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1

Eating fast food: attitudes of high-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAlarmingly consistent recent research shows that industrially produced foods such as fast food contain compounds that add to obesity and high cholesterol among young people. Less physical activity and a higher propensity to eat ready-made food (in Sweden and internationally) have aggravated the health situation for the young generation. They also have become ‘addicted’ to sugar by the consumption of

Jan Mattsson; Helge Helmersson

2007-01-01

2

Differences exist in the eating habits of university men and women at fast-food restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast-food restaurant eating habits of a group of college students at a large Midwestern land-grant university were determined and evaluated by sex. A 2-page questionnaire was developed, which assessed the subjects' frequency of eating meals and snacks at fast-food restaurants, the predominate types of fast-food restaurants patronized, and the factors influencing food choices at fast-food restaurants. Questionnaires were completed by

Judy A. Driskell; Brian R. Meckna; Narissa E. Scales

2006-01-01

3

Efficient or enjoyable? Consumer values of eating-out and fast food restaurant consumption in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korean fast food industry has grown rapidly since the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. There are now 1500 fast food restaurants in Korea. This study investigated the relationships between consumer values of eating-out and the importance of fast food restaurant attributes in Korea. Using a questionnaire, 279 fast food restaurant patrons were surveyed. The results showed that consumer values of

Cheol Park

2004-01-01

4

Drinking activity analysis from fast food eating video using generative models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drinking activity is a common event in a fast food eating process. In this paper, we present a study on drinking activity analysis from fast food eating video using generative models. We apply three different generative models, namely Conditional Random Field (CRF), Hidden-state Conditional Random Field (HCRF), and Latent-Dynamic Conditional Random Field (LDCRF), to characterize drinking activities in a

Qing Wang; Jie Yang

2009-01-01

5

???????????????????-?????? Consumer values of eating-out and fast food restaurant consumption in  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent year, along with the economic growth and the increase in the national income and the changes in social structure and family type. Fast-food industry continues to be growing and has gradually influenced people's eating habits. People eating out are on the increase. There are now 700 fast food restaurant in Taiwan. This study investigated the relationships between consumer

Yi-Wen Wang; Ming-Tsung Lee

6

Why Eat at Fast-Food Restaurants: Reported Reasons among Frequent Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convenience sample of adolescents and adults who regularly eat at fast-food restaurants were recruited to participate in an experimental trial to examine the effect of nutrition labeling on meal choices. As part of this study, participants were asked to indicate how strongly they agreed or disagreed with 11 statements to assess reasons for eating at fast-food restaurants. Logistic regression

Sarah A. Rydell; Lisa J. Harnack; J. Michael Oakes; Mary Story; Robert W. Jeffery; Simone A. French

2008-01-01

7

Eating on the Run: A Qualitative Investigation of Fast Food Student Employees and Social Network Influences on Eating Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a complex public health problem, whose influences range from genetic to lifestyle to environmental to economic factors. In this project, I will investigate how social networks influence eating behaviors. Through a series of 30—45 minute interviews with students working in fast-food restaurants, I will gather data on contextual features of eating as a fast-food worker. I will do

Catherine A. Womack

2009-01-01

8

Fast food hamburgers: what are we really eating?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans consume about 5 billion hamburgers a year. It is presumed that most hamburgers are composed primarily of meat. The purpose of this study is to assess the content of 8 fast food hamburger brands using histologic methods. Eight different brands of hamburgers were evaluated for water content by weight and microscopically for recognizable tissue types. Glial fibrillary acidic protein

Brigid Prayson; James T. McMahon; Richard A. Prayson

2008-01-01

9

Fast food hamburgers: what are we really eating?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans consume about 5 billion hamburgers a year. It is presumed that most hamburgers are composed primarily of meat. The purpose of this study is to assess the content of 8 fast food hamburger brands using histologic methods. Eight different brands of hamburgers were evaluated for water content by weight and microscopically for recognizable tissue types. Glial fibrillary acidic protein

Brigid Praysona; James T. McMahon; Richard A. Prayson

10

Barriers to avoiding fast-food consumption in an environment supportive of unhealthy eating.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors (ability, motivation and the environment) that act as barriers to limiting fast-food consumption in women who live in an environment that is supportive of poor eating habits. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using self-reports of individual-level data and objectively measured environmental data. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with frequency of fast-food consumption. SETTING: Socio-economically disadvantaged areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. SUBJECTS: Women (n 932) from thirty-two socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods living within 3 km of six or more fast-food restaurants. Women were randomly sampled in 2007-2008 as part of baseline data collection for the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study. RESULTS: Consuming low amounts of fast food was less likely in women with lower perceived ability to shop for and cook healthy foods, lower frequency of family dining, lower family support for healthy eating, more women acquaintances who eat fast food regularly and who lived further from the nearest supermarket. When modelled with the other significant factors, a lower perceived shopping ability, mid levels of family support and living further from the nearest supermarket remained significant. Among those who did not perceive fruits and vegetables to be of high quality, less frequent fast-food consumption was further reduced for those with the lowest confidence in their shopping ability. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions designed to improve women's ability and opportunities to shop for healthy foods may be of value in making those who live in high-risk environments better able to eat healthily. PMID:23182344

Thornton, Lukar E; Jeffery, Robert W; Crawford, David A

2012-11-27

11

Do adolescents who live or go to school near fast-food restaurants eat more frequently from fast-food restaurants?  

PubMed

This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents' eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adolescents and also ate at fast food restaurants more often. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographics, adolescent males living near high numbers fast food restaurants ate more frequently from these venues compared to their peers. PMID:23064515

Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-09-15

12

Fast food recognition from videos of eating for calorie estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and passive acquisition of dietary data from pa- tients is essential for a better understanding of the etiology of obesity and development of effective weight management programs. Self-reporting is currently the main method for such data acquisition. However, studies have shown that data obtained by self-reporting seriously underestimate food in- take and thus do not accurately reflect the real

Wen Wu; Jie Yang

2009-01-01

13

Eating Behaviors, Obesity, and Litigation: Should Casual-Food Restaurant Operators Heed the Warnings to their Fast-Food Counterparts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

McDonald's has weathered attacks over its alleged contribution to the obesity epidemic. Similar concerns may be at hand for casual restaurant operators. Students (N = 605) from a two-year college and a four-year university were surveyed to compare eating behaviors and menu selections in fast-food versus casual restaurants. Actual mean calorie consumption was significantly higher in casual restaurant meals than

Molly J. Dahm; Amy R. Shows; Aurelia V. Samonte

2010-01-01

14

Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

2012-01-01

15

Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

2012-01-01

16

"Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

Ioannou, Soula

2009-01-01

17

"Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

Ioannou, Soula

2009-01-01

18

Eating beans … that is a “no-no” for our times’: Young Cypriots’ consumer meanings of ‘healthy’ and ‘fastfood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and\\/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus.Design Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day experiences.Participants Twenty five young people (12 male, 13 female) aged

Soula Ioannou

2009-01-01

19

Is fast food addictive?  

PubMed

Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

2011-09-01

20

Automatic Dietary Assessment from Fast Food Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach for automatic dietary assessment from images captured from eating activities. We propose to directly estimate calories of fast food from its category and formulate dietary assessment as an object categorization problem. We use a modified bag of feature model for fast food categorization. We evaluate the proposed method in a database of McDonald fast

Lei Yang; Nanning Zheng; Hong Cheng; John D. Fernstrom; Mingui Sun; Jie Yang

21

Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.  

PubMed

Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996

Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

2007-04-24

22

Development of an intervention programme to encourage high school students to stay in school for lunch instead of eating at nearby fast-food restaurants.  

PubMed

Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. PMID:22306931

Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

2012-01-16

23

Fast-Casual Dining: Our Next Eating Passion?  

PubMed

Americans have a new speedy-eating passion: fast-casual dining! Does this mean that now we can forget about McDonald's, Burger King, KFC, and the other fast-food restaurants that nutritionists have been railing against? Are they yesterday's news? PMID:12813187

Tillotson, James E.

24

Fast food (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

25

Fast food: friendly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast

S Rice; E J McAllister; N V Dhurandhar

2007-01-01

26

Fast food: dietary perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to the fast food debate in the context of a healthy diet. Fast food products readily available in retail outlets in the London area are reported on. It is apparent from this exercise that consumers can make informed choices in accord with the Balance of Good Health. Quantitative ingredient declarations on packaging clearly show, which foods are

G. Jill Davies; Jennifer L. Smith

2004-01-01

27

Eating out: Consumer perceptions of food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to improve the understanding of the public's perception of hygiene standards in eating places and their knowledge of the inspection system. A telephone survey found that despite many claiming experience of food poisoning, and a widely held belief that using eating places may result in illness, people continue to eat out or purchase takeaways

Denise Worsfold

2006-01-01

28

Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

2007-01-01

29

Food Safety for Moms-To-Be: Safe Eats - Eating Out & ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... in the refrigerator or freeze it for eating at another ... For delivered foods, eat the food within two hours after ... the food is not going to be eaten within two ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

30

Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules.  

PubMed

Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eating disorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exacerbates risk for developing eating disorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a battery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disordered eating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implications for designing early interventions for disordered eating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disordered eating who also report high levels of perfectionism. PMID:23121786

Brown, Amanda Joelle; Parman, Kortney M; Rudat, Deirdre A; Craighead, Linda W

2012-06-09

31

Marketing strategies for fast-food restaurants: a customer view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posits that, in recent years, a major food consumption trend in the USA and Canada is that more people are eating more meals outside their homes. It is predicted that this trend will accelerate in the future. As a result, fast-food markets will offer greater growth opportunities for marketers. Presents consumers’ perceptions of and preferences for fast-food restaurants in the

Ali Kara; Erdener Kaynak; Orsay Kucukemiroglu

1997-01-01

32

Marketing strategies for fast-food restaurants: a customer view  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a major food consumption trend in the USA and Canada is that more people are eating more meals outside their homes. It is predicted that this trend will accelerate in the future. As a result, fast-food markets will offer greater growth opportunities for marketers. Presents consumers? perceptions of and preferences for fast-food restaurants in the USA and

Ali Kara; Erdener Kaynak; Orsay Kucukemiroglu

1995-01-01

33

Relationship of Attitudes Toward Fast Food and Frequency of Fast-food Intake in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fast food and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults (94% white, 65% women, 70% married, 42% with college educated).

Jayna M. Dave; Lawrence C. An; Robert W. Jeffery; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

2009-01-01

34

Binge Eating Disorder and Food Addiction  

PubMed Central

Binge eating disorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and “food addiction” may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food addiction is relatively new, understanding the relationship between food addiction and BED may be informative in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of problematic eating. In the following paper, we 1) examine the theoretical similarities and differences between BED and addiction, 2) review recent empirical evidence that speak to the relationship between BED and food addiction and 3) discuss the implications of associations between BED and food addiction with respect to clinical interventions.

Gearhardt, Ashley N.; White, Marney A.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

35

My Child Only Eats Certain Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many young children display some sort of picky eating. Although most children's diets will eventually consist of an adequate number of foods, some children's diets may not change without intervention. Children with limited diets typically have difficulty consuming new foods because they have some stomach discomfort, have limited oral-motor…

Berkowitz, Merrill; Kerwin, Mary Louise; Feldstein, Melissa

2008-01-01

36

Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings

Frans J. Kok; Cees de Graaf

2010-01-01

37

Cost of Eating: Whole Foods Versus Convenience Foods in a Low-income Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Financial limitations in low-income populations, those at highest risk for poor health outcomes, may preclude adherence to recommended dietary guidelines. We examine the financial burden of shopping for foods to meet national dietary recommendations in a supermarket compared to eating primarily in a fast-food restaurant. Methods: Using a single-parent, low-income model, we obtained whole food costs (healthy)

Andrew J. McDermott; Mark B. Stephens

2010-01-01

38

Promotion and Fast Food Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food

Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

2009-01-01

39

Fast-Food Environments and Family Fast-Food Intake in Nonmetropolitan Areas  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent–parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fast food at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eat fast food compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07,1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. Conclusions In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake.

Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

2012-01-01

40

An Evaluation of Fast-Food Preferences According to Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has been conducted to determine the fast-food preferences of females and males who come to eat at the fast-food restaurants in the Kizilay region and in the large shopping malls of the province of Ankara. The research involved a total of 400 people (200 males and 200 females) who were 18 or years old or above. A questionnaire

Ayse Özfer Özcelik; Lale Sariye Akan; Metin Saip Sürücüoglu

41

Food Safety in Fast Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that health department inspections of fast-food restaurants may not be sufficient to ensure compliance with food safety regulations, managers must be vigilant in ensuring conformity with practices that safeguard public health. This case study of one fast-food employee's experience at three different fast-food restaurants suggests that employees' training and supervision require more attention to safety procedures. Greater manager accountability

Lauren Dundes; Tamiko Swann

2008-01-01

42

Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

43

Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

44

Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The key is to never let your picnic food remain in the "Danger Zone" - between 40° F and 140° F - for more than 2 hours, or 1 hour if outdoor ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

45

Food attitudes, eating behavior, and the information underlying food attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined healthiness perceptions and how the information underlying food attitudes more generally relate to attitudes and behaviors. Participants completed attitudinal measures and various card-sorting tasks in which they rank ordered foods (pictures and\\/or nutrition labels) in terms of healthiness. Taste was found to be a stronger predictor of attitudes and past eating behavior than other information underlying attitudes

Shelley N. Aikman; Kate E. Min; Dan Graham

2006-01-01

46

Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

47

Fast food\\/organic food: Reflexive tastes and the making of 'yuppie chow'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic food consumption is one of several new trends in eating read as active opposition to industrialized food provision. While fast food consumption is characterized by compulsive gluttony, manifest in fat bodies, alternative consumption practices are seen to be driven by conscious reflexivity, such that consumers monitor, reflect upon and adapt their personal conduct in light of its perceived consequences.

Julie Guthman

2003-01-01

48

Effects of fear, food deprivation, and obesity on eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the effects of manipulated fear and food deprivation on the amounts eaten by 43 obese and 48 normal Ss. Normals eat more when they are calm than when frightened and eat more when they are food deprived than when they are sated. The manipulations have no effects on the amounts eaten by obese Ss who eat roughly the same

Stanley Schachter; Ronald Goldman; Andrew Gordon

1968-01-01

49

Fast Food Facts: Interactive Food Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before grabbing a quick bite at a fast food eatery, curious diners may want to check this site, provided by Olen Publishing, and based on the Fast Food Facts handbook, which is published by the Minnesota Attorney General's Office. Food Finder allows users to search any of nineteen fast food restaurants from Arby's to White Castle. Any or all restaurants can be searched on food names, maximum calories, percent calories from fat, and maximum sodium, fat, and cholesterol. Then simply "fire up the deep fryer." To browse all products of all restaurants, simply fire up the deep fryer without entering any search terms. This fun and informative (if slightly frightening) site tallies the cost of that next fast food meal to your health.

1998-01-01

50

Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently ‘healthy’ meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together

S Stender; J Dyerberg; A Astrup

2007-01-01

51

Food purchasing sites. Repercussions for healthy eating.  

PubMed

Changes in the food system are associated with the increase in consumption of foods with low nutritional value in recent decades. Data on food purchasing for household consumption, collected from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) Household Budget Survey (HBS) in 2002-3, were used to describe the contribution of food purchasing sites (FPS) to the diet of Brazilian families. All the 241 distinct FPS mentioned in the HBS were grouped into ten categories, according to the nature of the products available. Food acquisitions were organized into seven groups. Supermarkets and hypermarkets accounted for 49% of the acquisitions and were the main source of six out of the seven food groups. Street markets and greengroceries stood out in the acquisitions of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 39% of this market. The large contribution of supermarkets and hypermarkets to the diet shows the need for healthy eating promotion policies aiming at these locations. Street markets and greengroceries represent important allies for healthy eating. PMID:23835229

Costa, Janaína Calu; Claro, Rafael M; Martins, Ana Paula B; Levy, Renata B

2013-07-05

52

Does Frequent Eating Out Cause Undesirable Food Choices? Association of Food Away from Home with Food Consumption Frequencies and Obesity among Korean Housewives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship among socioeconomic factors, frequency of food away from home (FAFH) and food-consumption patterns of 1,070 housewives, and the association of those factors with obesity, using data from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although lower intakes of fruits, meats, and fast foods were associated with seldom eating out, no consistent pattern was

Mi Kyung Choi; Tae Yoon Kim; Jin-Sook Yoon

2011-01-01

53

Factors Affecting Expenditures for Food Away From Home in Commercial Establishments By Type of Eating Place and Meal Occasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the relationships among sociodemographic and economic characteristics of households and food spending in restaurants. Spending was analyzed separately by type of eating place and by meal occasion. Meal occasions are defined as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, and types of eating places are defined as fast food, family type, atmosphere, cafeteria, coffee shops, and take-out from restaurants.

Stephen J. Hiemstra; Woo Gon Kim

1995-01-01

54

Yom Kippur, Air France, dormitory food, and the eating behavior of obese and normal persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents 3 field studies, designed to test the generalizability of experimental findings on the eating behavior of obese and normal Ss. These studies examine the relationship of weight deviation to fasting on Yom Kippur, toleration of institutional food, and adjustment to time-zone changes. Conforming to laboratory-generated expectations, obese Jewish Ss were more likely to fast on Yom Kippur, obese students

Ronald Goldman; Melvyn Jaffa; Stanley Schachter

1968-01-01

55

Fast Food to Healthy Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent headline in the Nation's Restaurant News (2002) asked the question: “Should Restaurants Bear the Burden of Monitoring Americans' Diets?”. Society has grown increasingly conscientious about health care costs and the question is consistent with this trend. In light of some highly publicized cases of litigation and debates between consumer groups and food service professionals, this question is the

Susan Gregory; Carmela McTyre; Robin B. Dipietro

2006-01-01

56

Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…

Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

2002-01-01

57

Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…

Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

2002-01-01

58

Peer Effects, Fast Food Consumption and Adolescent Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We first propose a social interaction model of fast food consumption using a

Bernard Fortin; Myra Yazbeck

2011-01-01

59

Eating Disorders: No Longer Trapped by Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to document disordered eating patterns and prevalence rates to assess the current extent of the problem among college students. The Undergraduate Student Health Risk Appraisal Survey, with a Disordered Eating Subscale, generated such information. A randomized stratified study (n=320) of students at a major university ascertained disordered eating patterns, documented diagnosed eating disorders, and

Sara Oswalt; Helen M. Welle-Graf

60

Body Mass Index, Neighborhood Fast Food and Restaurant Concentration, and Car Ownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic\\u000a access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who\\u000a rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations\\u000a are associated with body

Sanae Inagami; Deborah A. Cohen; Arleen F. Brown; Steven M. Asch

2009-01-01

61

Adolescents' views of food and eating: identifying barriers to healthy eating.  

PubMed

Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. Twelve focus group discussions of single-sex groups of boys or girls ranging from early to-mid adolescence (N=73) were employed to identify key perceptions of, and influences upon, healthy eating behaviour. Thematic analysis identified four key factors as barriers to healthy eating. These factors were: physical and psychological reinforcement of eating behaviour; perceptions of food and eating behaviour; perceptions of contradictory food-related social pressures; and perceptions of the concept of healthy eating itself. Overall, healthy eating as a goal in its own right is notably absent from the data and would appear to be elided by competing pressures to eat unhealthily and to lose weight. This insight should inform the development of future food-related communications to adolescents. PMID:16730371

Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T; Trew, Karen

2006-05-26

62

The politics of eating: Food practices as critically reflexive leisure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We eat every day; it is both leisure and work for all of us. And yet, dramatically few of us have examined food practices with a leisure studies lens. Closer scrutiny, however, reveals a deeply political practice embedded in popular culture. Three cases are used to highlight the politics of leisure and food: the Slow Food Movement, the food justice

Heather Mair; Jennifer Sumner; Leahora Rotteau

2008-01-01

63

Food and eating on television: impacts and influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the background to and main findings from a three-year MAFF-funded research project on the role of television in the food choices of young people. The project examined the nature and extent of television’s portrayal of food and eating and investigated young people’s interpretations of this. The findings indicate that food and eating are portrayed very frequently on UK television,

Roger Dickinson

2000-01-01

64

Availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at a fast-food restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.Given the link between eating out, poor diets, and obesity, we assessed the availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at the largest fast-food restaurant in the U.S., McDonald's.

Margo G. Wootan; Melissa Osborn; Claudia J. Malloy

2006-01-01

65

Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

2010-08-31

66

Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies.

Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

2010-01-01

67

Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.  

PubMed

A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

Wahlquist, Åsa K

2013-01-01

68

Dating and eating. Beliefs about dating foods among university students.  

PubMed

Dating is an important courtship activity in the U.S., and food consumption is part of dating events. Students use dating scripts to guide decisions and behaviors on dates, and perform scripts on dates to construct positive impression management. This study examined how students conceptualized dating foods. A questionnaire was administered in one large university class, and data from 301 students were analyzed. Students were asked to name three dating foods, three foods that are not dating foods, what makes foods dating foods, and what makes foods not dating foods. Findings revealed that both common and uncommon foods were named as dating and not dating foods. Alcoholic beverages were sometimes named as dating foods. Women often named feminine foods (considered appropriate for females) as dating foods, but men were not more likely to name masculine foods (considered appropriate for males) as dating foods. Neat and easy-to-eat foods were often named as dating foods, while pungent foods and foods causing bad breath were named as not dating foods. These findings support the conception that dating scripts guide thinking about food choices to enhance impression management. Dating food choices are important for current health and as potential precursors for long-term eating relationships like marriage. PMID:19577601

Amiraian, Dana E; Sobal, Jeffery

2009-07-03

69

Neuroendocrine dysregulation of food intake in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviors and imbalance of energy homeostasis. Changes of both central and peripheral neuroendocrine substances involved in the modulation of food intake and energy expenditure have been described in acutely ill patients with eating disorders. This review selectively focuses on the most recent findings supporting abnormal changes

Palmiero Monteleone; Eloisa Castaldo; Mario Maj

2008-01-01

70

Mood and forbidden foods’ influence on perceptions of binge eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study consists of two experiments investigating the effects of induced mood and food type on perceptions of eating in imagined and real eating situations. A total of 212 female undergraduates representing the continuum of bulimic symptomatology were induced with either elated or depressed moods using a standardized mood-induction procedure. They were then either asked to imagine themselves in a

Tracey L Guertin; Anthony J Conger

1999-01-01

71

Eating habits and behaviors  

MedlinePLUS

... to which someone brought cupcakes Stopping at a fast-food restaurant for breakfast and choosing high fat, high ... plan to buy (impulse buying) or eat at fast-food restaurants. Planning dinners at the beginning of the ...

72

Fast Food: Tips for Choosing Healthier Options  

MedlinePLUS

... www.mayoclinic.com /health /fast-food /MY01268 ">Fast food: Tips for choosing healthier options Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers ...

73

Food Portion Patterns and Trends among U.S. Children and the Relationship to Total Eating Occasion Size, 1977-2006123  

PubMed Central

Food and beverage portion sizes are related to childhood obesity. We examined trends in food portion sizes and the association with total meal sizes among U.S. children. We selected children 2- to 18-y-old (n = 31,337) from 4 nationally representative surveys of food intake between 1977–1978 and 2003–2006. We assessed portion sizes (kcal and g) of selected key foods (soft/fruit drinks, salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, Mexican fast foods, and hot dogs), the total energy from eating occasions that included key foods, and portion sizes of the selected key foods by source (stores, restaurants, and fast-food locations). These foods represented over one-third of children’s energy intake in 2003–2006. Portion sizes increased significantly over the 30-y period and increases in pizza were particularly pronounced in the last decade [+176 kcal (736 kJ). Energy from eating occasions including pizzas and soft drinks increased, as did the proportion of energy from these foods in an eating occasion. Hamburgers and cheeseburgers increased in portion size and eating occasion size, but the proportion of these foods in the total eating occasions did not increase. Portion sizes of other key foods increased, although the total energy from eating events that included them remained constant (e.g. Mexican fast-foods, French fries, fruit drinks) or decreased (e.g. salty snacks, desserts). Portion sizes increased across all food sources (stores, restaurants, and fast foods) for soft drinks and pizzas but only at fast-food locations for French fries. Portion sizes continue to grow for selected foods. Fast-food chains appear to be linked with less healthful portion size increases for selected foods.

Piernas, Carmen; Popkin, Barry M.

2011-01-01

74

Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

2009-01-01

75

Young Adult Eating and Food-Purchasing Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Young adulthood is a critical age for weight gain, yet scant research has examined modifiable contextual influences on weight that could inform age-appropriate interventions. Purpose The aims of this research included: (1) describing where young adults eat and purchase food, including distance from home, and (2) estimating the percentage of eating/purchasing locations contained within GIS-generated buffers traditionally used in research. Methods Forty-eight participants (aged 18–23 years, n=27 women) represented diverse lifestyle groups. Participants logged characteristics of all eating/drinking occasions (including location) occurring over 7 days (n=1237) using PDAs. Participants recorded addresses for stores where they purchased food to bring home. Using GIS, estimates were made of distances between participants’ homes and eating/purchasing locations. Data collection occurred in 2008–2009 and data analysis occurred in 2010. Results Among participants living independently or with family (n=36), 59.1% of eating occasions were at home. Away-from-home eating locations averaged 6.7 miles from home; food- shopping locations averaged 3.1 miles from home. Only 12% of away-from-home eating occasions fell within ½-mile residential buffers, versus 17% within 1 mile and 34% within 2 miles. Additionally, 12%, 19%, and 58% of shopping trips fell within these buffers, respectively. Results were similar for participants residing in dormitories. Conclusions Young adults often purchase and eat food outside of commonly used GIS-generated buffers around their homes. This suggests the need for a broader understanding of their food environments.

Laska, Melissa Nelson; Graham, Dan J.; Moe, Stacey G.; Van Riper, David

2010-01-01

76

Food Illusion: Why We Eat More than We Think  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brian Wansink, director of the Food and Brand Lab at the University of Illinois, finds that the size of a package, the shape of a glass, the words on a menu or label, proximity to food, and other invisible influences could determine the quantity of what one eat.|

Mathematics Teacher, 2004

2004-01-01

77

Positioning of Fast-Food Outlets in Two Regions of North America: A Comparative Study Using Correspondence Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a major food consumption trend in North America is that more people are eating more meals outside their homes. It is predicted that this trend will accelerate in the future. As a result, fast-food markets will offer greater growth opportunities for marketers. Along with the socio-economic, demographic and behavioral changes, consumer demand for eating out and purchasing

Ali Kara; Erdener Kaynak; Orsay Kucukemiroglu

1996-01-01

78

Does negative mood drive the urge to eat? The contribution of negative mood, exposure to food cues and eating style  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated whether negative mood alone, or in conjunction with exposure to food cues, influences the urge to eat. Female participants (N=160) were allocated to either a negative or neutral mood induction procedure followed by exposure to either a preferred food cue or a non-food cue. Participants reported their urge to eat at baseline, following the mood induction

Natalie J. Loxton; Sharon Dawe; Allison Cahill

2011-01-01

79

Examining the relationship between food thought suppression and binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating. PMID:23751246

Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

2013-06-14

80

Effect of BMI and Binge Eating on Food Reward and Energy Intake: Further Evidence for a Binge Eating Subtype of Obesity.  

PubMed

Background : The psychological characteristics of binge eating have been proposed as a phenotype to further understanding of overconsumption and susceptibility to obesity. This study examined the influence of trait binge eating in lean and overweight or obese women on appetite, food reward and energy intake. Methods : 25 lean and 25 overweight or obese women were categorised as either 'binge type' or 'non-binge type' based on their scores on the Binge Eating Scale. Food reward and food intake were assessed in fasted and fed conditions. Results: Overweight or obese binge types (O-B) consumed more energy than overweight or obese non-binge types (O-NB) and lean binge (L-B) and non-binge types (L-NB). Both L-B and O-B exhibited greater preference for sweet foods. In O-NB, L-B and L-NB, lower liking and wanting for sweet foods was exhibited in the fed condition compared to the fasted condition. However, in O-B wanting for sweet foods was greater when they were fed compared to when they were in a fasted state. Conclusions: These findings provide further support for trait binge eating as a hedonic subtype of obesity. Binge types were characterised by greater intake of high-fat sweet foods and increased wanting for these foods when satiated. Additionally, these findings highlight the potential for separation in liking and wanting for food as a marker of susceptibility to overeat. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. PMID:23970144

Dalton, Michelle; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

2013-08-10

81

Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

1988-01-01

82

Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

1988-01-01

83

Trends in energy intake among US children by eating location and food source, 1977-2006  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the impact of location of food consumption and preparation upon daily energy intake for children. Objective To examine trends in daily energy intake by children for foods eaten at home or away-from-home, by source of preparation, and for combined categories of eating location and food source. Subjects The analysis uses data from 29,217 children aged 2–18 years from the 1977–1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1989–1991 and 1994–1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, and 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Methods Nationally representative weighted percentages and means of daily energy intake by eating location were analyzed for trends from 1977 to 2006. Comparisons by food source were examined from 1994 to 2006. Analyses were repeated for 3 age groups: 2–6, 7–12, and 13–18 year olds. Difference testing was conducted using a t test. Results Increased energy intake (+179 kcal/d) by children from 1977–2006 was associated with a major increase in calories eaten away-from-home (+255 kcal/d). The percentage of kcal/d eaten away-from-home increased from 23.4% to 33.9% from 1977–2006. No further increase was observed from 1994–2006, but the sources of calories shifted. The percentage of calories from fast food increased to surpass intake from schools and become the largest contributor to foods prepared away-from-home for all age groups. For foods eaten away-from-home, the percentage of kcal/d from stores increased to become the largest source of calories eaten away-from-home. Fast food eaten at home and store-bought food eaten away-from-home increased significantly. Conclusion Eating location and food source significantly impact daily energy intake for children. Foods prepared away-from-home, including fast food eaten at home and store-prepared food eaten away-from-home, are fueling the increase in total calorie intake. However, further research using alternative data sources is necessary to verify that store-bought foods eaten away-from-home are increasingly store-prepared.

Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.

2011-01-01

84

Nutritional challenges and health implications of takeaway and fast food.  

PubMed

Consumption of takeaway and fast food continues to increase in Western societies and is particularly widespread among adolescents. Since food is known to play an important role in both the development and prevention of many diseases, there is no doubt that the observed changes in dietary patterns affect the quality of the diet as well as public health. The present review examines the nutritional characteristics of takeaway and fast food items, including their energy density, total fat, and saturated and trans fatty acid content. It also reports on the association between the consumption of such foods and health outcomes. While the available evidence suggests the nutrient profiles of takeaway and fast foods may contribute to a variety of negative health outcomes, findings on the specific effects of their consumption on health are currently limited and, in recent years, changes have been taking place that are designed to improve them. Therefore, more studies should be directed at gaining a firmer understanding of the nutrition and health consequences of eating takeaway and fast foods and determining the best strategy to reduce any negative impact their consumption may have on public health. PMID:23590707

Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Davies, Ian G; Stevenson, Leonard

2013-04-11

85

Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.  

PubMed

Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294

Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

2011-08-27

86

Attentional and approach biases for pictorial food cues. Influence of external eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in sensitivity of neural reward systems to external appetitive cues may determine normal and pathological eating behaviour. In the current study we investigated the relationship between cognitive biases for food cues and the trait predisposition of external eating (eating in response to external food cues). Biases in attention, approach and subjective evaluation of food cues were assessed on

Catherine Brignell; Tanya Griffiths; Brendan P. Bradley; Karin Mogg

2009-01-01

87

Caloric intake from fast food among adults: United States, 2007-2010.  

PubMed

An earlier report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that the percentage of adults eating fast food increased from the early 1990s to the mid-1990s (1). Moreover, previous studies have reported that more frequent fast-food consumption is associated with higher energy and fat intake and lower intake of healthful nutrients (1,2). This report indicates that for 2007–2010, on average, adults consumed just over one-tenth of their percentage of calories from fast food, which represents a decrease from 2003–2006 when approximately 13% of calories were consumed from fast food. During 2007–2010, the highest percentage of calories from fast food was consumed among adults who were aged 20–39 or non-Hispanic black or obese. Among young non-Hispanic black adults, more than one-fifth of their calories were consumed from fast food. PMID:23759112

Fryer, Cheryl D; Ervin, R Bethene

2013-02-01

88

Analysis of eating behavior in restaurants based on leftover food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently in the restaurant businesses, it has become more difficult to design contents of dishes because customers' preferences have become diverse. Leftover meals are good indicators to elucidate customers' satisfaction and eating behaviors. This study examines what causes customers to leave food uneaten-particularly addressing their attributes, motivations, and situations-by conducting interviews of customer groups and measuring their leftovers. Results show

Takeshi Shimmura; Takeshi Takenaka

2010-01-01

89

What Do Children Think Happens to the Food They Eat?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the explanations of two classes of 10-year old children about what happens to the food that they eat were explored, particularly in the context of theories about the development of children's concepts of the human body. These ideas were investigated in a number of ways: obtaining children's own writing and drawings; semi-structured…

Rowlands, Mark

2004-01-01

90

Cultural Comparison Research Designs in Food, Eating, and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture plays a central role in shaping food, eating, and nutrition. Research that makes cultural comparisons extends our understanding of cultural generality and uniqueness. Several types of research designs can be used to make cultural comparisons, both synchronic (at one point in time) and diachronic (across time). Uni-cultural designs examine phenomena within cultural cases but do not explicitly make cultural

Jeffery Sobal

1998-01-01

91

Would Students Prefer to Eat Healthier Foods at School?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study sought to elucidate students' perceptions of school food environments and to assess correlations between perceptions and purchasing and consumption behaviors at school. Methods: Seventh and ninth graders (n = 5365) at 19 schools in multiethnic, low-income California communities participating in the Healthy Eating Active…

Gosliner, Wendi; Madsen, Kristine A.; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B.

2011-01-01

92

The Food Retail Environment in School Neighborhoods and its Relation to Lunchtime Eating Behaviors in Youth from Three Countries  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths’ lunchtime eating behavior, and youths’ obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13–15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fast food restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1–2, 3–4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84–2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56–4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity.

Heroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

2012-01-01

93

The food retail environment in school neighborhoods and its relation to lunchtime eating behaviors in youth from three countries.  

PubMed

This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths' lunchtime eating behavior, and youths' obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13-15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fast food restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1-2, 3-4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84-2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10-3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56-4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity. PMID:23041489

Héroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

2012-09-15

94

Food neophobia and ‘picky\\/fussy’ eating in children: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two factors have been shown to contribute to rejection or acceptance of fruits and vegetables: food neophobia and ‘picky\\/fussy’ eating. Food neophobia is generally regarded as the reluctance to eat, or the avoidance of, new foods. In contrast, ‘picky\\/fussy’ eaters are usually defined as children who consume an inadequate variety of foods through rejection of a substantial amount of foods

Terence M. Dovey; Paul A. Staples; E. Leigh Gibson; Jason C. G. Halford

2008-01-01

95

The impact of food branding on children's eating behavior and obesity.  

PubMed

Branding is a technique used by the food industry to create a recognizable image to attract consumers and hopefully boost sales of the product. Children recognize food brands from a young age, but their impact on the development of eating behaviors and obesity is unclear. In addition, the notion that some branding techniques may be used to increase intake of healthful foods, like fruits and vegetables, has not been rigorously investigated. Three laboratory-based intake studies designed to test the impact of common food brands on children's eating habits are presented. In the first study, four to six year-old children (n=43) were exposed to ad libitum test-meals where foods were presented either with or without their associated branding. In the second study, a novel food brand based Stroop task was developed and tested to assess children's cognitive response to food brands, and following this procedure, seven to nine year-old children (n=41) ate ad libitum test-meals consisting of foods packaged with or without a logo from a popular fast food restaurant. Finally, a pilot intervention was conducted with four to five year-old children (n=16) to demonstrate the efficacy of using licensed (spokes) characters to package and promote intake of fruits and vegetables. These studies demonstrate that branding is an important influence on what and how much children eat, but some children may be more susceptible to these influences than others. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence that child age, sex, and obesity has on response to food branding and marketing. PMID:22450261

Keller, Kathleen L; Kuilema, Laura G; Lee, Norman; Yoon, Joyce; Mascaro, Brittany; Combes, Anne-Laure; Deutsch, Bryan; Sorte, Kathryn; Halford, Jason C G

2012-03-16

96

Eating Right. The Food Guide Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the food groups of the food guide pyramid. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words.…

Frost, Helen

97

Food-related beliefs, eating behavior, and classroom food practices of middle school teachers.  

PubMed

This study examined classroom food practices and eating behavior of middle school teachers from 16 schools in a metropolitan area, located in the upper Midwest. In winter 1999-2000, teachers in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade were surveyed (response rate = 70%; n = 490/701). Questions addressed teachers' classroom food practices, eating behavior while at school, personal health, and attitudes about the school food environment. Use of food as an incentive/reward for students was a common classroom practice in middle schools, and most foods did not support development of health eating patterns by young adolescents. Candy was the most frequently used food item, reported by 73% of teachers, followed by cookies/doughnuts (37%), sweetened drinks (35%), and pizza (28%). Many middle school teachers did not role model healthy eating behavior at school. Prevalent use of vending was a particular concern, with beverage and snack vending use reported by 62% and 35% of teachers, respectively. Most vending items purchased were sweetened drinks (57%) and high-fat or high-sugar snacks (85%). Low perceived personal health, high-fat scores, and low support for the school food environment were some of the significant correlates of teachers' eating behavior. School and health professionals should continue to advocate for schoolwide policies and programs that support students and teachers if the goal of an integrated healthy school food environment is to be realized. PMID:12389375

Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L

2002-10-01

98

Observed sex differences in fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to 24 years of age, enrolled at a Midwestern university served

Kristin L. Morse; Judy A. Driskell

2009-01-01

99

Observed sex differences in fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of college students.  

PubMed

Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to 24 years of age, enrolled at a Midwestern university served as subjects. The subjects completed a 12-item written questionnaire. Five and seven percent of the students typically ate lunch and dinner, respectively, at a fast-food restaurant. The predominant reasons given for eating at fast-food restaurants were "limited time," "enjoy taste," "eat with family/friends," and "inexpensive and economical." A larger (P = .0592) percentage of men than women reported eating at fast-food restaurants because they thought these restaurants were "inexpensive and economical." Most of the subjects reported eating at fast-food restaurants 1 to 3 times weekly. The frequency of eating at fast-food restaurants was significantly different for men than for women (P < .01) as was the response distribution for considering the energy content of items on a fast-food menu when making their selections (P < .0001). Body mass indices of men were significantly higher (P < .0001) than those of women. A significantly higher (P < .0001) percentage of women than men strongly agreed with the statement that "the nutrition content of food is important to me." Several sex differences were observed in the fast-food consumption and nutrition beliefs of these college students. PMID:19358931

Morse, Kristin L; Driskell, Judy A

2009-03-01

100

CONSUMER CHANGE IN FAST FOOD PREFERENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast food industry is perceived to be an American creation, but the 'fish-n- chip' format has prevailed in the UK since the eighteenth century as an outlet where the working classes could easily purchase inexpensive prepared foods. Whilst in the USA, the first hamburger outlets appeared in the mid 1930's with the sector quickly developing and expanding into fast

James Richardson; Luis Kluwe Aguiar

101

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

102

FAST FOOD FRANCHISING - FOOL'S GOLD OR FORTUNE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author has examined the operations of a number of fast food franchise operations, large and small. The article presents a current evaluation of the nature, operational methods, and benefits to be gained from a fast foods franchise, as well as pointing out some of the problems that may be encountered.

Robert S. Glover

1971-01-01

103

Fast food influences among Hispanic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fast food influences such as restaurant frequency and restaurant choice among Hispanic women residing in Houston Texas. We also evaluated associations between BMI and frequency of fast food consumption. Methods: Data was obtained from the BOUNCE program and baseline data was evaluated from mothers enrolled in the study. Descriptive analysis and

Karolina Murguia

2009-01-01

104

An Evaluation of Fast Food Restaurant Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The researchers interviewed 300 customers of a fast food restaurant. The respondents indicated that quality, cleanliness and value are the three most important attributes of a fast food restaurant. The study reported the respondents' ratings of competitive brands. Cross-tabulations of satisfaction rating by various customer traits are provided.

Linda S. Pettijohn; Charles E. Pettijohn; Robert H. Luke

1997-01-01

105

Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research.

2011-01-01

106

Advertising of food to children: is brand logo recognition related to their food knowledge, eating behaviours and food preferences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background There remains controversy about the contribution of food advertising targeted at children to the epidemic of childhood obesity in the UK. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the ability to recognize brand logos featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eating behaviours, food knowledge and preferences in children aged 9-11 attending six

C. A. Kopelman; L. M. Roberts; P. Adab

2007-01-01

107

Food security and eating well for all in Victoria.  

PubMed

Background - Eat Well Australia has recognised many of the initiatives required to address food insecurity in urban as well as rural and remote locations. Objective - To evaluate and identify sustainable programs to improve urban food security in two local government areas. Design - The evaluation was conducted across Demonstration Projects over 18 months in the inner urban Cities of Yarra and Maribyrnong. Logical Framework Analysis and a number of checklists and tools were applied, including cluster analysis. Evaluation criteria included increasing community capacity, specified reach and quality for interventions, policy and organisational change specified, sustainability and transferability. Results - Five intervention strategy themes were identified across both Projects: local government food security policies; garden programs; local food access programs; local meals access programs, and; emergency food relief programs. Evaluation identified the qualities of each strategy in both Projects, and provided a conceptual model for improving food security. Conclusions - Primary health care and community services and agencies offer the best opportunities for strategies with vulnerable groups at risk of individual food security. Local Government area Public Health Plans offer major settings for improving community food security and whole of population strategies. State Government policy framework is required to support these settings state-wide and food security for all. PMID:15023609

Wood, B; Swinburn, B; Burns, C

2003-01-01

108

Food intake affects state body image: Impact of restrained eating patterns and concerns about eating, weight and shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body image disturbances play a significant role in the development of eating disorders. Since body image can vary in diverse contexts, the aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether it is affected by recent food intake. Fifty-seven females without clinically relevant eating disorders were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG, n=28) that consumed a milkshake while watching

Silja Vocks; Tanja Legenbauer; Andrea Heil

2007-01-01

109

Eating, food and the female body in the media and medicine: A feminist analysis of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The above quote sums up the way in which dominant conceptions of femininity filter through social practice and can become literally reflected in one's physical body and bodily habits. This essay seeks to examine how women come to embody social ideals concerning food, eating habits, appearance and 'femininity' itself. In particular it will seek to clarify how interpretations of eating

Eleanor Carey

110

Using Fast Food Restaurants for Consumer Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how classroom discussion and field trips can be used to teach students with disabilities to engage in comparative shopping and informed choice making when they dine in fast food restaurants. (JDD)

Koorland, Mark A.; Cooke, Janice C.

1990-01-01

111

Industry Market Research, China: Fast Food.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market survey covers the fast food market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tar...

1993-01-01

112

Using Fast Food Restaurants for Consumer Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how classroom discussion and field trips can be used to teach students with disabilities to engage in comparative shopping and informed choice making when they dine in fast food restaurants. (JDD)|

Koorland, Mark A.; Cooke, Janice C.

1990-01-01

113

Acute stress and food-related reward activation in the brain during food choice during eating in the absence of hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Stress results in eating in the absence of hunger, possibly related to food reward perception.Hypothesis:Stress decreases food reward perception.Aim:Determine the effect of acute stress on food choice and food choice reward-related brain activity.Subjects:Nine females (BMI=21.5±2.2 kg\\/m2, age=24.3±3.5 years).Procedure:Fasted subjects came twice to randomly complete either a rest or stress condition. Per session, two functional MRI scans were made, wherein the

J M Born; S G T Lemmens; F Rutters; A G Nieuwenhuizen; E Formisano; R Goebel; M S Westerterp-Plantenga

2010-01-01

114

Fast Food, Addiction, and Market Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many attribute the rise in obesity since the early 1980's to the overconsumption of fast food. A dynamic model of a different-product industry equilibrium shows that a firm with market power will price below marginal cost in a steady-state equilibrium. A spatial hedonic pricing model is used to test whether fast food firms set prices in order to exploit their

Timothy J. Richards; Paul M. Patterson; Stephen F. Hamilton

2007-01-01

115

Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.<\\/span>Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that

P. W. J. Sneijder

2006-01-01

116

Fast Food and Nutritional Perceptions in the Age of “Globesity”: Perspectives from the Provincial Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the influence of corporate fast food expands outside of the U.S. and Europe, many of the health problems previously associated with Western eating habits and nutritional regimes are beginning to proliferate across the developing world. Significantly, their rise serves as a troubling indicator of the “globesity” that threatens to overwhelm existing health care systems worldwide. To better understand the

Ty Matejowsky

2009-01-01

117

Benefits and Barriers to Healthful Eating: What Are the Consequences of Decreased Food Preparation Ability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lack of cooking skills and reduced food preparation knowledge are significant barriers to the production of home cooked meals in the United States. The benefits and barriers to healthful eating in relationship to decreased food preparation ability are summarized in this review. In particular, home food preparation barriers, the consequences that result from eating out frequently, and the benefits

Lu Ann Laurice Soliah; Janelle Marshall Walter; Sheila Ann Jones

2012-01-01

118

Food, eating, and weight concerns of men in recovery from substance addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunctional eating patterns and excessive weight gains have been observed during recovery from drug and alcohol addictions. Yet, little is known about food choice behaviors among substance abusers and the role that food plays in their lives. The purpose of this study was to understand how men at different stages of recovery from substance addictions experienced food and eating, weight

Jennifer Cowan; Carol Devine

2008-01-01

119

Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership.  

PubMed

Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Census data and information on locations of fast food and other restaurants with the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study database, which consists of 2,156 adults sampled from 63 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate associations between body mass index (BMI), fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership after adjustment for individual-level factors and socioeconomic characteristics of residential neighborhoods. A high concentration of local restaurants is associated with BMI. Car owners have higher BMIs than non-car owners; however, individuals who do not own cars and reside in areas with a high concentration of fast food outlets have higher BMIs than non-car owners who live in areas with no fast food outlets, approximately 12 lb more (p = 0.02) for an individual with a height of 5 ft. 5 in. Higher restaurant density is associated with higher BMI among local residents. The local fast food environment has a stronger association with BMI for local residents who do not have access to cars. PMID:19533365

Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A; Brown, Arleen F; Asch, Steven M

2009-06-16

120

Consumer Acceptance of a New Fast Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cowpeas are a nutritious legume, but their consumption in the U.S. is limited. Akara is a popular West African food made form cowpea and has potential for extending the use of dry cowpeas in the U.S. markets. The study used survey data of 267 teenagers to assess Akara's acceptability by American teenagers as a fast food alternative. An ordered probit

Sukant K. Misra; Stanley M. Fletcher; Kay H. McWatters

1996-01-01

121

Global Perspectives on Fast-Food History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fast food industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…

Smith, Andrew F.

122

Influences of gender, amount of food, and speed of eating on external raters' perceptions of binge eating.  

PubMed

Traditional methods for examining binge-eating (e.g. food diaries, laboratory binges), primarily employing clinical samples, have a number of limitations. This paper details three studies utilizing a new methodology to examine perceptions of binge eating: standard videotapes of male and female models consuming doughnuts. College students (n = 459) viewed one of nine videotapes and were asked if the eating behavior of the model was a binge or not. Variables manipulated include gender of the model, number of doughnuts, rate of eating and social (vs. solitary) eating. The number of doughnuts eaten by a female model was sufficient for female subjects to label it as a binge. In order for a male to have binged, females responded to the amount; males required both speed and amount. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for understanding perception of binge eating in normal and clinical populations. PMID:8737164

LaPorte, D J

1996-04-01

123

Big Macs and Healthy Teens? Exploring Fast Food as Part of a Healthy Adolescent Lifestyle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the set of activities, explorations, and discussions described here, students apply healthy eating information when they make nutrition choices both at home and when eating out. These lessons introduce considerations such as portion size and caloric nutrients, while also exploring tools and resources for understanding both nutritional guidelines and for evaluating the nutritional value of a food. This progression of data collection and analysis culminates with students applying their knowledge as they author position statements that answer the question, "Is it possible to include fast food as part of a healthy lifestyle?"

Harms, Michael

2009-03-01

124

Intuitive Eating, Diet Composition, and the Meaning of Food in Healthy Weight Promotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intuitive eating (an anti-dieting, hunger-based approach to eating) has been popularized as a viable approach to healthy weight management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intuitive eating, diet composition, and the meaning of food. The convenience sample included 343 students enrolled in a general education…

Smith, TeriSue; Hawks, Steven R.

2006-01-01

125

Evaluation of strategies used by family food preparers to influence healthy eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family may exert powerful influence on family members' eating habits, though there is very little conclusive literature regarding the specific mechanisms. The authors investigated how often family food preparers use particular strategies to encourage their families to eat more healthily and then related these strategies to healthy eating outcomes in children. We identified significant differences in strategy use between

Emily Bourcier; Deborah J Bowen; Hendrika Meischke; Carol Moinpour

2003-01-01

126

"Too much of that stuff can't be good": Canadian teens, morality, and fast food consumption.  

PubMed

Recently, public health agents and the popular media have argued that rising levels of obesity are due, in part, to "obesogenic" environments, and in particular to the clustering of fast food establishments in Western urban centers that are poor and working class. Our findings from a multi-site, cross-national qualitative study of teenaged Canadians' eating practices in urban and rural areas offer another perspective on this topic, showing that fast food consumption is not simply a function of the location of fast food outlets, and that Canadian teens engage in complex ways with the varied dimensions of choosing (or rejecting) fast foods. Drawing on evidence gleaned from semi-structured interviews with 132 teenagers (77 girls and 55 boys, ages 13-19 years) carried out between 2007 and 2009, we maintain that no easy relationship exists between the geographical availability of fast food and teen eating behaviors. We use critical obesity literature that challenges widely accepted understandings about obesity prevalence and etiology, as well as Lamont's (1992, 2000) concept of "moral boundary work," to argue that teen fast food consumption and avoidance is multifaceted and does not stem exclusively nor directly from spatial proximity or social class. Through moral boundary work, in which teens negotiated with moralistic notions of healthy eating, participants made and re-made themselves as "good" and successful subjects by Othering those who were "bad" in references to socially derived discourses of healthy eating. PMID:21689876

McPhail, Deborah; Chapman, Gwen E; Beagan, Brenda L

2011-06-01

127

Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices.

2011-01-01

128

The Effects of Eating Behaviors and Exercise Patterns on the Processing of Food and Exercise Related Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for eating disorders has established a link between cognitive processes and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the relationship between individual differences in unhealthy eating behaviors that are not related to clinical eating disorders, such as overeating and restrained eating, and the processing of food related verbal stimuli remains undetermined. Furthermore, the cognitive processes that

Carrie Potter

2009-01-01

129

Risky Eating Behaviors of Young Adults—Implications for Food Safety Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Par- ticipants (N4,343) completed a risky eating question- naire by

CAROL BYRD-BREDBENNER; JACLYN MAURER ABBOT; VIRGINIA WHEATLEY; DONALD SCHAFFNER; CHRISTINE BRUHN; LYDIA BLALOCK

130

Children's descriptions of the foods consumed during loss of control eating episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binge and loss of control (LOC) eating appear to be common among youth; however, little is known about the foods consumed during such eating episodes. Two-hundred forty-nine children, age 6–18 years, were interviewed to determine if they engaged in eating episodes with LOC over the past month. In the absence of reported LOC eating, overeating episodes or normal meals without LOC

Kelly R. Theim; Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Christine G. Salaita; Ann F. Haynos; Margaret C. Mirch; Lisa M. Ranzenhofer; Susan Z. Yanovski; Denise E. Wilfley; Jack A. Yanovski

2007-01-01

131

Cue-elicited craving for food: a fresh approach to the study of binge eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has indicated that craving for food can be elicited by exposure to food cues, suggesting that exposure to food cues may represent a useful experimental paradigm to investigate mechanisms related to binge eating. The first objective of the present research was to replicate previous reports that exposure to food cues elicits craving for food. In addition, this investigation

Laura Sobik; Kent Hutchison; Linda Craighead

2005-01-01

132

Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: Increased distraction, speeded detection, or both?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that eating disorder patients show an attentional bias for body- and food-related information. However, so far little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the attentional favoring of this particular information in eating disorder patients. In the present study, we used both a body and a food visual search task to study speeded detection and increased distraction

Elke Smeets; Anne Roefs; Eric van Furth; Anita Jansen

2008-01-01

133

Using Spoken and Written Qualitative Methods to Explore Children's and Young People's Food and Eating Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining children's and young people's food and eating practices has become more common place in recent years. Qualitative methods can be useful in such sense-making research, where an individual's narrative is likely to involve complexity, contradiction and ambiguity. Speaking and writing about food and eating can offer participants of all ages and most abilities the opportunity to delve into

Wendy J. Wills

2012-01-01

134

'If the Food Looks Dodgy I Dinnae Eat It': Teenagers' Accounts of Food and Eating Practices in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how young teenagers living in socio-economically disadvantaged families perceive everyday food and eating practices within the home. From in-depth interviews with 36 Scottish teenagers aged 13-14 years, we analysed teenagers\\\\' accounts of contemporary \\\\'family meals\\\\'. We found that food and eating practices were negotiated amidst complex family arrangements with extended, resident and non-resident kin. Parents were often

Wendy J. Wills; Kathryn Backett-Milburn; Sue Gregory; Julia Lawton

2008-01-01

135

Fast Food and Body Weight among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between consumption of fast food and sweets on overweight among U.S. adolescents; and (2) how consumption of different types of food and physical exercise is associated with parental education and other background variables. The data were based on cross-sectional, national survey study of 15,686 students from grades 6 to

Cody Ding; Sue Parks

2007-01-01

136

A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive bias to food stimuli in people with disordered eating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimMaladaptive cognitions about food, weight and shape bias attention, memory and judgment and may be linked to disordered eating behaviour. This paper reviews information processing of food stimuli (words, pictures) in people with eating disorders (ED).

Samantha Brooks; Alexis Prince; Daniel Stahl; Iain C. Campbell; Janet Treasure

2011-01-01

137

'Eating, eating is always there': food, consumerism and cardiovascular disease. Some evidence from Kerala, south India.  

PubMed

The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice. PMID:21153961

Wilson, Caroline

2010-12-01

138

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... normal weight or can be overweight. Continue Binge Eating Disorder This eating disorder is similar to anorexia and ... and celebrations involving food Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? No one is really sure what causes eating ...

139

Portion Sizes and Obesity: Responses of Fast-Food Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current sizes of sodas, French fries, and hamburgers at three leading

LISA R. Y OUNG; M ARION N ESTLE

2007-01-01

140

Dietary Factors Affect Food Reward and Motivation to Eat.  

PubMed

The propensity to indulge in unhealthy eating and overconsumption of palatable food is a crucial determinant in the rising prevalence of obesity in today's society. The tendency to consume palatable foods in quantities that exceed energy requirements has been linked to an addiction-like process. Although the existence of 'food addiction' has not been conclusively proven, evidence points to alterations in the brain reward circuitry induced by overconsumption of palatable foods that are similar to those seen in drug addiction. The diet-induced obesity paradigm is a common procedure to replicate features of human obesity in rodents. Here we review data on the effect of various obesogenic diets (high-fat, Ensure™, cafeteria type, sucrose) on the extent of leptin resistance, hypothalamic-neuropeptidergic adaptations and changes in feeding behavior. We also discuss to what extent such diets and properties such as macronutrient composition, physical structure, sensory stimuli, and post-ingestive effects influence the brain-reward pathways. Understanding the interaction between individual components of diets, feeding patterns, and brain reward pathways could facilitate the design of diets that limit overconsumption and prevent weight gain. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. PMID:22647304

Pandit, Rahul; Mercer, Julian G; Overduin, Joost; la Fleur, Susanne E; Adan, Roger A H

2012-04-20

141

Affect Regulation and Food Intake in Bulimia Nervosa: Emotional Responding to Food Cues After Deprivation and Subsequent Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation

Birgit I. Mauler; Alfons O. Hamm; Almut I. Weike; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier

2006-01-01

142

The relationship between fast food and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public debate regarding the role of government in lowering obesity often focuses on the fact that rising obesity prevalence is evident in all states. This article focuses on the hypothesized link between obesity and fast food employment by examining data on all states over 2001–2009 and controlling for other factors that may influence obesity prevalence. Our examination indicates no support

Michael L. Marlow; Alden F. Shiers

2012-01-01

143

Fast Food Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This coordinator's guide consists of materials for use in implementing four individualized units that have been developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and are employed in fast food restaurants. Addressed in the individual units are the following occupations: cashier (DOT No. 211.462-010), counter attendant (DOT No.…

Hohhertz, Durwin

144

How long will fast food customers wait?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The relationship between a fast-food kiosk's basic operating characteristics and its customers' behavior is examined using a model which takes into account the learning process of the waiting customers with respect to the service time. The model is adapted to two cases. In the first case, a kiosk in a shopping complex is considered, whose customers are uncertain about

C. Parkan

1988-01-01

145

Fast Food Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This coordinator's guide consists of materials for use in implementing four individualized units that have been developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and are employed in fast food restaurants. Addressed in the individual units are the following occupations: cashier (DOT No. 211.462-010), counter attendant (DOT No.…

Hohhertz, Durwin

146

Detection and distribution of food-borne bacteria in ready-to-eat foods in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the contamination levels of total aerobic plate counts, Escherichia coli and various pathogenic bacteria in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were investigated in Korea. A total of 634 samples were purchased\\u000a randomly from 47 stores located in 3 different provinces. The aerobic plate count levels of RTE occurred in a relatively wide\\u000a range, of 1.0–7.9 log CFU\\/g. E. coli

Joon Il Cho; Soon Ho Lee; Ji Su Lim; Yoon Jeoung Koh; Hyo Sun Kwak; In Gyun Hwang

2011-01-01

147

Regional cerebral blood flow during exposure to food in obese binge eating women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral responses elicited by the sight of food were evaluated in eight obese binge eating, 11 obese and 12 normal-weight non-binge eating women. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was mapped while the subjects were looking at a picture of a landscape (control) or at a portion of food (food exposure), and was measured by [99mTc]ethyl-cysteine-dimer and single photon emission computed

Leila J. Karhunen; Esko J. Vanninen; Jyrki T. Kuikka; Raimo I. Lappalainen; Jari Tiihonen; Matti I. J. Uusitupa

2000-01-01

148

Does eating while watching television influence children's food-related behaviours?  

PubMed

To assess children's food-related behaviours and their relationships with eating while watching television (TV), data were collected from 534 ten-year-old French-Canadian children. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Almost 18% of girls and over 25% of boys reported eating in front of the TV every day. Although, overall, the boys' eating pattern was less healthy than the girls', all of the children's food choices deteriorated with increased frequency of eating in front of the TV. Compared with girls, boys gave more importance to coloured and attractive foods, and to selecting foods similar to those eaten by others. Over 50% of children reported always receiving negative weight-related comments from family members. For boys, significant correlations were found between the frequency of eating in front of the TV, the importance given to a food's appearance, and their requests to parents for advertised foods. Significance was at the p<0.05 level for all findings. These results suggest that gender should be considered in attempts to understand children's food motivations and behaviours. The findings also indicate the need to document children's eating environments, and to inform children and their families about eating behaviours that may be associated with a given environment. PMID:15780151

Marquis, Marie; Filion, Yves P; Dagenais, Fannie

2005-01-01

149

Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children’s health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children’s eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch programs on children’s overall (both in- and out-of-school) eating behavior. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in which 2039 students in 12 elementary and 10 middle schools reported their eating behavior and the frequencies with which they purchased meals and à la carte items in the school cafeteria. Food service managers from each school provided information on the availability of foods and beverages during school lunch periods. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to identify school- and student-level predictors of children’s eating behavior. RESULTS The availability of nutritious foods during school lunch periods was associated with healthier eating behavior among students. However, this effect was observed only among children who infrequently purchased à la carte food items, and not among those who were frequent purchasers. CONCLUSION Increased availability of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products as components of school meals may be an effective strategy to promote healthy eating behaviors among children. Improving the nutrition standards for foods offered in competition with federally reimbursable school meals may enhance the positive effects of school meal programs on student eating behavior.

Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

150

Obesity and the Built Environment: Does the Density of Neighborhood Fast-Food Outlets Matter?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine variation in obesity among older adults relative to the joint influences of density of neighborhood fast-food outlets and residents' behavioral, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics. Design Cross-sectional and multilevel design. Setting Census block groups, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, within the metropolitan region's Urban Growth Boundary in Portland, Oregon. Subjects A total of 1,221 residents (mean age=65 years old) recruited randomly from 120 neighborhoods (48% response rate). Measures A Geographic Information System-based measure of fast-food restaurant density across 120 neighborhoods was created. Residents within the sampled neighborhoods were assessed with respect to their body mass index (BMI), frequency of visits to local fast-food restaurants, fried food consumption, levels of physical activity, self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables, household income, and race/ethnicity. Analyses Multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Significant associations were found between resident-level individual characteristics and the likelihood of being obese (BMI?30) for neighborhoods with a high-density of fast-food restaurants in comparison to those with a low density: odds ratios [OR] for obesity, 95% confidence interval [CI] were: 1.878 (CI=1.006-3.496) for weekly visits to local fast-food restaurants; 1.792 (CI=1.006-3.190) for not meeting physical activity recommendations; 1.212 (CI=1.057-1.391) for low confidence in eating healthy food; and 8.057 (CI=1.705-38.086) for non-Hispanic black residents. Conclusion Increased density of neighborhood fast-food outlets was associated with unhealthy lifestyles, poorer psychosocial profiles, and increased risk of obesity among older adults.

Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deb

2009-01-01

151

Consumer characteristics influencing fast food consumption in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turkish fast food industry has grown rapidly since the 1980s. There are now more than 700 fast food restaurants in Turkey. Using the data from a consumer survey, this study investigates the relationship between consumers’ fast food consumption frequency and their socio-economic\\/demographic characteristics and attitudes. Using Chi-square test of independence, the study compares consumers’ fast food consumption frequencies of

Cuma Akbay; Gulgun Yildiz Tiryaki; Aykut Gul

2007-01-01

152

Fat Profiles of Your Favorite Fast-Food Restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast-food restaurant meals may affect the health of individuals. Data from nine popular fast-food establishments showed that sandwiches and desserts are high in fat. Saturated fat was found to be present in amounts higher than monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. Breakfast items contained more fat than lunch sandwiches. Further measures should be taken to reduce the fat content of fast-food. Fast-food

Juanita Bowens

1994-01-01

153

Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

2007-01-01

154

Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

2007-01-01

155

Adolescents’ views of food and eating: Identifying barriers to healthy eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. Twelve focus group discussions of single-sex groups of boys or

Clifford Stevenson; Glenda Doherty; Julie Barnett; Orla T. Muldoon; Karen Trew

2007-01-01

156

CONVENIENCE, ACCESSIBILITY, AND THE DEMAND FOR FAST FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the growth in demand for fast food. A distinguishing characteristic of fast food is its convenience; in today's pervasive marketplace, consumers need not travel far to find a fast food outlet. This greater availability translates into a decrease in the full price of obtaining a meal, which contributes to greater consumption. Market-level data are used to estimate

Mark D. Jekanowski; James K. Binkley; James S. Eales

2001-01-01

157

Fast Food Marketing and the African American Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although African American consumers form a large and growing market segment, relatively little study has been done on their fast food consumption preferences. This paper examines the frequency of patronizing fast food restaurants by this important sub-cultural group, the criteria that they use to evaluate service quality in fast food restaurants, as well as the socio-economic and demographic factors that

Philemon Oyewole

2007-01-01

158

Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff,

Elvira Isganaitis; Robert H. Lustig

2010-01-01

159

Franchising opportunities in China for American fast food restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast food industry is one of the fastest growing industries of this century. Global expansion has become an important strategic development tool for many American based fast food restaurant chains. American fast food franchisers wanting to operate restaurants in China have to be aware of an environment that imposes a number of constraints upon prospective restaurant franchisers. The goal

Zerong Yu; Karl Titz

2000-01-01

160

Price Dispersion and Accessibility: A Case study of Fast Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines spatial variation in the price and accessibility of fast food across a major urban area. We use novel data on the price of a representative fast food meal and the location of fast food restaurants belonging to one of three major chains in the District of Columbia and its surrounding suburbs. These data are used to test

Hayden Stewart; David E. Davis

2005-01-01

161

Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated the stress–eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating

D. J. Wallis; M. M. Hetherington

2009-01-01

162

Eating habits of preschool children with high migrant status in Switzerland according to a new food frequency questionnaire.  

PubMed

Assessment of eating habits in young children from multicultural backgrounds has seldom been conducted. Our objectives were to study the reproducibility and the results of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to assess changes in eating habits of preschool children with a high migrant population, in the context of a multidisciplinary multilevel lifestyle intervention. Three kindergarten classes (53% from migrant backgrounds) in French-speaking Switzerland were randomly selected and included 16 girls and 28 boys (mean age +/- SD, 5.4 +/- 0.7 years). The FFQ was filled out twice within a 4-week interval by the parents. Spearman rank correlations between the first and the second FFQ for the 39 items of the food questions were as follows: low (r < 0.50) for 8 (7 P < .05 and 1 nonsignificant), moderate (0.50 or= 0.70) for 9 (all P < .01). In addition, 28 of 39 intraclass correlation coefficients were high (>0.50, all P < .01). Eighty-six percent of the children ate breakfast at home daily, but only 67% had lunch at home. The percentages of children eating at least once a week in front of the TV were as follows: 50% for breakfast, 33% for lunch, 38% for dinner, and 48% for snacks. Forty percent of children asked their parents to buy food previously seen in advertisements and ate fast food between once a week and once a month. Children generally consumed foods with a high-energy content. The FFQ yielded good test-retest reproducibility for most items of the food questions and gave relevant findings about the eating habits of preschool children in areas with a high migrant population. PMID:20226995

Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Barral, Jérôme; Kriemler, Susi; Puder, Jardena J; Nydegger, Andreas

2010-02-01

163

Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating.

Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

2010-01-01

164

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

165

Negotiating food choice: parents' perception of children's eating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a qualitative study exploring parents' attitudes and perceptions of their role in their children's eating habits in schools in Angus, Scotland. Parents believed they had different degrees of influence on their children's eating habits. This article will examine these different perceptions of parental responsibility for children's eating habits to explore how parents viewed their influence

E. Mei-Li Roberts

166

Availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at a fast-food restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Given the link between eating out, poor diets, and obesity, we assessed the availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at the largest fast-food restaurant in the U.S., McDonald's. Method. In August 2004, we visited 29 of 33 (88%) of the McDonald's outlets in Washington, DC and visually inspected the premises, as well as asked cashiers or restaurant managers whether they

Margo G. Wootan; Melissa Osborn; Claudia J. Malloy

2006-01-01

167

Fast-food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but are consistently poor.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate five popular fast-food chains' menus in relation to dietary guidance. DESIGN: Menus posted on chains' websites were coded using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies and MyPyramid Equivalents Database to enable Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores to be assigned. Dollar or value and kids' menus and sets of items promoted as healthy or nutritious were also assessed. SETTING: Five popular fast-food chains in the USA. SUBJECTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: Full menus scored lower than 50 out of 100 possible points on the HEI-2005. Scores for Total Fruit, Whole Grains and Sodium were particularly dismal. Compared with full menus, scores on dollar or value menus were 3 points higher on average, whereas kids' menus scored 10 points higher on average. Three chains marketed subsets of items as healthy or nutritious; these scored 17 points higher on average compared with the full menus. No menu or subset of menu items received a score higher than 72 out of 100 points. CONCLUSIONS: The poor quality of fast-food menus is a concern in light of increasing away-from-home eating, aggressive marketing to children and minorities, and the tendency for fast-food restaurants to be located in low-income and minority areas. The addition of fruits, vegetables and legumes; replacement of refined with whole grains; and reformulation of offerings high in sodium, solid fats and added sugars are potential strategies to improve fast-food offerings. The HEI may be a useful metric for ongoing monitoring of fast-food menus. PMID:23317511

Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Reedy, Jill; Kahle, Lisa L; Harris, Jennifer L; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

2013-01-15

168

Development and modification of child food preferences and eating patterns: behavior genetics strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral genetics (BG) designs can offer useful strategies for studying the development of child food preferences and eating patterns. This review summarizes BG designs that tested familial influences on child eating behavior and implicated both genetic and home environmental factors. A range of BG strategies, including family and pseudo-family designs, classic twins designs, discordant sibling designs, cotwin control designs, and

M S Faith

2005-01-01

169

Sweet preference predicts mood altering effect of and impaired control over eating sweet foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine association between hedonic response to sweet taste and a mood altering effect associated with eating sweet foods and impaired control over eating sweets. Participants (n=163, 39% males) rated a series of sucrose solutions for intensity of sweetness and palatability and completed a newly developed 12-item Sweet Taste Questionnaire (STQ). It was

Alexey B. Kampov-Polevoy; Arthur Alterman; Elena Khalitov; James C. Garbutt

2006-01-01

170

Healthy eating and the UK's major food retailers: a case study in corporate social responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a preliminary case study exploration of the ways in which the UK's top ten food retailers are addressing healthy eating agendas as part of their CSR agendas and how these agendas are being promoted within their stores. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper begins with a short discussion of the healthy eating

Peter Jones; Daphne Comfort; David Hillier

2006-01-01

171

Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures\\u000a of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and\\u000a weekly consumption of fast-food meals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery\\u000a stores, from the 2006 Brazos

Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

2011-01-01

172

Primary children's choice of food and their knowledge of balanced diet and healthy eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to investigate the relationship between meal choices of primary school children and their knowledge of balanced diet and healthy eating. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a questionnaire and food photo album (FPA), children combined the different food items in the FPA to form a “healthy Sunday lunch” (balanced meal containing all the six classes of food), a

Joy-Telu Hamilton-Ekeke; Malcolm Thomas

2007-01-01

173

Perceived healthiness of food. If it's healthy, you can eat more!  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of food-related beliefs about the healthiness of foods, restrained eating, and weight salience on actual food intake during an ad libitum snack. In a 2 (healthy vs. unhealthy) by 2 (restrained vs. unrestrained eaters) by 2 (weight salient vs. not salient) factorial design, 99 female undergraduate students were invited

Véronique Provencher; Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman

2009-01-01

174

Delicatessen salads in "refrigerated ready-to-eat foods: microbial concerns and control measures"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deli-type salads are in the category of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products. They are available where foods are sold or served and are becoming increasingly popular food items due to their variety, availability, and convenience. It is estimated that the annual consumption of deli salads is 5.6...

175

Eating in Space: Food for Thought. EG-2011-08-00005-SSC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Among the thousands of questions that need to be answered before astronauts travel to distant planets and asteroids are questions related to the astronauts themselves. How much food will they need and what foods can they take? We are fortunate on Earth to have an amazing variety of foods to eat. When astronauts do go to Mars and other…

Vogt, Gregory L.; Shearer, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

176

Diazepam-induced eating and lever pressing for food in sated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Found in 8 experiments with male Wistar rats that diazepam (2.5 mg\\/kg) produced vigorous eating but not drinking in sated Ss. The effect was found with familiar food in both test box and home cage and during both day and night. Ss trained under food deprivation leverpressed for food but not water under diazepam; the rate of response was dose

Roy A. Wise; Vivien Dawson

1974-01-01

177

Food Safety for Moms-to-Be: Safe Eats - Dairy & Eggs  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... pasteurized, so eat on! "I love 'queso fresco,' a Mexican-style cheese, but it's often made with unpasteurized milk. Is there a ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

178

Food Selection and Eating Patterns: Themes Found among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to examine the beliefs and perspectives among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus about dietary requirements, food selection and eating patterns, and attitudes about self-management practices.

Margaret Savoca; Carla Miller

2001-01-01

179

Adolescent occupational injuries in fast food restaurants: an examination of the problem from a national perspective.  

PubMed

Work injuries to adolescents are most prevalent in the retail trades industry, with a large portion occurring in eating and drinking establishments (E&DEs). Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were examined for nonfatal injuries to adolescents, ages 14 through 17, injured while working in fast food restaurants (a subcategory of E&DEs) from July 1, 1992, to June 30, 1994. There were an estimated 44,765 adolescent injuries in E&DEs, with an estimated 27,997 in fast food restaurants, during this period. The injury rate for E&DEs in the 15 through 17 age group was higher than for all other industries combined (rate ratio [RR] = 1.7), with little disparity in rates between the sexes. This study identifies the fast food industry as the source of a large proportion of occupational injuries to adolescents, and indicates that task-specific risk factors seem to be strongly related to sex. PMID:10609237

Hendricks, K J; Layne, L A

1999-12-01

180

Memantine reduces consumption of highly palatable food in a rat model of binge eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive consumption of highly palatable food has been linked to the development of eating disorders and obesity, and can\\u000a be modeled in non-food-deprived rats by offering them a limited (2-h daily) access to an optional dietary fat. Since the glutamatergic\\u000a system has recently emerged as a viable target for binge-eating medication development, we compared the effects of subchronic\\u000a treatment with

Piotr Popik; Tomasz Kos; Yulei Zhang; Adam Bisaga

2011-01-01

181

Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.  

PubMed

The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. PMID:23910778

Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

2013-06-28

182

Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants  

PubMed Central

Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale.

Elbel, Brian

2013-01-01

183

Consumer estimation of recommended and actual calories at fast food restaurants.  

PubMed

Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

Elbel, Brian

2011-07-21

184

Body Composition, Eating Behavior, Food-Body Concerns and Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Dieting is a behavioral phenomenon which is becoming more frequent among adolescents and the search for weight loss, through dieting, may result in an unbalanced nutrition both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our study intended to look at the eating habits and behavior on a cohort of adolescent girls to verify the presence of unbalanced diets and the prevalence of eating

V. Boschi; M. Siervo; P. D’Orsi; N. Margiotta; E. Trapanese; F. Basile; G. Nasti; A. Papa; O. Bellini; C. Falconi

2003-01-01

185

Promotion and Fast Food Demand: Where's the Beef?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. This study weighs into the debate by specifying and estimating a discrete\\/continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and

Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

2007-01-01

186

Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education…

Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

2007-01-01

187

Beliefs about fast food in Australia: A qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of energy-dense fast foods has been implicated as a causal factor in the development of obesity. The development of strategies to modify food choice behaviour requires an understanding of the behaviour and the driving factors. This study examined the rationale behind decisions to either choose or avoid fast foods. Drawing partly on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen,

Kirsten I. Dunn; Philip B. Mohr; Carlene J. Wilson; Gary A. Wittert

2008-01-01

188

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are illnesses in which the victims suffer severe disturbances in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Those suffering from eating disorders typically become obsessed with food and their body ...

189

Detection of Noroviruses in Ready-To-Eat Foods by Using Carbohydrate-Coated Magnetic Beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis out- breaks in humans. Food-borne outbreaks of NoV are com- monly caused by shellfish grown in contaminated waters (2) or ready-to-eat food products contaminated by infected food han- dlers (4, 5, 7, 17, 21). Methods for the detection of NoV in foods need to be sensitive due to the low numbers of

Vanessa Morton; Julie Jean; Jeffrey Farber; Kirsten Mattison

2009-01-01

190

Prejudgments of those who eat a “healthy” versus an “unhealthy” food for breakfast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do\\u000a these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a “good” or a “bad” food? For the present study\\u000a we attempted to expand our understanding of the impact of categorical thinking concerning the health value of foods. Respondents

Michael E. Oakes; Carole S. Slotterback

2004-01-01

191

Food Deserts' and 'Food Swamps' in Hillsborough County, Florida: Unequal Access to Supermarkets and Fast-Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that the suburbanization of supermarkets has created `food deserts', defined as areas where socially disadvantaged individuals lack access to nutritious food outlets. Additionally, the growing presence of fast-food restaurants has created `food swamps', or areas where socially disadvantaged individuals encounter an overabundance of unhealthy food outlets. While previous studies have analyzed either `food deserts' or `food swamps'

Dana Beth Stein

2011-01-01

192

Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments

Lukar E Thornton; Rebecca J Bentley; Anne M Kavanagh

2009-01-01

193

Fast-Food Ads Aimed at Kids Focus on Toys, Not Food  

MedlinePLUS

... to fast-food consumption, enhanced oversight of fast-food marketing to children at the local, state and federal level is needed to align advertising to children with health promotion efforts and existing ... fast-food ads appearing on children's television networks, such Nickelodeon ...

194

A nonsynonymous polymorphism in cannabinoid CB2 receptor gene is associated with eating disorders in humans and food intake is modified in mice by its ligands.  

PubMed

Marijuana use activates cannabinoid receptors (CB-Rs) producing several behavioral effects related to addiction, mood, and appetite. We investigated the association between CNR2 gene, which encodes cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2-R) and eating disorders in 204 subjects with eating disorders and 1876 healthy volunteers in Japanese population. The effect of treatment with CB2-R ligands on mouse food consumption was also determined. The CB2-R ligands used suppressed food intake in a time- and strain-dependent manner when food was available ad libitum and during the 12-h fast except, AM 630-the CB2-R antagonist that stimulated food consumption in food-deprived mice. There is an association between the R63Q polymorphism of the CNR2 gene and eating disorders (P = 0.04; Odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI, (1.01-1.53). These results suggest that cannabinoid CB2-R is involved in the endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms associated with the regulation of food intake and in eating disorders. PMID:19768813

Ishiguro, H; Carpio, O; Horiuchi, Y; Shu, A; Higuchi, S; Schanz, N; Benno, R; Arinami, T; Onaivi, E S

2010-01-01

195

Appetite sensations and eating behaviors to complete fasting in obese and non-obese individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the response of appetite sensations and eating behaviors to fasting in obese and non-obese individuals.Design: Prospective study on inpatients enrolled in weight loss program including fasting at the obesity clinic, an oriental medical center in Seoul, Korea.Subjects and measurements: For seven obese (body mass index BMI?30) and 11 non-obese (BMI<30) patients, the modified visual analog scale (VAS)

S-Y Oh; BS Kim; R Choue

2002-01-01

196

Eat fit. Get big? How fitness cues influence food consumption volumes.  

PubMed

Fitness cues on food packages are a common marketing practice in the food sector. This study aims to find out whether and how fitness cues influence food consumption. The results of two field studies show that, even though eating fitness-cued food does not help consumers become more fit, the claims on the packaging increase both serving size and actual food consumption. This effect is mediated by serving size inferences. Also, consumers feel less guilty and perceive themselves closer to desired fitness levels after having consumed the food. The findings show that packaging cues relating to energy expenditure can increase energy intake despite the fact that consumers are not engaged in any actual physical activity while eating the food. PMID:23395603

Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Kettenbaum, Myriam; Klicker, Kristina

2013-02-05

197

Why did I eat that? Perspectives on food decision making and dietary restraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers trying to watch or restrict what they eat face a battle each day as they attempt to navigate the food-rich environments in which they live. Due to the complexity of food decision making, consumers are susceptible to a wide range of social, cognitive, affective, and environmental forces determined to interrupt their intentions to restrict their dietary intake. In this

Melissa G. Bublitz; Laura A. Peracchio; Lauren G. Block

2010-01-01

198

Identification of Essential Food Skills for Skill-Based Healthful Eating Programs in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were…

Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra

2011-01-01

199

Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain

Corinna Hawkes

2009-01-01

200

From Homeostatic to Hedonic Theories of Eating: Self-Regulatory Failure in Food-Rich Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological theories of weight regulation are based on homeostatic feedback assumptions. They mostly attribute the cause of overweight and obesity to lowered sensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues. Based on the assumption that human food consumption in food-rich environments is increasingly driven by pleasure rather than need for calories, a goal conflict theory of hedonic eating is presented. This

Wolfgang Stroebe; Esther K. Papies; Henk Aarts

2008-01-01

201

The Effect of A Food Service Intervention (catch Eat Smart) on School Meal Cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe how a school-based food service intervention to lower fat and sodium affects average school lunch and breakfast meal costs.The Eat Smart School Nutrition Program, the school food service intervention component of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH), was designed to lower the fat, saturated fat and sodium in school meals. The purpose of

D. H. Montgomery; B. Scaife; A. Evans

1996-01-01

202

Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

203

Identification of Essential Food Skills for Skill-Based Healthful Eating Programs in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were…

Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra

2011-01-01

204

The study of food addiction using animal models of binge eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes evidence of “food addiction” using animal models of binge eating. In our model of sucrose bingeing, behavioral components of addiction are demonstrated and related to neurochemical changes that also occur with addictive drugs. Evidence supports the hypothesis that rats can become dependent and “addicted” to sucrose. Results obtained when animals binge on other palatable foods, including a

Nicole M. Avena

2010-01-01

205

The effect of shift-work on food intake and eating habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work on food intake and eating patterns in order to assess the impact of this on health. A total of 36 shift workers were measured anthropometrically and were asked to complete food diaries for six consecutive days, and a lifestyle questionnaire. The results revealed night workers did not

S. L. Reeves; E. Newling-Ward; C. Gissane

2004-01-01

206

The Pleasure of Food, and the Spiritual: Eat, Pray, Love and Babette's Feast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the significance of the enjoyment of food in relation to spirituality, as (re)presented in two texts -Elizabeth Gilbert's Eat, Pray, Love (2007) and the cinematic version of Karen Blixen's novel Babette's Feast (1987). It is argued that the pleasure derived from food occupies a crucial position in both texts, firstly in its own “hedonistic” right, but secondly

Bert Olivier

2012-01-01

207

Eating Right Here: Moving from Consumer to Food Citizen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term food citizenship is defined as the practice of engaging in food-related behaviors that support, rather than threaten, the development of a democratic, socially and economically just, and environmentally sustainable food system. Ways to practice food citizenship are described and a role for universities in fostering food citizenship is suggested. Finally, four barriers to food citizenship are identified and

Jennifer L. Wilkins

2005-01-01

208

Can you eat it? A link between categorization difficulty and food likability  

PubMed Central

In the present study we examined whether categorization difficulty regarding a food is related to its likability. For this purpose, we produced stimulus images by morphing photographs of a tomato and a strawberry. Subjects categorized these images as either a tomato or a strawberry and in separate sessions evaluated the food’s eatability or the subject’s willingness to eat (Experiments 1 and 2) and the likeliness of existence of each food (Experiment 2). The lowest score for ca- tegorization confidence coincided with the lowest scores for eatability, willingness to eat, and likeliness of existence. In Experiment 3, we found that food neophobia, a trait of ingestion avoidance of novel foods, modulated food likability but not categorization confidence. These findings suggest that a high categorization difficulty generally co-occurs with a decrease in food likability and that food neophobia modulates likability. This avoidance of difficult-to-categorize foods seems ecologically valid because before eating we have little information regarding whether a food is potentially harmful.

Yamada, Yuki; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ihaya, Keiko

2012-01-01

209

Obesity, fast food manufacture, and regulation: revisiting opportunities for reform.  

PubMed

Regulations have historically been able to shape public behavior in various ways. As poor dietary practices and obesity continue to pose major health and economic threats to society, attention will continue to be directed towards the ethical and legal responsibilities of fast food manufacturers as potential contributors to these problems. In light of these considerations, several opportunities emerge that may impact dietary behavior and obesity through regulation of the fast food industry. This article addresses the health consequences of fast food consumption, as well as the historical and legal contexts of fast food regulation in the United States. PMID:19999644

Ahmed, Haitham M

2009-01-01

210

College Freshmen Do Not Eat Within Food Pyramid Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students may develop unhealthy eating habits during their freshman year. Poor eating habits or exercise regimens and lifestyle choices could lead to chronic disease later in life. We previously reported that 44 [18 males (41%) and 26 females (59%)] freshmen gained an average of 2.8±2.7kg (6.2±5.9?) during their first year of college, rather than the “The Freshman Fifteen” commonly

D. H. Holben; J. T. Hassell; J. P. Holcomb

1998-01-01

211

Health concern, food choice motives, and attitudes toward healthy eating: the mediating role of food choice motives.  

PubMed

This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants, a random sample of 500 undergraduate students from a national university in Taipei, Taiwan, provided a total of 456 usable questionnaires, representing a valid response rate of 91%. The average age of the respondents at the time of the survey was 21 years and 63% of respondents were females. The relationship between health concern and healthy eating attitudes was confirmed. The relationship between health concern of developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating was fully mediated by food choice motives. However, the relationship between calorie consumption health concern and healthy eating attitudes was only partially mediated by food choice motives. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18187232

Sun, Yu-Hua Christine

2007-11-24

212

Why healthy eating is bad for young people's health: identity, belonging and food.  

PubMed

Research into young people and healthy eating has focussed on identifying the 'barriers' to healthy eating and on developing interventions to address them. However, it has tended to neglect the emotional, social and symbolic aspects of food for young people, and the roles food might play in adolescence. This paper explores these issues, reporting findings from a qualitative study which explored the meanings and values young people attached to food choices, particularly in school and peer contexts. As part of a larger study into young people's relationships with food brands, 12 focus groups were conducted with young people aged 13-15 in the North East of England. The focus groups found that young people used food choices to help construct a desired image, as a means of judging others, and to signal their conformity with acceptable friendship and peer norms. Importantly, the findings suggested that the social and symbolic meanings associated with healthy eating conflicted with processes and values which are of crucial importance in adolescence, such as self-image and fitting in with the peer group. In other words, it was emotionally and socially risky to be seen to be interested in healthy eating. Interventions need not only to make healthy eating easier and more available, but also to address young people's emotional needs for identity and belonging. PMID:21429646

Stead, Martine; McDermott, Laura; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Adamson, Ashley

2011-02-24

213

Effects of Smoking Cessation, Restrained Eating, and Motivational States on Food Intake in the Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty smokers, 20 abstaining smokers (for 24 hr), and 20 nonsmokers completed ratings of motivational state before and after a taste test, to examine the mediating effects of motivations to eat and smoke, cross-motivational satiating effects, and restrained eating on post-smoking-cessation food intake in the laboratory. The results suggest that the abstaining smokers consumed more carbohydrates, calories, fat, protein, and

Jane Ogden

1994-01-01

214

Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Modulate Eating Speed and Vigilance to Optimize Food Consumption: Effects of Cover, Circadian Rhythm, Food Deprivation, and Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eating behavior of rats (Rattus norvegicus) given food pellets of specified size was examined as a function of environmental, circadian, and experiential influences. Eating times were shorter in lighted, exposed environments than in dark, covered environments, even though in novel, exposed conditions the rats made many scanning movements as they ate. Eating time also varied as a function of

Ian Q. Whishaw; Hans C. Dringenberg; Tom A. Comery

1992-01-01

215

Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

2010-01-01

216

Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

2010-01-01

217

Fasting levels of ghrelin covary with the brain response to food pictures.  

PubMed

Ghrelin figures prominently in the regulation of appetite in normal-weighed individuals. The apparent failure of this mechanism in eating disorders and the connection to addictive behavior in general demand a deeper understanding of the endogenous central-nervous processes related to ghrelin. Thus, we investigated processing of pictures showing palatable food after overnight fasting and following a standardized caloric intake (i.e. a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and correlated it with blood plasma levels of ghrelin. Twenty-six healthy female and male volunteers viewed food and control pictures in a block design and rated their appetite after each block. Fasting levels of ghrelin correlated positively with food-cue reactivity in a bilateral network of visual processing-, reward- and taste-related regions, including limbic and paralimbic regions. Notably, among those regions were the hypothalamus and the midbrain where ghrelin receptors are densely concentrated. In addition, high fasting ghrelin levels were associated with stronger increases of subjective appetite during the food-cue-reactivity task. In conclusion, brain activation and subjective appetite ratings suggest that ghrelin elevates the hedonic effects of food pictures. Thereby, fasting ghrelin levels may generally enhance subjective craving when confronted with reward cues. PMID:22974271

Kroemer, Nils B; Krebs, Lena; Kobiella, Andrea; Grimm, Oliver; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

2012-09-13

218

Microbiological quality of 18 °C ready-to-eat food products sold in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 164 samples of 18 °C ready-to-eat (RTE) food products, purchased in 1999–2000 from convenience stores and supermarkets in central Taiwan, were examined to determine the microbiological quality of these products. The 18 °C RTE food products, manufactured by 16 factories, were divided into groups based on the type of food and their major ingredients. Aerobic plate count,

Tony J Fang; Que-King Wei; Chia-Wei Liao; Min-Ju Hung; Tzu-Hui Wang

2003-01-01

219

Research Report Perceived parental control of food intake is related to external, restrained and emotional eating in 7-12-year-old boys and girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eating behaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n ¼ 596). External eating turned out to be the most prevalent disturbed eating behaviour for boys

Tatjana van Strien; Francien G. Bazelier

220

Food Safety for Moms-to-Be: Safe Eats  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Organized by food categories, this section offers you easy access to food safety ... Each category features special tips for you to practice while you're ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

221

Emotions in overweight and normal-weight women immediately after eating foods differing in energy.  

PubMed

Immediate effects of low-, medium-, and high-energy foods on the emotional state of normal-weight and overweight women were studied experimentally. Nineteen normal-weight (body mass index [BMI]: 19-25 kg/m2) and 19 overweight women (BMI: 26-40 kg/m2) aged 18-40 years received samples of food that differed in energy content (low vs. medium vs. high energy) and rated their emotional state immediately after eating. Perceived characteristics of the foods and associations elicited by the foods were also obtained. Negative emotions (anger, fear, shame, and sadness) and sleepiness increased, while happiness decreased with energy of foods. Emotionally negative associations were more frequent, while positive emotions were less frequent the higher the energy content of the foods. Sadness, shame, fear, and sleepiness after eating high-energy food tended to be more intense in overweight women. Additional analyses demonstrated influences of eating habits, e.g., disinhibition. The higher the energy content of a food stimulus, the more it was viewed as "unhealthy" and "dangerous." It is suggested that immediate food-induced changes of emotions can be explained by activation of associative emotion networks. PMID:14637237

Macht, Michael; Gerer, Jutta; Ellgring, Heiner

2003-11-01

222

Using simulations in the optimisation of fast food service delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the UK fast food retailers and the importance of the service delivery systems in fast food burger outlets. Waiting time and the impact it has on customer perceptions of service quality is considered alongside a typology of customers, based on their waiting characteristics. A number of critical components that affect customer queuing and crowding emerge as

Ivor Church; Andrew J. Newman

2000-01-01

223

Folate concentrations of fast foods measured by trienzyme extraction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate concentrations in common fast foods containing beef were measured using a new trienzyme folate extraction method and compared to the values using traditional folate conjugase. A total of 56 fast foods were purchased from local restaurants after the 1998 mandate of folic acid fortification in enriched cereal grains. One serving of hamburger, sandwich, pizza (one eighth of a 30-cm

Kelley E Johnston; Philip A Lofgren; Tsunenobu Tamura

2002-01-01

224

Fast Food Gets an "A" in School Lunch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book, by the creator of the Clark County (Nevada) School District fast foods program, describes a fast food program that was introduced into the schools and the rationale that prompted its creation. The program is based on "combo" lunches that consist of a sandwich, salad or fries, and milk or a special "milk shake." This lunch meets…

Fredrick, Len

225

Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste,

Teija Aarnio; Anne Hämäläinen

2008-01-01

226

Consumer perception about fast food in India: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study applies multivariate statistical tools to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. In addition, the authors analysed the consumption patterns, impact of hygiene and nutritional

Anita Goyal; N. P. Singh

2007-01-01

227

Older adults' frequent visits to a fast-food restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

How might older adults' nonobligatory social interactions in a “third place” be described and interpreted? The ethnographic methodology, primarily participant observation, was used to gather data from a naturally occurring group of older adults who frequent a fast-food restaurant. Emerging themes include the concept of sociability, play, and laughter. Findings suggest that: (a) older adults congregate at this fast-food restaurant

Michael Cheang

2002-01-01

228

SERVICE QUALITY PERCEPTIONS IN FAST-FOOD RESTAURANTS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of intense competition fast-food restaurants are increasingly recognizing the importance to continuously improve their service quality to retain and attract customers. This study explores the potential dimensions of service quality in fast-food restaurants (FFRs) in China. The \\

Hong Qin

229

Fast Food Gets an "A" in School Lunch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, by the creator of the Clark County (Nevada) School District fast foods program, describes a fast food program that was introduced into the schools and the rationale that prompted its creation. The program is based on "combo" lunches that consist of a sandwich, salad or fries, and milk or a special "milk shake." This lunch meets…

Fredrick, Len

230

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exposure of children to kids meals at fast food res- taurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. Objective: We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, ie, \\

Sharon I O'Donnell; Sharon L Hoerr; Jason A Mendoza; Eugenia Tsuei Goh

231

An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects  

PubMed Central

Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity.

Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

2011-01-01

232

Brand Name Logo Recognition of Fast Food and Healthy Food among Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are\\u000a well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition,\\u000a food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry\\u000a is among the leaders in

Elva Arredondo; Diego Castaneda; John P. Elder; Donald Slymen; David Dozier

2009-01-01

233

Isocaloric meal and snack foods differentially affect eating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested whether foods categorized as meals reduce subsequent intake more than isocaloric foods categorized as snacks. The study was repeated three times with variations. In each variation we manipulated whether subjects received meal or snack foods in an isocaloric load. In Variation 1, subjects consumed less following a load of meal foods than snacks. Variation 2 found

Elizabeth D. Capaldi; Jacqueline Quinn Owens; Gregory J. Privitera

2006-01-01

234

Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

Kish, Stacy

2008-01-01

235

Laboratory assessment of the food intake of children and adolescents with loss of control eating12345  

PubMed Central

Background: Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth predicts excessive weight gain. However, few studies have measured the actual energy intake of children reporting LOC eating. Objective: The objective was to characterize the energy intake and macronutrient composition of “normal” and “binge” laboratory meals in nonoverweight and overweight boys and girls with LOC eating. Design: Children aged 8–17 y (n = 177) consumed 2 lunchtime meals ad libitum from a multi-item food array after being instructed to either binge eat (binge meal) or to eat normally (normal meal). Prior LOC eating was determined with a semistructured clinical interview. Results: Participants consumed more energy at the binge meal than at the normal meal (P = 0.001). Compared with youth with no LOC episodes (n = 127), those reporting LOC (n = 50) did not consume more energy at either meal. However, at both meals, youth with LOC consumed a greater percentage of calories from carbohydrates and a smaller percentage from protein than did those without LOC (P < 0.05). Children with LOC ate more snack and dessert-type foods and less meats and dairy (P < 0.05). LOC participants also reported greater increases in postmeal negative affect at both meals than did those without LOC (P ? 0.05). Secondary analyses restricted to overweight and obese girls found that those with LOC consumed more energy at the binge meal (P = 0.025). Conclusions: When presented with an array of foods, youth with LOC consumed more high-calorie snack and dessert-type foods than did those without LOC. Further research is required to determine whether habitual consumption of such foods may promote overweight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00320177.

Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Yanovski, Susan Z; Kozlosky, Merel; Schvey, Natasha A; Shomaker, Lauren B; Salaita, Christine; Yanovski, Jack A

2009-01-01

236

Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences.  

PubMed

The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277

Roblin, Lynn

2007-08-01

237

Health professionals' and primary producers' understanding of sustainable food production systems for healthy eating.  

PubMed

Background - 'Eating for Sustainability' remains poorly understood by both public health professionals and primary producers in spite of an emerging recognition in linking the themes of sustainability with nutrition, eating habits, and food production. Objectives - To explore public health professionals' and primary producers' understanding with respect to the meaning, viability, and implications of various models of sustainable food production for healthy eating. Design - An electronic survey was sent to approximately 650 Australian public health and nutrition professionals and primary producers. The broad issue of eating for sustainability, sustainability of beef cattle production systems in Australia as a case study; and the relationship between Australian Dietary Guidelines and sustainable agriculture were explored. Results - The overall response rate was 14%, this was mainly due to the difficulty and the novelty of the topic. As expected, a majority (62%) of respondents were unaware or unsure of the concept of 'Eating for Sustainability'. Conclusions - Australian primary producers and public health professionals need to have adequate communication to enhance future sustainable food production. PMID:15023681

Tsai, K M; Schubert, E C; Mullen, B F

2003-01-01

238

High intake of palatable food predicts binge-eating independent of susceptibility to obesity: an animal model of lean vs obese binge-eating and obesity with and without binge-eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the stability of individual differences in non-nutritive ‘junk’ palatable food (PF) intake in rats; assess the relationship of these differences to binge-eating characteristics and susceptibility to obesity; and evaluate the practicality of using these differences to model binge-eating and obesity.Design:Binge-eating prone (BEP) and resistant (BER) groups were identified. Differential responses to stress, hunger, macronutrient-varied PFs, a diet-induced obesity

M M Boggiano; A I Artiga; C E Pritchett; P C Chandler-Laney; M L Smith; A J Eldridge

2007-01-01

239

The Ocean Book: Food Chains...Come and Eat!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)

Science Activities, 1989

1989-01-01

240

The Ocean Book: Food Chains...Come and Eat!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)|

Science Activities, 1989

1989-01-01

241

Reser's Fine Foods, Inc. Recalls Refrigerated Ready-to-Eat ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE - October 22, 2013 - Reser's Fine Foods of ... 58108.30157, POTATO RED ROYALE CVF 2/8#, 20131010, 20, past ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/recalls

242

Cheesecake-eating rats and the question of food addiction  

PubMed Central

Rats given extended access to high-fat high-sugar food show behavioral and physiological changes that are similar to those caused by drugs of abuse. However, parallels between drug and food “addiction” should be drawn with caution.

Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin

2011-01-01

243

Enhanced Striatal Dopamine Release During Food Stimulation in Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [11C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

Wang, Gene-Jack; Geliebter, Allan; Volkow, Nora D.; Telang, Frank W.; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard C.; Galanti, Kochavi; Selig, Peter A.; Han, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T.; Fowler, Joanna S.

2011-01-01

244

Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder  

SciTech Connect

Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

2011-01-13

245

Gender in food advertising to children: boys eat first  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines advertisers’ use of gender in food advertising to children. Previous studies of gender preference in children’s advertising suggest gender bias exists. Food products are most often gender-neutral. Advertising for food products is compared to non-food advertisements. Examines measures of voice-over gender, gender of dominant product user, gender of main character, activity level, aggressive behavior level, and soundtrack volume. A

Nancy M. Childs; Jill K. Maher

2003-01-01

246

Mindless Eating: The 200 Daily Food Decisions We Overlook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How aware are people of food-related decisions they make and how the environment influences these decisions? Study 1 shows that 139 people underestimated the number of food-related decisions they made--by an average of more than 221 decisions. Study 2 examined 192 people who overserved and overate 31% more food as a result of having been given an…

Wansink, Brian; Sobal, Jeffery

2007-01-01

247

Mindless Eating: The 200 Daily Food Decisions We Overlook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How aware are people of food-related decisions they make and how the environment influences these decisions? Study 1 shows that 139 people underestimated the number of food-related decisions they made--by an average of more than 221 decisions. Study 2 examined 192 people who overserved and overate 31% more food as a result of having been given an…

Wansink, Brian; Sobal, Jeffery

2007-01-01

248

Delay discounting and intake of ready-to-eat and away-from-home foods in overweight and obese women  

PubMed Central

A shift from home-prepared to away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods has occurred in recent decades, which has implications for obesity and health. This study tested whether delay discounting, a facet of impulsivity reflecting sensitivity to immediate reward, is associated with the frequency of consumption and typical amount consumed of home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods among overweight and obese women. Seventy-eight participants completed a binary choice task assessing discounting of delayed monetary rewards. Nutrient analysis of weighed food records characterized dietary intake over seven consecutive days. Foods were categorized as home-prepared, away-from-home, or ready-to-eat by a registered dietitian from information provided by participants. Delay discounting was not associated with the frequency of consuming home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods as reflected in the percentages of recorded foods or total energy intake from each category. However, once consuming away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods (but not home-prepared foods), impulsive women consumed more energy than less impulsive women. Exploratory analyses indicated that more impulsive women chose away-from-home foods with a higher energy density (kcal/g). Impulsivity was associated with the quantity of away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods consumed, but not the frequency of their consumption. Home food preparation may be critical to weight control for impulsive individuals.

Appelhans, Bradley M.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; DeBiasse, Michelle A.; Whited, Matthew C.; Lynch, Elizabeth B.

2012-01-01

249

Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Adults: United States, 2007-2010  

MedlinePLUS

... their total daily calories from fast food. The consumption of calories from fast food significantly decreased with ... increased. As lifestyles become more hectic, fast-food consumption has become a growing part of the American ...

250

Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.  

PubMed

The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos. PMID:18830690

Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

2009-02-01

251

Differential associations of fast food and restaurant food consumption with 3-y change in body mass index: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Away-from-home food consumption has rapidly in- creased,thoughlittleisknownabouttheindependentassociationsof restaurantfoodandfastfoodintakewithbodymassindex(BMI)and BMI change. Objective: The aim was to compare the associations of restaurant food and fast food consumption with current and 3-y changes in BMI. Design: Multivariate linear regression models, with control for de- mographic and lifestyle factors, were used to examine cross- sectional and longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating with BMI

Kiyah J Duffey; Penny Gordon-Larsen; David R Jacobs Jr; O Dale Williams; Barry M Popkin

252

ENSURING THE SAFETY OF COMPLEX READY-TO-EAT FOODS USING IRRADIATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other complex RTE food products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on raw meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data...

253

Food and Eating Practices during the Transition from Secondary School to New Social Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines how the new social contexts experienced by young people after leaving school are related to everyday food practices and eating habits. Findings from in-depth interviews with 31 young people aged 16-24 years studying at a college of further education in South East England are used to explore the role of new social spaces and…

Wills, Wendy J.

2005-01-01

254

REFRIGERATED READY-T0-EAT (RTE) FOODS: MICROBIOLOGICAL CONCERNS AND CONTROL MEASURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods contaminated with L. monocytogenes have been linked to several severe listeriosis outbreaks. The contamination was mainly traced to post-process contamination. Due to the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow at refrigerated temperatures and the non-necessity fo...

255

Food and Eating Practices during the Transition from Secondary School to New Social Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how the new social contexts experienced by young people after leaving school are related to everyday food practices and eating habits. Findings from in-depth interviews with 31 young people aged 16-24 years studying at a college of further education in South East England are used to explore the role of new social spaces and…

Wills, Wendy J.

2005-01-01

256

‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or

Kent C. Berridge

2009-01-01

257

Effects of negative outcome on food consumption in college women with and without troubled eating patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looked at the effects that failure experiences have on food consumption and their effect on college women. Part I of the study (N = 169) was used to screen subjects for Part II (N = 55) based on scores on the Bulimia Test-Revised. In Part II, eating-disordered and control participants completed one of two types of tasks—a negative

Valerie A. Kisler; Kevin J. Corcoran

1997-01-01

258

Are You What You Eat? An inside Look at High-Tech Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to…

Miller, Roxanne Greitz

2007-01-01

259

Eating as a Pedagogical Act: Food as a Catalyst for Adult Education for Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult education for sustainable development involves forms of learning that support and promote the emergence of sustainability. Food is both central to sustainable development and a catalyst for adult education. Eating can become a transformative learning experience, opening up the possibility of more inclusive, and more sustainable, ways of life. Using a political economy framework, this paper will explore how

Jennifer Sumner

260

Start Right–Eat Right Award Scheme: Implementing Food and Nutrition Policy in Child Care Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Start Right–Eat Right award scheme implemented in Western Australia has been used to provide the incentive to bring about improvement in food service in line with government policy and regulations in the child care industry. Theories of organizational change were used to identify processes and strategies to support the industry in translating policy into practice. A baseline survey of

Christina Pollard; Janette Lewis; Margaret Miller

2001-01-01

261

Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

2013-01-01

262

Eating and Breathing: Interactions Between Respiration and Feeding on Solid Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chewed solid food accumulates in the oropharynx prior to swallowing. The mechanism for preventing aspiration during this interval is unknown, but may be related to respiration. The purpose of this study was to determine how eating, especially bolus formation in the pharynx, affects respiration. We examined nasal air pressures, masseter electromyography (EMG), and videofluorography (VFG) of four normal young adults

Jeffrey B. Palmer; Karen M. Hiiemae

2003-01-01

263

Eating Hawai'i: local foods and place-making in Hawai'i Regional Cuisine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we look at what it means to ‘eat Hawai'i’ and examine how Hawai'i Regional Cuisine (HRC) imagines, produces, and consumes place through particular constructions of local foods. The term ‘local’ attaches to foods as a marker of numerous positive attributes such as seasonal, sustainable, and community-based. Drawing upon ongoing ethnographic research on Hawai'i Island, we examine spatial

LeeRay Costa; Kathryn Besio

2011-01-01

264

Eating Hawai‘i: local foods and place-making in Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we look at what it means to ‘eat Hawai‘i’ and examine how Hawai‘i Regional Cuisine (HRC) imagines, produces, and consumes place through particular constructions of local foods. The term ‘local’ attaches to foods as a marker of numerous positive attributes such as seasonal, sustainable, and community-based. Drawing upon ongoing ethnographic research on Hawai‘i Island, we examine spatial

LeeRay Costa; Kathryn Besio

2011-01-01

265

Increasing Healthy Eating vs. Reducing High Energy-dense Foods to Treat Pediatric Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The objective was to compare targeting increased eating of healthy foods vs. reducing intake of high energy-dense foods within the context of a family-based behavioral weight control program.Methods and Procedures:Forty-one 8–12 year-old children >85th BMI percentile were randomly assigned to a 24-month family-based behavioral treatment that targeted increasing fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy vs. reducing intake of high energy-dense

Leonard H. Epstein; Rocco A. Paluch; Meghan D. Beecher; James N. Roemmich

2008-01-01

266

Eating Out When You Have Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... fat content. This information is available in many chain restaurants (you may need to ask for it) ... out for words like "jumbo," "supersize," "deluxe," or "value" when eating at your favorite fast-food joint ...

267

Obese Teens Eat Up Fast-Food Hype, Study Says  

MedlinePLUS

... Preventive Medicine . "The more we know about how marketing influences teens and young adults, the better able ... helping young people to navigate the influx of marketing messages and make good choices," said McClure, an ...

268

Eating Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

269

An exploratory study of eating patterns of Singapore children and teenagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a first attempt to investigate eating patterns in children in Singapore in terms of frequency, sources and types of food, with specific emphasis on eating outside the home. Two sets of data were collected. A guided questionnaire was administered to adults accompanying the pre-school age children and young people at various eating outlets, hawker centres, food courts and fast

Kai Ling Ang; Schubert Foo

2002-01-01

270

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design: In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained

Jennifer L. Harris; John A. Bargh; Kelly D. Brownell

2009-01-01

271

Eating attitudes and food intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16?±?2.5 SD years) completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.8?±?2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70%) did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5?±?13.5 SD) and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491?±?471 SD kcal/day (31?±?10 SD kcal/kg), with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients.

2012-01-01

272

The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies—identification of key food items  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To develop an objective, nutrient-based, healthy eating indicator shopping basket (HEISB) tool for use in studies of access to healthy food. Design: Tool development used a literature search to identify previous practice, web information on current definition of healthy foods by the UK Food Standards Agency, and population-based dietary surveys to identify culturally acceptable foods. These findings were then

AS Anderson; J Dewar; D Marshall; S Cummins; M Taylor; J Dawson; L Sparks

2007-01-01

273

Eating Inside: food service experiences in three Australian prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the menus and food service experience of inmates in three correctional centres in Sydney (one minimum security, one high security, and one for women). Menus were evaluated against recommended dietary intakes, dietary guidelines and nutrition policy statements. Menus generally provided a well varied selection of foods which met the majority of individual nutritional requirements and dietary guidelines

P. G. Williams; K. Walton; N. Ainsworth; C. Wirtz

2008-01-01

274

We are what we eat: food safety and proteomics.  

PubMed

In this review, we lead the reader through the evolution of proteomics application to the study of quality control in production processes of foods (including food of plant origin and transgenic plants in particular, but also meat, wine and beer, and milk) and food safety (screening for foodborne pathogens). These topics are attracting a great deal of attention, especially in recent years, when the international community has become increasingly aware of the central role of food quality and safety and their influence on the health of end-consumers. Early proteomics studies in the field of food research were mainly aimed at performing exploratory analyses of food (bovine, swine, chicken, or lamb meat, but also transgenic food such as genetically modified maize, for example) and beverages (wine), with the goal of improving the quality of the end-products. Recently, developments in the field of proteomics have also allowed the study of safety issues, as the technical advantages of sensitive techniques such as mass spectrometry have guaranteed a faster and improved individuation of food contaminating pathogens with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. PMID:21992580

D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

2011-10-20

275

Dating and eating. Beliefs about dating foods among university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dating is an important courtship activity in the U.S., and food consumption is part of dating events. Students use dating scripts to guide decisions and behaviors on dates, and perform scripts on dates to construct positive impression management. This study examined how students conceptualized dating foods. A questionnaire was administered in one large university class, and data from 301 students

Dana E. Amiraian; Jeffery Sobal

2009-01-01

276

Food and Culture. We Are What We Eat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Enjoyment of ethnic food can be the "point de depart" for tracing the heritage of the people being studied and for broadening students' horizons. This article outlines a study of food throughout the centuries, particularly in Europe. The "gastronomic route" begins historically with the Minoans around 2000 B.C., continues with the Greeks and the…

Perkins, Cynthia

1978-01-01

277

Industry Sector Analysis Mexico: Non-Fast Food Franchising.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study covers franchises for all of products and services except fast-food. The main products and services subject to franchise in Mexico are: restaurants, dry cleaning, beauty shops, bottled purified water, real estate services, car rental, convenienc...

A. Herrera J. Koloditch

1993-01-01

278

Marketing and Distribution: Fast Food Placements--Let's Move Slowly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author presents arguments for and against placing distributive education cooperative students in fast-food outlets, criteria for selecting training stations and students, and a model training plan outline for job and class instruction. (MF)|

Reece, Barry L.; Stone, James, III

1978-01-01

279

Industry Sector Analysis: Fast Food and Equipment, China, April 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market survey covers the fast food and equipment market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation, and mark...

1993-01-01

280

Fast Food, Race\\/Ethnicity, and Income A Geographic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: Using geographic information system software, all fast-food restaurants within the city limits of New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2001 were mapped. Buffers around census tracts were generated to simulate 1-mile and 0.5-mile \\

Jason P. Block; Richard A. Scribner; Karen B. DeSalvo

2004-01-01

281

Packaged Gas Fired Cogeneration Systems Development for Fast Food Restaurants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large number of applications exist in fast food restaurants (5000+ for McDonald's alone) that could benefit from gas fired cogeneration systems. Typically, these applications have long operating hours with relatively constant electrical usage. Although ...

R. B. Kelley

1983-01-01

282

Industry Sector Analysis, Hong Kong: Fast Food Restaurants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market survey covers the fast food restaurants market in Hong Kong. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Hong Kong consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and ...

1993-01-01

283

Calorie and Gram Differences between Meals at Fast Food and Table Service Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about the calorie content of restaurant food have focused on fast food. However, there is no specific evidence that fast food is worse than other food eaten away from home (FAFH). We use the Continuing Survey of Individual Food Intake to compare fast food and table service meals. We find that both are larger and have more calories than

James K. Binkley

2008-01-01

284

The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms.

Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

2011-01-01

285

Fast-food work: are McJobs satisfying?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – McJobs in the fast-food sector are a major area of youth employment. This paper explores young people's perceptions of work in this industry. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses the results of a survey of students' experiences of McJobs in Australia. Findings – Fast-food workers were generally dissatisfied with the industrial relations and work organisation aspects of their jobs.

Cameron Allan; Greg J. Bamber; Nils Timo

2006-01-01

286

Life and Health Insurance Industry Investments in Fast Food  

PubMed Central

Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.

McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U.; Boyd, J. Wesley

2010-01-01

287

Minimumwage increases and employment in franchised fast-food restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Card and Krueger’s (1994) result that employment is unaffected by an increase in the minimum wage in the franchised fast-food\\u000a restaurant industry appears to be inconsistent with conventional economic analysis. I take a closer look at the franchised\\u000a fast-food industry and argue that the presence of brand-name capital does not allow franchisees to substitute away from labor\\u000a or decrease the

Bradley S. Wimmer

1996-01-01

288

Effectiveness of nutrition education on fast food choices in adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education in a group of adolescents. Ten adolescents were asked to choose food items from a fast food restaurant menu. Their chosen meals' nutrition make-up (calories, fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, protein, and fiber) was calculated. Following a 30-minute nutrition education session, participants were asked again to choose a meal from the same fast food menu. The nutrition make-up of the meal chosen postintervention was compared with the meal chosen before the education session. There was a statistically significant (p < .05) difference in calories, fat, carbohydrate, and fiber content of the meals chosen postintervention. This short nutrition education intervention resulted in healthier fast food choices in this group of adolescents. PMID:18052519

Allen, Kelly N; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, Ruthanne

2007-12-01

289

Changes in the Nutrient Content of School Lunches: Results from the CATCH Eat Smart Food Service Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) tested the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention aimed at promoting a healthful school environment and positive eating and physical activity behaviors in children. The CATCH Eat Smart Program targeted the school food service staff and aimed to lower the total fat, saturated fat, and sodium content of school meals.Methods.The Eat Smart

Stavroula K. Osganian; Mary Kay Ebzery; Deanna H. Montgomery; Theresa A. Nicklas; Marguerite A. Evans; Paul D. Mitchell; Leslie A. Lytle; M. Patricia Snyder; Elaine J. Stone; Michelle M. Zive; Kathryn J. Bachman; Rochelle Rice; Guy S. Parcel

1996-01-01

290

Special Handling for Ready-to-Eat, Refrigerated Foods  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

But, there are some simple ways all consumers can reduce their risk for listeriosis. It's all in this helpful booklet. ... It's All About the Fridge. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers

291

Environmental Microbiology: Bacteria & Fungi on the Foods We Eat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The near daily news reports on food-borne diseases caused by contaminated produce, dairy, or meats suggests to the public that the safety of the U.S. food supply is in jeopardy. These reports, as well as a general distrust in federal agencies due in part to mad cow disease and toxigenic forms of "E. coli" in ground beef, have resulted in an…

Segner, Suzanne; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

2007-01-01

292

Heterocyclic amine content in fast-food meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterocyclic aromatic amines are sometimes formed during the cooking of muscle meats, and their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are of potential concern in the aetiology of human cancer. In a large survey of the heterocyclic amine content of foods, fried or charbroiled hamburgers, fried chicken, chicken breast sandwiches, fish sandwiches and breakfast sausages were purchased from fast-food restaurants. At least

M. G. Knize; R. Sinha; N. Rothman; E. D. Brown; C. P. Salmon; O. A. Levander; P. L. Cunningham; J. S. Felton

1995-01-01

293

From disordered eating to addiction: the "food drug" in bulimia nervosa.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of substance abuse in individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and the pervasive symptom substitution in many types of drug addiction suggest that a number of substances--including food--can impair an individual's self-control, even in the presence of negative consequences. Nonetheless, the neurobiological similarities between BN and drug addiction are not clearly established. This review explores how the specific eating patterns seen in BN (binge eating and purging, with intermittent dietary restriction) are particularly addictive and differentiate BN from other eating disorders and obesity. A number of peripheral and central biological aberrations seen in BN may result in altered reward sensitivity in these individuals, particularly through effects on the dopaminergic system. Neurobiological findings support the notion that BN is an addictive disorder, which has treatment implications for therapy and pharmacological manipulations. PMID:22544008

Umberg, Erin N; Shader, Richard I; Hsu, L K George; Greenblatt, David J

2012-06-01

294

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

295

Eating habits of preschool children with high migrant status in Switzerland according to a new food frequency questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of eating habits in young children from multicultural backgrounds has seldom been conducted. Our objectives were to study the reproducibility and the results of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to assess changes in eating habits of preschool children with a high migrant population, in the context of a multidisciplinary multilevel lifestyle intervention. Three kindergarten classes (53% from migrant

Vincent Ebenegger; Pedro Marques-Vidal; Jérôme Barral; Susi Kriemler; Jardena J. Puder; Andreas Nydegger

2010-01-01

296

Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

2009-01-01

297

Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

2012-03-01

298

Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets  

PubMed Central

Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:? 1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:? 1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:? 0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bj?rn E.; Due, Pernille

2012-01-01

299

Knowledge of Fats\\/Oils and Fat Content of Foods by Fast Food Restaurant Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire was developed focusing on food preparation and types of fats\\/oils, knowledge of fats\\/oils and fat content of foods. The questionnaire was validated by a group of seven foodservice professionals and was pilot tested with ten local restaurant managers. A nationwide sample of 100 fast food restaurant chains located in the 100 largest metropolitan areas of the country was

C. Bednar; D. Czajka-Narins; F. Elahi

1998-01-01

300

The inverse agonist of CB1 receptor SR141716 blocks compulsive eating of palatable food.  

PubMed

Dieting and the increased availability of highly palatable food are considered major contributing factors to the large incidence of eating disorders and obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the role of the cannabinoid (CB) system in a novel animal model of compulsive eating, based on a rapid palatable diet cycling protocol. Male Wistar rats were fed either continuously a regular chow diet (Chow/Chow, control group) or intermittently a regular chow diet for 2 days and a palatable, high-sucrose diet for 1 day (Chow/Palatable). Chow/Palatable rats showed spontaneous and progressively increasing hypophagia and body weight loss when fed the regular chow diet, and excessive food intake and body weight gain when fed the palatable diet. Diet-cycled rats dramatically escalated the intake of the palatable diet during the first hour of renewed access (7.5-fold compared to controls), and after withdrawal, they showed compulsive eating and heightened risk-taking behavior. The inverse agonist of the CB1 receptor, SR141716 reduced the excessive intake of palatable food with higher potency and the body weight with greater efficacy in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. Moreover, SR141716 reduced compulsive eating and risk-taking behavior in Chow/Palatable rats. Finally, consistent with the behavioral and pharmacological observations, withdrawal from the palatable diet decreased the gene expression of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in the ventromedial hypothalamus while increasing that of CB1 receptors in the dorsal striatum in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. These findings will help understand the role of the CB system in compulsive eating. PMID:23587012

Dore, Riccardo; Valenza, Marta; Wang, Xiaofan; Rice, Kenner C; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

2013-04-16

301

Eating for Life: Designing Foods for Appetite Control  

PubMed Central

We are all well aware that rising levels of obesity in developed countries is having a significant impact on the health of the population. This is despite the availability of a wide range of low-calorie foods and an awareness of how important it is to adopt a healthy lifestyle. A new and emerging approach is to design foods that enhance the physiological regulatory mechanisms controlling appetite and energy intake. This is achieved through either promoting gastric distension or slowing intestinal transit in order to promote satiety-enhancing neuroendocrine feedback responses. This commentary explores the background and mechanisms involved in developing these strategies.

Wilde, Peter J.

2009-01-01

302

Impulsivity in Binge Eating Disorder: Food Cues Elicit Increased Reward Responses and Disinhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Binge eating disorder (BED) represents a distinct eating disorder diagnosis. Current approaches assume increased impulsivity to be one factor leading to binge eating and weight gain. We used eye tracking to investigate both components of impulsivity, namely reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous behaviour towards food in BED for the first time. Methods Overweight and obese people with BED (BED+; n?=?25), without BED (BED?; n?=?26) and healthy normal-weight controls (NWC; n?=?25) performed a free exploration paradigm measuring reward sensitivity (experiment 1) and a modified antisaccade paradigm measuring disinhibited, rash-spontaneous behaviour (experiment 2) using food and nonfood stimuli. Additionally, trait impulsivity was assessed. Results In experiment 1, all participants located their initial fixations more often on food stimuli and BED+ participants gazed longer on food stimuli in comparison with BED? and NWC participants. In experiment 2, BED+ participants had more difficulties inhibiting saccades towards food and nonfood stimuli compared with both other groups in first saccades, and especially towards food stimuli in second saccades and concerning sequences of first and second saccades. BED? participants did not differ significantly from NWC participants in both experiments. Additionally, eye tracking performance was associated with self-reported reward responsiveness and self-control. Conclusions According to these results, food-related reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous behaviour, as the two components of impulsivity, are increased in BED in comparison with weight-matched and normal-weight controls. This indicates that BED represents a neurobehavioural phenotype of obesity that is characterised by increased impulsivity. Interventions for BED should target these special needs of affected patients.

Schag, Kathrin; Teufel, Martin; Junne, Florian; Preissl, Hubert; Hautzinger, Martin; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth

2013-01-01

303

Eat it or beat it. The differential effects of food temptations on overweight and normal-weight restrained eaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dieting is difficult to maintain in an environment where cues of attractive, high-calorie food abound. Overweight and restrained eating have been associated with failures of self-regulation in response to such food cues. A subgroup of successful restrained eaters, however, have been found to activate their dieting goal in response to tempting food cues, which helps them to pursue their dieting

Carolijn Ouwehand; Esther K. Papies

2010-01-01

304

The Effect of Pre-exposure to Food Cues on the Eating Behavior of Restrained and Unrestrained Eaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of pre-exposure to two types of food cues (olfactory and cognitive) on food intake by restrained and unrestrained eaters. Subjects were exposed to either no cue, an olfactory cue, a cognitive cue or a combination of the two types of food cues for ten minutes prior to eating. Restrained eaters ate significantly more than did

INGRI D. C. FEDOROFF; JANET POLIVY; C. PETER HERMAN

1997-01-01

305

How Emotions Expressed by Adults' Faces Affect the Desire to Eat Liked and Disliked Foods in Children Compared to Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were…

Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie

2012-01-01

306

Opioid site in nucleus accumbens shell mediates eating and hedonic ‘liking’ for food: map based on microinjection Fos plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microinjection of opioid agonists, such as morphine, into the nucleus accumbens shell produces increases in eating behavior (i.e. ‘wanting’ for food). This study (1) reports direct evidence that activation of accumbens opioid receptors in rats also augments food ‘liking’, or the hedonic impact of taste, and (2) identified a neural site that definitely contains receptors capable of increasing food intake.

Susana Peciña; Kent C Berridge

2000-01-01

307

Food Advertising and Eating Disorders: Marketing Body Dissatisfaction, the Drive for Thinness, and Dieting in Women's Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…

Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.

1999-01-01

308

Food Advertising and Eating Disorders: Marketing Body Dissatisfaction, the Drive for Thinness, and Dieting in Women's Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…

Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.

1999-01-01

309

PEOPLE EAT FOOD, A SYMPOSIUM ON THE APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THE USDA FOODLINK DATABASE SYSTEM, SUMMARY REPORT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On November 14, 2005, the People Eat Food, a Symposium on the Applications and Future Directions for the USDA FoodLink Database System was convened in Washington, DC. Over 100 participants attended the symposium, including representatives from the food industry, several universities, government age...

310

Eating patterns of children in the Delta: Developing a child food frequency questionnaire for this rural impoverished population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The epidemic of obesity and health risks for children currently present challenges in estimating food intakes and developing appropriate interventions. Obtaining eating patterns is important. No child food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are specific to the Delta. Food intake data collected previous...

311

Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.  

PubMed

The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. PMID:23428940

Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

2013-02-18

312

The Demand for Healthy Eating: Supporting a Transformative Food "Movement"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To the extent that social science scholarship engages real-world developments it remains grounded and better able to resist elite agendas. With this in mind this article argues for the critical encounter with what I argue is the most significant struggle around food and agriculture today--the amorphous and broad-based movement that strives to…

Winson, Anthony

2010-01-01

313

Women’s regulation styles for eating behaviors and outcomes: The mediating role of approach and avoidance food planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article was to examine the role played by different orientations in planning for eating behaviors as mediators\\u000a of the relationship between regulation styles and eating behaviors. In Study 1, a new scale was developed to assess approach\\u000a food planning and avoidance food planning. Results from confirmatory analyses (N = 241) supported the two-factor structure of the scale. In

Nancy Otis; Luc G. Pelletier

2008-01-01

314

Food-related stimuli increase desire to eat in hungry and satiated human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effect of food-related cues on the desire to eat chocolate in hungry and satiated subjects was investigated.\\u000a Subjects (n=46) were randomly assigned to either a hungry or satiated group and then assigned to a group receiving one of the following\\u000a stimuli: taste (2 M&Ms), sight (a photograph of M&Ms), cognition (a passage describin M&Ms), or

Kelly Gurley Lambert; Tara Neal; Jill Noyes; Conway Parker; Pamela Worrel

1991-01-01

315

Bulimic symptoms and mood predict food relevant Stroop interference in women with troubled eating patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive processing differences based on attentional biases of words pertaining to eating disorders were investigated to assess people's pathological thoughts. Participants were 165 undergraduate women (mean age=19.2) at a large Midwestern university. This Stroop task that included color identification of three word groups (food-related words, neutral words, and color words) was administered to measure differential speed in cognitive processing of

Dana L Rofey; Kevin J Corcoran; Giao Q Tran

2004-01-01

316

Acute compensatory eating following exercise is associated with implicit hedonic wanting for food.  

PubMed

The efficacy of exercise to promote weight loss could potentially be undermined by its influence on explicit or implicit processes of liking and wanting for food which in turn alter food preference. The present study was designed to examine hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms involved in the acute effects of exercise on food intake. 24 healthy female subjects were recruited to take part in two counterbalanced activity sessions; 50 min of high intensity (70% max heart rate) exercise (Ex) or no exercise (NEx). Subjective appetite sensations, explicit and implicit hedonic processes, food preference and energy intake (EI) were measured immediately before and after each activity session and an ad libitum test meal. Two groups of subjects were identified in which exercise exerted different effects on compensatory EI and food preference. After exercise, compensators (C) increased their EI, rated the food to be more palatable, and demonstrated increased implicit wanting. Compensators also showed a preference for high-fat sweet food compared with non-compensators (NC), independent of the exercise intervention. Exercise-induced changes in the hedonic response to food could be an important consideration in the efficacy of using exercise as a means to lose weight. An enhanced implicit wanting for food after exercise may help to explain why some people overcompensate during acute eating episodes. Some individuals could be resistant to the beneficial effects of exercise due to a predisposition to compensate for exercise-induced energy expenditure as a result of implicit changes in food preferences. PMID:19419671

Finlayson, G; Bryant, E; Blundell, J E; King, N A

2009-02-07

317

Food as nostalgia: Eating the fifties and sixties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces examples of remembered food cultures of the 1950s and 1960s in Australia, as starting points for addressing their mythic re?inscription in the 1990s. Analysing iconic images from cookbooks, positioned against fragments of women's remembering, the article suggests the need for more complex narratives than those of nostalgic returns to secure suburban pasts or of thankful culinary escapes

Jean Duruz

1999-01-01

318

Eating Better for Less: A National Discount Program for Healthy Food Purchases in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Improving diet quality is a key health promotion strategy. The HealthyFood program provides up to a 25% discount on selected food items to about 260,000 households across South Africa. Objectives Examine whether reducing prices for healthy food purchases leads to changes in self-reported measures of food consumption and weight status. Methods Repeated surveys of about 350,000 HealthyFood participants and nonparticipants. Results Program participation is associated with more consumption of fruits/vegetables and wholegrain foods, and less consumption of high sugar/salt foods, fried foods, processed meats, and fast-food. There is no strong evidence that participation reduces obesity. Conclusions A substantial price intervention might be effective in improving diets.

An, Ruopeng; Patel, Deepak; Segal, Darren; Sturm, Roland

2012-01-01

319

Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. METHODS: The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File

Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

2011-01-01

320

Factor structure and clinical correlates of the Food Thought Suppression Inventory within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder  

PubMed Central

Prior research on the relations among eating behaviors and thought suppression is limited to a measure of general thought suppression, the White Bear Suppression Inventory. To address this limitation, researchers recently validated the Food Thought Suppression Inventory (FTSI). Analyses using this measure suggest that food thought suppression is distinct from and is more predictive of eating disorder psychopathology than is general thought suppression. The FTSI, however, has not yet been validated in clinical samples. The purpose of the current study is to examine the factor structure and clinical correlates of the FTSI within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 128). Analyses revealed a valid and reliable one-factor measure of food thought suppression that was related to higher levels of eating and general psychopathology. The findings provide evidence for the use of the FTSI with obese women with BED. Future research should examine the psychometric properties of the FTSI within larger and more diverse samples.

Barnes, Rachel D.; Sawaoka, Takuya; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2013-01-01

321

"Is It Okay to Eat a Dog in Korea...like China?" Assumptions of National Food-Eating Practices in Intercultural Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a small body of research which shows how intercultural communication is constituted in and through talk-in-interaction, and can be made relevant or irrelevant by interactants on a moment-by-moment basis. Our paper builds on this literature by investigating how cultural assumptions of national food-eating practices are deployed, contested…

Brandt, Adam; Jenks, Christopher

2011-01-01

322

Emotional responses to food, body dissatisfaction and other eating disorder features in children, adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

We aimed to assess and compare emotional responses to different foods in relationship to eating disorder and associated features, across gender and age groups. We hypothesized that negative emotional responses to images of foods would be higher in (i) those with higher body dissatisfaction and (ii) older females. Five hundred and thirty-six (18% Grade 5, 39% Grade 8 or 9, and 43% Grade 11 or 12) school, and 93 university students participated. Emotive responses to images of foods were assessed with a PowerPoint presentation of 16 differing food and four 'neutral' images shown over 30s intervals. Responses were rated on three 10-cm visual analog scales measuring levels of happiness, fear and disgust. Body image concern was assessed with the nine-item body dissatisfaction subscale of the EDI and eating disorder symptoms with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. With increasing age all three emotional responses towards food fell and body dissatisfaction increased. Compared to females, males showed significantly higher levels of a 'happy' response to food, and in adult females a fear emotive response correlated positively with eating concern and body dissatisfaction. In men, positive emotive responses to food may be indicative of broader factors that reduce their vulnerability to eating disorders. PMID:17681637

McNamara, Caroline; Hay, Phillipa; Katsikitis, Mary; Chur-Hansen, Anna

2007-06-29

323

Effects of neuromedin-? on caloric compensation, eating behaviours and habitual food intake.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that a missense mutation (p.P73T) located in the neuromedin-? gene, a satiety peptide, was associated with higher levels of disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and body weight gain over time. In this study we compare caloric compensation, eating behaviour traits, food intake and adiposity between premenopausal women with (T73T) and without (P73P) mutation. Subjects (N=153) were screened to find homozygous women (T73T) that were matched for age, BMI and use of oral contraceptives with 7 women (P73P) not carrying the mutation. Eating behaviour traits were assessed with the Three-Factors Eating Questionnaire and habitual dietary intakes with a 3-day dietary record. A randomized single-blind cross-over design was used to test the effect of p.P73T on caloric compensation. We measured appetite sensations and ad libitum dietary intake following two different energy preloads. We found no difference in eating behaviour traits, adiposity, appetite sensations, ad libitum dietary intake and caloric compensation. However, T73T women had lower habitual energy and carbohydrate intakes than P73P. Differences in carbohydrate intakes disappeared when expressed in percentage of energy. These results suggest that the neuromedin-? p.P73T mutation modulates energy intake without effects on macronutrient. A lack of power resulting from our difficulty to recruit enough T73T women precludes any definitive conclusion regarding the impact of this mutation on caloric compensation. PMID:21527296

Blanchet, Rosanne; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Bouchard, Luigi; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Pérusse, Louis

2011-04-16

324

Food deprivation and emotional reactions to food cues: implications for eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined emotional responding to food cues. In experiment 1, normal college students were assigned to 0-, 6- or 24-h of food deprivation prior to presentations of standard emotional and food-related pictures. Food deprivation had no impact on responses elicited by standard emotional pictures. However, subjective and psychophysiological reactions to food pictures were affected significantly by deprivation. Importantly, food-deprived

David J. Drobes; Erica J. Miller; Charles H. Hillman; Margaret M. Bradley; Bruce N. Cuthbert; Peter J. Lang

2001-01-01

325

Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

2011-01-01

326

Determinants of US fast food consumption 1994-1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Fast food (FF) consumption increased dramatically through the 1990s in the USA, accounting for nearly 35.5 percent of total away-from-home expenditures in 1999. Given dramatic changes in food consumption, and heightened public concern about health and obesity, there is a considerable need for research to understand better the factors affecting US FF consumption. This paper aims to fill

Jasper Fanning; Thomas Marsh; Kyle Stiegert

2010-01-01

327

A comparison of food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: USDA's MyPyramid, NHLBI's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to compare food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: the US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard University's Healthy Eating Pyramid. Estimates of nutrient values associated with following each of the food guides at the 2,000-calorie level were made using a composite approach. This approach calculates population-weighted nutrient composites for each food group and subgroup, assuming average choices within food groups. Nutrient estimates were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and other goals and limits. Recommendations were similar regarding almost all food groups for both the type and amount of foods. Primary differences were seen in the types of vegetables and protein sources recommended and the amount of dairy products and total oil recommended. Overall nutrient values were also similar for most nutrients, except vitamin A, vitamin E, and calcium. These food guides were derived from different types of nutrition research, yet they share consistent messages: eat more fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains; eat less added sugar and saturated fat; and emphasize plant oils. PMID:18313434

Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

2008-03-01

328

Should Canadians eat according to the traditional Mediterranean diet pyramid or Canada's food guide?  

PubMed

Eating well with Canada's food guide (CFG) was developed by Health Canada as an education tool to encourage the Canadian public to have eating habits that meet nutrient needs, promote health, and reduce the risk of nutrition-related chronic disease. It was developed in the Canadian context and reflects the food supply available to Canadians, as well as food choices made by Canadians. There are other dietary patterns that are consistent with health such as the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD), which has gained popularity in Canada. The potentially different food choices that Canadians could make if they were to follow one guide over the other might significantly influence population health. Although the two guides differ in their recommendations for red wine, fats, and meat and meat alternatives, they both promote a diet rich in grains, fruits, and vegetables. The CFG may have some advantages over the TMD for Canadians, such as focusing on vitamin D and recommending limited alcoholic beverage intake. Some shortcomings of the CFG compared with the TMD are the grouping of animal proteins with nuts, seeds, and legumes into a single category, and not recommending limits for red meat consumption. If Canadians following the CFG were to choose whole grains and vegetarian options from the meat and alternatives category more often, the CFG may be preferable to TMD for Canadians. The TMD is an alternative to the CFG for Canadians if sources of vitamin D are included in the diet and wine consumption is limited or is imbibed in moderation. PMID:18461106

Downs, Shauna M; Willows, Noreen D

2008-06-01

329

Fatty Acid Composition of Commercial Spanish Fast Food and Snack Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid composition, total fat contents and percentages of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) and trans isomers of fatty acids (t FA) were analysed in commercial Spanish fast food and snack food by capillary gas chromatography (CGC) using a capillary column. The results obtained show a great variability in the percentages of fatty acids (g\\/100 g total fatty acids)

P. Mario Fernández; San Juan

2000-01-01

330

Simulation Study on the Queuing System in a Fast-Food Restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast-food industry has experienced prosperous growth over the last three decades. In fast-food operations, the term “fast” refers to “quickservice.” The customers coming to a fast-food restaurant do not expect to wait for a long time to receive the food service. The waiting time for customers to receive the food service becomes one of the key quality characteristics in

Chao-Yu Chou; Hui-Rong Liu

1999-01-01

331

Effect of altered eating habits and periods during Ramadan fasting on intraocular pressure, tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine whether altered eating habits and periods, especially the pre-dawn meal, during Ramadan fasting have any significant effect on intraocular pressure (IOP), tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters.MethodsIOP, basal tear secretion (BTS), reflex tear secretion (RTS), and Pentacam measurements of 31 healthy volunteers were performed at 0800 and 1600 hours during Ramadan fasting and 1 month later during

H Kerimoglu; B Ozturk; K Gunduz; B Bozkurt; U Kamis; M Okka

2010-01-01

332

Increasing Healthy Eating vs. Reducing High Energy-dense Foods to Treat Pediatric Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective was to compare targeting increased eating of healthy foods vs. reducing intake of high energy-dense foods within the context of a family-based behavioral weight control program. Methods and Procedures Forty-one 8?12 year-old children >85th BMI percentile were randomly assigned to a 24-month family-based behavioral treatment that targeted increasing fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy vs. reducing intake of high energy-dense foods. Results Children in the increase healthy food group showed greater reduction in zBMI compared to children in the reduce high energy-dense food group at 12- (?0.30 zBMI units vs. ?0.15 zBMI units, P = 0.01) and 24- (?0.36 zBMI units vs ?0.13 zBMI units, P = 0.04) month follow-up. Parents in the increase healthy food group showed greater reductions in concern about child weight (P = 0.007), and these changes were associated with child zBMI change (P = 0.008). Children in the reduce high energy-dense group showed larger sustained reductions in high energy-dense foods (P < 0.05). Baseline levels of high energy-dense foods (P < 0.05), parent food restraint (P = 0.01), parent concern over parent weight (P = 0.01) and parent acceptance of the child (P < 0.05) moderated child zBMI change, with greater sustained reductions in zBMI for children in the increase healthy food group for each measure. Parent zBMI change followed the same pattern as child changes, and parent and child zBMI changes were correlated (P < 0.001). Discussion Focusing on healthy food choices within an energy restricted diet may be useful in family-based weight control programs.

Epstein, Leonard H.; Paluch, Rocco A.; Beecher, Meghan D.; Roemmich, James N.

2008-01-01

333

Solar Demonstration Project in a Fast-Food Restaurant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the results of a two-phase program in which the first phase included the successful use of heat reclamation equipment and energy conservation techniques at a typical fast-food restaurant. The project's second phase involved the enginee...

D. McClenahan

1980-01-01

334

Modeling repurchase frequency and customer satisfaction for fast food outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although customer satisfaction and loyalty have attracted a lot of attention in service management research, relatively few studies have examined the impact of waiting time and service quality on customer satisfaction and repurchase frequency. In this study, we model the relationships between customer satisfaction, repurchase frequency, waiting time and other service quality factors in fast food outlets. The results indicate

Agnes K. Y. Law; Y. V. Hui; Xiande Zhao

2004-01-01

335

Solar demonstration project in a fast-food restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a two-phase program in which the first phase included the successful use of heat reclamation equipment and energy conservation techniques at a typical fast-food restaurant are described. The project's second phase involved the engineering, designing, installation and interfacing of a solar collector system at the facility. The report will help to serve as a guide for other

D. McClenahan

1980-01-01

336

Mothers’ attitudes towards toys as fast food premiums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To explore mothers’ attitudes to fast food companies’ use of toy premiums as a marketing technique. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two focus groups and 12 individual interviews were conducted with 21 mothers of young children. Findings – The mothers considered toy premiums to be a highly effective form of marketing targeted at their children. Such purchase incentives stimulate a constant

Simone Pettigrew; Michele Roberts

2006-01-01

337

Maintenance of Effects of the Eat Smart School Food Service Program: Results from the Catch-on Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart Program targeted the food service of the 56 CATCH intervention elementary schools to effect positive changes in the total fat and saturated fat content of school lunch. Maintenance of the food service intervention in former intervention (n = 56) and control (n = 20) schools was evaluated 5 years

Stavroula K. Osganian; Deanna M. Hoelscher; Michelle Zive; Paul D. Mitchell; Patricia Snyder; Larry S. Webber

2003-01-01

338

Emotional Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown

Michael Macht; Gwenda Simons

339

Research Review Exposure to binge food in bulimia nervosa: finger pulse amplitude as a potential measure of urge to eat and predictor of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditioning model of binge eating states that cues such as the sight, smell and taste of binge food prepare the binger's body for the intake of large amounts of food. The bodily preparations are supposed to be felt as an almost irresistible urge to binge. In the present study, the validity of the model was tested. Clinical binge eaters

Chantal Nederkoorn; Fren Smulders; Remco Havermans; Anita Jansen

340

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do you know about healthy eating? Check out the sites below to learn what you should and should not be eating on a daily basis. Before we get started let's see what knowledge you have about healthy eating. What do you think are some of the most healthy foods for you? Do you like to eat these foods? Now look at the sites below and answer the following questions. Blast Off Dining Decisions Nutrients Your Body Neeeds What were some good food choices ...

Sweet, Miss

2012-05-03

341

When Do We Eat? An Evaluation of Food Items Input into an Electronic Food Monitoring Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formative study that examines what, when, and how participants in a chronic kidney disease (stage 5) population input food items into an electronic intake monitoring application. Participants scanned food item barcodes or voice recorded food items they consumed during a three week period. The results indicated that a learning curve was associated with barcode scanning; participants with

Katie A. Siek; Kay H. Connelly; Yvonne Rogers; Paul Rohwer; Desiree Lambert; Janet L. Welch

2006-01-01

342

Food selection: Problems in understanding how we choose foods to eat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding food selection will require considerably more than reductionist analyses of the internal workings of individual animals. To understand food choice we will have to examine not only the physiology and behavior of individuals, but also the biological and social environments within which individuals select items to ingest. The biological environment determines patterns of food availability and, over evolutionary time,

B. G. GALEE JR

1996-01-01

343

Inhibition of Opioid Transmission at the ?-Opioid Receptor Prevents Both Food Seeking and Binge-Like Eating  

PubMed Central

Endogenous opioids, and in particular ?-opioid receptors, have been linked to hedonic and rewarding mechanisms engaged during palatable food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSK1521498, a novel ?-opioid receptor antagonist, on food-seeking behavior and on binge-like eating of a highly preferred chocolate diet. Food seeking was measured in rats trained to respond for chocolate under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which prolonged periods of food-seeking behavior were maintained by contingent presentation of a reward-associated conditioned reinforcer. After reaching a stable baseline in both procedures, animals were treated with GSK1521498 (0.1, 1, and 3?mg/kg; IP) or naltrexone (NTX, 0.1, 1, and 3?mg/kg; SC). The binge eating model was characterized by four temporally contiguous phases: 1-h chow access, 2-h food deprivation, 10-min chow access, and 10-min access to either chocolate-flavoured food or standard chow. During training the rats developed binge-like hyperphagia of palatable food and anticipatory chow hypophagia (anticipatory negative contrast). Both compounds reduced binge-like palatable food hyperphagia. However, GSK1521498 reduced the impact of high hedonic value on ingestion more specifically than NTX, abolishing anticipatory chow hypophagia. GSK1521498 also dose-dependently reduced food seeking both before and after food ingestion, whereas NTX reduced food seeking only after food ingestion. Thus, while both drugs affected the hedonic value of the preferred food, GSK1521498 also directly decreased incentive motivation for chocolate. Selective ?-opioid receptor antagonism by GSK1521498 may have utility as a treatment for reducing maladaptive, palatability-driven eating behavior by reducing the motivational properties of stimuli that elicit the binge eating commonly associated with obesity.

Giuliano, Chiara; Robbins, Trevor W; Nathan, Pradeep J; Bullmore, Edward T; Everitt, Barry J

2012-01-01

344

Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food by Step One real-time polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to follow contamination of ready-to-eat food with Listeria monocytogenes by using the Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and MicroSEQ® Listeria monocytogenes Detection Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 30 samples of ready-to-eat milk and meat products without

Jaroslav Pochop; Miroslava Ka?ániová; Lukáš Hleba; LUbomír Lopasovský; Alica Bobková; Lucia Zele?áková; Michal Stri?ík

2012-01-01

345

Maternal predictors of preschool child-eating behaviours, food intake and body mass index: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study.International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, Early Online, 1–5.] McPhie et al. (2011)’s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and mother–child interactions as predictors of child-eating behaviours, food habits and weight. A sample of 117 mothers of

Skye McPhie; Helen Skouteris; Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz; Marita McCabe; Lina A. Ricciardelli; Jeannette Milgrom; Louise A. Baur; Daniela DellAquila

2012-01-01

346

If you are good you can have a cookie: How memories of childhood food rules link to adult eating behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether memories of parental rules about food during childhood are linked to adult eating behaviors. Method: An adult community sample (N=122) (56% female, 44% male) with a mean age of 44.6 years completed self-report measures of weight and dieting history, current eating patterns, and recollection of different types of rules about

Rebecca M. Puhl; Marlene B. Schwartz

2003-01-01

347

The neurobiological underpinnings of obesity and binge eating: a rationale for adopting the food addiction model.  

PubMed

The food addiction model of overeating has been proposed to help explain the widespread advancement of obesity over the last 30 years. Parallels in neural substrates and neurochemistry, as well as corresponding motivational and behavioral traits, are increasingly coming to light; however, there are still key differences between the two disorders that must be acknowledged. We critically examine these common and divergent characteristics using the theoretical framework of prominent drug addiction models, investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of both behaviors in an attempt to justify whether classification of obesity and binge eating as an addictive disorder is merited. PMID:23098895

Smith, Dana G; Robbins, Trevor W

2012-10-23

348

The prime time diet: a content analysis of eating behavior and food messages in television program content and commercials.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze messages related to food and eating behavior as presented on prime time television (8:00-11:00 pm) both in programming and commercials. Food references occurred an average of 4.8 times per 30 minutes of programming time. Over half (60 percent) of all food references in programs were for low nutrient beverages and sweets. The prime time diet is inconsistent with dietary guidelines for healthy Americans.

Story, M; Faulkner, P

1990-01-01

349

Effect of drinking compared with eating sugars or whey protein on short-term appetite and food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:It is hypothesized that a solid form of food or food components suppresses subjective appetite and short-term food intake (FI) more than a liquid form.Objective:To compare the effect of eating solid vs drinking liquid forms of gelatin, sucrose and its component mixtures, and whey protein, on subjective appetite and FI in young men.Design and subjects:A randomized crossover design was used

T Akhavan; B L Luhovyy; G H Anderson

2011-01-01

350

Contractual Arrangements for the Transfer of Technology in the Fast Food Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The expansion of transnational fast food chains, although concentrated developed countries, has been recently visible in developing countries as well, especially in Latin America and South-east Asia. Large fast food chains either operate their outlets abr...

J. Cieslik

1983-01-01

351

Benchmarking the service quality of fast-food restaurant franchises in the USA : A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To help fast-food restaurants enhance their competitiveness and then increase their market share, the purpose of this paper is to measure the service performances of fast-food restaurant franchises in the USA and identify salient factors influencing the service performances of fast-food restaurants over time. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper develops a set of benchmarks that helps fast-food restaurants monitor

Hokey Min; Hyesung Min

2011-01-01

352

Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during 6 months of dietary energy restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine characteristics of craved foods in relation to dietary energy restriction (ER) with high (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets.Design:Assessments of food cravings before and during a randomized controlled trial of HG and LG diets provided for 6 months.Subjects:Thirty-two healthy, overweight women aged 20–42 years.Measurements:Self-reported food cravings and dietary intake, body weight, weight history and measures of eating

C H Gilhooly; S K Das; J K Golden; M A McCrory; G E Dallal; E Saltzman; F M Kramer; S B Roberts

2007-01-01

353

Irradiation of ready-to-eat foods at USDA'S Eastern Regional Reasearch Center-2003 update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation is a safe and effective method for eliminating bacterial pathogens from food products and disinfestation of fruits and vegetables. Since 1980 research has been conducted at USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center pertaining to the elimination of food-borne pathogens from meat, poultry, fruit and vegetable products. Recent work has focused on elimination of pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from ready-to-eat (RTE) food products including hot dogs, bologna, lettuce, cilantro, sprouts and seeds, and frozen vegetables. The ionizing radiation dose required to eliminate those pathogens from RTE foods has been found to be commodity, formulation and temperature dependent. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from RTE food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and organoleptic quality have also been determined. A review of the studies conducted at USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center in 2002 and 2003 is presented in this article.

Sommers, Christopher; Fan, Xuetong; Niemira, Brendan; Rajkowski, Kathleen

2004-09-01

354

Food-related impulsivity in obesity and binge eating disorder--a systematic review.  

PubMed

Impulsivity towards food has been recognized as a potential factor leading to increased food intake in obesity. Patients suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) form a specific subgroup of obese people that might be characterized by increased impulsivity. These assumptions, although, have yet to be verified. Therefore, this review evaluates evidence for food-related impulsivity in obese people with and without BED and examines possible differences between both populations. More precisely, evidence for the two components of impulsivity is analyzed separately: evidence for reward sensitivity, specifically, the urge for appetitive stimuli and evidence for rash-spontaneous behaviour such as acting disinhibited with no regard for the consequences. Our search resulted in 51 articles demonstrating generally increased food-related impulsivity. We found particular emphasis on increased reward sensitivity in obese people, which appeared to be more pronounced in people with BED. There was little and conflicting evidence, however, concerning increased rash-spontaneous behaviour in obese people without BED, but consistent evidence of an increase in obese people with BED. All in all, the evidence supports the view that BED represents a specific phenotype of obesity with increased food-related impulsivity. Taking these specific deficits into account can enhance the effectiveness of weight reduction programmes and psychotherapy. PMID:23331770

Schag, K; Schönleber, J; Teufel, M; Zipfel, S; Giel, K E

2013-01-21

355

Healthy Eating Food Guide for Diabetes: A Nutrition Education Tool for Native Americans. Handbook and Resource Guide for Health Care Providers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Diabetes Nutrition Education Priorities and Strategies (Diabetes in Native Americans, American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations, Native American Food Intake, Nutrition Education Concepts and Strategies); The Healthy Eating Food Gui...

B. P. Brackenridge H. Warshaw

1995-01-01

356

An overview of the theory of Microeconomics (consumer behaviour and market structures) in fast food marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the application of microeconomic theories in fast food marketing. The aim is to bring out the interrelationship between marketing and microeconomics with respect to the fast food industry. The paper examines some conceptual and theoretical tools that will enhance the marketing practices of managers in the fast food industry. Hence, the marketing aspects of

Emmanuel Selase Asamoah; Miloslava Chovancová

2011-01-01

357

The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets varies with neighborhood-level socioeconomic status in Edmonton, Canada. Only market area and fast food proximity predicted supermarket exposure. For fast food outlets, the odds of exposure were greater in areas with more Aboriginals, renters, lone parents, low-income households, and public transportation commuters; and lower in those with higher median

Karen E. Smoyer-Tomic; John C. Spence; Kim D. Raine; Carl Amrhein; Nairne Cameron; Vladimir Yasenovskiy; Nicoleta Cutumisu; Eric Hemphill; Julia Healy

2008-01-01

358

The Buying Behavior and Marketing Practices of Fast Food Markets in Metro Manila, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study is concerned in identifying and comparing the different buying behaviors of Filipino consumers and the marketing practices adopted by eight selected fast food companies in relation with the four P's of marketing. The fast food industry is a sub-sector of the larger restaurant industry. There are 15,000 fast food restaurants operating in Metro Manila. The most common tools

Kuang-Jung Chen

1996-01-01

359

Nutrient content of products served by leading Australian fast food chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared

Elizabeth Dunford; Jacqui Webster; Federica Barzi; Bruce Neal

2010-01-01

360

Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to

Julie Henderson; John Coveney; Paul Ward; Anne Taylor

2009-01-01

361

The influence of restrained and external eating patterns on overeating.  

PubMed

Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eating behaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fast food fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fast food fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fast food fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fast food foods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent. PMID:17349717

Burton, Pat; Smit, Hendrik J; Lightowler, Helen J

2007-02-11

362

NPY Y1 receptor is involved in ghrelin- and fasting-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake.  

PubMed

Fasting triggers a constellation of physiological and behavioral changes, including increases in peripherally produced ghrelin and centrally produced hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY). Refeeding stimulates food intake in most species; however, hamsters primarily increase foraging and food hoarding with smaller increases in food intake. Fasting-induced increases in foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters are mimicked by peripheral ghrelin, central NPY, and NPY Y1 receptor agonist injections. Because fasting stimulates ghrelin and subsequently NPY synthesis/release, it may be that fasting-induced increased hoarding is mediated by NPY Y1 receptor activation. Therefore, we asked: Can an Y1 receptor antagonist block fasting- or ghrelin-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake? This was accomplished by injecting the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist 1229U91 intracerebroventricularly in hamsters fasted, fed, or given peripheral ghrelin injections and housed in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system coupled with simulated-burrow housing. Three foraging conditions were used: 1) no running wheel access, free food, 2) running wheel access, free food, or 3) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/pellet) for food. Fasting was a more potent stimulator of foraging and food hoarding than ghrelin. Concurrent injections of 1229U91 completely blocked fasting- and ghrelin-induced increased foraging and food intake and attenuated, but did not always completely block, fasting- and ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding. Collectively, these data suggest that the NPY Y1 receptor is important for the effects of ghrelin- and fasting-induced increases in foraging and food intake, but other NPY receptors and/or other neurochemical systems are involved in increases in food hoarding. PMID:17204592

Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

2007-01-04

363

Relationship Between Rate of Eating and Degree of Satiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral psychologists have developed effective methods of treatment for overeating and weight control, including mealtime regulation, avoidance of taboo foods, and removal of identified precursors to the bingeing behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between speed of eating and levels of satiation in weight conscious individuals. Ten participants were instructed to eat at a fast and a

Nathan H. Azrin; Michael J. Kellen; Jeannie Brooks; Chris Ehle; Veronica Vinas

2008-01-01

364

Factors Predicting Staying in School to Eat Lunch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…

Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

2011-01-01

365

Factors Predicting Staying in School to Eat Lunch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…

Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

2011-01-01

366

Factors predicting staying in school to eat lunch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of “staying in school to eat lunch”

Dominique Beaulieu; Gaston Godin

2011-01-01

367

What Foods Should Americans Eat. Better Information Needed on Nutritional Quality of Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Americans have a growing desire to select foods that promote good health. The Government needs to adopt a set of nutrition principles and provide authoritative guidance on safe levels of intake for controversial dietary substances that have been associate...

1980-01-01

368

Metabolic and hormonal control of the desire for food and sex: implications for obesity and eating disorders.  

PubMed

During evolution, the ability to overeat and store the extra energy as glycogen and lipids in specialized tissues must have conferred a reproductive advantage by releasing animals from the need to eat constantly, enabling them to engage in behaviors that improved reproductive success. Mechanisms that inhibited ingestive behavior might have been most adaptive when they caused individuals to stop foraging, hoarding and eating in order to find and court potential mates. Conversely, the ability to abstain from reproductive activities to engage in foraging and eating was probably critical for individual survival during severe energetic challenges because reproductive processes are energetically costly and can be delayed until the energetic conditions improve. The mechanisms that control ingestive behavior most likely evolved under conditions in which both food and mates were available, and thus, our understanding might be limited by our narrow focus on food intake in animals isolated from potential mates, and reproductive behaviors in the absence of food. Our understanding of obesity and eating disorders will be enriched by the study of the choice between ingestive and reproductive behaviors and by a renewed attention to "reproductive" hormones such as gonadal steroids and hypothalamic releasing hormones. Furthermore, leptin and reproductive hormones have both organizational and activational effects on the energy balancing system including those mechanisms that control appetite, body fat content and body fat distribution. Understanding these organizational and activational effects on body fat distribution might lead to a better understanding of sex differences in the propensity to develop obesity, type II diabetes and eating disorders. PMID:16875692

Schneider, Jill E

2006-07-27

369

Food safety issues and training methods for ready-to-eat foods in the grocery industry.  

PubMed

As Americans have become more pressed for time, the use of convenient, simplified meals become a way of life. One aspect of this trend, known as Home Meal Replacement (IIMR), has increased in sales since its inception. Between 1999 and 2001, the average annual expenditure per consumer rose 5.6 pereent, and $958 per person per year was spent in 2002. Along with this growth, food safety risks may have increased. The study reported here examined efforts being undertaken by grocery and convenience stores to control the wholesomeness of INR food items. After a convenience sample of 500 grocery store executives was identified, a 32-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to the executives. The results indicate that the industry has taken food safety seriously with only 10 pereent reporting that they have no food safety training. The executives cited employee turnover as a major concern in food safety today, along with lack of food safety knowledge of the consumer and improper holding temperatures. PMID:16312253

Binkley, Margaret; Ghiselli, Richard

2005-10-01

370

Time to eat: the relationship between the number of people eating and meal duration in three lunch settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an observational study of customers in three different types of lunch settings: a worksite cafeteria, a fast-food restaurant, and a moderately priced restaurant, and assessed the relationship between meal duration and the number of people eating at each table (group size). Results suggest a significant positive correlation between group size and meal duration, collapsing over eating settings. Analysis

Rick Bell; Patricia L Pliner

2003-01-01

371

Occurrence of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in ready-to-eat food in Korea.  

PubMed

Toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ready-to-eat (RTE) food is a leading cause of foodborne illness in Korea. To monitor food contamination by S. aureus, a total of 3332 RTE food samples were selected from nationwide wholesale marts between 2003 and 2004 and examined. A total of 285 (8.6%) of the overall samples were contaminated by S. aureus. According to the analysis, 31.6% of the tested cream-cakes, 19.8% of the raw fish, and 19.3% of the rice cakes with filling were contaminated with S. aureus. Forty-seven percent of the strains isolated from the contaminated food were enterotoxigenic S. aureus. The phenotypic result of the strain isolated from food showed that 48% of the strains produced one or more toxins, such as staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, and C (SEA, SEB, and SEC). At least one SEA was produced by over 90% of the toxigenic strains. Other toxins, such as SEB, SEC, SED, SEA+SEC, and SEC+SED, were each detected. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), a causative agent of toxic shock syndrome, was detected in 13 strains of the toxigenic isolates from the food. As the result of genotyping, 22 strains with a toxin gene that was not detected in the phenotypic analysis were also detected. Sixty-nine percent of the toxigenic strains had at least one sea gene, and the most prevalent genotype was sea+seh (34.4%), followed by sea (18.8%) and sea+seg+sei (15.6%). The tst gene encoding TSST-1 was found in 13 strains (13.5%). The genes (eta and etb) encoding exfoliative toxins A and B were not detected in any of the samples. PMID:17536673

Oh, Su Kyung; Lee, Nari; Cho, Young Sun; Shin, Dong-Bin; Choi, Soon Young; Koo, Minseon

2007-05-01

372

Demand for Food Away from Home: Full-Service or Fast Food.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consumer spending at full-service and fast food restaurants will continue to grow over the remainder of this decade and the next. However, the larger increase is predicted to occur at full-service restaurants. Simulations assuming modest growth in househo...

H. Stewart N. Blisard R. M. Nayga S. Bhuyan

2004-01-01

373

Clustering of Fast-Food Restaurants Around Schools: A Novel Application of Spatial Statistics to the Study of Food Environments  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the concentration of fast food restaurants in areas proximal to schools to characterize school neighborhood food environments. Methods. We used geocoded databases of restaurant and school addresses to examine locational patterns of fast-food restaurants and kindergartens and primary and secondary schools in Chicago. We used the bivariate K function statistical method to quantify the degree of clustering (spatial dependence) of fast-food restaurants around school locations. Results. The median distance from any school in Chicago to the nearest fast-food restaurant was 0.52 km, a distance that an adult can walk in little more than 5 minutes, and 78% of schools had at least 1 fast-food restaurant within 800 m. Fast-food restaurants were statistically significantly clustered in areas within a short walking distance from schools, with an estimated 3 to 4 times as many fast-food restaurants within 1.5 km from schools than would be expected if the restaurants were distributed throughout the city in a way unrelated to school locations. Conclusions. Fast-food restaurants are concentrated within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to poor-quality food environments in their school neighborhoods.

Austin, S. Bryn; Melly, Steven J.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Patel, Aarti; Buka, Stephen; Gortmaker, Steven L.

2005-01-01

374

Think before you eat: Calories and exercise equivalents presented on menus at point-of-choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although calorie information at the point-of-purchase at fast food restaurants is proposed as a method to decrease calorie choices and combat obesity, research results have been mixed. Much of the supportive research has weak methodology, and is limited. There is a demonstrated need to develop better techniques to assist consumers to make lower calorie food choices. Eating at fast food

Charles Stuart Platkin

2009-01-01

375

Think Before You Eat: Calories and Exercise Equivalents Presented on Menus at Point-of-Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although calorie information at the point-of-purchase at fast food restaurants is proposed as a method to decrease calorie choices and combat obesity, research results have been mixed. Much of the supportive research has weak methodology, and is limited. There is a demonstrated need to develop better techniques to assist consumers to make lower calorie food choices. Eating at fast food

Charles Stuart Platkin

2009-01-01

376

Isotopic consequences of consumer food choice: Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios in foods from fast food restaurants versus supermarkets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated geographic trends in the isotopic composition of the modern American diet, purchasing paired food items from fast food restaurants and supermarkets across the USA. We observed large ranges in ?2H and ?18O values, suggesting variation in the region-of-origin for beef, wheat, and potatoes. Mean restaurant meal ?2H and ?18O values (?114 and 22.6‰, respectively) were similar to supermarket

Lesley A. Chesson; David W. Podlesak; Brad R. Erkkila; Thure E. Cerling; James R. Ehleringer

2010-01-01

377

What do children eat in the Delta: Results from development of a regional child food frequency questionnaire  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The epidemic of obesity and the fact that children are currently at risk presents challenges in both estimating current food intakes and developing appropriate interventions to address the problem. Obtaining eating patterns and nutritional intakes of children presents a first step in evaluating the ...

378

RELATEDNESS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES RECOVERED FROM SELECTED READY-TO-EAT FOODS AND LISTERIOSIS PATIENTS IN THE UNITED STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and serotyping were performed on 544 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes: 502 isolates recovered from 577 contaminated products from among 31,705 ready-to-eat food (RTE) retail samples and 42 isolates recovered from human cases of listeriosis. Isolates were fr...

379

Role of quantitative risk assessment and food safety objectives in managing Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes may be found on ready-to-eat (RTE) meats, posing a public health risk. To minimize the public health impact, an appropriate level of protection (ALOP) can be established for a population with respect to L. monocytogenes, and ideally should be based on a scientific assessment of the risk, as well as societal and economic factors. Food safety systems can

Isabel Walls

2006-01-01

380

Effect of anorexic drugs on food intake and the micro-structure of eating in human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human volunteer subjects of normal weight received oral doses of (+)amphetamine (10 mg) or (±)fenfluramine (30 mg and 60 mg) together with a placebo control according to a within-subjects design. The effects of these treatments were monitored by measuring food intake in a test meal, subjective ratings of hunger motivation and the micro-structure of eating behaviour abstracted from videotaped recordings

Peter J. Rogers; John E. Blundell

1979-01-01

381

Phenolics and antioxidant activity of a ready-to-eat snack food prepared from the edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporous)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the total polyphenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties of a ready to-eat snack food prepared from Agaricus bisporous. A comparison of these properties with the raw, unprocessed mushroom was also carried out. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Extracts of raw and snack mushrooms (osmotically dehydrated, dried and spiced and following sensorial analysis) were analyzed

Richu Singla; Moushumi Ghosh; Abhijit Ganguli

2009-01-01

382

Eating Behavior in Response to Food-Cue Exposure: Examining the Cue-Reactivity and Counteractive-Control Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have demonstrated that those high in weight-related concerns eat more after food-cue exposure, which is consistent with predictions of the cue-reactivity model. However, the counteractive-control model predicts that exposure to fattening foods activates dieting-related goals and behavior in weight-concerned individuals. Although these models seem incongruous, the authors hypothesized that the salience of the cue could represent a critical

Jennifer S. Coelho; Anita Jansen; Anne Roefs; Chantal Nederkoorn

2009-01-01

383

Distribution of newly described enterotoxin-like genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from ready-to-eat foods in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from food, a total of 154 S. aureus isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods in Korea were analyzed by mutiplex PCR for the detection of the following 9 staphylococcal\\u000a enterotoxin-like genes; sek, sel, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq, ser, and seu. Seventy-nine isolates (51.3%) were found to have at

Su Kyung Oh; Minseon Koo; Nari Lee; Hyun Jung Kim; Se-Wook Oh; Soon Young Choi

2011-01-01

384

Food selection and eating behaviour during weight maintenance intervention and 2-y follow-up in obese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess long-term changes in food consumption and eating behaviour during and 2 y after dietary counselling in weight-reduced obese men.DESIGN: Observational study from a randomised controlled trial.SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a research institute.SUBJECTS: A total of 36 subjects with complete data on food intake during the study. Subjects were obese (mean body mass index (BMI)

P Borg; M Fogelholm; K Kukkonen-Harjula

2004-01-01

385

Fast food and fast games : An ethnographic exploration of food consumption complexity among the videogames subculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand how food is used to create identity and community for gamers during core rituals. These meanings are to be explored within the broader context of subcultural experience in an investigation of the motives and the self-concept dynamics underlying this symbolic consumer behaviour. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses an interpretive research

James M. Cronin; Mary B. McCarthy

2011-01-01

386

Islamic Fasting and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 h\\/day. Fasting includes avoidance of drinking liquids and eating foods. The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting. Methods: Related abstracts from 1960 to 2009 were obtained from Medline and

Fereidoun Azizi

2010-01-01

387

Determinants of healthy eating in children and youth.  

PubMed

This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eating behaviours are identified. PMID:16042160

Taylor, Jennifer P; Evers, Susan; McKenna, Mary

388

Food Patterns Equivalent Intakes from Food: Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010; Tables 1-4  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The four table sets include national estimates of mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns (FP) consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 9,042 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2009-1...

389

Eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behaviour.\\u000a Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures\\u000a where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries\\u000a like India. As Western socioculturel ideals become

Dilip R. Patel; Elaine L Phillips; Helen D. Pratt

1998-01-01

390

The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review  

PubMed Central

The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.

Fraser, Lorna K.; Edwards, Kimberly L.; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P.

2010-01-01

391

Solar demonstration project in a fast-food restaurant  

SciTech Connect

Results are given of a two-phase program in which the first phase included the successful use of heat reclamation equipment and energy conservation techniques at a typical fast-food restaurant. The project's second phase involved the engineering, designing, installation and interfacing of a solar collector system at the facility. The report will help to serve as a guide for other restaurants around the state, and possibly the nation, which wish to install energy saving systems, or adopt energy-saving techniques, geared to their special needs and equipment.

McClenahan, D.

1980-11-01

392

Solar demonstration project in a fast-food restaurant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a two-phase program in which the first phase included the successful use of heat reclamation equipment and energy conservation techniques at a typical fast-food restaurant are described. The project's second phase involved the engineering, designing, installation and interfacing of a solar collector system at the facility. The report will help to serve as a guide for other restaurants around the state, and possibly the nation, which wish to install energy saving systems, or adopt energy-saving techniques, geared to their special needs and equipment.

McClenahan, D.

1980-11-01

393

Fasting Increases Risk for Onset of Binge Eating and Bulimic Pathology: A 5Year Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although adolescent girls with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future binge eating and bulimic pathology, they do not eat less than those with lower restraint scores. The fact that only a small proportion of individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores develop bulimic pathology suggests that some extreme but rare form of dietary restriction may increase risk

Eric Stice; Kendra Davis; Nicole P. Miller; C. Nathan Marti

2008-01-01

394

Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.  

PubMed

There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (?85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. PMID:21439918

Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

2011-03-05

395

Stress-induced laboratory eating behavior in obese women with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to compare the microstructural eating behavior of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED) after stress induction in laboratory. Seventy-one female subjects were investigated (mean BMI 36.9). Thirty-five fulfilled criteria for BED. A 2×2 factorial design with repeated measurement (stress vs. no stress) on the second factor was applied. Stress was induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and chocolate pudding served as laboratory food. Variables of eating behavior were measured by a universal eating monitor (UEM). Only in participants with BED stress was associated with an increase in the initial eating rate and a diminished deceleration of eating at the end of the meal. Generally, BED subjects ate with larger size of spoonfuls during the laboratory meal than non BED controls. The eating behavior of obese patients with binge eating disorder seems to be significantly affected by stress. The stress-induced eating behavior of BED patients is characterized by a stronger motivation to eat (indicated by a fast initial eating rate) as well as by a lack of satiety perception (indicated by less deceleration of eating rate). PMID:22200410

Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

2011-12-16

396

Eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are common problems affecting 5–10% of young people. The bulimic forms of eating disorders became dominant in the last half of the twentieth century and are caused in part by the tensions between the easy availability of high-palatability food and a culture that idealizes thinness. Genetic factors, high anxiety and environment stress also contribute. Anorexia nervosa is associated

Janet Treasure

2008-01-01

397

Inequality in obesigenic environments: Fast food density in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New York City. We found that predominantly Black areas had higher

Naa Oyo A. Kwate; Chun-Yip Yau; Ji-Meng Loh; Donya Williams

2009-01-01

398

Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation—substitution or concentration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and

Laura Macdonald; Steven Cummins; Sally Macintyre

2007-01-01

399

Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food, especially dairy products, meat, and fish, is the primary source of environmental exposure to dioxins in the general population. Little data exists on dioxin levels in the popular and widely consumed “fast foods”. Data presented in a previously published pilot study was limited to measuring only the levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in three types of U.S. fast food.

Arnold Schecter; Lingjun Li

1997-01-01

400

Nutritional Profile of Local and Western Fast Foods Consumed in Bahrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the proximate, mineral, and vitamin content of 16 commonly consumed fast foods (local and Western-based) in Bahrain. Samples were collected from several food outlets in Manama city, the capital of Bahrain, and analyzed using standard methods. In general, the findings revealed that local fast foods had higher cholesterol and energy content (ranging

Abdulrahman O. Musaiger; Reshma DSouza

2007-01-01

401

Fast food consumption and food prices: evidence from panel data on 5th and 8th grade children.  

PubMed

Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

2012-01-15

402

Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children  

PubMed Central

Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents.

Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

2012-01-01

403

Effect of eating rate on binge size in Bulimia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Effect of eating rate on binge size in bulimia nervosa. Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating. During binge eating episodes, patients often describe the rapid consumption of food, and laboratory studies have shown that during binges patients with BN eat faster than normal controls (NC), but the hypothesis that a rapid rate of eating contributes to the excessive intake of binge meals has not yet been experimentally tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eating rate on binge size in BN, in order to determine whether binge size is mediated, in part, by rate of eating. Thirteen BN and 14 NC subjects were asked to binge eat a yogurt shake that was served at a fast rate (140g/min) on one occasion and at a slow rate (70g/min) on another. NC subjects consumed 169 g more when eating at the fast rate than when eating at the slow rate. In contrast, consumption rates failed to influence binge size in patients with BN (fast: 1205 g; slow: 1195 g). Consequently, there was a significant group by rate interaction. As expected, patients with BN consumed more overall than NC subjects (1200 g vs. 740 g). When instructed to binge in the eating laboratory, patients with BN ate equally large amounts of food at a slow rate as at a fast rate. NC subjects ate less at a slow rate. These findings indicate that in a structured laboratory meal paradigm binge size is not affected by rate of eating.

Kissileff, Harry R; Zimmerli, Ellen J; Torres, Migdalia I; Devlin, Michael J; Walsh, B Timothy

2008-01-01

404

Bacterial contamination in the environment of food factories processing ready-to-eat fresh vegetables.  

PubMed

A total of 196 samples were collected from equipment for trimming, washing, slicing, soaking, dehydrating, blending, and packaging and from the floor and air of operation rooms before and after operation in two food factories processing ready-to-eat fresh vegetables located in the suburbs of Tokyo. Heavy contamination determined by an aerobic plate count of >5.0 log CFU/cm2 or ml was observed after operation in most of the samples examined, as were samples taken before operation on the interior surfaces of equipment for washing, slicing, dehydrating, and blending, the surfaces of blades for slicing, and the floor surfaces of operation rooms. From these environmental samples, the coliform group was detected before operation. Although 67 strains of 70 coliforms isolated were nonfecal, three Escherichia coli strains were detected in the surface of the operation room floors and the gloves of employees. Bacillus cereus was isolated from 9 of 86 and 17 of 85 samples examined before and after operation with the number of 2.0 to 3.0 log CFU/cm2 or ml. Listeria spp. were not detected in the environment of the food factories. PMID:10419276

Kaneko, K; Hayashidani, H; Takahashi, K; Shiraki, Y; Limawongpranee, S; Ogawa, M

1999-07-01

405

Women, sex, and food: A review of research on eating disorders and sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has long been a proposed link between sexuality and eating disorders. However, the empirical research on the potential relationship between sexual functioning and disordered eating generally has been unfocused and of relatively poor quality. In the current article I review research on relationships between eating disorders (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) and sexual attitudes and experience among women, including

Michael W. Wiederman

1996-01-01

406

Cultural resistance to fast-food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15–19 years who are in and out of formal schooling and who are randomly representing upper, central and lower Isan. All were asked about their knowledge of fast-food health risks and their attitudes towards, and consumption of, fast food and traditional food. As well, we used several focus groups to obtain qualitative data to complement the information derived from the questionnaire. Some three quarters of sampled youth were aware that fast food causes obesity and half knew of the link to heart disease. About half consumed fast food regularly, induced by the appeal of ‘modern’ lifestyles, social events and marketing, as well as by the convenience, speed and taste. Nearly two-thirds thought that local foods should be more popular and these beliefs were more likely to be found among children from educated and urban families. Local foods already constitute a cultural resistance to fast-food uptake. We propose several methods to boost this resistance and protect the youth of Thailand against fast food and its many adverse health consequences.

Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian

2011-01-01

407

THE DEMAND FOR FOOD AWAY FROM HOME: FULL-SERVICE OR FAST FOOD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer spending at full-service and fast food restaurants will continue to grow over the remainder of this decade and the next. However, the larger increase is predicted to occur at full-service restaurants. Simulations assuming modest growth in household income plus expected demographic developments show that per capita spending could rise by 18 percent at full-service restaurants and by 6 percent

Hayden Stewart; Noel Blisard; Sanjib Bhuyan; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.

2004-01-01

408

Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits.  

PubMed

Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, which can induce palatable "comfort" food consumption, may trigger or reinforce neural pathways leading to stronger reactions to highly rewarding foods. We implemented functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether chronic stress influences activation in reward, motivation and executive brain regions in response to pictures of high calorie and low calorie foods in thirty women. On separate lab visits, we also assessed food intake from a snack food buffet and circulating cortisol. In women reporting higher chronic stress (HCS), pictures of high calorie foods elicited exaggerated activity in regions of the brain involving reward, motivation, and habitual decision-making. In response to pictures of high calorie food, higher chronic stress was also associated with significant deactivation in frontal regions (BA10; BA46) linked to strategic planning and emotional control. In functional connectivity analysis, HCS strengthened connectivity between amygdala and the putamen, while LCS enhanced connectivity between amygdala and the anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex (BA10). A hypocortisolemic signature and more consumption of high calorie foods from the snack buffet were observed in the HCS group. These results suggest that persistent stress exposure may alter the brain's response to food in ways that predispose individuals to poor eating habits which, if sustained, may increase risk for obesity. PMID:23954410

Tryon, Matthew S; Carter, Cameron S; Decant, Rashel; Laugero, Kevin D

2013-08-16

409

Genotypes, antibiotic resistance, and virulence factors of staphylococci from ready-to-eat food.  

PubMed

Sixty-seven staphylococcal isolates belonging to 12 species were obtained from 70 ready-to-eat food products. Staphylococcus aureus (n=25), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=13) were dominant. Susceptibility to penicillin, oxacillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin was determined. All investigated S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and fifteen isolates were resistant to four and more antibiotics. Thirty-eight coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and seventeen to four and more antibiotics. Fifteen CNS isolates were mecA positive, and grew in the presence of 6 ?g/mL oxacillin. All S. aureus isolates were mecA-negative. Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was found in seven S. epidermidis isolates. Five S. epidermidis isolates harbored ica operon, ACME and were able to form biofilm. Three of them also possessed IS256 element and were mecA-positive. The expression of icaA gene was comparable in five ica-positive S. epidermidis isolates. One of six mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates was classified as sequence type (ST)155, one as ST110, and two as ST88. Two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermis (MRSE) belonged to new STs, that is, ST362, and ST363. Enterotoxin genes were found in 92% of S. aureus isolates. No enterotoxin gene was detected in analyzed CNS population. We show that ready-to-eat products are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CNS and potentially virulent strains of S. epidermidis, including genotypes undistinguishable from hospital-adapted clones. PMID:21988402

Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystro?, Jaros?aw; Bania, Jacek

2011-10-11

410

The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity and Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how changes in the supply of fast food restaurants affect weight outcomes of 3 million children and 3 million pregnant women. Among ninth graders, a fast food restaurant within 0.1 miles of a school results in a 5.2 percent increase in obesity rates. Among pregnant women, a fast-food restaurant within 0.5 miles of residence results in a 1.6

Janet Currie; Stefano Della Vigna; Enrico Moretti; Vikram Pathania

2010-01-01

411

Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder during pregnancy1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known concerning the dietary habits during pregnancy of women with eating disorders that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective: We examined the nutrient and food group intakes of womenwithbulimianervosaandbinge-eatingdisorderduringpreg- nancy and compared these with intakes of women with no eating disorders. Design: Data on 30 040 mother-child pairs from the prospective Norwegian

Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Margaretha Haugen; Helle M Meltzer; Ann Von Holle; Robert Hamer; Leila Torgersen; Cecilie Knopf-Berg; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Cynthia M Bulik

412

Do attitudes, intentions and actions of school food coordinators regarding public organic food procurement policy improve the eating environment at school? Results from the iPOPY study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates whether public organic food procurement policies have the potential to induce changes in the school food service environment. DESIGN: A comparative cross-national survey was conducted in public primary and/or secondary schools in Finland, Germany and Italy. The school food coordinators completed a web-based questionnaire on their attitudes, intentions and actions towards organic school food provision. SETTING: In Germany, 122 out of 2050 schools in the state of Hesse responded. In Finland, 250 out of 998 schools across the country responded. In Italy, 215 out of 940 schools from eight provinces responded. SUBJECTS: School food coordinators in the sample of schools in the three countries. RESULTS: The German and Finnish school food coordinators separately most agreed with the promotion of healthy eating habits (P < 0·001) and organic food (P < 0·001) by schools. The Finnish schools were most likely to adopt a food and nutrition policy (P < 0·001), a health-promoting school policy according to WHO principles (P < 0·001), to have a playground (P < 0·001), to involve physical activity themes in teaching (P = 0·012) and to have a canteen (P < 0·001). The Italian schools were most likely to involve the food and nutrition policy in pedagogical activities (P = 0·004), to serve nutritional school meals (P < 0·001) and to recommend children to eat healthily (P < 0·001). In the three countries, the non-organic schools were less likely to adopt a food and nutrition policy (P < 0·001), a WHO health-promoting policy (P < 0·001) and have a canteen (P = 0·017) than the organic schools. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that there is a gap in the effects of public organic food procurement policy on building a healthier school food environment. PMID:23721629

He, Chen; Perez-Cueto, Federico Ja; Mikkelsen, Bent E

2013-05-31

413

Impact of simulated ostracism on overweight and normal-weight youths' motivation to eat and food intake.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals' abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age=13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants' responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths' health behaviors. PMID:21094193

Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Germeroth, Lisa J; Roemmich, James N

2010-11-19

414

Impacts of fast food and food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To simultaneously identify consumer segments based on individual-level consumption and community-level food retail environment data and to investigate whether the segments are associated with BMI and dietary knowledge in China. Design A multilevel latent class cluster model was applied to identify consumer segments based not only on their individual preferences for fast food, salty snack foods, and soft drinks

Zhang XiaoYong; H. Dagevos

2012-01-01

415

Variation of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen stable isotope ratios in an American diet: fast food meals.  

PubMed

The stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen provide insights into a heterotrophic organism's diet and geographic origin. Although the contribution of food delta (2)H and delta (18)O to the final tissue signal will not vary for constrained diets, it will for animals eating varied diets, that is, humans. This study surveyed the isotopic range in one portion of the American diet, fast food meals. Hamburger patties, buns, and French fries from national chain restaurants across the United States and from local restaurants (Salt Lake City, UT, and Charleston, SC) were analyzed for delta (2)H, delta (13)C, delta (15)N (patties only) and delta (18)O values. Patties and buns from local Utah restaurants were more depleted for delta (2)H, delta (13)C, and delta (18)O values than samples from other restaurants. There were no significant differences in delta values among French fries. All three components of the fast food meal displayed significant linear delta (2)H versus delta (18)O relationships (delta (2)H = 7.8delta (18)O - 237 per thousand, delta (2)H = 5.9delta (18)O - 258 per thousand, and delta (2)H = 3.3delta (18)O - 231 per thousand for patties, buns, and fries, respectively). The findings show that significant predictable variation exists in the stable isotopic composition of fast food meals. It is proposed that the variation in delta (13)C values of hamburger (beef) patties is indicative of differences in cattle-rearing practices, whereas delta (2)H and delta (18)O values are evidence of geographic variation in food sources. Although the patterns support the concept of a "continental" supermarket diet, there appears to be a strong regional component within the diet. PMID:18481865

Chesson, Lesley A; Podlesak, David W; Thompson, Alexandra H; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

2008-05-16

416

Research report Opioid site in nucleus accumbens shell mediates eating and hedonic 'liking' for food: map based on microinjection Fos plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microinjection of opioid agonists, such as morphine, into the nucleus accumbens shell produces increases in eating behavior (i.e. 'wanting' for food). This study (1) reports direct evidence that activation of accumbens opioid receptors in rats also augments food 'liking', or the hedonic impact of taste, and (2) identified a neural site that definitely contains receptors capable of increasing food intake.

Susana Pecina; Kent C. Berridge

417

Maintenance of effects of the eat smart school food service program: results from the CATCH-ON study.  

PubMed

The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart Program targeted the food service of the 56 CATCH intervention elementary schools to effect positive changes in the total fat and saturated fat content of school lunch. Maintenance of the food service intervention in former intervention (n = 56) and control (n = 20) schools was evaluated 5 years postintervention. After 5 years of follow-up and no further intervention, the former CATCH intervention schools not only maintained prior levels but also had further decreases in the mean percentage of calories from total and saturated fat to 31% and 10.4%, respectively. Significant decreases in these nutrients were also observed in the former CATCH control schools; however, the former intervention schools more closely approached the Eat Smart goal for total fat Overall, sodium levels rose in both school conditions and did not differ significantly at follow-up. PMID:12929894

Osganian, Stavroula K; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Zive, Michelle; Mitchell, Paul D; Snyder, Patricia; Webber, Larry S

2003-08-01

418

Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms). PMID:11902388

Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone

2002-03-01

419

Withdrawal from chronic, intermittent access to a highly palatable food induces depressive-like behavior in compulsive eating rats.  

PubMed

The increased availability of highly palatable foods is a major contributing factor toward the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. It has been proposed that compulsive eating may develop as a form of self-medication to alleviate the negative emotional state associated with withdrawal from highly palatable foods. This study was aimed at determining whether withdrawal from chronic, intermittent access to a highly palatable food was responsible for the emergence of depressive-like behavior. For this purpose, a group of male Wistar rats was provided a regular chow diet 7 days a week (Chow/Chow), whereas a second group of rats was provided chow for 5 days a week, followed by a 2-day access to a highly palatable sucrose diet (Chow/Palatable). Following 7 weeks of diet alternation, depressive-like behavior was assessed during withdrawal from the highly palatable diet and following renewed access to it, using the forced swim test, the sucrose consumption test, and the intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure. It was found that Chow/Palatable rats withdrawn from the highly palatable diet showed increased immobility time in the forced swim test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose consumption test compared with the control Chow/Chow rats. Interestingly, the increased immobility in the forced swim test was abolished by renewing access to the highly palatable diet. No changes were observed in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure. These results validate the hypothesis that withdrawal from highly palatable food is responsible for the emergence of depressive-like behavior, and they also show that compulsive eating relieves the withdrawal-induced negative emotional state. PMID:22854309

Iemolo, Attilio; Valenza, Marta; Tozier, Lisa; Knapp, Clifford M; Kornetsky, Conan; Steardo, Luca; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

2012-09-01

420

Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other “heat and eat” multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a “frankfurter on a roll”, a “beef cheeseburger on a bun” and a “vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun” was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log10 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as ‘heat and eat” sandwich products.

Sommers, Christopher H.; Boyd, Glenn

2006-07-01

421

Normalizing ideological food choice and eating practices. Identity work in online discussions on veganism.  

PubMed

In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes. It is demonstrated that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct methods of preventing vitamin deficiency, such as taking supplements, as routine procedures. In 'doing being ordinary', participants systematically resist the notion that being a vegan is complicated--in other words, that it is both difficult to compose a meal and to protect your health. In this way, 'ordinariness' helps to construct and protect veganism as an ideology. We point out similarities and differences with other studies on eating or healthy lifestyles and argue, more broadly, that identities and their category-bound features are part and parcel of participants' highly flexible negotiation package. PMID:19501759

Sneijder, Petra; te Molder, Hedwig

2009-03-05

422

Effect of gastric distension prior to eating on food intake and feelings of satiety in humans.  

PubMed

The factors that regulate food intake and satiation are complex; it has been suggested that signals arising from the small intestine and the stomach play an important role. It is still unknown, to what extent pure mechanical distension of the gastric fundus and antrum can alter food intake. Our aim was therefore to investigate whether transient gastric fundus and antrum distension applied prior to meal ingestion can trigger satiation in healthy humans. Two sequential, randomized, double-blind, four-period cross-over designed studies were performed in 24 healthy male volunteers: (1) 12 subjects underwent four intragastric balloon distension experiments of the fundus (0, 400, 600, 800 ml) before a standard meal intake; (2) 12 subjects underwent intragastric balloon distension experiments of the antrum under the following conditions: 0 ml balloon distension of the antrum plus intraduodenal (ID) saline or ID fat, and 300 ml antrum distension plus ID saline or ID fat. Shortly after the distension period, subjects were free to eat and drink as much as they wished. Neither gastric fundus nor antrum distension showed a reduction in calorie intake. Distending the fundus affected the mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in the premeal period: subjects experienced a reduced degree of hunger and a concomitant feeling of fullness, but the effect was only apparent during distension with a volume of 600 ml or even 800 ml. Cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) were not altered by gastric distension. Transient pure mechanical distension of the fundus or the antrum prior to a meal does not trigger satiation. PMID:16549077

Oesch, Sibylle; Rüegg, Cornelia; Fischer, Barbora; Degen, Lukas; Beglinger, Christoph

2006-03-20

423

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)|

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

424

Cerebral processing of food-related stimuli: Effects of fasting and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maintain nutritional homeostasis, external food-related stimuli have to be evaluated in relation to the internal states of hunger or satiety. To examine the neural circuitry responsible for integration of internal and external determinants of human eating behaviour, brain responses to visual and complex gustatory food-related stimuli were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 healthy non-smokers (10 women,

Rudolf Uher; Janet Treasure; Maike Heining; Michael J. Brammer; Iain C. Campbell

2006-01-01

425

Multi-Attribute Dimensions of Service Quality in the Fast Food Restaurant Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the fast food restaurant industry grows in the Western industrialized world, it has also become increasingly competitive. In such an environment, marketers are concerned about how to increase or maintain market share through better service quality and effective segmentation strategies. This paper reports a two-phase exploratory study conducted to determine the dimensions of service quality in the fast food

Philemon Oyewole

1999-01-01

426

Service Quality in the Malaysian Fast Food Industry: An Examination Using DINESERV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses calls in the literature for the external validation of Western-based marketing concepts and theory in the East. Using DINESERV, the relationships between service quality, overall service quality perceptions, customer satisfaction, and repurchase intentions in the Malaysian fast food industry are examined. A questionnaire was administered to Malaysian fast food consumers at a large university, resulting in findings

Ursula-Sigrid Bougoure; Meng-Keang Neu

2010-01-01

427

Request for Assistance in Preventing Electrocutions of Workers in Fast Food Restaurants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A NIOSH alert bulletin on the prevention of electrocutions of workers in fast food restaurants (SIC-5812) is presented. The alert was prompted by the electrocution of an 18 year old male in a fast food restaurant while on the job, on June 30, 1984. The wo...

1984-01-01

428

Neighborhood playgrounds, fast food restaurants, and crime: relationships to overweight in low-income preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We examined the relationship between overweight in preschool children and three environmental factors—the proximity of the children's residences to playgrounds and to fast food restaurants and the safety of the children's neighborhoods. We hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods were more likely to be overweight.Methods. This was a

Hillary L Burdette; Robert C Whitaker

2004-01-01

429

Determinants of fast-food consumption. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied and extended the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988) in an examination of the variables influencing fast-food consumption in an Australian sample. Four hundred and four participants responded to items measuring TPB constructs and retrospective and prospective measures of fast-food consumption. Additional independent variables included: Consideration of Future Consequences (Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994), Fear

Kirsten I. Dunn; Philip Mohr; Carlene J. Wilson; Gary A. Wittert

2011-01-01

430

Effects of coupons on brand categorization and choice of fast foods in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this study is to explore the effects of coupons on consumers' brand categorization and choice processes using fast-food restaurants in China. Following a description of the Chinese fast-food industry, we build our conceptual framework by combining the couponing literature with the brand categorization and choice literatures. Using the data we collected in Beijing, we find both

Michel Laroche; Maria Kalamas; Qinchao Huang

2005-01-01

431

An Examination of Situational Crime Prevention Strategies Across Convenience Stores and Fast-Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the efficacy of situational crime prevention (SCP) strategies on convenience store safety has received considerable attention, the security of fast-food restaurants has been virtually ignored. This study was based on a population of convenience stores (n = 295) and fast-food restaurants (n = 321) in Charlotte, North Carolina. The study examined whether the crime control strategies commonly recommended to

M. Lyn Exum; Joseph B. Kuhns; Brad Koch; Chuck Johnson

2010-01-01

432

Friction variation in common working areas of fast-food restaurants in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction variation has been related to employees' perception of slipperiness in a field study conducted in fast-food restaurants. However, details of friction variation in actual workplaces have not been reported in the literature. This field study investigated friction variations in 10 fast-food restaurants in the USA. The results indicated that friction reductions in a step exceeding 10% were proportional to

Wen-Ruey Chang; Alfred Filiaggi; Yueng-Hsiang Huang

2008-01-01

433

From the Cover: Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in fast food: Signatures of corn and confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We

A. Hope Jahren; Rebecca A. Kraft

2008-01-01

434

The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a longitudinal survey of fast food restaurants in Texas, the authors examine the impact of recent changes in the federal minimum wage on a low-wage labor market The authors draw four main conclusions. First, the survey results indicate that less than 5 percent of fast food restaurants use the new youth subminimum wage even though the vast

Lawrence F. Katz; Alan B. Krueger

1992-01-01

435

Eating Competence: Nutrition Education with the Satter Eating Competence Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…

Satter, Ellyn

2007-01-01

436

Eating rate in the treatment of eating disorders and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results suggest that linear eaters, who eat at a constant rate, are unable to adjust their intake when challenged to eat at a rate that differs from their baseline rate. This is referred to as disinhibition, which is shown by those at risk for both eating disorders (too little food when eating slowly) and obesity (too much food when

P. Södersten; M. Zandian; I. Ioakimidis; C. Bergh

437

Let's Eat Out: Americans Weigh Taste, Convenience, and Nutrition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whether eating out or buying carry-out, Americans are consuming more and more of their calories from full-service and fast-food restaurant fare. The share of daily caloric intake from food purchased and/or eaten away from home increased from 18 percent to...

D. Jolliffe H. Stewart N. Blisard

2006-01-01

438

Food Addiction and Obesity: Evidence from Bench to Bedside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has become a major health problem and epidemic. However, much of the current debate has been fractious and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior or fast food, personality issues, depression, addiction, or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for epidemic obesity is food addiction, which is associated with both substance-related disorder and eating disorder. Accumulating

Yijun Liu; Karen M. von Deneen; Firas H. Kobeissy; Mark S. Gold

2010-01-01

439

Neighborhood Eating and Activity Advocacy Teams (NEAAT): engaging older adults in policy activities to improve food and physical environments.  

PubMed

Local food and physical activity environments are known to impact health, and older adults are generally more vulnerable to health-related environmental impacts due to poorer physical function and mobility impairments. There is a need to develop cost-conscious, community-focused strategies that impact local food and physical activity environment policies. Engaging older adult community residents in assessment and advocacy activities is one avenue to address this need. We describe the Neighborhood Eating and Activity Advocacy Team project, a community-based participatory project in low-income communal housing settings in San Mateo County, CA, as one method for engaging older adults in food and physical activity environment and policy change. Methods and strategies used by the "community action teams" to generate relevant neighborhood environmental data, build coalitions, prioritize complex issues, and advocate for change are presented. Advocacy groups are feasible among older adults to improve food and physical activity environments. PMID:24073118

Buman, Matthew P; Winter, Sandra J; Baker, Cathleen; Hekler, Eric B; Otten, Jennifer J; King, Abby C

2012-06-01

440

Beliefs about eating and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to

G. Terence Wilson; Nancy A. Perrin; Francine Rosselli; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Lynn L. DeBar; Helena C. Kraemer

2009-01-01

441

Impact of fast food meals on nutrient intake of two groups.  

PubMed

Two groups in different population centers were studied to determine how often consumers frequented fast food restaurants, and consequently, how heavily they relied on this type of food for nutrients. A questionnaire was answered by 280 customers of two fast food restaurants of the same chain. They were asked how often they patronized fast food restaurants, their specific food choices, and other pertinent questions. Food choices were evaluated for energy and seven nutrients on the basis of published analyses of the menu items of the particular fast food chain. Fifty-two per cent of the subjects in the two groups considered their purchases to be meals. Seventy-seven per cent of these consumed one-third or more of the recommended dietary allowance for protein, but no more than 30 per cent received that amount of the other nutrients examined, including food energy. Calcium and particularly vitamin A were least often consumed in amounts equal to one-third of the recommended allowances. Consumer choices were responsible for low consumption of calcium, but no good sources of vitamin A were included on the menus. Fast food items were purchased so infrequently by the majority of our respondents that nutrient composition of the fast food meals or snacks would be of concern in only a small number of cases. This study indicates that any attempts to improve nutritive value of fast food snacks or meals must include efforts to lead consumers to make wiser food choices, as well as encourage the fast food industry to provide rich sources of all the nutrients in their menus. PMID:845349

Greecher, C P; Shannon, B

1977-04-01

442

Genetic influences on adolescent eating habits.  

PubMed

Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed significant genetic influences on variance in an unhealthy eating habits scale (h(2) = .42), a healthy eating habits scale (h(2) = .51), the number of meals eaten at a fast-food restaurant (h(2) = .33), and the total number of meals eaten per week (h(2) = .26). Most of the remaining variance was due to nonshared environmental factors. Additional analyses conducted separately for males and females revealed a similar pattern of findings. The authors note the limitations of the study and offer suggestions for future research. PMID:21750320

Beaver, Kevin M; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B; Gibson, Chris L

2011-07-12

443

INACTIVATION OF PATHOGENS IN COMPLEX READY-TO-EAT FOODS USING GAMMA IRRADIATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other “heat and eat” multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on raw meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. ...

444

FoodManager: a cooking, eating and appliance controlling support system for the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

These days, many support systems are being developed to improve independence and quality of life of elderly and impaired people at home. Most of them have been hitherto focused on providing home healthcare-related services, and little attention has been paid to cooking and eating activities. On the one hand, the role of supporting eating activities is likely to become increasingly

Rosa Iglesias; Ibai Ibarguren; Nuria Gómez de Segura; Julen Ugalde; Leticia Coello; Miren Iturburu

2010-01-01

445

Examine the relationship between the Promotion of Healthy Eating and the Food that is consumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy eating is a major concern of the public and has been under-researched for decades. A successful healthy eating campaign can help to raise awareness and in the long run, prevent and minimize long-term diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer. This can also reduce the burden on the National Health Service. For all of these reasons,

Vivian Wong

2006-01-01

446

Mahlzeit! (Enjoy Your Meal!) German Table Manners, Menus, and Eating Establishments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of short texts focus on German eating habits and types of eating establishments. Vocabulary is glossed in the margin and each text is followed by comprehension questions. Menus from a restaurant, an inn, and a fast-food restaurant; vocabulary exercises; a word search puzzle and its solution; and directions in English for conversational…

Singer, Debbie

447

Mahlzeit! (Enjoy Your Meal!) German Table Manners, Menus, and Eating Establishments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A series of short texts focus on German eating habits and types of eating establishments. Vocabulary is glossed in the margin and each text is followed by comprehension questions. Menus from a restaurant, an inn, and a fast-food restaurant; vocabulary exercises; a word search puzzle and its solution; and directions in English for conversational…

Singer, Debbie

448

[Food consumption and eating behavior among Brazilian adolescents: National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE), 2009].  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to describe the characteristics of food consumption and eating behavior of adolescents and its association with socio-demographic factors. In 2009, a random sample of students in 9th grade of elementary education at public and private schools from 26 Brazilian state capitals and Federal District was studied. It was applied a self-administered questionnaire with socio-demographic attributes, food consumption and eating behavior, among others. Estimates of the constructed indicators were presented for the total population and by sex. The association of each indicator with socio-demographic variables was examined by logistic regression. The results showed that over half of adolescents presented frequent consumption of beans (62.6%), milk (53.6%) and sweets (50.9%), and held at least lunch or dinner with the mother or responsible (62.6%) and watching television or studying (50.9%). In general, girls were more exposed to undesirable eating habits and higher socioeconomic status was associated with a higher prevalence of the indicators studied. The results revealed regular consumption of unhealthy diet markers and consumption of less than the recommended for a healthy diet, pointing the need for strengthening health promotion activities targeting young people. PMID:21049149

Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Costa, André Wallace Nery da

2010-10-01

449

Dysfunctions of leptin, ghrelin, BDNF and endocannabinoids in eating disorders: beyond the homeostatic control of food intake.  

PubMed

A large body of literature documents the occurrence of alterations in the physiology of both central and peripheral modulators of appetite in acute patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Until more recently the role of most of the appetite modulators in the control of eating behavior was conceptualized solely in terms of their influence on homeostatic control of energy balance. However, it is becoming more and more evident that appetite modulators also affect the non-homeostatic cognitive, emotional and rewarding component of food intake as well as non food-related reward, and, recently, AN and BN have been pathophysiologically linked to dysfunctions of reward mechanisms. Therefore, the possibility exists that observed changes in appetite modulators in acute AN and BN may represent not only homeostatic adaptations to malnutrition, but also contribute to the development and/or the maintenance of aberrant non-homeostatic behaviors, such as self-starvation and binge eating. In the present review, the evidences supporting a role of leptin, ghrelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and endocannabinoids in the homeostatic and non-homeostatic dysregulations of patients with AN and BN will be presented. The reviewed literature is highly suggestive that changes in the physiology of these modulators may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of eating disorders by providing a possible link between motivated behaviors, reward processes, cognitive functions and energy balance. PMID:23313276

Monteleone, Palmiero; Maj, Mario

2013-01-11

450

Estimating parametric distributions of storage time and temperature of ready-to-eat foods for U.S. households.  

PubMed

Home refrigeration temperatures and product storage times are important factors for controlling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in refrigerated ready-to-eat foods. In 2005, RTI International, in collaboration with Tennessee State University and Kansas State University, conducted a national survey of U.S. adults to characterize consumers' home storage and refrigeration practices for 10 different categories of refrigerated ready-to-eat foods. No distributions of storage time or refrigeration temperature were presented in any of the resulting publications. This study used classical parametric survival modeling to derive parametric distributions from the RTI International storage practices data set. Depending on the food category, variability in product storage times was best modeled using either exponential or Weibull distributions. The shape and scale of the distributions varied greatly depending on the food category. Moreover, the results indicated that consumers tend to keep a product that is packaged by a manufacturer for a longer period of time than a product that is packaged at retail. Refrigeration temperatures were comparable to those previously reported, with the variability in temperatures best fit using a Laplace distribution, as an alternative to the empirical distribution. In contrast to previous research, limited support was found for a correlation between storage time and temperature. The distributions provided in this study can be used to better model consumer behavior in future risk assessments. PMID:20132677

Pouillot, Régis; Lubran, Meryl B; Cates, Sheryl C; Dennis, Sherri

2010-02-01

451

Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility. PMID:19758736

Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

2009-09-14

452

Fast Food and Animal Rights: An Examination and Assessment of the Industry's Response to Social Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTFast food chains such as McDonald's, KFC, and Burger King are major players in the production, marketing, and consumption of animal-derived food throughout the world. Animal rights activists are quick to point out the link between the highly efficient factory farms that supply these chains and extreme animal cruelty and environmental degradation. Strategically, fast food is well positioned to leverage

RONALD J. ADAMS

2008-01-01

453

Fasting-induced increases in food hoarding are dependent on the foraging-effort level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strategies that have evolved to help animals meet energy demands are increases in body fat and in hoarded food. Reliance on each varies, but both are characterized by energy stored in excess of current demands for future use. Fasted Siberian hamsters decrease their lipid stores and, upon refeeding, food hoarding rather than food intake increases. Here, we tested the

Diane E Day; Timothy J Bartness

2003-01-01

454

Examination of food reward and energy intake under laboratory and free-living conditions in a trait binge eating subtype of obesity  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Trait binge eating has been proposed as a “hedonic subtype” of obesity characterized by enhanced food liking and wanting, and a preference for high-fat sweet foods in the laboratory. The current study examined the influence of trait binge eating in overweight or obese women on eating behavior under laboratory and free-living conditions over a 48-h period. Methods: In a matched pairs design, 24 overweight or obese females (BMI: 30.30 ± 2.60 kg/m2; Age: 25.42 ± 3.65 years) with high or low scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BSE) were divided into one of two groups; Obese Binge (O-B) and Obese Non-binge (O-NB). Energy intake was assessed using combined laboratory energy intake measures and 24-h dietary recall procedures. Liking and wanting were assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). Results: There was a significant association between overall energy consumed, and energy consumed from snack foods under laboratory and free-living conditions. O-B exhibited a greater preference for sweet snack foods in their laboratory and free-living eating behavior. These findings were supported by greater laboratory-based measures of wanting and craving for this food type in O-B. In addition, O-B consumed significantly more energy than their estimated daily energy requirements in the laboratory suggesting that they over-consumed compared to O-NB. Conclusions: The measurement concordance between laboratory and free-living based energy intake supports the validity of laboratory-based test meal methodologies Variation in trait binge eating was associated with increased craving and wanting for high-fat sweet foods and overconsumption in the laboratory. These findings support the use of trait binge eating as a common hedonic subtype of obesity and extend the relevance of this subtype to habitual patterns of energy intake.

Dalton, Michelle; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham S.

2013-01-01

455

It's Not Easy Eating Green  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can I eat without harming others? Motivated by this question, I ask Torontonians active in the local food movement about the food they eat and the work they do. Listening to their stories, I learn that \\

Laurel Waterman

456

Culture-specific influences on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women: the roles of faith and traditional fasting.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of local culture on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women. Specifically, we focused on two affiliated factors unique to the Bulgarian context: faith and traditional fasting. Findings revealed that women could be divided into two groups who behaved differently based on the severity of their eating disorder symptomatology. For women with higher EAT-40 scores (i.e., vulnerable women), faith seemed to have harmful effects, perhaps by virtue of motivating or reinforcing asceticism and dietary restraint. For these women fasting was likely but one strategy for weight management and the achievement of a desired thin figure consistent with the socio-cultural models. In contrast, among women with lower EAT-40 scores, faith seemed to have a protective effect against excessive dieting. These women were more likely to use fasting in the way intended by religious scripture, for faith-related reasons that have nothing to do with body image. This study contributes to the literature by emphasizing the importance of culturally unique factors that may be implicated in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and overt eating distress in the trans-cultural context. When expanded, this research can be of use in helping formulate custom interventions and public health policies aimed at preventing such conditions in Bulgaria and possibly in similar post-communist cultures. PMID:23910786

Angelova, Rosa Angelova; Utermohlen, Virginia

2013-05-15

457

Cross-sectional survey of daily junk food consumption, irregular eating, mental and physical health and parenting style of British secondary school children.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Previous research has established that poor diets and eating patterns are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. This study explored the relationships between two specific eating behaviours (daily junk food consumption and irregular eating) and self-reported physical and mental health of secondary school children, and their association with perceived parenting and child health. METHODS: 10?645 participants aged between 12 and 16 completed measures of junk food consumption, irregular eating, parental style, and mental and physical health through the use of an online survey implemented within 30 schools in a large British city. RESULTS: 2.9% of the sample reported never eating regularly and while 17.2% reported daily consumption of junk food. Young people who reported eating irregularly and consuming junk food daily were at a significantly greater risk of poorer mental (OR 5.41, 95% confidence interval 4.03-7.25 and 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.99-3.78) and physical health (OR 4.56, 95% confidence interval 3.56-5.85 and 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.63-2.47). Authoritative parenting was associated with healthier eating behaviours, and better mental and physical health in comparison to other parenting styles. DISCUSSION: A worrying proportion of secondary school children report unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly daily consumption of junk food, which may be associated with poorer mental and physical health. Parenting style may influence dietary habits. Interventions to improve diet may be more beneficial if also they address parenting strategies and issues related to mental and physical health. PMID:23594136

Zahra, J; Ford, T; Jodrell, D

2013-04-18

458

Food and Fitness: Are Eating Disorders about Self-Esteem, Mating Strategies or Both?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Psychologists, academics, and the public often find evolutionary studies irrelevant to what they take for granted, e.g., eating\\u000a disorders are about self-esteem, not mating strategies. This (nonevolutionary) explanation derives from the “symbolization\\u000a model”: eating disorders are symbols of underlying distressful mind-sets involving low self-esteem. Evolutionists counter\\u000a that evolutionary theory can unify all of psychology, e.g., eating disorders are about mating,

Harmon R. Holcomb

459

What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

2009-01-01

460

The Influence of Physical and Social Contexts of Eating on Lunch-Time Food Intake among Southern Ontario, Canada, Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who…

Woodruff, Sarah J.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McGoldrick, Kathryn

2010-01-01

461

What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

2009-01-01

462

The Influence of Physical and Social Contexts of Eating on Lunch-Time Food Intake among Southern Ontario, Canada, Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who…

Woodruff, Sarah J.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McGoldrick, Kathryn

2010-01-01

463

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)

2006-10-31

464

Laboratory snack food intake, negative mood, and impulsivity in youth with ADHD symptoms and episodes of loss of control eating. Where is the missing link?  

PubMed

To compare laboratory food intake, negative mood and trait impulsivity and their association with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loss of control (LOC) eating in youth (middle childhood to early adolescence). Ninety 10-14 year old youths with symptoms of ADHD, symptoms of LOC eating, and control participants took part in a laboratory snack food meal after having rated trait impulsivity. Negative mood was self-reported pre and post snack food meal, while representativeness of eating behavior and liking of the food was assessed post laboratory snack food meal. The ADHD group consumed more snack food than the other groups. Food intake was not influenced by negative mood or trait impulsivity. All groups exhibited a decrease in negative mood from pre to post food intake that was not accounted for by level of hunger or liking of the food. The greater food intake of the ADHD group compared to the other groups may contribute to the development of overweight and therefore be in accordance with the high co-morbidity reported between ADHD and obesity in youth. The influence of impulsivity and negative mood on food intake could not be shown, which corroborates a recent review on the association of negative mood and bingeing in adults but needs further assessment, particularly in the younger age groups. PMID:22251461

Hartmann, Andrea Sabrina; Rief, Winfried; Hilbert, Anja

2012-01-10

465

Public support for restrictions on fast food company sponsorship of community events.  

PubMed

This study investigated community attitudes to fast food companies' sponsorship of community events. The aim was to inform future efforts to introduce greater restrictions on these marketing activities to reduce child obesity. While previous research has focused on the sponsorship of sporting events, the present study included all community events and gauged public support for fast food company sponsorships in general as well as specific sponsorship activities such as securing event naming rights, advertising on event premises, and distributing free items to children in the form of food and redeemable vouchers. A large and diverse sample of Western Australian adults (n=2,005) responded to a community attitudes telephone survey that included questions relating to event sponsorship. Almost half of the respondents reported that the promotion of fast foods is inappropriate at community events, and only a third considered it appropriate at events where children are likely to be present. Around two-thirds agreed that promoting fast foods at such events sends contradictory messages to children and just a quarter of respondents considered it acceptable for free fast food to be distributed at events or for children to be rewarded for participation with fast food vouchers. The results suggest that efforts to reduce child obesity that involve restrictions on the sponsorship of community events by organisations promoting unhealthy foods may be supported by a substantial proportion of the population. PMID:23017320

Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

2012-01-01

466

Customer Health Perceptions of Selected Fast-Food Restaurants According to Their Nutritional Knowledge and Health Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though many researchers and media report about the unhealthy nature of fast foods, American people have developed a taste for fast foods. Americans also have an increased interest for nutrition in fast food, as they have become more health conscious. These studies claimed that the trend was that consumers wanted low calorie and light and low fat menu items. In

JungJin Hwang; David Cranage

2010-01-01

467

Does eating environment have an effect on food intake in the elderly?  

PubMed

Identical meals were prepared and served to 49 elderly subjects (mean age 74.3 +/- SD 7.7 years) in two different eating environments. The improved environment was a state of the art training restaurant and the standard environment was a staff canteen. Each subject was served an identical meal in both environments. The energy intake of each meal consumed was determined using the weighed intake method. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in the energy intake in the elderly between the improved (4894 +/- 613 kJ) and standard (4536 +/- 620 kJ) eating environments. Eating environment has a positive effect on the energy intake of elderly subjects. Changes to eating environment may be a useful way to improve energy intake in the elderly. PMID:15750662

Gibbons, M D R; Henry, C J K

2005-01-01

468

Increased portion sizes from energy-dense foods affect total energy intake at eating occasions in US children and adolescents: patterns and trends by age group and sociodemographic characteristics, 1977-2006123  

PubMed Central

Background: Larger portion sizes of foods and beverages could affect overall energy intake at meals and promote overeating. Objective: We investigated trends in portion sizes of energy-dense foods and energy intakes at eating occasions in US children and adolescents. Design: Four US nationally representative surveys from 1977 to 2006 were analyzed (n = 31,337). We measured trends in portion sizes (kcal, g, and mL) of selected foods [sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, and Mexican fast foods] and energy intake (kcal) at eating occasions during which selected foods were consumed. Trends were reported by age group (2–6-, 7–12-, and 13–18-y-olds), sex, and socioeconomic status. Results: In 2003–2006, the selected foods accounted for 38% of daily energy intake in 13–18-y-olds, 35% of the daily energy intake in 7–12-y-olds, and 28% of the daily energy intake in 2–6-y-olds. In all age groups, larger portion sizes of pizza coincided with higher energy intakes at eating occasions during which pizzas were consumed. In 7–12- and 13–18-y-olds, higher energy intakes at meals coincided with larger portion sizes of SSBs, French fries, or salty snacks. In all age groups, nonsignificant larger portions of Mexican fast foods were related to higher energy intakes at meals. Adolescent boys consumed larger portion sizes of the selected foods and had higher energy intakes at meals for all periods than did girls (P < 0.01). The percentage of kilocalories from pizza within a meal increased more sharply in non-Hispanic African Americans, in Hispanics, and in the group with a low household education than in the other groups. Conclusions: Adolescents are more susceptible to increased portion sizing than are younger children. The group of non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics and individuals with a lower education represents key concerns for public health policies.

Piernas, Carmen

2011-01-01

469

Effects of Naltrexone on Food Intake and Changes in Subjective Appetite During Eating: Evidence for Opioid Involvement in the Appetizer Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeomans, M. R. and R. W. Gray. Effects of naltrexone on food intake and changes in subjective appetite during eating: evidence for opioid involvement in the appetizer effect. Physiol Behav 62(1) 15–21, 1997.—The effects of 50 mg naltrexone on eating and subjective appetite were assessed in a double-blind placebo-controlled study with 20 male volunteers. Appetite was monitored using a disguised

Martin R Yeomans; Richard W Gray

1997-01-01

470

Food restriction leads to binge eating dependent upon the effect of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates food intake and energy metabolism. It has also been suggested that mutations in the human BDNF gene and its receptor TrkB account for disturbed eating and obesity. The Met-allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with eating disorders, but the underlying mechanism of its contribution is not known. We report herewith that the

Kirsti Akkermann; Kelli Hiio; Inga Villa; Jaanus Harro

2011-01-01

471

Thinking about Eating Food Activates Visual Cortex with Reduced Bilateral Cerebellar Activation in Females with Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Background Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have aberrant cognitions about food and altered activity in prefrontal cortical and somatosensory regions to food images. However, differential effects on the brain when thinking about eating food between healthy women and those with AN is unknown. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examined neural activation when 42 women thought about eating the food shown in images: 18 with AN (11 RAN, 7 BPAN) and 24 age-matched controls (HC). Results Group contrasts between HC and AN revealed reduced activation in AN in the bilateral cerebellar vermis, and increased activation in the right visual cortex. Preliminary comparisons between AN subtypes and healthy controls suggest differences in cortical and limbic regions. Conclusions These preliminary data suggest that thinking about eating food shown in images increases visual and prefrontal cortical neural responses in females with AN, which may underlie cognitive biases towards food stimuli and ruminations about controlling food intake. Future studies are needed to explicitly test how thinking about eating activates restraint cognitions, specifically in those with restricting vs. binge-purging AN subtypes.

Brooks, Samantha J.; O'Daly, Owen; Uher, Rudolf; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael; Williams, Steven C. R.; Schioth, Helgi B.; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C.

2012-01-01

472

Motivational state modulates the hedonic value of food images differently in men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated visual alimentary alliesthesia in non-fasted (N=369) and fasted participants (N=257) viewing photographs of food. Fasted participants were asked to not eat for 12h before the session. Each participant was shown food and non-food images and rated each image on valence (i.e., pleasantness). The strongest evidence of alliesthesia was found in women. Fasting enhanced the pleasantness of food images

Luke E. Stoeckel; James E. Cox; Edwin W. Cook; Rosalyn E. Weller

2007-01-01

473

Prepared to eat: how immediate affective and motivational responses to food cues are influenced by food deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies examined how food deprivation influences the immediate valence of food stimuli as well as spontaneous motivational tendencies toward them. We assumed that immediate reactions towards food stimuli should be tuned to the basic needs of the organism. In Study 1, the immediate valence of food names as a function of need state was assessed using an Implicit Association

Beate Seibt; Michael Häfner; Roland Deutsch

2007-01-01

474

Fast food costs and adolescent body mass index: evidence from panel data.  

PubMed

This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability of full-service restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and commercial physical activity-related facilities. The longitudinal individual-level fixed effects results confirm cross-sectional findings that the price of fast food but not the availability of fast food restaurants has a statistically significant effect on teen BMI with an estimated price elasticity of -0.08. The results suggest that the cross-sectional model over-estimates the price of fast food BMI effect by about 25%. There is evidence that the weight of teens in low- to middle-socioeconomic status families is most sensitive to fast food prices. PMID:19732982

Powell, Lisa M

2009-06-21

475

Fast Food Consumption, Quality of Diet, and Obesity among Isfahanian Adolescent Girls  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fast food intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fast food consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fast food intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B1 (P = 0.008), phosphorus (P = 0.0250), selenium (P < 0.001) and vitamin B2 (P = 0.012) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fast food intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fast foods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P = 0.0001) and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Fast food consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings.

Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirseifinezhad, Maryam; Omrani, Nasrin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

2012-01-01

476

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

477

Food Safety for Moms-to-Be: Medical Professionals - Fast ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... But, there are many factors that make food safety more of an ... Pregnant women, women trying to conceive, nursing mothers, and young children ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

478

The influence of eating rate on satiety and intake among participants exhibiting high dietary restraint  

PubMed Central

Background Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies. Objective To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR). Design Two samples of college students who exhibit HDR, which is a group likely to use behavioral strategies to manage intake, were selected in a prescreening session. Participants were told how fast or slow to eat (Variation 1) or allowed to eat at their own pace (Variation 2). Self-reported satiety during the meal and amount consumed was recorded. The types of foods, macronutrient intakes, weights of foods, order of food intakes, and the dimensions of foods were held constant between groups to control for group differences in the sensory and hedonic qualities of the meals. Results Eating slower enhanced mid-meal satiety ratings, but only when instructions were given to eat fast or slow (Variation 1). In both variations, eating slower did not reduce amount consumed in the meal, although each variation had sufficient power to detect differences. Conclusion Eating slower is not likely to be an effective strategy to control intake in a meal among those exhibiting HDR.

Privitera, Gregory J.; Cooper, Kathryn C.; Cosco, Alexis R.

2012-01-01

479

Beyond advertising: in-home promotion of “fast food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the range of potential influences on children's food choices, while suggesting that recent restrictions on advertising of some foods may not be as effective as expected. It aims to use home-delivered food promotional materials to illustrate the types of promotional activity that are not covered by recent regulatory actions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Lynne Eagle; Ross Brennan

2007-01-01

480

Food Prices Are Associated with Dietary Quality, Fast Food Consumption, and Body Mass Index among U.S. Children and Adolescents123  

PubMed Central

Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994–1998) for 6759 children (2–9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10–18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals’ CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2–9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (? ± SE: ?0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (? ± SE: ?3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m2). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10–18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2–9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2–9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables.

Beydoun, May A.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

2011-01-01