI (?0.237, ?0.044), p?=?0.004). Self-efficacy for healthy eating (standard ? [std. ?]?=?0.250, p?=?0.005) and healthy eating intentions (std. ??=?0.178, p?=?0.041) were associated with better food safety behaviors scores. Conclusions These results show important relationships between weight-related health indicators, psychosocial factors and food safety behaviors that have not previously been studied. Interventions tailored to higher-risk populations have the potential to reduce the burden of food-related illnesses. Additional studies are needed to further investigate these relationships with larger and more diverse samples. PMID:23284894

Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Silbergeld, Ellen; Summers, Amber; Chen, Lenis; Gittelsohn, Joel

2012-01-01

445

Development and Reliability Testing of a Fast-Food Restaurant Observation Form.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To develop a reliable observational data collection instrument to measure characteristics of the fast-food restaurant environment likely to influence consumer behaviors, including product availability, pricing, and promotion. Design . The study used observational data collection. Setting . Restaurants were in the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area. Subjects . A total of 131 chain fast-food restaurant outlets were included. Measures . Interrater reliability was measured for product availability, pricing, and promotion measures on a fast-food restaurant observational data collection instrument. Analysis . Analysis was done with Cohen's ? coefficient and proportion of overall agreement for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables. Results . Interrater reliability, as measured by average ? coefficient, was .79 for menu characteristics, .84 for kids' menu characteristics, .92 for food availability and sizes, .85 for beverage availability and sizes, .78 for measures on the availability of nutrition information,.75 for characteristics of exterior advertisements, and .62 and .90 for exterior and interior characteristics measures, respectively. For continuous measures, average ICC was .88 for food pricing measures, .83 for beverage prices, and .65 for counts of exterior advertisements. Conclusion . Over 85% of measures demonstrated substantial or almost perfect agreement. Although some measures required revision or protocol clarification, results from this study suggest that the instrument may be used to reliably measure the fast-food restaurant environment. PMID:24819996

Rimkus, Leah; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Powell, Lisa M; Zenk, Shannon N; Quinn, Christopher M; Barker, Dianne C; Pugach, Oksana; Resnick, Elissa A; Chaloupka, Frank J

2014-05-12

446

Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.  

PubMed

A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

2013-09-01

447

You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid  

PubMed Central

Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile food quantity on adult reproductive fitness in a hemimetabolous insect. PMID:24130901

Barry, Katherine L.

2013-01-01

448

Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3–7 years were shown McDonald’s and Burger King children’s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010–11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Results Premiums/tie-ins were common in children’s but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children’s ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children’s vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002). For children’s ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Children’s net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice. PMID:25738653

Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

2015-01-01

449

Effects of Fast-Food Consumption on Energy Intake and Diet Quality Among Children in a National Household Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Fast food has become a prominent feature of the diet of children in the United States and, increasingly, throughout the world. However, few studies have examined the effects of fast-food con- sumption on any nutrition or health-related outcome. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that fast-food consumption adversely affects dietary factors linked to obesity risk.

Shanthy A. Bowman; Steven L. Gortmaker; Cara B. Ebbeling; Mark A. Pereira; David S. Ludwig

450

Food Additives: "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy". Health and the Consumer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

451

Good food, good people: Understanding the cultural repertoire of ethical eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical consumption is understood by scholars as a key way that individuals can address social and ecological problems. While a hopeful trend, it raises the question of whether ethical consumption is primarily an elite social practice, especially since niche markets for ethical food products (for example, organics, fair trade) are thought to attract wealthy, educated consumers. Scholars do not fully

Josee Johnston; Michelle Szabo; Alexandra Rodney

2011-01-01

452

Eating clean and green? Investigating consumer motivations towards the purchase of organic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing consumer concern for health and environment issues has resulted in increased attention towards the purchase and consumption of organic food. This has driven an increase in organic research, especially as marketers seek to understand the motivations behind consumer purchases of organic goods.This study explored the effects of health consciousness, environmental concern, organic knowledge, availability, quality, price consciousness, subjective norms,

Samantha Smith; Angela Paladino

2010-01-01

453

Fast food in a Chinese provincial city: a comparative analysis  

E-print Network

. The cuisine of Huai?an is of the Huaiyang kind, one of the four major food types found in China. Huaiyang ? a region covering the lower reaches of Yangtze River, especially around Huai?an and Yangzhou, another city of Jiangsu Province, is a fertile area... fried in chicken fat, and smoked duck tongue are specialties. Generally, food of this area is lighter and milder than of the regions to its west. In fact, salty dishes from inland China generally get sweeter as one moves east along the Yangtze River...

Zhu, Haiying

2006-08-16

454

KOPPERT, G. & HLADIK, C.M. (1990) --Measuring food consumption. In : C.M. HLADIK, S. BAHUCHET et I. de GARINE (Eds.) Food and nutrition in the African rain forest. Unesco, Paris : 58-61.  

E-print Network

), several persons eat food from the same dish. A fast electronic scale connected to a micro computerKOPPERT, G. & HLADIK, C.M. (1990) -- Measuring food consumption. In : C.M. HLADIK, S. BAHUCHET et I. de GARINE (Eds.) Food and nutrition in the African rain forest. Unesco, Paris : 58-61. Measuring food

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

455

Capillary liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detection for heterocyclic aromatic amine determination in ready-to-eat food treated with electron-beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we have developed a capillary liquid chromatography with MS detection for the determination at ngg?1 levels of four heterocyclic aromatic amines (MeIQx, norharman, harman and harmine), a group of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds that can potentially be produced in protein-rich food during processing operations. They have been determined in commercial ready-to-eat (RTE) smoked salmon and soft

R. Gonzalo-Lumbreras; N. Rosales-Conrado; M. E. León-González; L. V. Pérez-Arribas; L. M. Polo-Díez

2010-01-01

456

Fast and frugal food choices: Uncovering individual decision heuristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on food decision making is often based on the assumption that people take many different aspects into account and weight and add them according to their personally assessed importance. Yet there is a growing body of research suggesting that people's decisions can often be better described by simple heuristics—rules of thumb that people use to make choices based on

B. Scheibehenne; L. Miesler; Peter M. Todd

2008-01-01

457

Fast Food Demand, Physical Activity, Obesity and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the demand for food-away-from-home (FAFH) increases, there is a growing concern regarding its role in the increasing incidence of obesity among Americans. In this paper, we investigate the role of FAFH pricing in influencing both sides of the weight-gain equation (calories in - calories out = weight gain): FAFH demand, physical activity, health status and, ultimately, body mass index

Timothy J. Richards; Lisa Mancino

458

Energy Content of U.S. Fast-Food Restaurant Offerings 14-Year Trends  

PubMed Central

Background Within the past decade there has been increasing attention to the role of fast food in the American diet, including a rise in legislative and media-based efforts that address the healthfulness of fast food. However, no studies have been undertaken to evaluate changes in the energy content of fast-food chain restaurant menu items during this period. Purpose To examine changes in the energy content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at eight of the leading fast-food chain restaurants in the U.S. between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Methods Menu offerings and nutrient composition information were obtained from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center Food and Nutrient Database. Nutrient composition information for items was updated biannually. Changes in median energy content of all lunch/dinner menu offerings and specific categories of menu items among all restaurants and for individual restaurants were examined. Data were collected between 1997 and 2010 and analysis was conducted in 2011. Results Spanning 1997/1998 and 2009/2010, the number of lunch/dinner menu items offered by the restaurants in the study increased by 53%. Across all menu items, the median energy content remained relatively stable over the study period. Examining specific food categories, the median energy content of desserts and condiments increased, the energy content of side items decreased, and energy content of entrees and drinks remained level. Conclusions While large increases in the number of menu items were observed, there have been few changes in the energy content of menu offerings at the leading fast-food chain restaurants examined in this study. PMID:23079171

Bauer, Katherine W.; Hearst, Mary O.; Earnest, Alicia A.; French, Simone A.; Oakes, J. Michael; Harnack, Lisa J.

2012-01-01

459

Purchasing Behavior and Calorie Information at Fast-Food Chains in New York City, 2007  

PubMed Central

We surveyed 7318 customers from 275 randomly selected restaurants of 11 fast food chains. Participants purchased a mean of 827 calories, with 34% purchasing 1000 calories or more. Unlike other chains, Subway posted calorie information at point of purchase and its patrons more often reported seeing calorie infomation than patrons of other chains (32% vs 4%; P<.001); Subway patrons who saw calorie information purchased 52 fewer calories than did other Subway patrons (P<.01). Fast-food chains should display calorie information prominently at point of purchase, where it can be seen and used to inform purchases. PMID:18556597

Bassett, Mary T.; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina; Silver, Lynn D.; Young, Candace; Nonas, Cathy; Matte, Thomas D.; Chideya, Sekai; Frieden, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

460

The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

Yunliang Zhao; Min Hu; Sjaak Slanina; Yuanhang Zhang

2007-01-01

461

Successful weight loss and maintenance in everyday clinical practice with an individually tailored change of eating habits on the basis of food energy density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Weight change was analyzed in a cohort of obese patients whose eating habits were changed individually mainly on the basis\\u000a of food energy density (ED) to evaluate the feasibility of this concept for a larger controlled trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Five hundred and thirteen outpatients were treated between January 2003 and December 2006. Dietary counseling was based on\\u000a a pretreatment food diary. In

Volker Schusdziarra; Margit Hausmann; Corina Wiedemann; Julie Hess; Cornelia Barth; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Johannes Erdmann

2011-01-01

462

Light-Element Isotopes (H, C, N, and O) as Tracers of Human Diet: A Case Study on Fast Food Meals  

E-print Network

for one ubiquitous example of modern convenience food, the fast food meal. In a series of paired observations among cities in the U.S., we com- pared the isotopic composition of components of a fast food meal analysis of proteins highlighted the impact of consumer choice: patrons in a fast food restaurant consumed

Ehleringer, Jim

463

Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine demographic, behavioral and dietary correlates of frequency of fast food restaurant use in a community-based sample of 4746 adolescent students.DESIGN: A survey was administered to students in classrooms at 31 secondary schools in a large metropolitan area in Minnesota, United States. Height and body weight were measured.SUBJECTS: Students in grades 7–12 who were enrolled in participating schools,

SA French; M Story; D Neumark-Sztainer; JA Fulkerson; P Hannan

2001-01-01

464

Measuring food access in Melbourne: Access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to healthy food can be an important determinant of a healthy diet. This paper describes the assessment of access to healthy and unhealthy foods using a GIS