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Sample records for eating fast food

  1. You are how you eat: fast food and impatience.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chen-Bo; Devoe, Sanford E

    2010-05-01

    Based on recent advancements in the behavioral priming literature, three experiments investigated how incidental exposure to fast food can induce impatient behaviors and choices outside of the eating domain. We found that even an unconscious exposure to fast-food symbols can automatically increase participants' reading speed when they are under no time pressure and that thinking about fast food increases preferences for time-saving products while there are potentially many other product dimensions to consider. More strikingly, we found that mere exposure to fast-food symbols reduced people's willingness to save and led them to prefer immediate gain over greater future return, ultimately harming their economic interest. Thus, the way people eat has far-reaching (often unconscious) influences on behaviors and choices unrelated to eating. PMID:20483836

  2. Do Adolescents Who Live or Go to School Near Fast Food Restaurants Eat More Frequently From Fast Food Restaurants?

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents’ eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2,724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adolescents and also ate at fast food restaurants more often. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographics, adolescent males living near high numbers fast food restaurants ate more frequently from these venues compared to their peers. PMID:23064515

  3. Why eat at fast-food restaurants: reported reasons among frequent consumers.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Sarah A; Harnack, Lisa J; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary; Jeffery, Robert W; French, Simone A

    2008-12-01

    A convenience sample of adolescents and adults who regularly eat at fast-food restaurants were recruited to participate in an experimental trial to examine the effect of nutrition labeling on meal choices. As part of this study, participants were asked to indicate how strongly they agreed or disagreed with 11 statements to assess reasons for eating at fast-food restaurants. Logistic regression was conducted to examine whether responses differed by demographic factors. The most frequently reported reasons for eating at fast-food restaurants were: fast food is quick (92%), restaurants are easy to get to (80%), and food tastes good (69%). The least frequently reported reasons were: eating fast food is a way of socializing with family and friends (33%), restaurants have nutritious foods to offer (21%), and restaurants are fun and entertaining (12%). Some differences were found with respect to the demographic factors examined. It appears that in order to reduce fast-food consumption, food and nutrition professionals need to identify alternative quick and convenient food sources. As motivation for eating at fast-food restaurants appears to differ somewhat by age, sex, education, employment status, and household size, tailored interventions could be considered. PMID:19027410

  4. Health Implications of Adults' Eating at and Living near Fast Food or Quick Service Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, J; Moudon, A V; Kim, S Y; Hurvitz, P M; Drewnowski, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper examined whether the reported health impacts of frequent eating at a fast food or quick service restaurant on health were related to having such a restaurant near home. Methods: Logistic regressions estimated associations between frequent fast food or quick service restaurant use and health status, being overweight or obese, having a cardiovascular disease or diabetes, as binary health outcomes. In all, 2001 participants in the 2008–2009 Seattle Obesity Study survey were included in the analyses. Results: Results showed eating ⩾2 times a week at a fast food or quick service restaurant was associated with perceived poor health status, overweight and obese. However, living close to such restaurants was not related to negative health outcomes. Conclusions: Frequent eating at a fast food or quick service restaurant was associated with perceived poor health status and higher body mass index, but living close to such facilities was not. PMID:26192449

  5. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  6. Fast food hamburgers: what are we really eating?

    PubMed

    Prayson, Brigid; McMahon, James T; Prayson, Richard A

    2008-12-01

    Americans consume about 5 billion hamburgers a year. It is presumed that most hamburgers are composed primarily of meat. The purpose of this study is to assess the content of 8 fast food hamburger brands using histologic methods. Eight different brands of hamburgers were evaluated for water content by weight and microscopically for recognizable tissue types. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining was used to evaluate for brain tissue. Water content by weight ranged from 37.7% to 62.4% (mean, 49%). Meat content in the hamburgers ranged from 2.1% to 14.8% (median, 12.1%). The cost per gram of hamburger ranged from $0.02 to $0.16 (median, $0.03) and did not correlate with meat content. Electron microscopy showed relatively preserved skeletal muscle. A variety of tissue types besides skeletal muscle were observed including connective tissue (n = 8), blood vessels (n = 8), peripheral nerve (n = 8), adipose tissue (n = 7), plant material (n = 4), cartilage (n = 3), and bone (n = 2). In 2 hamburgers, intracellular parasites (Sarcocystis) were identified. The GFAP immunostaining was not observed in any of the hamburgers. Lipid content on oil-red-O staining was graded as 1+ (moderate) in 6 burgers and 2+ (marked) in 2 burgers. Fast food hamburgers are comprised of little meat (median, 12.1%). Approximately half of their weight is made up of water. Unexpected tissue types found in some hamburgers included bone, cartilage, and plant material; no brain tissue was present. Sarcocystis parasites were discovered in 2 hamburgers. PMID:18995204

  7. Eating on the run. A qualitative study of health agency and eating behaviors among fast food employees.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Womack, Catherine A; Oddo, Vanessa M

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between obesity and fast food consumption encompasses a broad range of individual level and environmental factors. One theoretical approach, the health capability framework, focuses on the complex set of conditions allowing individuals to be healthy. This qualitative study aimed to identify factors that influence individual level health agency with respect to healthy eating choices in uniformly constrained environments (e.g., fast food restaurants). We used an inductive qualitative research design to develop an interview guide, conduct open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of 14 student fast food workers (aged 18-25), and analyze the data. Data analysis was conducted iteratively during the study with multiple coders to identify themes. Emergent themes included environmental influences on eating behaviors (time, cost, restaurant policies, social networks) and internal psychological factors (feelings associated with hunger, food knowledge versus food preparation know-how, reaction to physical experiences, perceptions of food options, delayed gratification, and radical subjectivity). A localized, embedded approach to analyzing the factors driving the obesity epidemic is needed. Addressing contextual interactions between internal psychological and external environmental factors responds to social justice and public health concerns, and may yield more relevant and effective interventions for vulnerable communities. PMID:22634194

  8. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. PMID:25903236

  9. "Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

  10. Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

  11. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

  12. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  13. The association of binge eating and neighbourhood fast-food restaurant availability on diet and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Tracey; Adamus-Leach, Heather; O’Connor, Daniel P; Mama, Scherezade; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fast-food restaurants (FFR) are prevalent. Binge eating is common among overweight and obese women. For women prone to binge eating, neighbourhood FFR availability (i.e. the neighbourhood around one’s home) may promote poor diet and overweight/obesity. The present study tested the effects of binge eating and neighbourhood FFR availability on diet (fat and total energy intake) and BMI among African American and Hispanic/Latino women. Design All measures represent baseline data from the Health is Power randomized clinical trial. The numbers of FFR in participants’ neighbourhoods were counted and dichotomized (0 or ≥1 neighbourhood FFR). Participants completed measures of binge eating status and diet. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. 2 (binge eating status) × 2 (neighbourhood FFR availability) ANCOVA tested effects on diet and BMI while controlling for demographics. Setting Houston and Austin, TX, USA. Subjects African American and Hispanic/Latino women aged 25–60 years. Results Of the total sample (n 162), 48% had 1–15 neighbourhood FFR and 29% were binge eaters. There was an interaction effect on BMI (P=0·05). Binge eaters with ≥1 neighbourhood FFR had higher BMI than non-binge eaters or binge eaters with no neighbourhood FFR. There were no significant interactions or neighbourhood FFR main effects on total energy or fat intake (P>0·05). A main effect of binge eating showed that binge eaters consumed more total energy (P=0·005) and fat (P=0·005) than non-binge eaters. Conclusions Binge eaters represented a substantial proportion of this predominantly overweight and obese sample of African American and Hispanic/ Latino women. The association between neighbourhood FFR availability and weight status is complicated by binge eating status, which is related to diet. PMID:24476972

  14. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more

  15. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID

  16. Does short-term fasting promote pathological eating patterns?

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Drew A; Reilly, Erin E; Anderson, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Fasting, or going a significant amount of time without eating, has been identified as a risk factor for the development of pathological eating patterns. Findings from several studies examining the impact of fasting on subsequent eating behaviors have been mixed. The current study recruited college students to record food intake, episodes of binge eating, and use of compensatory behaviors before, throughout, and following a 24-hour fast. Participants attended an initial appointment in which they completed measures of dietary restraint and disinhibition and received instructions on self-monitoring and fasting. Participants (N=122) self-monitored their eating behaviors for 96 h, including a 24-hour fasting period. Participants did not demonstrate significant increases in disordered eating behaviors following the fast (e.g., objective binge episodes, self-defined excessive eating or compensatory behavior use). Baseline disinhibition predicted excessive eating as well as objective binge episodes both before and after fasting. Altogether, findings have implications for research seeking to further understand how fasting may contribute to the development of pathological eating patterns; specifically, it seems that the ED risk associated with fasting is derived from the behavior's interaction with other individual difference variables. PMID:26431904

  17. Local Food Prices: Effects on Child Eating Patterns, Food Insecurity, and Overweight. Fast Focus. No. 16-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Jacknowitz, Alison; Vinopal, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this research brief were co-principal investigators on a grant awarded by the IRP RIDGE Center for National Food and Nutrition Assistance Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in partnership with the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Their project, summarized here, was one of five proposals…

  18. Eating Disorders: About More Than Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders? Where can I find more information? Share Eating Disorders: About More Than Food Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What are eating disorders? The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and ...

  19. Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.

    PubMed

    Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

    2007-06-01

    Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996

  20. Development of an intervention programme to encourage high school students to stay in school for lunch instead of eating at nearby fast-food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-08-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. PMID:22306931

  1. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  2. Fast-Casual Dining: Our Next Eating Passion?

    PubMed

    Tillotson, James E.

    2003-01-01

    Americans have a new speedy-eating passion: fast-casual dining! Does this mean that now we can forget about McDonald's, Burger King, KFC, and the other fast-food restaurants that nutritionists have been railing against? Are they yesterday's news? PMID:12813187

  3. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  4. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  5. Picky eating: Associations with child eating characteristics and food intake.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Klazine; Deming, Denise M; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Carr, B Thomas; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2016-08-01

    Food rejection behaviors such as picky eating are of concern for many parents and attempts to increase healthy food intake can cause distress at mealtimes. An important limitation in most of the picky eating studies is that they cover few characteristics of picky eating behaviors and use limited measures of food intake. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between picky eating, child eating characteristics, and food intake among toddlers 12-47.9 months old (n = 2371) using data from the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographic and feeding characteristics and picky eater status. Differences in food group intake between picky and non-picky eaters were analyzed. Picky eaters were more likely to be neophobic, texture resistant, and to eat only favorite foods, In addition, the parents of picky eaters tend to offer new food a greater number of times than those of non-picky eaters before deciding that the child does not like it. Picky eaters showed significant lower intakes of eggs, burritos/tacos/enchiladas/nachos and sandwiches than non-picky eaters. Picky eaters consumed fewer vegetables from the "other vegetables" category and less raw vegetables than non-picky eaters. Neophobia, eating only favorite foods and difficulties with texture are all important characteristics of picky eaters which need to be integrated in studies measuring picky eating behaviors. Food intake of picky eaters differs only slightly from non-picky eaters. Because picky eating is a major parental concern, feeding strategies and advice related to the relevant characteristics of picky eating behavior need to be developed and assessed for their effectiveness. PMID:27120094

  6. Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

    2007-01-01

    Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

  7. Relationship of attitudes toward fast food and frequency of fast-food intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jayna M; An, Lawrence C; Jeffery, Robert W; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fast food and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults (94% white, 65% women, 70% married, 42% with college educated). Attitudes toward fast food was measured using an 11-item, 4-dimensional scale: perceived convenience of fast food (alpha=0.56); fast food is fun and social (alpha=0.55); fast food perceived as unhealthful (alpha=0.45); and dislike toward cooking (alpha=0.52). Frequency of fast-food intake was found to be significantly associated with age (odds ratios (OR)=0.981, P=0.001), gender (men>women), and marital status of the participants (single>married/partnered and divorced/separated/widowed). Additionally, frequency of fast-food intake was also found to be significantly associated with perceived convenience of fast food (OR=1.162, P<0.001) and dislike toward cooking (OR=1.119, P<0.001) but not with perceived unhealthfulness of fast food (OR=0.692, P=0.207). These findings suggest public education regarding the unhealthfulness of fast food may not influence fast food consumption. Interventions targeting the issue of convenience and quick or efficient preparation of nutritious alternatives to fast food could be more promising. PMID:19247277

  8. What We Eat In America Food Categories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) Food Categories is to provide an application for analyzing foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. Each of the 7,000+ codes in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) are sorted into 150 mutually exclusive food categ...

  9. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  10. Binge Eating Disorder and Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Gearhardt, Ashley N.; White, Marney A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and “food addiction” may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food addiction is relatively new, understanding the relationship between food addiction and BED may be informative in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of problematic eating. In the following paper, we 1) examine the theoretical similarities and differences between BED and addiction, 2) review recent empirical evidence that speak to the relationship between BED and food addiction and 3) discuss the implications of associations between BED and food addiction with respect to clinical interventions. PMID:21999695

  11. Fast-food consumption, diet quality, and neighborhood exposure to fast food: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Jacobs, David R; Franco, Manuel

    2009-07-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000-2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45-84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or > or =1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2-3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food > or =1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%-61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%-17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful. PMID:19429879

  12. Fast-Food Environments and Family Fast-Food Intake in Nonmetropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent–parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fast food at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eat fast food compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07,1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. Conclusions In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake. PMID:22608373

  13. Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

    2008-01-01

    Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special emphasis is placed on how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are relevant to understanding excess energy intake and obesity and how they provide a framework for examining factors that may influence eating and are outside of those that may regulate energy homeostasis. Methods to measure food reinforcement are reviewed, along with factors that influence the reinforcing value of eating. Contributions of neuroscience and genetics to the study of food reinforcement are illustrated by using the example of dopamine. Implications of food reinforcement for obesity and positive energy balance are explored, with suggestions for novel approaches to obesity treatment based on the synthesis of behavioral and pharmacological approaches to food reinforcement. PMID:17723034

  14. My Child Only Eats Certain Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Merrill; Kerwin, Mary Louise; Feldstein, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Many young children display some sort of picky eating. Although most children's diets will eventually consist of an adequate number of foods, some children's diets may not change without intervention. Children with limited diets typically have difficulty consuming new foods because they have some stomach discomfort, have limited oral-motor skills,…

  15. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  16. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  17. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. PMID:26686975

  18. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. Design and subjects: In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and −10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Results: Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00–1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Conclusion: Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing. PMID:23208414

  19. Do Ramadan fasting restrictions alter eating behaviours in obese women?

    PubMed

    Savas, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Kepekçi, Yalçın

    2014-02-01

    Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women. PMID:22576675

  20. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake. PMID:20351697

  1. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  2. Sociodemographic differences in fast food price sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Shikany, James M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Importance Fiscal food policies (e.g., taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. Objective We estimated subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardio-metabolic outcomes, hypothesizing inverse associations between fast food price with fast food consumption, BMI, and insulin resistance and stronger associations among blacks (vs. whites) and participants with relatively lower education or income. Design 20-year follow-up (5 exams) in a biracial U.S. prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/86–2005/06, baseline n=5,115). Participants Aged 18–30 at baseline; designed for equal recruitment by race (black/white), educational attainment, age, and gender. Exposures Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) temporally- and geographically-linked to study participants’ home address at each exam. Main outcome and measures Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week; BMI (kg/m2) from clinical assessment of weight and height; homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin. Covariates included individual- and community-level social and demographic factors. Results In repeated measures regression, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were non-linear (quadratic, p<0.001), with significant inverse estimated effects on consumption at higher prices; estimates varied according to race (interaction term p=0.04), income (p=0.07), and education (p=0.03). For example, at the 10th percentile of price ($1.25/serving), blacks and whites had mean fast food consumption (times/week) of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.3) and 1.6 (1.5–1.7), respectively, while at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.9 (1.8–2.0) and 1.5 (1.4–1.6). We

  3. Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food.

    PubMed

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2011-07-01

    In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors. PMID:21830348

  4. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and χ(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; P<0.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  5. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and sub-scores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t-tests and chi-square statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast food restaurants were more likely to provide nutritional information, while bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas: 13.09, fast food: 14.31, p=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs. 11.54, p=0.01) and fast food restaurants (16.27 vs. 11.60, p<.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  6. Food purchasing sites. Repercussions for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Costa, Janaína Calu; Claro, Rafael M; Martins, Ana Paula B; Levy, Renata B

    2013-11-01

    Changes in the food system are associated with the increase in consumption of foods with low nutritional value in recent decades. Data on food purchasing for household consumption, collected from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE--Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) Household Budget Survey (HBS) in 2002-3, were used to describe the contribution of food purchasing sites (FPS) to the diet of Brazilian families. All the 241 distinct FPS mentioned in the HBS were grouped into ten categories, according to the nature of the products available. Food acquisitions were organized into seven groups. Supermarkets and hypermarkets accounted for 49% of the acquisitions and were the main source of six out of the seven food groups. Street markets and greengroceries stood out in the acquisitions of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 39% of this market. The large contribution of supermarkets and hypermarkets to the diet shows the need for healthy eating promotion policies aiming at these locations. Street markets and greengroceries represent important allies for healthy eating. PMID:23835229

  7. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... events where food is served You stop at fast-food restaurants for breakfast and choose high fat, high ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of ...

  8. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    PubMed

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-01

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers. PMID:17537359

  9. Parrots Eat Nutritious Foods despite Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Gilardi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals) and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended. Methodology/Principal Findings We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992–1993) and one wet season (January-February1994). We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content. Conclusions/Significance Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry season when food was

  10. Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…

  11. JCL roundtable: fast food and the American diet.

    PubMed

    Brown, W Virgil; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2015-01-01

    The availability of food quickly prepared at lower cost and with consistent quality and convenience has made a variety of restaurant chains extremely popular. Commonly referred to as the fast food industry, these companies have stores on virtually every street corner in cities large and small. Fast foods contribute to energy intake, and depending on the food choices made, provide foods and nutrients that should be decreased in the diet. As Americans have become more conscious of their risk factors for heart disease and recognized eating patterns as a contributor to blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes, the fast food industry has attempted to adjust their menus to provide more healthful choices. The Roundtable discussion in this issue of the Journal will focus on the importance of this industry as a source of foods that could help address our population-wide efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease. PMID:25670354

  12. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the "Different" session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the "Same" session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the "Same" and "Different" sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the "Different" session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  13. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the “Different” session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the “Same” session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the “Same” and “Different” sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the “Different” session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  14. Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989

  15. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population☆

    PubMed Central

    Boggiano, M.M.; Burgess, E.E.; Turan, B.; Soleymani, T.; Daniel, S.; Vinson, L.D.; Lokken, K.L.; Wingo, B.C.; Morse, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R2 = .57) and patients (R2 = .55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p < 0.01), and in patients despite their truncated BMI range (p < 0.05). Among students, the motives Conformity and Reward Enhancement were also independently associated with binge-eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one’s tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one’s PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. PMID:25169880

  16. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, M M; Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Soleymani, T; Daniel, S; Vinson, L D; Lokken, K L; Wingo, B C; Morse, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R² = .57) and patients (R² = .55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p < 0.01), and in patients despite their truncated BMI range (p < 0.05). Among students, the motives Conformity and Reward Enhancement were also independently associated with binge-eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one's tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one's PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. PMID:25169880

  17. What We Eat in America Food Categories, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) Food Categories is to provide an application for analyzing foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. Each food and beverage code in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2011-2012 is sorted into one of the 150+ mutua...

  18. You stole my food! Eating alterations in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marilena; Silani, Vincenzo; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2016-08-01

    Patients with different types of dementia may exhibit pathological eating habits, including food fads, hyperphagia, or even ingestion of inanimate objects. Several findings reveal that such eating alterations are more common in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) than other types of dementia. Moreover, eating alterations may differ between the two variants of the disease, namely the behavioral variant and semantic dementia (SD). In this review, we summarized evidences regarding four areas: eating and body weight alterations in FTD, the most common assessment methods, anatomical correlates of eating disorders, and finally, proposed underlying mechanisms. An increasing understanding of the factors that contribute to eating abnormalities may allow first, a better comprehension of the clinical features of the disease and second, shed light on the mechanism underlying eating behaviors in the normal population. PMID:27327171

  19. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  20. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  1. Fasting for 24 Hours Heightens Reward from Food and Food-Related Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Jameason D.; Goldfield, Gary S.; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E.; Doucet, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) ‘wanting’, as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) ‘liking’, as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Methods Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m2 were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food ‘liking’ (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. Results There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of ‘liking’, and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (p<0.05). Under the FASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ significantly increased for all food categories. ‘Liking’ of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Conclusion Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED. PMID:24454949

  2. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  3. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  4. Does frequent eating out cause undesirable food choices? Association of food away from home with food consumption frequencies and obesity among Korean housewives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Kyung; Kim, Tae Yoon; Yoon, Jin-Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among socioeconomic factors, frequency of food away from home (FAFH) and food-consumption patterns of 1,070 housewives, and the association of those factors with obesity, using data from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although lower intakes of fruits, meats, and fast foods were associated with seldom eating out, no consistent pattern was observed regarding the relationship between the frequency of FAFH and food consumption for all groups of housewives. Further analysis indicated that obesity rates were lower among housewives aged 20-49 years with 7-12 years of education and moderate eating-out frequency, compared to older, less educated women. It appeared that reducing the frequency of FAFH does not always entail desirable food intakes among full-time housewives in Korea. Our findings suggest that choosing healthy meals away from home is more important for housewives than refraining from eating out. PMID:21888582

  5. Effect of fast food consumption on dietary intake and likelihood of meeting MyPyramid recommendations in adults: Results from What We Eat In America, NHANES, 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fast food (FF) consumption on food and nutrient intakes and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Adults 19-50 years of age (n=2,160) who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls in the What We ...

  6. Effects of Eating Fast and Eating Before Bedtime on the Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Takumi; Babazono, Akira; Maeda, Toshiki; Imatoh, Takuya; Une, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of lifestyle habits, such as eating behaviors, on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is known that NAFLD increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of eating behaviors and interactions between these behaviors on the development of NAFLD among health insurance beneficiaries without NAFLD. Study subjects were 2254 male and female insurance beneficiaries without NAFLD who had attended specific health checkups during fiscal years 2009 and 2012 among health insurance societies located in Fukuoka and Shizuoka Prefectures (Japan). The incidence of NAFLD was defined as Fatty Liver Index scores ≥60 or visiting medical organizations for fatty liver disease treatment according to claims data. Eating behaviors, including eating speed and eating before bedtime, were evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire. During the study period, 52 (2.3%) subjects progressed to NAFLD. Subjects who ate before bedtime but did not eat fast had a higher risk of NAFLD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-4.46). Those with both negative eating habits had a significantly higher risk of NAFLD (AOR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.09-5.63). Subjects who habitually ate before bedtime, and those who ate fast and before bedtime, tended to have an increased risk of NAFLD. Earlier intervention to modify these poor eating behaviors could be useful to prevent NAFLD. (Population Health Management 2016;19:279-283). PMID:26565781

  7. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  8. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  9. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  10. Enhancing hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation stimulates eating in food-deprived mice

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Abdelhak; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Ramachandran, Deepti; Arnold, Myrtha; Leitner, Claudia; Prip-Buus, Carina; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO) has long been implicated in the control of eating. Nevertheless, direct evidence for a causal relationship between changes in hepatic FAO and changes in food intake is still missing. Here we tested whether increasing hepatic FAO via adenovirus-mediated expression of a mutated form of the key regulatory enzyme of mitochondrial FAO carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1mt), which is active but insensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA, affects eating and metabolism in mice. CPT1mt expression increased hepatocellular CPT1 protein levels. This resulted in an increase in circulating ketone body levels in fasted CPT1mt-expressing mice, suggesting an increase in hepatic FAO. These mice did not show any significant changes in cumulative food intake, energy expenditure, or respiratory quotient after 4-h food deprivation. After 24-h food deprivation, however, the CPT1mt-expressing mice displayed increased food intake. Thus expression of CPT1mt in the liver increases hepatic FAO capacity, but does not inhibit eating. Rather, it may even stimulate eating after prolonged food deprivation. These data do not support the hypothesis that an increase in hepatic FAO decreases food intake. PMID:25427767

  11. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... down what you eat, how much, and what times of the day you are eating. Include notes about what else you were doing ... meals: Know what you will eat ahead of time so you can avoid ... buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at ...

  12. Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy.

    PubMed

    van Strien, T; Cebolla, A; Etchemendy, E; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Ferrer-García, M; Botella, C; Baños, R

    2013-07-01

    Do people with a high score on a scale for eating in response to negative emotions also show high food intake in response to positive emotions? We studied these effects in 60 female students that were preselected on the basis of extreme high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a between subject design we experimentally tested the difference in food intake following a mood induction designed to induce joy or sadness (the joy vs. sad mood condition). The high and low emotional eaters did not differ in their food intake, but emotional eating significantly moderated the relationship between mood condition and food intake. Whereas low emotional eaters ate similar amounts after the sad and after the joy mood condition, high emotional eaters ate significantly more after the sad mood condition than after the joy mood condition. A further finding was that a similar moderator effect for emotional eating was found for intake of sweet food but not for intake of salty food. These findings would suggest that eating in response to negative and to positive emotions refer to two different constructs. PMID:23470231

  13. Gating of attention towards food stimuli in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Biehl, Stefanie; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive models of eating disorders propose that attentional biases for disorder-relevant stimuli contribute to eating disorder pathology. Empirical evidence of a contribution of attentional biases for binge eating disorder (BED) is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess attention engagement towards, and disengagement from, food stimuli in overweight females with BED (n = 25) and a group of overweight and obese women without BED (OW; n = 30). Participants completed a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm with food and neutral words as target stimuli. This task can be used to decompose an attentional bias for food stimuli into its stimulus engagement and stimulus disengagement components. Findings indicate that facilitated stimulus engagement for food stimuli over neutral stimuli was more pronounced in the BED group compared to the OW group. Conversely, there were no substantial disengagement effects in either group. Thereby, results support the idea that early attentional processes are biased in BED. PMID:26212270

  14. Food Illusion: Why We Eat More than We Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Brian Wansink, director of the Food and Brand Lab at the University of Illinois, finds that the size of a package, the shape of a glass, the words on a menu or label, proximity to food, and other invisible influences could determine the quantity of what one eat.

  15. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    PubMed

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. PMID:26585635

  16. Food ideology and eating behavior: contributions from Malay studies.

    PubMed

    Laderman, C

    1984-01-01

    A study of food ideology and eating behavior in a Malay village demonstrates that the relationship between belief and action is complex and not always predictable. Over-reliance upon stated beliefs, and generalizations derived from particular ecological settings, have influenced investigators into making universal and logical statements about Malay eating behavior and its health consequences--a logic which, however, does not always jibe with reality. Food ideology, like any other portion of a belief system, is subject to innovation, interpretation and rationalization, and contains within it 'rules to break rules' which assure the continued integrity of the symbolic system by patterning what might otherwise be seen as rifts in its fabric. An understanding of eating behavior must be based both on a knowledge of the subsidiary, as well as primary, clauses of food ideology, and on direct observation of the behaviors elicited by these beliefs and modified by the setting, the situation and the individual. PMID:6484640

  17. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  18. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

  19. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI☆

    PubMed Central

    Boggiano, M.M.; Wenger, L.E.; Turan, B.; Tatum, M.M.; Morgan, P.R.; Sylvester, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test–retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test–retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f2 effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

  20. Decelerated and linear eaters: effect of eating rate on food intake and satiety.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Bergh, Cecilia; Brodin, Ulf; Södersten, Per

    2009-02-16

    Women were divided into those eating at a decelerated or linear rate. Eating rate was then experimentally increased or decreased by asking the women to adapt their rate of eating to curves presented on a computer screen and the effect on food intake and satiety was studied. Decelerated eaters were unable to eat at an increased rate, but ate the same amount of food when eating at a decreased rate as during the control condition. Linear eaters ate more food when eating at an increased rate, but less food when eating at a decreased rate. Decelerated eaters estimated their level of satiety lower when eating at an increased rate but similar to the control condition when eating at a decreased rate. Linear eaters estimated their level of satiety similar to the control level despite eating more food at an increased rate and higher despite eating less food at a decreased rate. The cumulative satiety curve was fitted to a sigmoid curve both in decelerated and linear eater under all conditions. Linear eaters rated their desire to eat and estimated their prospective intake lower than decelerated eaters and scored higher on a scale for restrained eating. It is suggested that linear eaters have difficulty maintaining their intake when eating rate is dissociated from its baseline level and that this puts them at risk of developing disordered eating. It is also suggested that feedback on eating rate can be used as an intervention to treat eating disorders. PMID:18992760

  1. Beyond picky eating: avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, Richard E; Palomaki, Angela

    2012-08-01

    Disorders related to ingesting adequate variety and amounts of food, often dichotomized into feeding or eating disorders, depending on the need for affected individuals to be fed or to eat on their own respectively, include a wide variety of conditions. This paper focuses on disorders that are not also associated with behaviors related to weight-control or self-concept strongly influenced by body weight or shape, as seen in anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. In contrast to eating disorders, there is a relatively sparse body of literature, inconsistent and confusing set of terms and definitions, and conflicting classification schemes applied to feeding/eating disturbances. A new scheme is proposed to improve clinical utility and include individuals who experience morbidities that could benefit from diagnosis and treatment, but are presently excluded from classification. Key research findings are highlighted, and core clinical features regarding diagnosis and treatment are detailed. Two illustrative cases frame the clinical aspects of these conditions. PMID:22665043

  2. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. PMID:26709962

  3. Fast food restaurant lighting and music can reduce calorie intake and increase satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert

    2012-08-01

    Recent research shows that environmental cues such as lighting and music strongly bias the eating behavior of diners in laboratory situations. This study examines whether changing the atmosphere of a fast food restaurant would change how much patrons ate. The results indicated that softening the lighting and music led people to eat less, to rate the food as more enjoyable, and to spend just as much. In contrast to hypothesized U-shaped curves (people who spend longer eat more), this suggests a more relaxed environment increases satisfaction and decreases consumption. PMID:23045865

  4. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  5. Individual differences in the conceptualization of food across eating contexts

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in food-related knowledge structures were explored by applying schema theory to examine the categories 42 adults used to classify foods across four eating contexts. Food card-sort labels were organized into 12 categories, category salience for each person was evaluated, and cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of participants according to the salience of their categories. Clusters were further evaluated for complexity and consistency of category use across contexts. Seven food schema clusters were identified. Meal/time and Routine categories were the most salient overall and were used by most clusters. Well-being, Person, Source, Convenience, Meal component, and Food group categories varied in salience across clusters. The complexity and consistency of the food categories participants used across the contexts varied among the clusters. This study provided insight about cognitions that may underlie food-choice behaviors. Understanding individuals’ food schemas could help nutrition professionals tailor messages to maximize health impact. PMID:19122739

  6. Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294

  7. Would Students Prefer to Eat Healthier Foods at School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosliner, Wendi; Madsen, Kristine A.; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study sought to elucidate students' perceptions of school food environments and to assess correlations between perceptions and purchasing and consumption behaviors at school. Methods: Seventh and ninth graders (n = 5365) at 19 schools in multiethnic, low-income California communities participating in the Healthy Eating Active…

  8. Eating Disorders: Cultural Model and Consensus Regarding Food.

    PubMed

    Manochio-Pina, Marina; Dos Santos, José Ernesto; Dressler, William W; Pessa Ribeiro, Rosane Pilot

    2015-01-01

    The cultural model of food was applied to 112 adult patients with eating disorders (PG) and 36 healthy adult women (CG) of similar age. The Free List and Ranking of Foods was used to group foods and verify consensus and cultural aspects. Calories, health, and taste were the dimensions used by the participants to group the foods, and strong consensus was achieved in regard to calories and health. There were, however, inter- and intra-group divergences in regard to these ideas, especially in the PG. The CG used distinct criteria, showing a more complex model. PMID:25874647

  9. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

  10. Food deprivation and emotional reactions to food cues: implications for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Drobes, D J; Miller, E J; Hillman, C H; Bradley, M M; Cuthbert, B N; Lang, P J

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined emotional responding to food cues. In experiment 1, normal college students were assigned to 0-, 6- or 24-h of food deprivation prior to presentations of standard emotional and food-related pictures. Food deprivation had no impact on responses elicited by standard emotional pictures. However, subjective and psychophysiological reactions to food pictures were affected significantly by deprivation. Importantly, food-deprived subjects viewing food pictures showed an enhanced startle reflex and increased heart rate. Experiment 2 replicated the food deprivation effects from experiment 1, and examined participants reporting either a habitual pattern of restrained (anorexia-like) or binge (bulimia-like) eating. Food-deprived and binge eater groups showed startle potentiation to food cues, and rated these stimuli as more pleasant, relative to restrained eaters and control subjects. The results are interpreted from the perspective that startle modulation reflects activation of defensive or appetitive motivation. Implications of the data for understanding eating disorders are considered. PMID:11454438

  11. Eating Right. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the food groups of the food guide pyramid. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words.…

  12. You Are What You Eat--Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Polly

    This brief speech discusses the correlation between nutrition and health among older adults. Food habits of older people do not always fall in line with their food needs and health condition. Therefore, there is a need to establish nutrition programs to help older adults, as well as others, learn how to regulate their diet. The speaker challenges…

  13. Validating self-reported food expenditures against food store and eating-out receipts

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Liu, Zhongyuan; Acheson, Molly; Rehm, Colin D; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective food store and eating-out receipts with self-reported household food expenditures. Design and setting The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) was based on a representative sample of King County adults, Washington, USA. Self-reported household food expenditures were modeled on the Flexible Consumer Behavior Survey (FCBS) Module from 2007–2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Objective food expenditure data were collected using receipts. Self-reported food expenditures for 447 participants were compared to receipts using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and kappa statistics. Bias by socio-demographics was also examined. Results Self-reported expenditures closely matched with objective receipt data. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between receipts and self-reported data on total food expenditures, expenditures at food stores, or eating out. However, the highest income strata showed weaker agreement. Bland Altman plots confirmed no significant bias across both methods - mean difference: 6.4; agreement limits: −123.5, 143.4 for total food expenditures, mean difference 5.7 for food stores, and mean difference 1.7 for eating-out. Kappa statistics showed good agreement for each (kappa 0.51, 0.41 and 0.49 respectively. Households with higher education and income had significantly more number of receipts and higher food expenditures. Conclusion Self-reported food expenditures using NHANES questions, both for food stores and eating-out, serve as a decent proxy for objective household food expenditures from receipts. This method should be used with caution among high income populations, or with high food expenditures. This is the first validation of the FCBS food expenditures question using food store and eating-out receipts. PMID:26486299

  14. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account. PMID:25935739

  15. The Food Retail Environment in School Neighborhoods and its Relation to Lunchtime Eating Behaviors in Youth from Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths’ lunchtime eating behavior, and youths’ obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13–15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fast food restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1–2, 3–4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84–2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56–4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity. PMID:23041489

  16. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  17. Classifying foods in contexts: How adults categorize foods for different eating settings

    PubMed Central

    Blake, C.E.; Bisogni, C.A.; Sobal, J.; Devine, C.M.; Jastran, M.

    2008-01-01

    This project examined adults' food cognitions by applying schema theory to explain how adults categorized foods for different contexts. Qualitative interviews and repeated card sort activities for different eating contexts were conducted to elicit as many food categories as possible from 42 US adults. Participants labeled card sort piles with their own words, providing 991 card sort labels. Qualitative analysis of the labels resulted in the emergence of 12 category types. Personal-experience-based types were specific to the individual (e.g. Preference). Context-based types were related to situational aspects of eating episodes (e.g. Location). Food-based types were related to intrinsic properties of the foods (e.g. Physical characteristics). Different combinations of the 12 category types were used for different eating contexts. Personal-experience and context-based types were used most frequently overall. Some category types were used more frequently for specific contexts (e.g. Convenience for work contexts). Food-based taxonomic category types were used most frequently when no context was defined. Script-oriented categories were more often used in response to specific eating contexts. These findings provide a framework to consider how individuals classify foods in real-life eating contexts. Attention to personal-experience and context-based category types may help improve understanding of relationships between knowledge and food choice behaviors. PMID:17512088

  18. The impact of food branding on children's eating behavior and obesity.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kathleen L; Kuilema, Laura G; Lee, Norman; Yoon, Joyce; Mascaro, Brittany; Combes, Anne-Laure; Deutsch, Bryan; Sorte, Kathryn; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-06-01

    Branding is a technique used by the food industry to create a recognizable image to attract consumers and hopefully boost sales of the product. Children recognize food brands from a young age, but their impact on the development of eating behaviors and obesity is unclear. In addition, the notion that some branding techniques may be used to increase intake of healthful foods, like fruits and vegetables, has not been rigorously investigated. Three laboratory-based intake studies designed to test the impact of common food brands on children's eating habits are presented. In the first study, four to six year-old children (n=43) were exposed to ad libitum test-meals where foods were presented either with or without their associated branding. In the second study, a novel food brand based Stroop task was developed and tested to assess children's cognitive response to food brands, and following this procedure, seven to nine year-old children (n=41) ate ad libitum test-meals consisting of foods packaged with or without a logo from a popular fast food restaurant. Finally, a pilot intervention was conducted with four to five year-old children (n=16) to demonstrate the efficacy of using licensed (spokes) characters to package and promote intake of fruits and vegetables. These studies demonstrate that branding is an important influence on what and how much children eat, but some children may be more susceptible to these influences than others. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence that child age, sex, and obesity has on response to food branding and marketing. PMID:22450261

  19. Episodic future thinking reduces eating in a food court.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jessica; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Epstein, Leonard H

    2016-01-01

    Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the psychological process of vividly imagining a future event, and this process has been shown to reduce overeating in the laboratory. To assess the efficacy of EFT in the natural environment, twenty-nine overweight or obese women who wanted to improve their eating habits were randomly assigned to one of two smartphone-implemented interventions--EFT or control episodic recent thinking (ERT)--while they ate dinner in a public food court. Results showed a reduction in consumption of total calories, a reduction in percent calories from fat, and an increase in percent calories from protein for EFT versus ERT. These data suggest EFT may be used to modify eating habits in natural eating environments, and may show potential as a component of behavioral obesity interventions. PMID:26562686

  20. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  1. Using Fast Food Restaurants for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koorland, Mark A.; Cooke, Janice C.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes how classroom discussion and field trips can be used to teach students with disabilities to engage in comparative shopping and informed choice making when they dine in fast food restaurants. (JDD)

  2. "Food addiction" is associated with night eating severity.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Laurence J; Geliebter, Allan

    2016-03-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) and "food addiction" (FA) are associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and disturbed eating behavior. The present study was conducted to examine whether NES is associated with FA, and whether BMI, depression and sleep quality contribute to any relationship between NES and FA. Two groups were studied: a sample of 254 university students and a sample of 244 older adults. All completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Zung Self-report Depression Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and BMI was computed from height and weight. In both samples, higher global NEQ scores were significantly correlated with more FA symptoms, elevated depression, and poorer sleep quality, and these correlations were significantly higher in the older adult sample than in the younger student sample. Higher BMI was significantly correlated with NEQ score only in the older adult sample. The hypothesis that the prediction of NEQ by YFAS was moderated by BMI and group membership (moderated moderation) was tested; while the prediction of NEQ by YFAS was not moderated by BMI, elevated YFAS predicted higher NEQ in the adult sample than it did in the student sample. In addition, multiple regression revealed that "continued use of food despite adverse effects" was the sole FA symptom predictive of NES symptoms in students while in older adults food tolerance was the only predictor of NES. Thus, NES appears to be associated with FA, more strongly in an older community sample; higher food tolerance in NES may contribute to a desire to eat late in the evening and/or when awakening at night. PMID:26724725

  3. Differential mesocorticolimbic responses to palatable food in binge eating prone and binge eating resistant female rats.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Culbert, Kristen M; Gradl, Dana R; Richardson, Kimberlei A; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is a key symptom of many eating disorders (e.g. binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type), yet the neurobiological underpinnings of binge eating are poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, is likely involved because this circuit mediates the hedonic value and incentive salience of palatable foods (PF). Here we tested the hypothesis that higher propensity for binge eating is associated with a heightened response (i.e., Fos induction) of the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex to PF, using an animal model that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given intermittent access to PF (high fat pellets) 3×/week for 3 weeks. Based on a pattern of either consistently high or consistently low PF consumption across these feeding tests, 8 rats met criteria for categorization as BEP, and 11 rats met criteria for categorization as BER. One week after the final feeding test, BEP and BER rats were either exposed to PF in their home cages or were given no PF in their home cages for 1h prior to perfusion, leading to three experimental groups for the Fos analysis: BEPs given PF, BERs given PF, and a No PF control group. The total number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and the cingulate, prelimbic, and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex was estimated by stereological analysis. PF induced higher Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex of BEP rats compared to No PF controls. Throughout the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, PF induced higher Fos expression in BEP than in BER rats, even after adjusting for differences in PF intake. Differences in the neural activation pattern between BEP and BER rats were more robust in prefrontal cortex

  4. Patterns and Predictors of Fast Food Consumption After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Adam C.; Chan, Paul S.; Gosch, Kensey L.; Buchanan, Donna M.; Spertus, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Although fast food is affordable and convenient, it is also high in calories, saturated fat and sodium. The frequency of fast food intake at the time of, and after, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is modifiable. However, patterns of fast food intake and characteristics associated with its consumption among AMI patients are unknown. We studied fast food consumption at the time of AMI and 6 months later in 2481 patients from the prospective, 24-center TRIUMPH study of AMI patients. Fast food intake was categorized as frequent (≥ weekly) vs. infrequent (< weekly). Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. At baseline, 884 patients (36%) reported frequent fast food intake, which decreased to 503 (20%) 6 months after discharge (p-value <0.001). Male sex, white race, lack of college education, current employment and dyslipidemia were independently associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. In contrast, older patients and those who had coronary bypass surgery were less likely to eat fast food frequently. Documentation of discharge dietary counseling was not associated with 6-month fast food intake. In conclusion, fast food consumption by AMI patients declined 6 months after the index hospitalization, but certain populations, including younger patients, men, those currently working, and less educated patients were more likely to consume fast food, at least weekly, during follow-up. Novel interventions that go beyond traditional dietary counseling may be needed to address continued fast food consumption after AMI in these patients. PMID:21306695

  5. Mothers with an eating disorder: 'food comes before anything'.

    PubMed

    Stitt, N; Reupert, A

    2014-08-01

    There is little research that has presented the voices of mothers with an eating disorder (ED). The aim of this study was to clinicians present the experiences of mothers, drawn from the community, who have an ED and their perceptions regarding how their ED impacts on their children and parenting. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with nine mothers with various EDs. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, alongside member checks and inter-rater reliability, was employed to analyze data. Six themes were identified: (1) the impact of an ED on children; (2) modelling disturbed eating behaviours; (3) prioritizing food before children's needs, or as described by one participant, 'food comes before anything'; (4) children motivate recovery; (5) secrecy within families; and (6) treatment needs. Overall, mothers juggled to balance the competing demands of an ED and the needs of their children. The need for clinicians to acknowledge and support a mother's role when treating EDs is highlighted. PMID:23869653

  6. Fast Food and Body Weight among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Parks, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between consumption of fast food and sweets on overweight among U.S. adolescents; and (2) how consumption of different types of food and physical exercise is associated with parental education and other background variables. The data were based on cross-sectional, national survey study…

  7. Global Perspectives on Fast-Food History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew F.

    This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fast food industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…

  8. Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership.

    PubMed

    Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A; Brown, Arleen F; Asch, Steven M

    2009-09-01

    Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Census data and information on locations of fast food and other restaurants with the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study database, which consists of 2,156 adults sampled from 63 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate associations between body mass index (BMI), fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership after adjustment for individual-level factors and socioeconomic characteristics of residential neighborhoods. A high concentration of local restaurants is associated with BMI. Car owners have higher BMIs than non-car owners; however, individuals who do not own cars and reside in areas with a high concentration of fast food outlets have higher BMIs than non-car owners who live in areas with no fast food outlets, approximately 12 lb more (p = 0.02) for an individual with a height of 5 ft. 5 in. Higher restaurant density is associated with higher BMI among local residents. The local fast food environment has a stronger association with BMI for local residents who do not have access to cars. PMID:19533365

  9. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices. PMID:21599955

  10. Food thought suppression: a matched comparison of obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary studies of non-clinical samples suggest that purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, referred to as food thought suppression, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in obese individuals. Despite possible implications for the treatment of obesity and eating disorders, little research has examined food thought suppression in obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). This study compared food thought suppression in 60 obese patients with BED to an age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 59 obese persons who do not binge eat (NBO). In addition, this study examined the associations between food thought suppression and eating disorder psychopathology within the BED and NBO groups and separately by gender. Participants with BED and women endorsed the highest levels of food thought suppression. Food thought suppression was significantly and positively associated with many features of ED psychopathology in NBO women and with eating concerns in men with BED. Among women with BED, higher levels of food thought suppression were associated with higher frequency of binge eating, whereas among men with BED, higher levels of food thought suppression were associated with lower frequency of binge eating. Our findings suggest gender differences in the potential significance of food thought suppression in obese groups with and without co-existing binge eating problems. PMID:22051359

  11. Time Spent on Home Food Preparation and Indicators of Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. Purpose To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008–2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent <1 hour/day, 1–2 hours/day, and >2 hours/day on food preparation and clean-up. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011–2013. Results Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending less than 1 hour/day on food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. Conclusions The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. PMID:25245799

  12. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong

  13. Influences of gender, amount of food, and speed of eating on external raters' perceptions of binge eating.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, D J

    1996-04-01

    Traditional methods for examining binge-eating (e.g. food diaries, laboratory binges), primarily employing clinical samples, have a number of limitations. This paper details three studies utilizing a new methodology to examine perceptions of binge eating: standard videotapes of male and female models consuming doughnuts. College students (n = 459) viewed one of nine videotapes and were asked if the eating behavior of the model was a binge or not. Variables manipulated include gender of the model, number of doughnuts, rate of eating and social (vs. solitary) eating. The number of doughnuts eaten by a female model was sufficient for female subjects to label it as a binge. In order for a male to have binged, females responded to the amount; males required both speed and amount. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for understanding perception of binge eating in normal and clinical populations. PMID:8737164

  14. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  15. Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295

  16. Intuitive Eating, Diet Composition, and the Meaning of Food in Healthy Weight Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, TeriSue; Hawks, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive eating (an anti-dieting, hunger-based approach to eating) has been popularized as a viable approach to healthy weight management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intuitive eating, diet composition, and the meaning of food. The convenience sample included 343 students enrolled in a general education…

  17. Young Adults' Food Selection Patterns: Relations with Binge Eating and Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydecker, Janet A.; Palmberg, Allison A.; Hill, Katherine Vatalaro; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Binge eating is increasingly prevalent in college students (White, Reynolds-Malear, & Cordero, 2011). Binge episodes involve eating an objectively large quantity of food in a discrete amount of time and a perceived lost control over eating (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Strong negative affect commonly precedes and follows each…

  18. Does personality influence eating styles and food choices? Direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In a random sample (N = 951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. PMID:25308432

  19. Fast Food Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    This coordinator's guide consists of materials for use in implementing four individualized units that have been developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and are employed in fast food restaurants. Addressed in the individual units are the following occupations: cashier (DOT No. 211.462-010), counter attendant (DOT No.…

  20. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consumption and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases. PMID:26933642

  1. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. PMID:25310889

  2. The role of television viewing and direct experience in predicting adolescents’ beliefs about the health risks of fast-food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Buhrau, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences’ views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents’ actual experience with fast food. Method Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents’ regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. Results In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents’ geographical area (Study 2). Conclusion Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs. PMID:26009205

  3. Food Insecurity During Pregnancy Leads to Stress, Disordered Eating, and Greater Postpartum Weight Among Overweight Women

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines food insecurity during and after pregnancy and how that affects postpartum weight retention. The results show that food insecurity was associated with higher levels of stress, eating behaviors, dietary fat intake, and higher postpartum weight status.

  4. 'Eating, eating is always there': food, consumerism and cardiovascular disease. Some evidence from Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Caroline

    2010-12-01

    The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice. PMID:21153961

  5. Attentional bias for food cues in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Trentowska, Monika; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate an attentional bias toward food stimuli in binge eating disorder (BED). To this end, a BED and a weight-matched control group (CG) completed a clarification task and a spatial cueing paradigm. The clarification task revealed that food stimuli were faster detected than neutral stimuli, and that this difference was more pronounced in BED than in the CG. The spatial cueing paradigm indicated a stimulus engagement effect in the BED group but not in the CG, suggesting that an early locus in stimulus processing contributes to differences between BED patients and obese controls. Both groups experienced difficulty disengaging attention from food stimuli, and this effect was only descriptively larger in the BED group. The effects obtained in both paradigms were found to be correlated with reported severity of BED symptoms. Of note, this relationship was partially mediated by the arousal associated with food stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, as predicted by an account on incentive sensitization. PMID:24816319

  6. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  7. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. Methods The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls). The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. Results In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD) just 7 (0.8) minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2) minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3) minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38) g in girls and 289 (73) g in boys). Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups increased to 183 (53

  8. Food rejections in children: Cognitive and social/environmental factors involved in food neophobia and picky/fussy eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Lafraire, Jérémie; Rioux, Camille; Giboreau, Agnès; Picard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia and picky/fussy eating behavior are presented as the two main forms of children's food rejections which are responsible for a reduction of their dietary repertoire. We review the key factors, presented in the literature, that are involved in food rejections during childhood. We first consider a range of "cognitive factors", such as food perception, mental representations, categorization of food items, and emotions and feelings toward food. Next we focus on "social and environmental factors", as these might also significantly influence and modulate children's food rejections. We then summarize the findings to provide a comprehensive view of the factors involved in children's food rejections. Finally, we discuss the need for future studies on food rejections, regarding (i) the distinction between food neophobia and picky/fussy eating, and (ii) the potential link between food categorization abilities and children's food neophobia and pickiness. PMID:26391004

  9. Attentional bias to food cues in youth with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Shank, Lisa M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise M; Field, Sara E; Vannucci, Anna; Bongiorno, Diana M; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Demidowich, Andrew; Kelly, Nichole R; Cassidy, Omni; Simmons, W Kyle; Engel, Scott G; Pine, Daniel S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-04-01

    Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5 ± 2.3 years; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7 ± .73) with (n = 47) and without (n = 29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p = .01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. PMID:25435490

  10. Attentional Bias to Food Cues in Youth with Loss of Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Lisa M.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Hannallah, Louise M.; Field, Sara E.; Vannucci, Anna; Bongiorno, Diana M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania; Demidowich, Andrew; Kelly, Nichole R.; Cassidy, Omni; Simmons, W. Kyle; Engel, Scott G.; Pine, Daniel S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5±2.3y; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7± .73) with (n=47) and without (n=29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p = .01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. PMID:25435490

  11. Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

  12. Does eating while watching television influence children's food-related behaviours?

    PubMed

    Marquis, Marie; Filion, Yves P; Dagenais, Fannie

    2005-01-01

    To assess children's food-related behaviours and their relationships with eating while watching television (TV), data were collected from 534 ten-year-old French-Canadian children. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Almost 18% of girls and over 25% of boys reported eating in front of the TV every day. Although, overall, the boys' eating pattern was less healthy than the girls', all of the children's food choices deteriorated with increased frequency of eating in front of the TV. Compared with girls, boys gave more importance to coloured and attractive foods, and to selecting foods similar to those eaten by others. Over 50% of children reported always receiving negative weight-related comments from family members. For boys, significant correlations were found between the frequency of eating in front of the TV, the importance given to a food's appearance, and their requests to parents for advertised foods. Significance was at the p<0.05 level for all findings. These results suggest that gender should be considered in attempts to understand children's food motivations and behaviours. The findings also indicate the need to document children's eating environments, and to inform children and their families about eating behaviours that may be associated with a given environment. PMID:15780151

  13. Fast-food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but are consistently poor

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Reedy, Jill; Kahle, Lisa L; Harris, Jennifer L; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate five popular fast-food chains’ menus in relation to dietary guidance. Design Menus posted on chains’ websites were coded using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies and MyPyramid Equivalents Database to enable Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores to be assigned. Dollar or value and kids’ menus and sets of items promoted as healthy or nutritious were also assessed. Setting Five popular fast-food chains in the USA. Subjects Not applicable. Results Full menus scored lower than 50 out of 100 possible points on the HEI-2005. Scores for Total Fruit, Whole Grains and Sodium were particularly dismal. Compared with full menus, scores on dollar or value menus were 3 points higher on average, whereas kids’ menus scored 10 points higher on average. Three chains marketed subsets of items as healthy or nutritious; these scored 17 points higher on average compared with the full menus. No menu or subset of menu items received a score higher than 72 out of 100 points. Conclusions The poor quality of fast-food menus is a concern in light of increasing away-from-home eating, aggressive marketing to children and minorities, and the tendency for fast-food restaurants to be located in low-income and minority areas. The addition of fruits, vegetables and legumes; replacement of refined with whole grains; and reformulation of offerings high in sodium, solid fats and added sugars are potential strategies to improve fast-food offerings. The HEI may be a useful metric for ongoing monitoring of fast-food menus. PMID:23317511

  14. Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

    2001-01-01

    The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…

  15. Correlation between Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Food Aromas and Cue-driven Eating: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Eiler, William J.A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K. Rose; Considine, Robert V.; Kareken, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Food aromas are signals associated with both food's availability and pleasure. Previous research from this laboratory has shown that food aromas under fasting conditions evoke robust activation of medial prefrontal brain regions thought to reflect reward value (Bragulat, et al. 2010). In the current study, eighteen women (eleven normal-weight and seven obese) underwent a two-day imaging study (one after being fed, one while fasting). All were imaged on a 3T Siemens Trio-Tim scanner while sniffing two food (F; pasta and beef) odors, one non-food (NF; Douglas fir) odor, and an odorless control (CO). Prior to imaging, participants rated hunger and perceived odor qualities, and completed the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) to assess “Externality” (the extent to which eating is driven by external food cues). Across all participants, both food and non-food odors (compared to CO) elicited large blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in olfactory and reward-related areas, including the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral piriform cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. However, food odors produced greater activation of medial prefrontal cortex, left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and inferior insula than non-food odors. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the [F > CO] BOLD response in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and “Externality” sub-scale scores of the DEBQ, but only under the fed condition; no such correlation was present with the [NF > CO] response. This suggests that in those with high Externality, ventromedial prefrontal cortex may inappropriately valuate external food cues in the absence of internal hunger. PMID:25485031

  16. Fast Eating Speed Increases the Risk of Endoscopic Erosive Gastritis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyung; Kim, E-Yeon; Han, Byoung-Duck; Cho, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast eating or overeating can induce gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis. However, the association between gastritis and speed of eating is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether eating speed is associated with increased risk of endoscopic erosive gastritis (EEG). Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 10,893 adults who underwent a general health checkup between 2007 and 2009. Two groups, EEG patients and EEG-free patients, were compared by using the t-test and the chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between eating speed and EEG. Results The group with EEG had a higher proportion of males, average age, body mass index, and percentages of current smokers and risky drinkers than those without EEG. After adjusting for anthropometric, social, and endoscopic parameters, the group with the highest eating speed (<5 min/meal) had 1.7 times higher risk for EEG than the group with the lowest eating speed (≥15 min/meal) (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.45). Conclusion High eating speed is an independent risk factor for EEG. Our results indicate the need for further studies to clarify the role of eating speed in gastritis. PMID:26634096

  17. Eat your troubles away: electrocortical and experiential correlates of food image processing are related to emotional eating style and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Goltsche, Julia E; Herbert, Beate M; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2014-02-01

    Emotional eating, a trait-like style of food intake in response to negative emotion states, represents an important aspect of overeating and eating related psychopathology. The mechanisms of emotional eating both on experiential and neuronal levels are not well delineated. We recorded event related potentials (ERPs) while individuals with high or low emotional eating style (HEE, n=25; LEE, n=20) viewed and rated pictures of high-caloric food during neutral state vs. negative idiosyncratic emotion induction. Craving ratings increased in HEE and decreased in LEE during negative relative to neutral states. ERPs to food pictures showed an enhanced late positive potential (LPP) over parieto-occipital regions for HEE compared to LEE. Emotional state modulated food picture evoked ERPs over right frontal regions in HEE only. This suggests that appetitive food processing is susceptible to both concurrent emotion and habitual eating style which is of relevance for overeating in healthy and abnormal eating. PMID:24361542

  18. Food choices in the presence of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' eating partners.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-02-28

    Eating with others has been shown to influence the amount of food eaten in a meal or snack. We examined whether choosing food in the presence of another person who is choosing either predominantly low-energy-dense or high-energy-dense foods affects food choices. A between-subjects laboratory-based study was used. A group of 100 young females selected a lunch-time meal from a buffet consisting of a range of high-energy-dense and low-energy-dense foods, in the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly high-energy-dense foods) or a 'healthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly low-energy-dense foods) or when alone. Participants in the 'unhealthy' eating partner condition were significantly less likely to choose and consume a low-energy-dense food item (carrots), than when choosing alone or in the presence of a 'healthy' eater. Choice of high-energy-dense food did not differ across the conditions, nor did the total energy consumed. These data suggest that social influences on food choice are limited in this context but the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner may undermine intentions to consume low-energy-dense foods. PMID:22647276

  19. Microbiological safety of ready-to-eat foods in Republic of Palau.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Masahiro; Sengebau-Kingzio, Joanne Maireng; Ridep, Eden; Sikyang, Bernard; Ngiruchelbad, Dorcas; Tadao, Rosalita; Watanabe, Masafumi; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

    2005-03-01

    Microbiological quality of 45 ready-to-eat foods in Palau was investigated. About half (23 foods) were categorized as "unsatisfactory" quality with the results of aerobic bacteria counts, while 4% (2 foods) with the E. coli counts. Proportion of "unsatisfactory" quality foods did not vary by food type. Inappropriate storage conditions may be the factor that allowed bacterial growth, which need to be considered in future policy of food administration in Palau. PMID:18181461

  20. Organivore or organorexic? Examining the relationship between alternative food network engagement, disordered eating, and special diets.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Michaela J; Dripps, Weston R; Blomquist, Kerstin K

    2016-10-01

    The alternative food network (AFN) refers to connections between consumers, producers, and sellers of organic, local/regional, "sustainably grown," and other artisanal and niche food not produced by the conventional system (Goodman & Goodman, 2007). Alternative foods are often viewed as the "right" consumption choice while conventional counterparts are positioned as ethically "wrong." A moral positioning of food, avoidance of certain food groups, and anxiety elicited by food consumption choices bears similarities to disordered eating behaviors (Hesse-Biber, Leavy, Quinn, & Zoino, 2006), including a newly proposed eating syndrome, orthorexia nervosa (ON; Vandereycken, 2011; Zamora, Bonaechea, Sánchez, & Rial, 2005). This study examines the relationship among engagement in the AFN, disordered eating behaviors, and special diets. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AFN engagement would be more likely report disordered eating behaviors as well as to follow a special diet. Adult men and women (N = 284) completed a series of measures assessing engagement in the AFN and eating behaviors. We found that individuals with higher AFN engagement were more likely to report ON tendencies but not significantly likely to engage in other disordered eating behaviors. Individuals following a special diet were significantly more engaged in the AFN, more likely to report ON tendencies, and more likely to self-report an eating disorder. Our findings suggest that the most engaged consumers participate in the AFN for the purported benefits reaped by society and the environment and not to moderate their consumption or mask disordered eating behaviors. Future research should prospectively explore associations between AFN engagement, ON and disordered eating behaviors, and special diets as well as consider the utility of incorporating AFN engagement into existing disordered eating prevention programs. PMID:27397727

  1. Eating as if It Really Matters: Teaching the Pedagogy of Food in the Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    To survive, we need to eat. And yet eating is much more than just ingesting fuel to keep our bodies going. Besides being a source of sustenance, food is a cause for celebration, an inducement to temptation, a weapon for wielding power, an indicator of well-being, a catalyst for change, and a vehicle for learning. In the age of globalization, these…

  2. Eating as the "Means" Activity in a Contingency: Effects on Young Children's Food Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps; And Others

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the effects of instrumental eating on food preferences, 45 preschool children were assigned to either instrumental eating or control conditions. Preference data obtained before and after a series of snack sessions (consisting of milk beverages) demonstrated a significant negative shift in preference for the instrumental groups.…

  3. Consumer estimation of recommended and actual calories at fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Elbel, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

  4. Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

  5. Eating to live or living to eat? Exploring the causal attributions of self-perceived food addiction.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Helen K; Dickson, Joanne M; Field, Matt; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. However, little is known about how the concept of 'food addiction' is defined amongst members of the lay public. The current study examined beliefs about the cognitive and behavioural manifestations of food addiction. Participants (N = 210) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire in which they indicated whether or not they perceived themselves to be a food addict and provided a brief explanation for their response. Over a quarter of participants (28%) perceived themselves to be food addicts and self-diagnosis was predicted by increased BMI and younger age, but not by gender. Thematic analysis was conducted to explore the causal attributions provided by self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. Six characteristics were identified: 1) Reward-driven eating (i.e. eating for psychological rather than physiological reasons), 2) A functional or psychological preoccupation with food, 3) A perceived lack of self-control around food, 4) Frequent food cravings, 5) Increased weight or an unhealthy diet, and 6) A problem with a specific type of food. The emergent themes, and their frequency, did not differ between self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. However, self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts reported divergent cognitions, behaviours and attitudes within each common theme. This study is the first to provide qualitative insight into beliefs about food addiction in both self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. The findings appear to reflect a view of food addiction that is identifiable through several core behaviours. PMID:26206173

  6. Using Fast Food Nutrition Facts to Make Healthier Menu Selections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fast food nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fast food restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…

  7. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education…

  8. Delicatessen salads in "refrigerated ready-to-eat foods: microbial concerns and control measures"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deli-type salads are in the category of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products. They are available where foods are sold or served and are becoming increasingly popular food items due to their variety, availability, and convenience. It is estimated that the annual consumption of deli salads is 5.6...

  9. Eating in Space: Food for Thought. EG-2011-08-00005-SSC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Shearer, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the thousands of questions that need to be answered before astronauts travel to distant planets and asteroids are questions related to the astronauts themselves. How much food will they need and what foods can they take? We are fortunate on Earth to have an amazing variety of foods to eat. When astronauts do go to Mars and other…

  10. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast-food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (N=196, 25–51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (Model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in Model 2 but most were not significant in Model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (AHEI) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast-food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  11. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. PMID:27349708

  12. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. PMID:23910778

  13. Restrained eating predicts effortful self-control as indicated by heart rate variability during food exposure.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Fay C M; Kleinfeldt, Anne; Kubiak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    When confronted with food, restrained eaters have to inhibit the pursuit of the short-term goal of enjoying their food for the sake of the long-term goal of controlling their weight. Thus, restrained eating creates a self-control situation. In the present study we investigated the initiation of effortful self-control by food cues in accordance with the level of restrained eating. We expected that a preceding act of self-control would moderate the association between restrained eating and effortful self-control initiated by food cues. Participants (N=111) were randomly assigned to a task requiring self-control or a task not requiring self-control. Subsequently, participants were exposed to palatable food, and effortful self-control was measured via heart rate variability (HRV). Restrained eating was associated with enhanced HRV during food exposure after exercising self-control but not after not exercising self-control. The results indicate that maintaining dieting goals results in food cues initiating effortful self-control after a preceding act of self-control. We suggest considering the effect of acts of self-control when modeling the initial steps on the path from food cues to unsuccessful restrained eating. PMID:26500202

  14. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing.

    PubMed

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain. PMID:25475348

  15. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B.; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A.; Halford, Jason C. G.; Stancak, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain. PMID:25475348

  16. Use of calorie information at fast-food and chain restaurants among US Adults, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Wethington, Holly; Maynard, Leah M.; Haltiwanger, Christine; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine reading and use of calorie information at fast-food/chain restaurants. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 4363 US adults using the 2009 HealthStyles survey. The outcome variable was reading calorie information when available while ordering at fast-food/chain restaurants. Among those who go to fast-food/chain restaurants, we conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between sociodemographic variables and reading calorie information when available. Among those who report reading calorie information when available, we assessed the proportion using calorie information. Results Among those who reported eating at fast-food/chain restaurants, 36.4% reported reading calorie information when available. Reading calorie information was not related to race/ethnicity, income or education. Compared with men, women had higher odds [adjusted odds ratio (OR) =1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.5–2.1] of reading calorie information when available while those who frequented fast-food/chain restaurants ≥3 times/week (aOR =0.6; 95% CI =0.4–0.8) had lower odds compared with those going <4 times/month. Of those who reported reading calorie information when available, 95.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Conclusions Almost all who read calorie information when available use the information at least sometimes. Research is needed on how calorie information is being used. PMID:24263224

  17. Obesity, fast food manufacture, and regulation: revisiting opportunities for reform.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Haitham M

    2009-01-01

    Regulations have historically been able to shape public behavior in various ways. As poor dietary practices and obesity continue to pose major health and economic threats to society, attention will continue to be directed towards the ethical and legal responsibilities of fast food manufacturers as potential contributors to these problems. In light of these considerations, several opportunities emerge that may impact dietary behavior and obesity through regulation of the fast food industry. This article addresses the health consequences of fast food consumption, as well as the historical and legal contexts of fast food regulation in the United States. PMID:19999644

  18. Determining empirical thresholds for "definitely large" amounts of food for defining binge-eating episodes.

    PubMed

    Forney, K Jean; Holland, Lauren A; Joiner, Thomas E; Keel, Pamela K

    2015-01-01

    Binge episodes involve "definitely large" amounts of food, yet limited data exist regarding the upper limits of food consumption in non-binge eating episodes. Study 1 examined the concurrent validity of a self-report measure developed to measure "usual" food consumption. Results support good concurrent validity for most items across response versions. Study 2 identified the upper limits of normal food consumption (i.e., 85(th) percentile of participants' largest reported usual servings). Thresholds differed across types of foods, and men reported higher thresholds than women for several foods. Type of food and gender should be considered when assessing for "definitely large" amounts of food. PMID:24983483

  19. A simple way of evaluating the healthiness of ready-to-eat foods and developing healthy foods in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Outila, Terhi A; Simulainen, Helena; Laukkanen, Tuula H A; Maarit Kyyrö, A

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have developed a new way of evaluating the healthiness of ready-to-eat foods. In the developed method, ready-to-eat foods were classified into specific product categories, and the nutritional quality of classified foods was analysed using the national dietary recommendations and the national dietary survey as a basis for the dietary calculations. The method was tested with the products of 'Saarioinen', which is the leading brand in the Finnish ready-to-eat food market. Results indicate that this low-cost method can easily be used in the food industry as a tool in product development and marketing in order to develop healthy foods. The method could also be applied to the restaurant and catering trade, as well as to other public institutions serving food. By using this model, nutritional researchers and the food industry could work together to prevent nutrition-related health problems. PMID:16849121

  20. It's who I am and what we eat. Mothers' food-related identities in family food choice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cassandra M; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Alex McIntosh, W; Kubena, Karen S

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers' everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26-53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother's photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother's food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children's food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers' food choices were more disconnected from their children's. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

  1. It’s who I am and what we eat: Mothers’ food-related identities in family food choice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

  2. Effect of food service form on eating rate: meal served in a separated form might lower eating rate.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyung Joo; Jung, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between food form (mixed vs separated) and eating rate. The experiment used a within-subjects design (n=29, young healthy women with normal weight). Test meals (white rice and side dishes) with the same content and volume were served at lunch in a mixed or separated form. The form in which the food was served had significant effects on consumption volume and eating rate; subjects ate significantly more (p<0.05) when a test meal was served as a mixed form (285 g, 575 kcal) compared to a separated form (244 g, 492 kcal). Moreover, subjects also ate significantly faster (p<0.05) when the test meal was served as a mixed form (22.4 g/min) as compared to a separated form (16.2 g/min). Despite consuming more when the test meal was served as a mixed form than when served as a separated form, the subjects did not feel significantly fuller. In conclusion, we confirmed that meals served in a separated form might lower the eating rate and, moreover, slower eating might be associated with less energy intake, without compromising satiety. PMID:26965766

  3. Retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and emotional eating in adulthood: The role of food preoccupation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cin Cin; Ruhl, Holly; Chow, Chong Man; Ellis, Lillian

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the role of food preoccupation as a potential mediator of the associations between parental feeding behaviors during childhood (i.e., restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and emotional eating in adulthood. Participants (N = 97, Mage = 20.3 years) recalled their parents' feeding behaviors during early and middle childhood and reported on current experiences of food preoccupation and emotional eating. Findings revealed that recalled parental feeding behaviors (restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and food preoccupation were positively associated with later emotional eating (correlations ranged from 0.21 to 0.55). In addition, recalled restriction for weight and emotion regulation feeding were positively associated with food preoccupation, r = 0.23 and 0.38, respectively. Further, food preoccupation mediated the association between emotion regulation feeding and later emotional eating (CI95% = 0.10 to 0.44). These findings indicate that parental feeding practices in childhood are related to food preoccupation, and that food preoccupation mediates the association between emotion regulation feeding in childhood and emotional eating in adulthood. PMID:27289008

  4. Pavlovian conditioning to food reward as a function of eating disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Astur, Robert S; Palmisano, Alexandra N; Hudd, Ellie C; Carew, Andrew W; Deaton, Bonnie E; Kuhney, Franchesca S; Niezrecki, Rachel N; Santos, Melissa

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the extent to which eating disorder risk affects the strength of food-reward conditioning. Eighty food-restricted undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of two visually distinct rooms. Participants underwent multiple pairing sessions in which they were confined into one of the two rooms and explored a VR environment. Room A was paired with real-life M&Ms for three sessions, and Room B was paired with no food for three sessions. After a short delay, a test session was administered, and participants were given free access to the entire VR environment for 5 min. Participants also completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; [11]), which is a standard screening tool of eating disorder risk. Participants displayed a significant conditioned place preference for the VR room previously paired with food, and they displayed a significant explicit preference for the M&M-paired room in a forced-choice test. There was a significant positive correlation between place preference strength and scores on the dieting subscale of the EAT-26. Additionally, ratings of the no-food room were significantly lower as dieting scores increased. This suggests that components of eating disorder risk can influence basic conditioning strength to places associated with food reward. For both males and females, additional correlations between eating disorder risk subscales and conditioning variables are discussed, and implications for future research are proposed in hopes of understanding how conditioning paradigms can provide insight into treating and preventing eating disorders. PMID:26003943

  5. Beliefs about fast food in Australia: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kirsten I; Mohr, Philip B; Wilson, Carlene J; Wittert, Gary A

    2008-09-01

    The consumption of energy-dense fast foods has been implicated as a causal factor in the development of obesity. The development of strategies to modify food choice behaviour requires an understanding of the behaviour and the driving factors. This study examined the rationale behind decisions to either choose or avoid fast foods. Drawing partly on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, (1988)), a qualitative design was employed to examine the beliefs and perceptions associated with fast-food consumption within an Australian sample. Findings provided an indication that positive affective reactions to fast food, convenience, and self-serving cognitions may override cognitive analyses of the longer-term health risks associated with frequent fast-food consumption. PMID:18430490

  6. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    PubMed Central

    Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A.; Ohla, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior. PMID:25009514

  7. Fast Food Consumption Pattern and Its Association with Overweight Among High School Boys in Mangalore City of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y.P., Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M.; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Context Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. Aim This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. Settings and Design This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Materials and Methods Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Results Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (p<0.001). Parental consumption of fast foods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Conclusion Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This

  8. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    PubMed Central

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children. PMID:26652259

  9. The processing of food stimuli in abnormal eating: a systematic review of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    To update the knowledge about attentional processing of food stimuli, a systematic review of electrophysiological studies was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge (2000-2014). Twenty-one studies were included into a qualitative synthesis. Presentation of food and control pictures was used to analyze event-related potentials related to sensory processing and motivated attention. Results show consistent attentional bias towards food pictures compared with neutral pictures for patient and control groups. Group comparisons between individuals with abnormal-eating and healthy-eating participants were more inconsistent. Results suggest that temporal differences in the millisecond range are essential for the understanding of visual food processing. In obesity, early attention engagement to food is followed by relatice disengagement. Loss of control eating, as well as external and emotional eating, are associated with a sustained maintenance of attention towards high-caloric food. There is a lack of studies in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. PMID:25982390

  10. Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

    2014-09-01

    With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311

  11. Bulimic symptoms and mood predict food relevant Stroop interference in women with troubled eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Rofey, Dana L; Corcoran, Kevin J; Tran, Giao Q

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive processing differences based on attentional biases of words pertaining to eating disorders were investigated to assess people's pathological thoughts. Participants were 165 undergraduate women (mean age=19.2) at a large Midwestern university. This Stroop task that included color identification of three word groups (food-related words, neutral words, and color words) was administered to measure differential speed in cognitive processing of salient words in individuals with and without troubled eating patterns. As predicted by the moderator hypothesis, a statistically significant interaction effect between bulimic symptoms and negative mood was found on food-related reaction time. Post hoc analysis of the interaction showed that women endorsing more bulimic symptoms responded slower to food-related cues than women with fewer bulimic symptoms among individuals who reported negative mood. The study results indicate that women who have problematic eating patterns and experience negative mood are hyperattentive to food-related cues. PMID:15000952

  12. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

  13. Impact of eating frequency by adolescents on food intake and meeting MyPyramid recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adolescents’ eating frequency on their intake of food groups and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid food guidance system. Adolescents 12-19 years old (n=4,357) who completed one 24-hour dietary recall in What W...

  14. Identification of Essential Food Skills for Skill-Based Healthful Eating Programs in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were…

  15. Obesity, the Economic Meltdown, and the Gut Feeling for the Foods We Choose to Eat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary recommendations typically emphasize minimizing the intake of highly palatable, energy dense foods, but this may be very difficult in some persons experiencing stress. Non-homeostatic regulation of food intake, such as habitually eating more or less in response to emotional stimuli, can affe...

  16. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  17. Virtual food in virtual environments for the treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lozano, José A; Alcañiz, Mariano; Gil, José A; Moserrat, Carlos; Juán, Mari C; Grau, Vicente; Varvaró, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Eating disorders (Eds) are one of the problems with higher social repercussion in the last years. Sometimes, these clinical syndromes, which are characterized by an altered eating behavior, can have dramatic consequences. In eating disorders, one of the more critical situations, in addition to other of equal or more importance, is the patient's confrontation with food: the visual confrontation, the eating process and the repercussion on his weight. Virtual Reality (VR) technology has been used in psychology, as a therapeutic help tool for the treatment of different psychological problems, for several years now. Their helpfulness is increasingly being recognized. Some developed virtual environments (VE) and their corresponding published studies endorse the efficiency of this tool. Nevertheless, in order to increase the possibilities of success, it is very important to obtain a complete patient immersion in the VE: visual, auditory and interactive. Sometimes there are processes or actions of reality, which are difficult to simulate virtually, and simulating them coarsely would result in the patient lack of immersion in the VE, thus seriously decreasing the possibilities of success. The eating process is an example, since it consists of several steps, some of which (biting, chewing, etc.) don't have an evident virtual solution. This article shows how food and eating process have been simulated virtually in the development of a virtual environment for the treatment of eating disorders. PMID:15458100

  18. Why healthy eating is bad for young people's health: identity, belonging and food.

    PubMed

    Stead, Martine; McDermott, Laura; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Adamson, Ashley

    2011-04-01

    Research into young people and healthy eating has focussed on identifying the 'barriers' to healthy eating and on developing interventions to address them. However, it has tended to neglect the emotional, social and symbolic aspects of food for young people, and the roles food might play in adolescence. This paper explores these issues, reporting findings from a qualitative study which explored the meanings and values young people attached to food choices, particularly in school and peer contexts. As part of a larger study into young people's relationships with food brands, 12 focus groups were conducted with young people aged 13-15 in the North East of England. The focus groups found that young people used food choices to help construct a desired image, as a means of judging others, and to signal their conformity with acceptable friendship and peer norms. Importantly, the findings suggested that the social and symbolic meanings associated with healthy eating conflicted with processes and values which are of crucial importance in adolescence, such as self-image and fitting in with the peer group. In other words, it was emotionally and socially risky to be seen to be interested in healthy eating. Interventions need not only to make healthy eating easier and more available, but also to address young people's emotional needs for identity and belonging. PMID:21429646

  19. "Food addiction is real". The effects of exposure to this message on self-diagnosed food addiction and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Dallas, Rebecca; Scott, Jade; Ruddock, Helen K; Robinson, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Food addiction is widely discussed in popular media in many Westernised societies. However, a potential concern is that endorsement of the food addiction model may cause people to perceive a lack of personal control over eating which could promote unhealthy dietary behaviours. To address this possibility, the current study investigated whether exposure to food addiction messages would, firstly, increase the number of participants who self-diagnosed as food addicts and, secondly, increase intake of indulgent foods. In a between-subjects design, participants (N = 60) read an article which either claimed that food addiction is real ("Real" condition) or that food addiction is a myth ("Myth" condition). Intake of indulgent and non-indulgent foods was then assessed in a disguised taste test and participants also completed a measure of self-diagnosed food addiction. A significantly higher proportion of participants in the Real condition self-diagnosed as food addicts relative to participants in the Myth condition (57% and 27% of participants, respectively; p = .018). Variability in intake, but not mean intake, of indulgent food was higher in the Real condition than in the Myth condition. These findings suggest that endorsement of the concept of food addiction may encourage people to self-diagnose as food addicts and thus explain their eating behaviour in terms of addiction (an external attribution). The extent to which self-diagnosis of food addiction influences actual food intake and how this might vary with individual differences and eating context remains to be determined. PMID:25891042

  20. Food cue reactivity and craving predict eating and weight gain: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Rebecca G; Kober, Hedy

    2016-02-01

    According to learning-based models of behavior, food cue reactivity and craving are conditioned responses that lead to increased eating and subsequent weight gain. However, evidence supporting this relationship has been mixed. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to assess the predictive effects of food cue reactivity and craving on eating and weight-related outcomes. Across 69 reported statistics from 45 published reports representing 3,292 participants, we found an overall medium effect of food cue reactivity and craving on outcomes (r = 0.33, p < 0.001; approximately 11% of variance), suggesting that cue exposure and the experience of craving significantly influence and contribute to eating behavior and weight gain. Follow-up tests revealed a medium effect size for the effect of both tonic and cue-induced craving on eating behavior (r = 0.33). We did not find significant differences in effect sizes based on body mass index, age, or dietary restraint. However, we did find that visual food cues (e.g. pictures and videos) were associated with a similar effect size to real food exposure and a stronger effect size than olfactory cues. Overall, the present findings suggest that food cue reactivity, cue-induced craving and tonic craving systematically and prospectively predict food-related outcomes. These results have theoretical, methodological, public health and clinical implications. PMID:26644270

  1. Do obese eat faster than lean subjects? Food intake studies in Pima Indian men.

    PubMed

    Rising, R; Larson, D E; Ravussin, E

    1994-01-01

    Food intake rate has previously been derived from observation of eating behavior in laboratory settings or in public eating establishments. Although it has been suggested that obese individuals eat faster than lean individuals, observations of such an "obese eating style" have yielded mixed results. In the present study, the relationship between ad-libitum food intake rate and obesity was evaluated over 4 days on a metabolic ward in 28 healthy Pima Indian men (Mean +/- SD; 29 +/- 7 y, 100.4 +/- 27.1 kg, 33 +/- 10% body fat) using an automated food selection system containing a large variety of foods. Total energy intake averaged 18829 +/- 3299 kJ/d consisting of 47 +/- 4, 40 +/- 3, and 13 +/- 1 percent of carbohydrate, fat and protein, respectively. The average meal duration was 25 +/- 7 min. Food intake rate was 68 +/- 21 g/min while carbohydrate, fat and protein intake rates were 23 +/- 6, 9 +/- 3 and 6 +/- 2 g/min, respectively. Food intake rate correlated negatively with % body fat (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). Similar relationships were found between the intake rates of carbohydrate, fat and protein and body fatness. Only prospective studies will indicate whether a slow food intake rate may contribute to the etiology of obesity by possibly reducing satiety. PMID:16353604

  2. In good company. The effect of an eating companion's appearance on food intake.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mitsuru; Johnson, Katie; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the presence of an overweight eating companion influences healthy and unhealthy eating behavior, and to determine if the effect is moderated by how the companion serves herself. A professional actress either wore an overweight prosthesis (i.e., "fatsuit") or did not wear one, and served herself either healthily (i.e., a small amount of pasta and a large amount of salad) or unhealthily (i.e., a large amount of pasta and a small amount of salad) for lunch. After observing her, male and female participants were asked to serve themselves pasta and salad to eat. Results demonstrated that regardless of how the confederate served, participants served and ate a larger amount of pasta when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. In addition, when the confederate served herself healthily, participants served and ate a smaller amount of salad when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. Consistent with the "lower health commitment" hypothesis, these results demonstrated that people may eat larger portions of unhealthy food and smaller portions of healthy food when eating with an overweight person, probably because the health commitment goal is less activated. More generally, this study provides evidence that the body type of an eating companion, as well as whether she serves herself healthily or unhealthily, influences the quantity of food intake. PMID:25218720

  3. Secondary school pupils' food choices around schools in a London borough: Fast food and walls of crisps.

    PubMed

    Caraher, M; Lloyd, S; Mansfield, M; Alp, C; Brewster, Z; Gresham, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five 'A's of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of 'two for one' type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as 'cool', queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were 'cool'. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five 'A's above. PMID:27105582

  4. Visual attentional bias for food in adolescents with binge-eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ricarda; Lüthold, Patrick; Kittel, Rebekka; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that adults with binge-eating disorder (BED) are prone of having their attention interfered by food cues, and that food-related attentional biases are associated with calorie intake and eating disorder psychopathology. For adolescents with BED experimental evidence on attentional processing of food cues is lacking. Using eye-tracking and a visual search task, the present study examined visual orienting and disengagement processes of food in youth with BED. Eye-movement data and reaction times were recorded in 25 adolescents (12-20 years) with BED and 25 controls (CG) individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and socio-economic status. During a free exploration paradigm, the BED group showed a greater gaze duration bias for food images than the CG. Groups did not differ in gaze direction biases. In a visual search task, the BED group showed a greater detection bias for food targets than the CG. Group differences were more pronounced for personally attractive than unattractive food images. Regarding clinical associations, only in the BED group the gaze duration bias for food was associated with increased hunger and lower body mass index, and the detection bias for food targets was associated with greater reward sensitivity. The study provided first evidence of an attentional bias to food in adolescents with BED. However, more research is needed for further specifying disengagement and orienting processes in adolescent BED, including overt and covert attention, and their prospective associations with binge-eating behaviors and associated psychopathology. PMID:27267318

  5. Energy transport in ultra-fast eated solid targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Kemp, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    We discuss hot electron generation in ultra intense laser interaction with initially non-ionized matter. Hot electron energy and the transport inside the target are strongly affected by collisional effects and ionization processes, especially in high-Z material. We have introduced an ionization model into our collisional particle-in-cell code, PICLS, to study hot electron transport in ultra-fast heated matter. Our description of collisional ionization is based on the Thomas-Fermi model, where a local average charge state is calculated from the bulk electron temperature and density. Field ionization is taken into account for ionization of low density plasmas. We have studied laser matter interaction under an irradiation of a laser with 10^20W/cm^2. A strong heat inhibition within a micron distance was observed in a gold target because of the large number of lower energy hot electrons produced at the steepened interface by the laser photon pressure. We will discuss the generation of hot electrons and their transport in ultra-fast heated solid targets of various materials.

  6. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  7. How emotions expressed by adults' faces affect the desire to eat liked and disliked foods in children compared to adults.

    PubMed

    Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were presented either alone or with an eater who expressed three different emotions: pleasure, neutrality, or disgust. Results showed that, compared with food presented alone, food presented with a pleasant face increased the desire to eat disliked foods, particularly in children, and increased the desire to eat liked foods only in the 5-year-old children. In contrast, with a disgusted face, the desire to eat the liked foods decreased in all participants, although to a greater extent in children, while it had no effect on the desire to eat the disliked foods. Finally, food presented with a neutral face also increased and decreased the desire to eat disliked and liked foods, respectively, and in each case more for the 5-year-olds than for the older participants. In sum, the facial expressions of others influence the desire to eat liked and disliked foods and, to a greater extent, in younger children. PMID:22550947

  8. Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress.

    PubMed

    Wallis, D J; Hetherington, M M

    2009-04-01

    Two studies investigated the stress-eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295-315] and a self-report measure designed to evaluate changes in eating in response to stress. Increased intake of HF snacks was associated with high emotional eating but not with restraint. A laboratory-based experiment compared intake of HF and LF snacks after ego-threatening and neutral Stroop colour-naming tasks. Intake was suppressed by 31.8% in restrained compared to unrestrained eaters across tasks. Restrained eaters consumed significantly less after ego-threat than after the neutral manipulation, but this was associated only with intake of the LF snack. Restrained eaters' intake of dried fruit was suppressed by 33.2% after ego-threat relative to the neutral task, despite a significant increase in hunger for this group following ego-threat. These results suggest that the type and variety of foods offered influences the link between stress and eating in laboratory settings. Further research should aim to replicate and extend these findings, with a view to informing potential interventions for stress-related eating. PMID:19071171

  9. Calorie Labeling, Fast Food Purchasing and Restaurant Visits

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Design and Methods Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fast food receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. Results The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Post-labeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33 percentage point (p<.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fast food visits did not change in either city over time. Conclusions While some consumer reports noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fast food visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law. PMID:24136905

  10. Microbiological investigation and nutritional evaluation of selected fast food meat.

    PubMed

    Hemeda, H M

    1995-01-01

    The study was designed into two parts: the first part was to determine individual attitudes and beliefs toward fast food in general. One hundred individuals (15-45 yrs old) were involved in this study (50 males and 50 females). The second part of the study was carried out to evaluate microbiological contamination and nutritive value of the selected fast food meat (Hardee's fried burger, Saudi-American burger, kentucky fried chicken, Al-Baik broast chicken and shawerma beef). The results indicated that individuals 25-45 yrs. old were the most fast food consumers. The main reason behind increasing individual's preferences toward fast food was found to be for fun and inspiration. Among individuals under study 46% of males and 20% of females purchased fast food more than 4 times per week. Prevalence of overweight and obesity respectively were 38% and 22% among males and 34% and 14% among females. Bacillus cereus and E. coli were detected in a number of less than 10/g in all the selected fast food meat. The number of coliforms detected in Hardee's burger and Saudi-American burger were 10/g, while less than 10/g were detected in the remaining fast food meat. However, the number of Staph. aureus detected in Hardee's burger and Saudi-American burger was 20/g and 10/g respectively. On a per 100 g basis, energy (Kcal), protein (g), fat (g) and sodium (mg) content were found in the range of 179.62-295.29, 13.05-26.06, 8.9-21.13 and 640-920 respectively. Sodium content of all the selected fast food meat exceeded the recommended daily adequate intake for adults (males and females). The observations of the present study indicated the need for a nutrition education program to correct consumers' attitudes and beliefs towards fast food and to provide information on how a given menu item contributes to their dietary goal. PMID:17214203

  11. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

  12. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  13. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos. PMID:18830690

  14. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. PMID:26022802

  15. Effects of negative outcome on food consumption in college women with and without troubled eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Kisler, V A; Corcoran, K J

    1997-01-01

    This study looked at the effects that failure experiences have on food consumption and their effect on college women. Part I of the study (N = 169) was used to screen subjects for Part II (N = 55) based on scores on the Bulimia Test-Revised. In part II, eating-disordered and control participants completed one of two types of tasks-a negative outcome and a neutral outcome control task. Following the task, a bogus cookie rating task provided the opportunity for participants to eat chocolate chip cookies. Mood was assessed throughout Part II. Results indicate that mood was more negative following the negative outcome task. Eating-disordered participants ate more than did controls in this same condition; these participants also reported improved mood after eating. PMID:9290856

  16. Laboratory assessment of the food intake of children and adolescents with loss of control eating12345

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Yanovski, Susan Z; Kozlosky, Merel; Schvey, Natasha A; Shomaker, Lauren B; Salaita, Christine; Yanovski, Jack A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth predicts excessive weight gain. However, few studies have measured the actual energy intake of children reporting LOC eating. Objective: The objective was to characterize the energy intake and macronutrient composition of “normal” and “binge” laboratory meals in nonoverweight and overweight boys and girls with LOC eating. Design: Children aged 8–17 y (n = 177) consumed 2 lunchtime meals ad libitum from a multi-item food array after being instructed to either binge eat (binge meal) or to eat normally (normal meal). Prior LOC eating was determined with a semistructured clinical interview. Results: Participants consumed more energy at the binge meal than at the normal meal (P = 0.001). Compared with youth with no LOC episodes (n = 127), those reporting LOC (n = 50) did not consume more energy at either meal. However, at both meals, youth with LOC consumed a greater percentage of calories from carbohydrates and a smaller percentage from protein than did those without LOC (P < 0.05). Children with LOC ate more snack and dessert-type foods and less meats and dairy (P < 0.05). LOC participants also reported greater increases in postmeal negative affect at both meals than did those without LOC (P ≤ 0.05). Secondary analyses restricted to overweight and obese girls found that those with LOC consumed more energy at the binge meal (P = 0.025). Conclusions: When presented with an array of foods, youth with LOC consumed more high-calorie snack and dessert-type foods than did those without LOC. Further research is required to determine whether habitual consumption of such foods may promote overweight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00320177. PMID:19144730

  17. I Hear You Eat and Speak: Automatic Recognition of Eating Condition and Food Type, Use-Cases, and Impact on ASR Performance.

    PubMed

    Hantke, Simone; Weninger, Felix; Kurle, Richard; Ringeval, Fabien; Batliner, Anton; Mousa, Amr El-Desoky; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers), six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps), and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes. We start with demonstrating that for automatic speech recognition (ASR), it pays off to know whether speakers are eating or not. We also propose automatic classification both by brute-forcing of low-level acoustic features as well as higher-level features related to intelligibility, obtained from an Automatic Speech Recogniser. Prediction of the eating condition was performed with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier employed in a leave-one-speaker-out evaluation framework. Results show that the binary prediction of eating condition (i. e., eating or not eating) can be easily solved independently of the speaking condition; the obtained average recalls are all above 90%. Low-level acoustic features provide the best performance on spontaneous speech, which reaches up to 62.3% average recall for multi-way classification of the eating condition, i. e., discriminating the six types of food, as well as not eating. The early fusion of features related to intelligibility with the brute-forced acoustic feature set improves the performance on read speech, reaching a 66.4% average recall for the multi-way classification task. Analysing features and classifier errors leads to a suitable ordinal scale for eating conditions, on which automatic regression can be performed with up to 56.2% determination coefficient. PMID:27176486

  18. I Hear You Eat and Speak: Automatic Recognition of Eating Condition and Food Type, Use-Cases, and Impact on ASR Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hantke, Simone; Weninger, Felix; Kurle, Richard; Ringeval, Fabien; Batliner, Anton; Mousa, Amr El-Desoky; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers), six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps), and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes. We start with demonstrating that for automatic speech recognition (ASR), it pays off to know whether speakers are eating or not. We also propose automatic classification both by brute-forcing of low-level acoustic features as well as higher-level features related to intelligibility, obtained from an Automatic Speech Recogniser. Prediction of the eating condition was performed with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier employed in a leave-one-speaker-out evaluation framework. Results show that the binary prediction of eating condition (i. e., eating or not eating) can be easily solved independently of the speaking condition; the obtained average recalls are all above 90%. Low-level acoustic features provide the best performance on spontaneous speech, which reaches up to 62.3% average recall for multi-way classification of the eating condition, i. e., discriminating the six types of food, as well as not eating. The early fusion of features related to intelligibility with the brute-forced acoustic feature set improves the performance on read speech, reaching a 66.4% average recall for the multi-way classification task. Analysing features and classifier errors leads to a suitable ordinal scale for eating conditions, on which automatic regression can be performed with up to 56.2% determination coefficient. PMID:27176486

  19. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors. PMID:26005202

  20. Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences.

    PubMed

    Roblin, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277

  1. The Ocean Book: Food Chains...Come and Eat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)

  2. Isocaloric meal and snack foods differentially affect eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Elizabeth D; Owens, Jacqueline Quinn; Privitera, Gregory J

    2006-03-01

    The present study tested whether foods categorized as meals reduce subsequent intake more than isocaloric foods categorized as snacks. The study was repeated three times with variations. In each variation we manipulated whether subjects received meal or snack foods in an isocaloric load. In Variation 1, subjects consumed less following a load of meal foods than snacks. Variation 2 found this effect to be short-term, affecting food choice 20 min following a load but not 3 h later. Variation 3 demonstrated: (1) this effect occurs independent of the effects of the weights of foods, and (2) this effect varies specifically with subject perceptions of foods (i.e. whether they are part of a meal or snack). These results are discussed in terms of how cognitive representations of preload foods can influence subsequent consumption. PMID:16442668

  3. Fast food prices, obesity, and the minimum wage.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Chad; Tefft, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Recent proposals argue that a fast food tax may be an effective policy lever for reducing population weight. Although there is growing evidence for a negative association between fast food prices and weight among adolescents, less is known about adults. That any measured relationship to date is causal is unclear because there has been no attempt to separate variation in prices on the demand side from that on the supply side. We argue that the minimum wage is an exogenous source of variation in fast food prices, conditional on income and employment. In two-stage least-squares analyses, we find little evidence that fast food price changes affect adult BMI or obesity prevalence. Results are robust to including controls for area and time fixed effects, area time trends, demographic characteristics, substitute prices, numbers of establishments and employment in related industries, and other potentially related factors. PMID:22554473

  4. Life and Health Insurance Industry Investments in Fast Food

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U.; Boyd, J. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions. PMID:20395572

  5. Life and health insurance industry investments in fast food.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley

    2010-06-01

    Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions. PMID:20395572

  6. Fast food and financial impatience: a socioecological approach.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Sanford E; House, Julian; Zhong, Chen-Bo

    2013-09-01

    We investigated whether the prevalence of fast-food restaurants in the social ecology are associated with greater financial impatience at the national, neighborhood, and individual level. Study 1 shows that the proliferation of fast-food restaurants over the past 3 decades in the developed world was associated with a historic shift in financial impatience, as manifested in precipitously declining household savings rates. Study 2 finds that households saved less when living in neighborhoods with a higher concentration of fast-food restaurants relative to full-service restaurants. With a direct measure of individuals' delay discounting preferences, Study 3 confirms that a higher concentration of fast-food restaurants within one's neighborhood is associated with greater financial impatience. In line with a causal relationship, Study 4 reveals that recalling a recent fast-food, as opposed to full-service, dining experience at restaurants within the same neighborhood induced greater delay discounting, which was mediated behaviorally by how quickly participants completed the recall task itself. Finally, Study 5 demonstrates that pedestrians walking down the same urban street exhibited greater delay discounting in their choice of financial reward if they were surveyed in front of a fast-food restaurant, compared to a full-service restaurant. Collectively, these data indicate a link between the prevalence of fast food and financial impatience across multiple levels of analysis, and suggest the plausibility of fast food having a reinforcing effect on financial impatience. The present investigation highlights how the pervasiveness of organizational cues in the everyday social ecology can have a far-ranging influence. PMID:23773044

  7. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  8. Effectiveness of nutrition education on fast food choices in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kelly N; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, Ruthanne

    2007-12-01

    Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education in a group of adolescents. Ten adolescents were asked to choose food items from a fast food restaurant menu. Their chosen meals' nutrition make-up (calories, fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, protein, and fiber) was calculated. Following a 30-minute nutrition education session, participants were asked again to choose a meal from the same fast food menu. The nutrition make-up of the meal chosen postintervention was compared with the meal chosen before the education session. There was a statistically significant (p < .05) difference in calories, fat, carbohydrate, and fiber content of the meals chosen postintervention. This short nutrition education intervention resulted in healthier fast food choices in this group of adolescents. PMID:18052519

  9. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  10. Food, Family and Fun: A Seasonal Guide to Healthy Eating. Commemorating 50 Years of School Lunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Helping children make food choices for a healthy diet can be challenging. This book is designed as a resource guide and cookbook for parents to help them make healthful eating and cooking with children tasty, simple, affordable, and fun. The book is a collection of 50 recipes organized by season, and featuring family nutrition education…

  11. Food and Eating Practices during the Transition from Secondary School to New Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Wendy J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how the new social contexts experienced by young people after leaving school are related to everyday food practices and eating habits. Findings from in-depth interviews with 31 young people aged 16-24 years studying at a college of further education in South East England are used to explore the role of new social spaces and…

  12. Are You What You Eat? An inside Look at High-Tech Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2007-01-01

    If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to…

  13. Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

  14. Use of calorie information at fast food and chain restaurants among US youth aged 9–18 years, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wethington, H.; Maynard, L.M.; Blanck, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine whether youth use calorie information when it is available at fast food/chain restaurants and what factors are associated with using this information to make their food selection. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 721 youth (9–18 years) using the 2010 YouthStyles and HealthStyles surveys. The outcome measure was reported use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between sociodemographic variables and the use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Results Of those who visited fast food/chain restaurants, 42.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Girls were more likely than boys (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–2.5) and youth who were obese were more likely than those at a healthy weight (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.04–2.9) to use calorie information, and youth eating at a fast food/chain restaurant twice a week or more versus once a week or less were half as likely to report using calorie information (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8). Conclusion Public health education efforts can benefit from research to determine how to increase usage among youth so that their food choices are appropriate for their caloric needs. PMID:23697388

  15. Delay discounting and intake of ready-to-eat and away-from-home foods in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; DeBiasse, Michelle A.; Whited, Matthew C.; Lynch, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    A shift from home-prepared to away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods has occurred in recent decades, which has implications for obesity and health. This study tested whether delay discounting, a facet of impulsivity reflecting sensitivity to immediate reward, is associated with the frequency of consumption and typical amount consumed of home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods among overweight and obese women. Seventy-eight participants completed a binary choice task assessing discounting of delayed monetary rewards. Nutrient analysis of weighed food records characterized dietary intake over seven consecutive days. Foods were categorized as home-prepared, away-from-home, or ready-to-eat by a registered dietitian from information provided by participants. Delay discounting was not associated with the frequency of consuming home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods as reflected in the percentages of recorded foods or total energy intake from each category. However, once consuming away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods (but not home-prepared foods), impulsive women consumed more energy than less impulsive women. Exploratory analyses indicated that more impulsive women chose away-from-home foods with a higher energy density (kcal/g). Impulsivity was associated with the quantity of away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods consumed, but not the frequency of their consumption. Home food preparation may be critical to weight control for impulsive individuals. PMID:22819735

  16. The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

  17. Greater Corticolimbic Activation to High-Calorie Food Cues after Eating in Obese vs. Normal-Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Tkach, Jean; Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to eating and after consumption of a typical lunch. Twenty-two overweight/obese (11 male) and 16 normal-weight (6 male) individuals participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task examining neural response to visual cues of high- and low-calorie foods before and after eating. The OB group demonstrated increased neural response to high- and low-calorie foods after eating in comparison to the NW participants in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. In addition, greater activation in corticolimbic regions (lateral OFC, caudate, anterior cingulate) to high-calorie food cues was evident in OB vs. NW participants after eating. These findings suggest that for OB individuals, high-calorie food cues show sustained response in brain regions implicated in reward and addiction even after eating. Moreover, food cues did not elicit similar brain response after eating in the NW group suggesting that neural activity in response to food cues diminishes with reduced hunger for these individuals. PMID:22063094

  18. Food and Culture. We Are What We Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    Enjoyment of ethnic food can be the "point de depart" for tracing the heritage of the people being studied and for broadening students' horizons. This article outlines a study of food throughout the centuries, particularly in Europe. The "gastronomic route" begins historically with the Minoans around 2000 B.C., continues with the Greeks and the…

  19. Eating wholegrain foods may reduce the risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A higher intake of wholegrain foods may lower the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer, a new study suggests. A growing body of evidence has emerged on the health benefits of wholegrain foods over the past 10 to 15 years, but recommendations on the daily amount and types have often been unclear or inconsistent. PMID:27380675

  20. We are what we eat: food safety and proteomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we lead the reader through the evolution of proteomics application to the study of quality control in production processes of foods (including food of plant origin and transgenic plants in particular, but also meat, wine and beer, and milk) and food safety (screening for foodborne pathogens). These topics are attracting a great deal of attention, especially in recent years, when the international community has become increasingly aware of the central role of food quality and safety and their influence on the health of end-consumers. Early proteomics studies in the field of food research were mainly aimed at performing exploratory analyses of food (bovine, swine, chicken, or lamb meat, but also transgenic food such as genetically modified maize, for example) and beverages (wine), with the goal of improving the quality of the end-products. Recently, developments in the field of proteomics have also allowed the study of safety issues, as the technical advantages of sensitive techniques such as mass spectrometry have guaranteed a faster and improved individuation of food contaminating pathogens with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. PMID:21992580

  1. ‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2009-01-01

    What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or incentive salience systems important to appetite, such as mesolimbic dopamine systems and opioid motivation circuits that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots. Finally, it considers some potential ways in which ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ might relate to eating disorders. PMID:19336238

  2. Bulimics' responses to food cravings: is binge-eating a product of hunger or emotional state?

    PubMed

    Waters, A; Hill, A; Waller, G

    2001-08-01

    This study examined the roles of hunger, food craving and mood in the binge-eating episodes of bulimic patients, and identified the critical factors involved in the processes surrounding binge-eating episodes that follow cravings. This was a prospective study of the binge-eating behaviour of 15 women with bulimia nervosa. The participants used food intake diaries and Craving Records to self-monitor their nutritional behaviour, hunger levels and affective state. Cravings leading to a binge were associated with higher tension, lower mood and lower hunger than those cravings not leading to a binge. Levels of tension and hunger were the critical discriminating variables. The findings of the study support empirical evidence and models of emotional blocking in binge-eating behaviour and challenge the current cognitive starve-binge models of bulimia. The role of food cravings in the emotional blocking model is discussed in terms of a classically conditioned motivational state. Implications for treatment are addressed. PMID:11480829

  3. Memory updating in sub-clinical eating disorder: differential effects with food and body shape words.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Olivia; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated how eating disorder (ED) relevant information is updated in working memory in people with high vs. low scores on a measure of eating disorder pathology (the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, EDE-Q). Participants performed two memory updating tasks. One was a neutral control task using digits; the other task involved food words and words relating to body-shape, and provided measures of updating speed and post-updating recall. We found that high EDE-Q participants (1) showed no sign of general memory updating impairment as indicated by performance in the control task; (2) showed a general recall deficit in the task involving ED-relevant stimuli, suggesting a general distraction of cognitive resources in the presence of ED-related items; (3) showed a relative facilitation in the recall of food words; and (4) showed quicker updating toward food words and relatively slower updating toward body-shape-related words. Results are discussed in the context of cognitive theories of eating disorders. PMID:25682363

  4. Fasting during Ramadan: a religious factor as a possible trigger or exacerbator for eating disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray Ö

    2014-12-01

    Culture-based contributors play a role in eating disorders (EDs). Here, we present one such factor that may play a role in triggering ED's in adolescents: Fasting during the holy period of Ramadan. Ramadan is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, and smoking, which starts from dawn lasting until sunset. For the past 2 years, we have noticed an increase in patients with disordered eating patterns that have applied to Hacettepe University, Division of Adolescent Medicine during or shortly after Ramadan. We document six of these patients, three of which were diagnosed with an ED and three that did not meet full criteria. We argue that the possible effects of a drastic change in ones diet such as that which occurs during Ramadan, play an important role in triggering ED's in adolescents with a predisposition or may exacerbate an eating pathology. PMID:24474707

  5. Environmental Microbiology: Bacteria & Fungi on the Foods We Eat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segner, Suzanne; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2007-01-01

    The near daily news reports on food-borne diseases caused by contaminated produce, dairy, or meats suggests to the public that the safety of the U.S. food supply is in jeopardy. These reports, as well as a general distrust in federal agencies due in part to mad cow disease and toxigenic forms of "E. coli" in ground beef, have resulted in an…

  6. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  7. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:  1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds. PMID:22988491

  9. Alleged Approach-Avoidance Conflict for Food Stimuli in Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leehr, Elisabeth J.; Schag, Kathrin; Brinkmann, Amelie; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E.; Dresler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Food stimuli are omnipresent and naturally primary reinforcing stimuli. One explanation for the intake of high amounts of food in binge eating disorder (BED) is a deviant valuation process. Valuation of food stimuli is supposed to influence approach or avoidance behaviour towards food. Focusing on self-reported and indirect (facial electromyography) valuation process, motivational aspects in the processing of food stimuli were investigated. Methods We compared an overweight sample with BED (BED+) with an overweight sample without BED (BED-) and with normal weight controls (NWC) regarding their self-reported and indirect (via facial electromyography) valuation of food versus non-food stimuli. Results Regarding the self-reported valuation, the BED+ sample showed a significantly stronger food-bias compared to the BED- sample, as food stimuli were rated as significantly more positive than the non-food stimuli in the BED+ sample. This self-reported valuation pattern could not be displayed in the indirect valuation. Food stimuli evoked negative indirect valuation in all groups. The BED+ sample showed the plainest approach-avoidance conflict marked by a diverging self-reported (positive) and indirect (negative) valuation of food stimuli. Conclusions BED+ showed a deviant self-reported valuation of food as compared to BED-. The valuation process of the BED+ sample seems to be characterized by a motivational ambivalence. This ambivalence should be subject of further studies and may be of potential use for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27045169

  10. The study of food addiction using animal models of binge eating.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M

    2010-12-01

    This review summarizes evidence of "food addiction" using animal models of binge eating. In our model of sucrose bingeing, behavioral components of addiction are demonstrated and related to neurochemical changes that also occur with addictive drugs. Evidence supports the hypothesis that rats can become dependent and "addicted" to sucrose. Results obtained when animals binge on other palatable foods, including a fat-rich food, are described and suggest that increased body weight can occur. However, the characterization of an addiction-like behavioral profile in animals with binge access to fat requires further exploration in order to dissociate the effect of increased body weight from the diet or schedule of feeding. PMID:20849896

  11. An animal model of excessive eating: schedule-induced hyperphagia in food-satiated rats.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J F; Cantor, M B

    1987-05-01

    Nineteen rats were maintained throughout the experiment on ad libitum wet mash and water and were trained to press a lever on fixed-interval or fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement with electrical brain stimulation. Fourteen rats ate at least 150% more mash during intermittent reinforcement sessions than during baseline, massed reinforcement control, and/or extinction sessions. In a 3-hr session, 11 of those 14 consumed more than 22 g of wet mash (13 g dry weight), the equivalent of nearly half an animal's daily food intake. In subsequent control sessions, the electrodes did not support stimulus-bound eating despite attempts to make stimulation parameters optimal. These results indicate that the eating was schedule induced or adjunctive, and suggest that the procedure may provide an animal model of excessive nonregulatory eating that contributes to obesity in humans. PMID:3475400

  12. Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Food Energy Density and Higher Consumption of Sugary and Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E.; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Methods Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Results Compared to individuals with ≤1 OREB, those with ≥5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001) and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (β 7; 95% CI −7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05) and of alcoholic beverages (β 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001). Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. Conclusions OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake. PMID:24204756

  13. Emotion and food. Do the emotions expressed on other people's faces affect the desire to eat liked and disliked food products?

    PubMed

    Barthomeuf, L; Rousset, S; Droit-Volet, S

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to test if pleasure, neutrality and disgust expressed by other individuals on a photograph could affect the desire to eat liked or disliked food products. Forty-four men and women were presented with two series of photographs. The first series of photographs was composed of six food photographs: three liked and three disliked food products. The second series consisted of the same photographs presented with eaters expressing three different emotions: disgust, pleasure or neutrality. Results showed that the effect of the presence of an eater, and of emotions expressed by this eater, depended on the food category. For the liked foods, the desire to eat was higher when these foods were presented alone than with an eater expressing neutral emotion. When the eater expressed pleasure, the desire to eat these liked foods did not significantly increase. In contrast, when the eater expressed disgust, the desire to eat them significantly decreased. When the foods were disliked, the influence of the pleasant social context was stronger than for the liked foods. The desire to eat the disliked foods actually increased in the presence of an eater expressing pleasure. On the contrary, the disgust and neutral context had no effect on the desire for disliked foods. PMID:18672014

  14. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

  15. Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

  16. Food Is More Than Just Something To Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grocery Manufacturers of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet lists the major nutrients, discusses the role each plays in the body, and lists some of the foods that each nutrient can be found in. An explanation of the relationship between nutrients and energy, how the body gets the nutrients it needs from the diet, and the nutrients needed from before birth until the later years is included. A…

  17. The Demand for Healthy Eating: Supporting a Transformative Food "Movement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winson, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    To the extent that social science scholarship engages real-world developments it remains grounded and better able to resist elite agendas. With this in mind this article argues for the critical encounter with what I argue is the most significant struggle around food and agriculture today--the amorphous and broad-based movement that strives to…

  18. Food Stamp Recipients Eat More Vegetables after Viewing Nutrition Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Amy Block; Feldman, Nancy; Fujii, Mary Lavender; Garcia, Linda; Hudes, Mark; Mitchell, Rita; Bunch, Sybille; Metz, Diane

    1999-01-01

    A study in three California counties found that food stamp recipients who viewed a videotape promoting vegetables had increased their knowledge of vegetables and greatly increased their consumption of potatoes and raw vegetables two to six weeks later. The feasibility of using videotaped nutrition instruction with low-income adults is discussed.…

  19. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes: Eat Healthy Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... margarine in a plastic tub • Nuts, olives, and vegetable oil • Avocados. Choose these high fat foods less often. ... Cookies, and Desserts One serving is • 1 teaspoon vegetable, olive, or canola oil • 1 teaspoon tub margarine • 5 large olives or ...

  20. The inverse agonist of CB1 receptor SR141716 blocks compulsive eating of palatable food.

    PubMed

    Dore, Riccardo; Valenza, Marta; Wang, Xiaofan; Rice, Kenner C; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2014-09-01

    Dieting and the increased availability of highly palatable food are considered major contributing factors to the large incidence of eating disorders and obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the role of the cannabinoid (CB) system in a novel animal model of compulsive eating, based on a rapid palatable diet cycling protocol. Male Wistar rats were fed either continuously a regular chow diet (Chow/Chow, control group) or intermittently a regular chow diet for 2 days and a palatable, high-sucrose diet for 1 day (Chow/Palatable). Chow/Palatable rats showed spontaneous and progressively increasing hypophagia and body weight loss when fed the regular chow diet, and excessive food intake and body weight gain when fed the palatable diet. Diet-cycled rats dramatically escalated the intake of the palatable diet during the first hour of renewed access (7.5-fold compared to controls), and after withdrawal, they showed compulsive eating and heightened risk-taking behavior. The inverse agonist of the CB1 receptor, SR141716 reduced the excessive intake of palatable food with higher potency and the body weight with greater efficacy in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. Moreover, SR141716 reduced compulsive eating and risk-taking behavior in Chow/Palatable rats. Finally, consistent with the behavioral and pharmacological observations, withdrawal from the palatable diet decreased the gene expression of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in the ventromedial hypothalamus while increasing that of CB1 receptors in the dorsal striatum in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. These findings will help understand the role of the CB system in compulsive eating. PMID:23587012

  1. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  2. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    PubMed

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  3. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  4. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. PMID:23428940

  5. All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?

    PubMed Central

    Hoi, Herbert; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially nesting European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster). We aimed to determine whether this unconsumed food is an indicator of unlimited food supply, the result of mistakes during food transfer between parents and chicks or foraging selectivity of chicks. Therefore, we investigated the amount of dropped food for each nest in relation to reproductive performance and parameters reflecting parental quality. Our data suggest that parents carry more food to the nest than chicks can eat and, hence, food is not limited. This assumption is supported by the facts that there is a positive relationship between dropped food found in a nest and the number of fledglings, nestling age, and chick health condition and that the amount of dropped food is independent of colony size. There is variation in the amount of dropped food within colonies, suggesting that parent foraging efficiency may also be an important determinant. Pairs nesting in the center of a colony performed better than those nesting on the edge, which supports the assumption that quality differences between parents are important as well. However, dropped food cannot be used as an indicator of local food availability as (1) within-colony variation in dropped food is larger than between colony variation and, (2) the average amount of dropped food is not related to colony size. PMID:25691970

  6. The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H.; Hollis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981

  7. Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2014-08-01

    Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment. PMID:25027288

  8. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  9. Fast food restaurants and food stores: longitudinal associations with diet in young adults: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of cross-sectional, small-sample research has led to policy strategies to reduce food deserts – neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy foods – by limiting fast food restaurants and small food stores and increasing access to supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods. Methods We used 15 years of longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of U.S. young adults (n=5,115, 18–30 years at baseline), with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived food resource measures. Using repeated measures from four examination periods (n=15,854 person-exam observations) and conditional regression (conditioned on the individual), we modeled fast food consumption, diet quality, and meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations as a function of fast food chain, supermarket, or grocery store availability (counts per population) within 1 kilometer (km), 1–2.9km, 3–4.9km, and 5–8km of respondents’ homes. Models were sex-stratified, controlled for individual sociodemographics and neighborhood poverty, and tested for interaction by individual-level income. Results Fast food consumption was related to fast food availability in low-income respondents, particularly within 1–2.9km of homes among men [coefficient (95% CI) up to: 0.34 (0.16, 0.51)]. Greater supermarket availability was generally unrelated to diet quality and fruit and vegetable intake and relationships between grocery store availability and diet outcomes were mixed. Conclusions Our findings provide some evidence for zoning restrictions on fast food restaurants within 3km of low-income residents, but suggest that increased access to food stores may require complementary or alternative strategies to promote dietary behavior change. PMID:21747011

  10. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHIMOJIMA, Yukako; IDA, Miki; NAKAMA, Akiko; NISHINO, Yukari; FUKUI, Rie; KURODA, Sumiyo; HIRAI, Akihiko; KAI, Akemi; SADAMASU, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000–2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006–2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3–1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low. PMID:27000951