Sample records for eating fast food

  1. Drinking activity analysis from fast food eating video using generative models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Wang; Jie Yang

    2009-01-01

    The drinking activity is a common event in a fast food eating process. In this paper, we present a study on drinking activity analysis from fast food eating video using generative models. We apply three different generative models, namely Conditional Random Field (CRF), Hidden-state Conditional Random Field (HCRF), and Latent-Dynamic Conditional Random Field (LDCRF), to characterize drinking activities in a

  2. Eating on the Run: A Qualitative Investigation of Fast Food Student Employees and Social Network Influences on Eating Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine A. Womack

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a complex public health problem, whose influences range from genetic to lifestyle to environmental to economic factors. In this project, I will investigate how social networks influence eating behaviors. Through a series of 30—45 minute interviews with students working in fast-food restaurants, I will gather data on contextual features of eating as a fast-food worker. I will do

  3. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference?=?967?kJ, p?eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference?=?1067?kJ, p?=?.019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. PMID:25903236

  4. Fast food recognition from videos of eating for calorie estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Wu; Jie Yang

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and passive acquisition of dietary data from pa- tients is essential for a better understanding of the etiology of obesity and development of effective weight management programs. Self-reporting is currently the main method for such data acquisition. However, studies have shown that data obtained by self-reporting seriously underestimate food in- take and thus do not accurately reflect the real

  5. Eating Behaviors, Obesity, and Litigation: Should Casual-Food Restaurant Operators Heed the Warnings to their Fast-Food Counterparts?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly J. Dahm; Amy R. Shows; Aurelia V. Samonte

    2010-01-01

    McDonald's has weathered attacks over its alleged contribution to the obesity epidemic. Similar concerns may be at hand for casual restaurant operators. Students (N = 605) from a two-year college and a four-year university were surveyed to compare eating behaviors and menu selections in fast-food versus casual restaurants. Actual mean calorie consumption was significantly higher in casual restaurant meals than

  6. "Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

  7. Make Fast Food Friendlier

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with sugars, which have calories your kids don’t need. Nearly all fast food restaurants offer alternatives — including water! Learn more: Eating Fast Food A Little Planning Helps Your Heart ... and Your Budget The Salty Six – surprising foods that add the ...

  8. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746

  9. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID:26025087

  10. Fast-Food Consumption, Diet Quality, and Neighborhood Exposure to Fast Food

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Jacobs, David R.; Franco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000–2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n?=?5,633; aged 45–84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or ?1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2–3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food ?1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%–61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%–17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful. PMID:19429879

  11. Automatic Dietary Assessment from Fast Food Categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Yang; Nanning Zheng; Hong Cheng; John D. Fernstrom; Mingui Sun; Jie Yang

    This paper presents a novel approach for automatic dietary assessment from images captured from eating activities. We propose to directly estimate calories of fast food from its category and formulate dietary assessment as an object categorization problem. We use a modified bag of feature model for fast food categorization. We evaluate the proposed method in a database of McDonald fast

  12. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  13. Fast-Casual Dining: Our Next Eating Passion?

    PubMed

    Tillotson, James E.

    2003-01-01

    Americans have a new speedy-eating passion: fast-casual dining! Does this mean that now we can forget about McDonald's, Burger King, KFC, and the other fast-food restaurants that nutritionists have been railing against? Are they yesterday's news? PMID:12813187

  14. Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

    2007-01-01

    Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

  15. You Are What You Eat: Food Values and Valuing Food

    E-print Network

    You Are What You Eat: Food Values and Valuing Food Tuesday, November 19, 2013 · 12:00 pm ­ 1:30 pm us for a panel presentation that will explore the values of food. Topics range from the impact of Mexican culture on food to the religious significance of kosher cooking. Panelists include: · Rachel Jones

  16. Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are open Serving Picnic Food: Keep it COLD / HOT Keeping food at proper temperatures - indoor and out - ... water as ice melts and replace ice frequently. HOT FOOD Hot food should be kept hot, at ...

  17. Cost of Eating: Whole Foods Versus Convenience Foods in a Low-income Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. McDermott; Mark B. Stephens

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Financial limitations in low-income populations, those at highest risk for poor health outcomes, may preclude adherence to recommended dietary guidelines. We examine the financial burden of shopping for foods to meet national dietary recommendations in a supermarket compared to eating primarily in a fast-food restaurant. Methods: Using a single-parent, low-income model, we obtained whole food costs (healthy)

  18. Marketing strategies for fast-food restaurants: a customer view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Kara; Erdener Kaynak; Orsay Kucukemiroglu

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, a major food consumption trend in the USA and Canada is that more people are eating more meals outside their homes. It is predicted that this trend will accelerate in the future. As a result, fast-food markets will offer greater growth opportunities for marketers. Presents consumers? perceptions of and preferences for fast-food restaurants in the USA and

  19. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  20. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans J. Kok; Cees de Graaf

    2010-01-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings

  1. Fast-food consumption, diet quality, and neighborhood exposure to fast food: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Jacobs, David R; Franco, Manuel

    2009-07-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000-2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45-84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or > or =1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2-3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food > or =1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%-61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%-17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful. PMID:19429879

  2. ETH ZURICH 2012 Eating tomorrow rethinking the world food

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    IARU GSP ETH ZURICH 2012 Eating tomorrow ­rethinking the world food system Akiko Segawa ETH: Eating tomorrow ­rethinking the world food system 1st week: lectures at Emmental 2nd and 3rd week: Food waste case study at ETH Course Data 2nd and 3rd week: Food waste case study at ETH ETH ETH CV

  3. Development and Features EatSafe: Modular Portable Food Sensor

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    . The convenience of the EatSafe Sensor allows for this. PRONE TO FOOD-POISONING Seniors, children, pregnant womenDevelopment and Features EatSafe: Modular Portable Food Sensor ECE-Rady Design Competition FOOD INDUSTRY Every year >76 million people become sick from the consumption of contaminated food. PACKAGING

  4. What's in the Food You Eat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How many calories are in an egg and cheese muffin? A serving of grapefruit? These are pressing questions, whether they are for personal use or for someone who might be in one of the healthcare fields. The "What's in the Food You Eat" database was created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and it contains nutrient profiles for 13,000 foods commonly eaten in the U.S. Visitors can use the online search tool to look for various food products, and they can just type in words like "orange", "yogurt", or "salmon". The engine will return a list of suggested items, and visitors can also focus their search by using food codes from the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). A guide to the FNDDS codes is also available online here for consultation.

  5. Do Ramadan fasting restrictions alter eating behaviours in obese women?

    PubMed

    Savas, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Tanr?verdi, Derya; Kepekçi, Yalç?n

    2014-02-01

    Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women. PMID:22576675

  6. Parrots Eat Nutritious Foods despite Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Gilardi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals) and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended. Methodology/Principal Findings We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992–1993) and one wet season (January-February1994). We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content. Conclusions/Significance Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry season when food was scarce for other frugivores and granivores. PMID:22679496

  7. Enterogastrone Inhibits Eating by Fasted Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew V. Schally; Tommie W. Redding; Harold W. Lucien

    1967-01-01

    In mice fasted for 17 hours, administration of enterogastrone purified from hog duodenum reduced the food intake. This effect was greatest during the first 30 minutes, but the cumulative reduction continued for at least 4 hours. Other peptides prepared from hog duodenum or colon, as well as glucagon, secretin, glucose, and bovine serum albumin, were ineffective.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Making Food Safer to Eat

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Making Food Safer to Eat Reducing contamination from the farm ... stores, and places that make, sell, or serve food can: Use good management practices to reduce contamination ...

  9. Sociodemographic differences in fast food price sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Shikany, James M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Importance Fiscal food policies (e.g., taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. Objective We estimated subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardio-metabolic outcomes, hypothesizing inverse associations between fast food price with fast food consumption, BMI, and insulin resistance and stronger associations among blacks (vs. whites) and participants with relatively lower education or income. Design 20-year follow-up (5 exams) in a biracial U.S. prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/86–2005/06, baseline n=5,115). Participants Aged 18–30 at baseline; designed for equal recruitment by race (black/white), educational attainment, age, and gender. Exposures Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) temporally- and geographically-linked to study participants’ home address at each exam. Main outcome and measures Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week; BMI (kg/m2) from clinical assessment of weight and height; homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin. Covariates included individual- and community-level social and demographic factors. Results In repeated measures regression, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were non-linear (quadratic, p<0.001), with significant inverse estimated effects on consumption at higher prices; estimates varied according to race (interaction term p=0.04), income (p=0.07), and education (p=0.03). For example, at the 10th percentile of price ($1.25/serving), blacks and whites had mean fast food consumption (times/week) of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.3) and 1.6 (1.5–1.7), respectively, while at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.9 (1.8–2.0) and 1.5 (1.4–1.6). We observed differential price effects on HOMA-IR (inverse for lower educational status and at middle income) and BMI (inverse for blacks, lower education, and middle income; positive for whites, high education, and high income). Conclusions We found greater fast food price sensitivity on fast food consumption and insulin resistance among sociodemographic groups that have a disproportionate burden of chronic disease. Our findings have implications for fiscal policy approaches related to diet, particularly with respect to possible effects of fast food taxes among populations with diet-related health disparities. PMID:24424384

  10. Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989

  11. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and ?(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; P<0.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  12. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and sub-scores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t-tests and chi-square statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast food restaurants were more likely to provide nutritional information, while bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas: 13.09, fast food: 14.31, p=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs. 11.54, p=0.01) and fast food restaurants (16.27 vs. 11.60, p<.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  13. Fast Food Facts: Interactive Food Finder

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Before grabbing a quick bite at a fast food eatery, curious diners may want to check this site, provided by Olen Publishing, and based on the Fast Food Facts handbook, which is published by the Minnesota Attorney General's Office. Food Finder allows users to search any of nineteen fast food restaurants from Arby's to White Castle. Any or all restaurants can be searched on food names, maximum calories, percent calories from fat, and maximum sodium, fat, and cholesterol. Then simply "fire up the deep fryer." To browse all products of all restaurants, simply fire up the deep fryer without entering any search terms. This fun and informative (if slightly frightening) site tallies the cost of that next fast food meal to your health.

  14. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, M M; Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Soleymani, T; Daniel, S; Vinson, L D; Lokken, K L; Wingo, B C; Morse, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R(2)?=?.57) and patients (R(2)?=?.55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p?eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one's tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one's PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. PMID:25169880

  15. Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Stender; J Dyerberg; A Astrup

    2007-01-01

    Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently ‘healthy’ meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together

  16. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  17. Does frequent eating out cause undesirable food choices? Association of food away from home with food consumption frequencies and obesity among Korean housewives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Kyung; Kim, Tae Yoon; Yoon, Jin-Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among socioeconomic factors, frequency of food away from home (FAFH) and food-consumption patterns of 1,070 housewives, and the association of those factors with obesity, using data from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although lower intakes of fruits, meats, and fast foods were associated with seldom eating out, no consistent pattern was observed regarding the relationship between the frequency of FAFH and food consumption for all groups of housewives. Further analysis indicated that obesity rates were lower among housewives aged 20-49 years with 7-12 years of education and moderate eating-out frequency, compared to older, less educated women. It appeared that reducing the frequency of FAFH does not always entail desirable food intakes among full-time housewives in Korea. Our findings suggest that choosing healthy meals away from home is more important for housewives than refraining from eating out. PMID:21888582

  18. Are food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices associated with adolescent disordered eating behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Katie A.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between parental pressure-to-eat and food restriction and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, within a sample of parent-adolescent pairs. Method Adolescents (N=2231) and their parents (N=3431) participated in two, coordinated, population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Results Overall, higher levels of pressure-to-eat or food restriction was significantly and positively associated with use of disordered eating behaviors among boys. For every one unit increase [Scale Range: 1-(low control) to 4 – (high control)] in mothers’ food restriction, boys were twice as likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p?0.01). Examination of the association between food-related parenting practices and disordered eating behaviors among girls revealed fewer significant associations. However, analyses did reveal that for every one unit increase in mothers’ food restriction, girls were 1.33 times more likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p=0.04). Discussion Study findings provide evidence of an association between controlling food-related parenting practices and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, particularly in boys. Future longitudinal research is needed to establish directionality of observed associations. PMID:24105668

  19. JCL roundtable: fast food and the American diet.

    PubMed

    Brown, W Virgil; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2015-01-01

    The availability of food quickly prepared at lower cost and with consistent quality and convenience has made a variety of restaurant chains extremely popular. Commonly referred to as the fast food industry, these companies have stores on virtually every street corner in cities large and small. Fast foods contribute to energy intake, and depending on the food choices made, provide foods and nutrients that should be decreased in the diet. As Americans have become more conscious of their risk factors for heart disease and recognized eating patterns as a contributor to blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes, the fast food industry has attempted to adjust their menus to provide more healthful choices. The Roundtable discussion in this issue of the Journal will focus on the importance of this industry as a source of foods that could help address our population-wide efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease. PMID:25670354

  20. Food ideology and eating behavior: contributions from Malay studies.

    PubMed

    Laderman, C

    1984-01-01

    A study of food ideology and eating behavior in a Malay village demonstrates that the relationship between belief and action is complex and not always predictable. Over-reliance upon stated beliefs, and generalizations derived from particular ecological settings, have influenced investigators into making universal and logical statements about Malay eating behavior and its health consequences--a logic which, however, does not always jibe with reality. Food ideology, like any other portion of a belief system, is subject to innovation, interpretation and rationalization, and contains within it 'rules to break rules' which assure the continued integrity of the symbolic system by patterning what might otherwise be seen as rifts in its fabric. An understanding of eating behavior must be based both on a knowledge of the subsidiary, as well as primary, clauses of food ideology, and on direct observation of the behaviors elicited by these beliefs and modified by the setting, the situation and the individual. PMID:6484640

  1. Why Go Local? Buying and eating locally grown foods foods that

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Why Go Local? Buying and eating locally grown foods ­ foods that are produced near you or in Virginia ­ offer numerous benefits for you and your community. · Locally produced foods often taste better produced food does not have to travel as far to get to your plate. So, it typically costs less because

  2. Beyond picky eating: avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, Richard E; Palomaki, Angela

    2012-08-01

    Disorders related to ingesting adequate variety and amounts of food, often dichotomized into feeding or eating disorders, depending on the need for affected individuals to be fed or to eat on their own respectively, include a wide variety of conditions. This paper focuses on disorders that are not also associated with behaviors related to weight-control or self-concept strongly influenced by body weight or shape, as seen in anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. In contrast to eating disorders, there is a relatively sparse body of literature, inconsistent and confusing set of terms and definitions, and conflicting classification schemes applied to feeding/eating disturbances. A new scheme is proposed to improve clinical utility and include individuals who experience morbidities that could benefit from diagnosis and treatment, but are presently excluded from classification. Key research findings are highlighted, and core clinical features regarding diagnosis and treatment are detailed. Two illustrative cases frame the clinical aspects of these conditions. PMID:22665043

  3. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  4. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  5. Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Glanz, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Food and eating environments likely contribute to the increasing epidemic of obesity and chronic diseases, over and above individual factors such as knowledge, skills, and motivation. Environmental and policy interventions may be among the most effective strategies for creating population-wide improvements in eating. This review describes an ecological framework for conceptualizing the many food environments and conditions that influence food choices, with an emphasis on current knowledge regarding the home, child care, school, work site, retail store, and restaurant settings. Important issues of disparities in food access for low-income and minority groups and macrolevel issues are also reviewed. The status of measurement and evaluation of nutrition environments and the need for action to improve health are highlighted. PMID:18031223

  6. Eating Disorders: Cultural Model and Consensus Regarding Food.

    PubMed

    Manochio-Pina, Marina; Dos Santos, José Ernesto; Dressler, William W; Pessa Ribeiro, Rosane Pilot

    2015-01-01

    The cultural model of food was applied to 112 adult patients with eating disorders (PG) and 36 healthy adult women (CG) of similar age. The Free List and Ranking of Foods was used to group foods and verify consensus and cultural aspects. Calories, health, and taste were the dimensions used by the participants to group the foods, and strong consensus was achieved in regard to calories and health. There were, however, inter- and intra-group divergences in regard to these ideas, especially in the PG. The CG used distinct criteria, showing a more complex model. PMID:25874647

  7. After the Bell: Calories, energy, and the food you eat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel Ness

    2006-02-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in the United States, and has recently reached epidemic proportions. Part of the solution in controlling obesity is to make students aware of the amount and type of food they eat. In this activity, students will calculate the average amount of energy that a body consumes per hour, which will help them defeat obesity through education.

  8. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of the week so you can prepare healthy, well-balanced meals each evening. Get rid of ...

  9. Mimicry of Food Intake: The Dynamic Interplay between Eating Companions

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, Roel C. J.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Bevelander, Kirsten E.; Herman, C. Peter; Larsen, Junilla K.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that people adjust their intake directly to that of their eating companions; they eat more when others eat more, and less when others inhibit intake. A potential explanation for this modeling effect is that both eating companions' food intake becomes synchronized through processes of behavioral mimicry. No study, however, has tested whether behavioral mimicry can partially account for this modeling effect. To capture behavioral mimicry, real-time observations of dyads of young females having an evening meal were conducted. It was assessed whether mimicry depended on the time of the interaction and on the person who took the bite. A total of 70 young female dyads took part in the study, from which the total number of bites (N?=?3,888) was used as unit of analyses. For each dyad, the total number of bites and the exact time at which each person took a bite were coded. Behavioral mimicry was operationalized as a bite taken within a fixed 5-second interval after the other person had taken a bite, whereas non-mimicked bites were defined as bites taken outside the 5-second interval. It was found that both women mimicked each other's eating behavior. They were more likely to take a bite of their meal in congruence with their eating companion rather than eating at their own pace. This behavioral mimicry was found to be more prominent at the beginning than at the end of the interaction. This study suggests that behavioral mimicry may partially account for social modeling of food intake. PMID:22312438

  10. You Are What You Eat--Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Polly

    This brief speech discusses the correlation between nutrition and health among older adults. Food habits of older people do not always fall in line with their food needs and health condition. Therefore, there is a need to establish nutrition programs to help older adults, as well as others, learn how to regulate their diet. The speaker challenges…

  11. Fast Food with Slow Cookers SESSION GOALS

    E-print Network

    Fast Food with Slow Cookers SESSION GOALS: Participants will learn how to use a slow cooker to help survey instrument (if needed) #12;2 Fast Food with Slow Cookers BEFORE THIS SESSION: 1. Review materials created by Cornell University Cooperative Extension. #12;3 Fast Food with Slow Cookers SESSION 1

  12. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  13. Decelerated and linear eaters: Effect of eating rate on food intake and satiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Modjtaba Zandian; Ioannis Ioakimidis; Cecilia Bergh; Ulf Brodin

    2008-01-01

    article i nfo Article history: Women were divided into those eating at a decelerated or linear rate. Eating rate was then experimentally increased or decreased by asking the women to adapt their rate of eating to curves presented on a computer screen and the effect on food intake and satiety was studied. Decelerated eaters were unable to eat at an

  14. External eating mediates the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy food intake.

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2015-08-01

    Recent evidence from the eating domain shows a link between impulsivity and unhealthy food intake. However, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. One possibility is an external eating style, which has been linked to both impulsivity and food intake. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of external eating in the relationship between impulsivity and food intake. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who completed measures of impulsivity and external eating, and took part in a laboratory taste test as a behavioural index of unhealthy snack food intake. It was found that attentional and motor impulsivity interacted in predicting sweet food intake, but only motor impulsivity predicted both external eating and sweet food intake. Furthermore, the relationship between motor impulsivity and food intake was mediated by external eating. These findings support the development of interventions aimed at targeting specific aspects of impulsivity in order to reduce unhealthy eating behaviour. PMID:25911264

  15. Enjoy Your Food, but Eat Less: 10 Tips to Enjoying Your Meal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods you eat Use the SuperTracker and how much to eat and to get tips and support for making better food choices. take your time Be mindful to eat slowly, enjoy the taste and textures, and pay attention to ...

  16. Disordered eating and food cravings among urban obese African American women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Jarosz; May T. Dobal; Feleta L. Wilson; Cheryl A. Schram

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveThe prevalence of night eating syndrome (NES), binge eating disorder (BED), and bulimia nervosa (BN) and the general experience of food cravings were examined in 88 obese urban African American women.

  17. Caloric intake from fast food among adults: United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Cheryl D; Ervin, R Bethene

    2013-02-01

    An earlier report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that the percentage of adults eating fast food increased from the early 1990s to the mid-1990s (1). Moreover, previous studies have reported that more frequent fast-food consumption is associated with higher energy and fat intake and lower intake of healthful nutrients (1,2). This report indicates that for 2007–2010, on average, adults consumed just over one-tenth of their percentage of calories from fast food, which represents a decrease from 2003–2006 when approximately 13% of calories were consumed from fast food. During 2007–2010, the highest percentage of calories from fast food was consumed among adults who were aged 20–39 or non-Hispanic black or obese. Among young non-Hispanic black adults, more than one-fifth of their calories were consumed from fast food. PMID:23759112

  18. Observed sex differences in fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of college students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin L. Morse; Judy A. Driskell

    2009-01-01

    Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to 24 years of age, enrolled at a Midwestern university served

  19. Acute stress and food-related reward activation in the brain during food choice during eating in the absence of hunger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Born; S G T Lemmens; F Rutters; A G Nieuwenhuizen; E Formisano; R Goebel; M S Westerterp-Plantenga

    2010-01-01

    Background:Stress results in eating in the absence of hunger, possibly related to food reward perception.Hypothesis:Stress decreases food reward perception.Aim:Determine the effect of acute stress on food choice and food choice reward-related brain activity.Subjects:Nine females (BMI=21.5±2.2 kg\\/m2, age=24.3±3.5 years).Procedure:Fasted subjects came twice to randomly complete either a rest or stress condition. Per session, two functional MRI scans were made, wherein the

  20. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1?km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1?km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1?km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers. PMID:23391296

  1. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa. PMID:22764071

  2. The Effects of Short-Term Food Deprivation on Caloric Intake in Eating-Disordered Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTY F. TELCH; STEWART W. AGRAS

    1996-01-01

    The primary aim of this experimental investigation was to examine the effects of short-term dietary restriction on caloric consumption in eating disordered subjects. Subjects with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and overweight non-eating disordered subjects, attended a laboratory experiment during which they were randomly assigned to either a 1 h or a 6 h food deprivation condition prior to being

  3. Food and eating as social practice--understanding eating patterns as social phenomena and implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise

    2009-03-01

    Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802

  4. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  5. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account. PMID:25935739

  6. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. PMID:25310889

  7. Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food.

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01

    school lunches in some areas. *Exiension foods and nutrition specialist, The Texas A &M Univer sity System. 3 The Nutritional Value of Fast Foods Certain nutrient deficiencies could result if more than six meals a week are fast foods. Vitamin A may... are not selected by the consumer as frequently as soft drinks. Calcium and Vitamin A are the nutrients least often consumed in amounts equal to one-third of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Fast foods generally are good sources of protein, thiamin...

  8. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

  9. Patterns and Predictors of Fast Food Consumption After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Adam C.; Chan, Paul S.; Gosch, Kensey L.; Buchanan, Donna M.; Spertus, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Although fast food is affordable and convenient, it is also high in calories, saturated fat and sodium. The frequency of fast food intake at the time of, and after, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is modifiable. However, patterns of fast food intake and characteristics associated with its consumption among AMI patients are unknown. We studied fast food consumption at the time of AMI and 6 months later in 2481 patients from the prospective, 24-center TRIUMPH study of AMI patients. Fast food intake was categorized as frequent (? weekly) vs. infrequent (< weekly). Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. At baseline, 884 patients (36%) reported frequent fast food intake, which decreased to 503 (20%) 6 months after discharge (p-value <0.001). Male sex, white race, lack of college education, current employment and dyslipidemia were independently associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. In contrast, older patients and those who had coronary bypass surgery were less likely to eat fast food frequently. Documentation of discharge dietary counseling was not associated with 6-month fast food intake. In conclusion, fast food consumption by AMI patients declined 6 months after the index hospitalization, but certain populations, including younger patients, men, those currently working, and less educated patients were more likely to consume fast food, at least weekly, during follow-up. Novel interventions that go beyond traditional dietary counseling may be needed to address continued fast food consumption after AMI in these patients. PMID:21306695

  10. The Science ofWhatWe Eat: Can you find the chemistry in food?

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    The Science ofWhatWe Eat: Can you find the chemistry in food? What's it about: What do vitamins you eat? Chemistry of course! Chemistry is everywhere, and these are all chemical substances making up sleep our bodies are using energy to keep our hearts and other organs working. Food keeps our bones

  11. 'Eating, eating is always there': food, consumerism and cardiovascular disease. Some evidence from Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Caroline

    2010-12-01

    The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice. PMID:21153961

  12. Fast Food and Neighborhood Stroke Risk

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Escobar, James D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hughes, Rebecca; Zuniga, Belinda G.; Garcia, Nelda; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the number of fast food restaurants and ischemic stroke in neighborhoods. Methods This work was a pre-specified part of the Brain Attack in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Ischemic stroke cases were prospectively ascertained in Nueces County, Texas. Home addresses were geocoded and used to establish the census tract for each stroke case. Census tracts were used as proxies for neighborhoods (n=64). Using a standard definition, fast food restaurants were identified from a commercial list. Poisson regression was used to study the association between the number of fast food restaurants in the neighborhood, using a 1-mile buffer around each census tract, and the risk of stroke in the neighborhood. Models were adjusted for demographics and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Results There were 1,247 completed ischemic strokes from January 2000 through June 2003 and 262 fast food restaurants. The median number of fast food restaurants per census tract including buffer was 22 (IQR 12–33). Adjusting for neighborhood demographics and SES, the association of fast food restaurants with stroke was significant (p=0.02). The association suggested that the risk of stroke in a neighborhood increased by 1% for every fast food restaurant (RR 1.01 95% CI: 1.00–1.01). The relative risk of stroke comparing neighborhoods in the 75th to the 25th percentile of the distribution of fast food restaurants was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Interpretation Controlling for demographic and SES factors, there was a significant association between fast food restaurants and stroke risk in neighborhoods in this community-based study. PMID:19743456

  13. Fast Food and Nutritional Perceptions in the Age of “Globesity”: Perspectives from the Provincial Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ty Matejowsky

    2009-01-01

    As the influence of corporate fast food expands outside of the U.S. and Europe, many of the health problems previously associated with Western eating habits and nutritional regimes are beginning to proliferate across the developing world. Significantly, their rise serves as a troubling indicator of the “globesity” that threatens to overwhelm existing health care systems worldwide. To better understand the

  14. Affect Regulation and Food Intake in Bulimia Nervosa: Emotional Responding to Food Cues After Deprivation and Subsequent Eating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit I. Mauler; Alfons O. Hamm; Almut I. Weike; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier

    2006-01-01

    Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation

  15. Proximity of Fast-Food Restaurants to Schools and Adolescent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between fast-food restaurants near schools and obesity among middle and high school students in California. Methods. We used geocoded data (obtained from the 2002–2005 California Healthy Kids Survey) on over 500 000 youths and multivariate regression models to estimate associations between adolescent obesity and proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools. Results. We found that students with fast-food restaurants near (within one half mile of) their schools (1) consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables, (2) consumed more servings of soda, and (3) were more likely to be overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.10) or obese (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.12) than were youths whose schools were not near fast-food restaurants, after we controlled for student- and school-level characteristics. The result was unique to eating at fast-food restaurants (compared with other nearby establishments) and was not observed for another risky behavior (smoking). Conclusions. Exposure to poor-quality food environments has important effects on adolescent eating patterns and overweight. Policy interventions limiting the proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools could help reduce adolescent obesity. PMID:19106421

  16. Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership.

    PubMed

    Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A; Brown, Arleen F; Asch, Steven M

    2009-09-01

    Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Census data and information on locations of fast food and other restaurants with the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study database, which consists of 2,156 adults sampled from 63 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate associations between body mass index (BMI), fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership after adjustment for individual-level factors and socioeconomic characteristics of residential neighborhoods. A high concentration of local restaurants is associated with BMI. Car owners have higher BMIs than non-car owners; however, individuals who do not own cars and reside in areas with a high concentration of fast food outlets have higher BMIs than non-car owners who live in areas with no fast food outlets, approximately 12 lb more (p = 0.02) for an individual with a height of 5 ft. 5 in. Higher restaurant density is associated with higher BMI among local residents. The local fast food environment has a stronger association with BMI for local residents who do not have access to cars. PMID:19533365

  17. Attentional bias to food cues in youth with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Shank, Lisa M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise M; Field, Sara E; Vannucci, Anna; Bongiorno, Diana M; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Demidowich, Andrew; Kelly, Nichole R; Cassidy, Omni; Simmons, W Kyle; Engel, Scott G; Pine, Daniel S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-04-01

    Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5?±?2.3 years; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7?±?.73) with (n?=?47) and without (n?=?29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p?=?.01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. PMID:25435490

  18. Big Macs and Healthy Teens? Exploring Fast Food as Part of a Healthy Adolescent Lifestyle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Harms

    2009-03-01

    In the set of activities, explorations, and discussions described here, students apply healthy eating information when they make nutrition choices both at home and when eating out. These lessons introduce considerations such as portion size and caloric nutrients, while also exploring tools and resources for understanding both nutritional guidelines and for evaluating the nutritional value of a food. This progression of data collection and analysis culminates with students applying their knowledge as they author position statements that answer the question, "Is it possible to include fast food as part of a healthy lifestyle?"

  19. Children’s Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children’s health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children’s eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch programs on children’s overall (both in- and out-of-school) eating behavior. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in which 2039 students in 12 elementary and 10 middle schools reported their eating behavior and the frequencies with which they purchased meals and à la carte items in the school cafeteria. Food service managers from each school provided information on the availability of foods and beverages during school lunch periods. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to identify school- and student-level predictors of children’s eating behavior. RESULTS The availability of nutritious foods during school lunch periods was associated with healthier eating behavior among students. However, this effect was observed only among children who infrequently purchased à la carte food items, and not among those who were frequent purchasers. CONCLUSION Increased availability of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products as components of school meals may be an effective strategy to promote healthy eating behaviors among children. Improving the nutrition standards for foods offered in competition with federally reimbursable school meals may enhance the positive effects of school meal programs on student eating behavior. PMID:21668883

  20. Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

  1. Fast Food and Body Weight among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Parks, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between consumption of fast food and sweets on overweight among U.S. adolescents; and (2) how consumption of different types of food and physical exercise is associated with parental education and other background variables. The data were based on cross-sectional, national survey study…

  2. Global Perspectives on Fast-Food History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew F.

    This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fast food industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…

  3. Dealing with problematic eating behaviour. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern.

    PubMed

    Alberts, H J E M; Thewissen, R; Raes, L

    2012-06-01

    This study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for problematic eating behavior. A non-clinical sample of 26 women with disordered eating behavior was randomly assigned to an 8-week MBCT-based eating intervention or a waiting list control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to controls, participants in the mindfulness intervention showed significantly greater decreases in food cravings, dichotomous thinking, body image concern, emotional eating and external eating. These findings suggest that mindfulness practice can be an effective way to reduce factors that are associated with problematic eating behaviour. PMID:22265753

  4. Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. PMID:20186718

  5. Eating as if It Really Matters: Teaching the Pedagogy of Food in the Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    To survive, we need to eat. And yet eating is much more than just ingesting fuel to keep our bodies going. Besides being a source of sustenance, food is a cause for celebration, an inducement to temptation, a weapon for wielding power, an indicator of well-being, a catalyst for change, and a vehicle for learning. In the age of globalization, these…

  6. Eating as the "Means" Activity in a Contingency: Effects on Young Children's Food Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps; And Others

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the effects of instrumental eating on food preferences, 45 preschool children were assigned to either instrumental eating or control conditions. Preference data obtained before and after a series of snack sessions (consisting of milk beverages) demonstrated a significant negative shift in preference for the instrumental groups.…

  7. "Food addiction is real". The effects of exposure to this message on self-diagnosed food addiction and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Dallas, Rebecca; Scott, Jade; Ruddock, Helen K; Robinson, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Food addiction is widely discussed in popular media in many Westernised societies. However, a potential concern is that endorsement of the food addiction model may cause people to perceive a lack of personal control over eating which could promote unhealthy dietary behaviours. To address this possibility, the current study investigated whether exposure to food addiction messages would, firstly, increase the number of participants who self-diagnosed as food addicts and, secondly, increase intake of indulgent foods. In a between-subjects design, participants (N?=?60) read an article which either claimed that food addiction is real ("Real" condition) or that food addiction is a myth ("Myth" condition). Intake of indulgent and non-indulgent foods was then assessed in a disguised taste test and participants also completed a measure of self-diagnosed food addiction. A significantly higher proportion of participants in the Real condition self-diagnosed as food addicts relative to participants in the Myth condition (57% and 27% of participants, respectively; p?=?.018). Variability in intake, but not mean intake, of indulgent food was higher in the Real condition than in the Myth condition. These findings suggest that endorsement of the concept of food addiction may encourage people to self-diagnose as food addicts and thus explain their eating behaviour in terms of addiction (an external attribution). The extent to which self-diagnosis of food addiction influences actual food intake and how this might vary with individual differences and eating context remains to be determined. PMID:25891042

  8. Essays on Healthy Eating and Away from Home Food Expenditures of Adults and Children 

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Benjamin Louis

    2011-02-22

    Healthy eating and food away from home expenditures are gaining increasing notoriety within the U.S. These issues are not only a concern for businesses, but governmental policy makers have also shown interest in both ...

  9. Diazepam-induced eating and lever pressing for food in sated rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy A. Wise; Vivien Dawson

    1974-01-01

    Found in 8 experiments with male Wistar rats that diazepam (2.5 mg\\/kg) produced vigorous eating but not drinking in sated Ss. The effect was found with familiar food in both test box and home cage and during both day and night. Ss trained under food deprivation leverpressed for food but not water under diazepam; the rate of response was dose

  10. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  11. Essays on Healthy Eating and Away from Home Food Expenditures of Adults and Children

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Benjamin Louis

    2011-02-22

    ESSAYS ON HEALTHY EATING AND AWAY FROM HOME FOOD EXPENDITURES OF ADULTS AND CHILDREN A Dissertation by BENJAMIN LOUIS CAMPBELL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ESSAYS ON HEALTHY EATING AND AWAY FROM HOME FOOD EXPENDITURES OF ADULTS AND CHILDREN A Dissertation by BENJAMIN LOUIS CAMPBELL...

  12. The Processing of Food Stimuli in Abnormal Eating: A Systematic Review of Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    To update the knowledge about attentional processing of food stimuli, a systematic review of electrophysiological studies was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge (2000-2014). Twenty-one studies were included into a qualitative synthesis. Presentation of food and control pictures was used to analyze event-related potentials related to sensory processing and motivated attention. Results show consistent attentional bias towards food pictures compared with neutral pictures for patient and control groups. Group comparisons between individuals with abnormal-eating and healthy-eating participants were more inconsistent. Results suggest that temporal differences in the millisecond range are essential for the understanding of visual food processing. In obesity, early attention engagement to food is followed by relatice disengagement. Loss of control eating, as well as external and emotional eating, are associated with a sustained maintenance of attention towards high-caloric food. There is a lack of studies in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25982390

  13. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. PMID:23910778

  14. Determining Empirical Thresholds for “Definitely Large” Amounts of Food for Defining Binge-Eating Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Forney, K. Jean; Holland, Lauren A.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Binge episodes involve “definitely large” amounts of food, yet limited data exist regarding the upper limits of food consumption in non-binge eating episodes. Study 1 examined the concurrent validity of a self-report measure developed to measure “usual” food consumption. Results support good concurrent validity for most items across response versions. Study 2 identified the upper limits of normal food consumption (i.e., 85th percentile of participants’ largest reported usual servings). Thresholds differed across types of foods, and men reported higher thresholds than women for several foods. Type of food and gender should be considered when assessing for “definitely large” amounts of food. PMID:24983483

  15. Determining empirical thresholds for "definitely large" amounts of food for defining binge-eating episodes.

    PubMed

    Forney, K Jean; Holland, Lauren A; Joiner, Thomas E; Keel, Pamela K

    2015-01-01

    Binge episodes involve "definitely large" amounts of food, yet limited data exist regarding the upper limits of food consumption in non-binge eating episodes. Study 1 examined the concurrent validity of a self-report measure developed to measure "usual" food consumption. Results support good concurrent validity for most items across response versions. Study 2 identified the upper limits of normal food consumption (i.e., 85(th) percentile of participants' largest reported usual servings). Thresholds differed across types of foods, and men reported higher thresholds than women for several foods. Type of food and gender should be considered when assessing for "definitely large" amounts of food. PMID:24983483

  16. Body Composition, Eating Behavior, Food-Body Concerns and Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Boschi; M. Siervo; P. D’Orsi; N. Margiotta; E. Trapanese; F. Basile; G. Nasti; A. Papa; O. Bellini; C. Falconi

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Dieting is a behavioral phenomenon which is becoming more frequent among adolescents and the search for weight loss, through dieting, may result in an unbalanced nutrition both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our study intended to look at the eating habits and behavior on a cohort of adolescent girls to verify the presence of unbalanced diets and the prevalence of eating

  17. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B.; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A.; Halford, Jason C. G.; Stancak, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain. PMID:25475348

  18. It’s who I am and what we eat: Mothers’ food-related identities in family food choice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

  19. Pavlovian conditioning to food reward as a function of eating disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Astur, Robert S; Palmisano, Alexandra N; Hudd, Ellie C; Carew, Andrew W; Deaton, Bonnie E; Kuhney, Franchesca S; Niezrecki, Rachel N; Santos, Melissa

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the extent to which eating disorder risk affects the strength of food-reward conditioning. Eighty food-restricted undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of two visually distinct rooms. Participants underwent multiple pairing sessions in which they were confined into one of the two rooms and explored a VR environment. Room A was paired with real-life M&Ms for three sessions, and Room B was paired with no food for three sessions. After a short delay, a test session was administered, and participants were given free access to the entire VR environment for 5min. Participants also completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; [11]), which is a standard screening tool of eating disorder risk. Participants displayed a significant conditioned place preference for the VR room previously paired with food, and they displayed a significant explicit preference for the M&M-paired room in a forced-choice test. There was a significant positive correlation between place preference strength and scores on the dieting subscale of the EAT-26. Additionally, ratings of the no-food room were significantly lower as dieting scores increased. This suggests that components of eating disorder risk can influence basic conditioning strength to places associated with food reward. For both males and females, additional correlations between eating disorder risk subscales and conditioning variables are discussed, and implications for future research are proposed in hopes of understanding how conditioning paradigms can provide insight into treating and preventing eating disorders. PMID:26003943

  20. Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01

    cheese slice on a ham burger adds calcium without excessive calories. Orange juice is available at some fast food restaurants and is high in VitaJiTlin C as well as low in calories. Diet beverages, coffee, tea ~jor water may be a good choice. Avoid...

  1. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

  2. Identification of Essential Food Skills for Skill-Based Healthful Eating Programs in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were…

  3. Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

    2014-09-01

    With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311

  4. The proportion of excessive fast-food consumption attributable to the neighbourhood food environment among youth living within 1 km of their school.

    PubMed

    Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2014-04-01

    The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (?2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours. PMID:24669990

  5. Fast food in a Chinese provincial city: a comparative analysis

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Haiying

    2006-08-16

    More than a decade ago American fast food entered the Chinese market. Since then the number of fast food and organized chain restaurants in China has multiplied. Chinese consumers, especially those who live in large urban areas, have accepted...

  6. Can you eat it? A link between categorization difficulty and food likability

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ihaya, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether categorization difficulty regarding a food is related to its likability. For this purpose, we produced stimulus images by morphing photographs of a tomato and a strawberry. Subjects categorized these images as either a tomato or a strawberry and in separate sessions evaluated the food’s eatability or the subject’s willingness to eat (Experiments 1 and 2) and the likeliness of existence of each food (Experiment 2). The lowest score for ca- tegorization confidence coincided with the lowest scores for eatability, willingness to eat, and likeliness of existence. In Experiment 3, we found that food neophobia, a trait of ingestion avoidance of novel foods, modulated food likability but not categorization confidence. These findings suggest that a high categorization difficulty generally co-occurs with a decrease in food likability and that food neophobia modulates likability. This avoidance of difficult-to-categorize foods seems ecologically valid because before eating we have little information regarding whether a food is potentially harmful. PMID:22956990

  7. Availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at a fast-food restaurant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margo G. Wootan; Melissa Osborn; Claudia J. Malloy

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Given the link between eating out, poor diets, and obesity, we assessed the availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at the largest fast-food restaurant in the U.S., McDonald's. Method. In August 2004, we visited 29 of 33 (88%) of the McDonald's outlets in Washington, DC and visually inspected the premises, as well as asked cashiers or restaurant managers whether they

  8. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    PubMed

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). PMID:25794685

  9. Fast-food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but are consistently poor

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Reedy, Jill; Kahle, Lisa L; Harris, Jennifer L; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate five popular fast-food chains’ menus in relation to dietary guidance. Design Menus posted on chains’ websites were coded using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies and MyPyramid Equivalents Database to enable Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores to be assigned. Dollar or value and kids’ menus and sets of items promoted as healthy or nutritious were also assessed. Setting Five popular fast-food chains in the USA. Subjects Not applicable. Results Full menus scored lower than 50 out of 100 possible points on the HEI-2005. Scores for Total Fruit, Whole Grains and Sodium were particularly dismal. Compared with full menus, scores on dollar or value menus were 3 points higher on average, whereas kids’ menus scored 10 points higher on average. Three chains marketed subsets of items as healthy or nutritious; these scored 17 points higher on average compared with the full menus. No menu or subset of menu items received a score higher than 72 out of 100 points. Conclusions The poor quality of fast-food menus is a concern in light of increasing away-from-home eating, aggressive marketing to children and minorities, and the tendency for fast-food restaurants to be located in low-income and minority areas. The addition of fruits, vegetables and legumes; replacement of refined with whole grains; and reformulation of offerings high in sodium, solid fats and added sugars are potential strategies to improve fast-food offerings. The HEI may be a useful metric for ongoing monitoring of fast-food menus. PMID:23317511

  10. Food intake affects state body image: impact of restrained eating patterns and concerns about eating, weight and shape.

    PubMed

    Vocks, Silja; Legenbauer, Tanja; Heil, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Body image disturbances play a significant role in the development of eating disorders. Since body image can vary in diverse contexts, the aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether it is affected by recent food intake. Fifty-seven females without clinically relevant eating disorders were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG, n=28) that consumed a milkshake while watching a neutral film and a control group (CG, n=29) that only viewed the movie. Before and after the tasks, participants filled in the "Body Image States Scale" and the "Mood Questionnaire" and indicated their own "actual", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions with a digital distortion technique based on a photograph of themselves. It was shown that after milkshake consumption, state body dissatisfaction as well as the discrepancy between "actual-ideal" and "felt-ideal" body size estimations was higher in the EG than in the CG. Judgements of the "actual", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions and of mood were not affected. Further analyses revealed that the effect of milkshake consumption on body image and mood was higher the more the participants displayed restrained eating or eating, weight and shape concerns in general. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:17459521

  11. Food selection and intake of obese women with binge-eating disorder1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Zelitch Yanovski; Melissa Leet; Jack A Yanovski; Harry R Kissileff; B Timothy Walsh

    We studied food selection and intake of 19 women (body mass index (in kg\\/rn2) < 30), 10 of whom met proposed DSM-IV criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED). All subjects ate two multicourse meals in the laboratory, and were given tape-recorded instructions at each meal either to binge or eat in a normal fashion. Subjects with BED consumed signifi- cantly more

  12. Virtual food in virtual environments for the treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lozano, José A; Alcañiz, Mariano; Gil, José A; Moserrat, Carlos; Juán, Mari C; Grau, Vicente; Varvaró, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Eating disorders (Eds) are one of the problems with higher social repercussion in the last years. Sometimes, these clinical syndromes, which are characterized by an altered eating behavior, can have dramatic consequences. In eating disorders, one of the more critical situations, in addition to other of equal or more importance, is the patient's confrontation with food: the visual confrontation, the eating process and the repercussion on his weight. Virtual Reality (VR) technology has been used in psychology, as a therapeutic help tool for the treatment of different psychological problems, for several years now. Their helpfulness is increasingly being recognized. Some developed virtual environments (VE) and their corresponding published studies endorse the efficiency of this tool. Nevertheless, in order to increase the possibilities of success, it is very important to obtain a complete patient immersion in the VE: visual, auditory and interactive. Sometimes there are processes or actions of reality, which are difficult to simulate virtually, and simulating them coarsely would result in the patient lack of immersion in the VE, thus seriously decreasing the possibilities of success. The eating process is an example, since it consists of several steps, some of which (biting, chewing, etc.) don't have an evident virtual solution. This article shows how food and eating process have been simulated virtually in the development of a virtual environment for the treatment of eating disorders. PMID:15458100

  13. PFID: PITTSBURGH FAST-FOOD IMAGE DATASET , Kapil Dhingra3

    E-print Network

    Sukthankar, Rahul

    PFID: PITTSBURGH FAST-FOOD IMAGE DATASET Mei Chen1 , Kapil Dhingra3 , Wen Wu2 , Lei Yang2 , Rahul://pfid.intel-research.net ABSTRACT We introduce the first visual dataset of fast foods with a total of 4,545 still images, 606 stereo of volunteers. This work was motivated by research on fast food recognition for dietary assessment. The data

  14. CONVENIENCE, ACCESSIBILITY, AND THE DEMAND FOR FAST FOOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Jekanowski; James K. Binkley; James S. Eales

    2001-01-01

    This study explores the growth in demand for fast food. A distinguishing characteristic of fast food is its convenience; in today's pervasive marketplace, consumers need not travel far to find a fast food outlet. This greater availability translates into a decrease in the full price of obtaining a meal, which contributes to greater consumption. Market-level data are used to estimate

  15. Mandatory Fast Food Labeling: Support By Twelfth Graders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Kapoor

    1989-01-01

    Both operators and customers may benefit when fast food places voluntarily provide ingredient and nutrition information about their products. These were the findings when 560 twelfth graders completed a fast food questionnaire. The twelfth graders indicated they are in favorof mandatory fast food ingredient labeling, yet few were able to understand ingredient information presented in the form proposed in the

  16. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  17. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast-food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (N=196, 25–51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (Model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in Model 2 but most were not significant in Model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (AHEI) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast-food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  18. “STOP EATING…CLEAN YOUR PLATE!”: THE EFFECTS OF PARENTAL CONTROL OF FOOD CONSUMPTION DURING CHILDHOOD ON COLLEGE FEMALES' EATING BEHAVIOR 

    E-print Network

    Pfeffer, Amanda J.

    2010-07-14

    relatively unexplored area. Parents play a central role in shaping the family eating environment, which provides a context for the child's relationship with food for years to come (Birch, Fisher, Grimm-Thomas, Markey, Sawyer & Johnson, 2001). The present...

  19. Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

  20. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

    2011-01-01

    Objective  The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures\\u000a of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and\\u000a weekly consumption of fast-food meals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery\\u000a stores, from the 2006 Brazos

  1. 4. The amount of food a person actually eats is called a . . . 5. Americans get most of their sodium from . . .

    E-print Network

    about fat on the food label when shopping for food? Sample food label Serving size Portion Meal Don Cholesterol Brand name Trans fat Don't knowDon't know GET THE FACTS Before we begin... Thank you for joining serving size on the food label to determine the amount of food you will eat? 2. How often do you use

  2. Listeria spp. in Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods

    PubMed Central

    El-Shenawy, Moustafa; El-Shenawy, Mohamed; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ?103?CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, and products of plant origin). Most of the samples contaminated by L. monocytogenes had high levels of total viable bacterial counts. The results obtained may help to clarify the epidemiology of listeriosis in the country and draw the attention of the decision makers to issue hygienic regulations for food processing industries as well as street vendors in order to ensure safe street-vended ready-to-eat food. PMID:22194742

  3. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N?=?133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. PMID:26022802

  4. Opioid-Dependent Anticipatory Negative Contrast and Binge-Like Eating in Rats with Limited Access to Highly Preferred Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Cottone; Valentina Sabino; Luca Steardo; Eric P Zorrilla

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating and an increased role for palatability in determining food intake are abnormal adaptations in feeding behavior linked to eating disorders and body weight dysregulation. The present study tested the hypothesis that rats with limited access to highly preferred food would develop analogous opioid-dependent learned adaptations in feeding behavior, with associated changes in metabolism and anxiety-like behavior. For this

  5. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

  6. Eating behaviors, mental health, and food intake are associated with obesity in older congregate meal participants.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ? 30 kg/m²) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ? 43 inches for men and ? 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American's Act congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

  7. The Ocean Book: Food Chains...Come and Eat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)

  8. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  9. Using Fast Food Nutrition Facts to Make Healthier Menu Selections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fast food nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fast food restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…

  10. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education…

  11. Mechanistic Mathematical Model for In Vivo Aroma Release during Eating of Semiliquid Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioan Cristian Trelea; S. Atlan; I. Deleris; A. Saint-Eve; M. Marin; I. Souchon

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a mechanistic mathematical model for aroma release in the oropharynx to the nasal cavity during food consumption. The model is based on the physiology of the swallowing process and is validated with atmospheric pressure chem- ical ionization coupled with mass spectrometry measurements of aroma concentration in the nasal cavity of subjects eating flavored yogurt. The study is

  12. Eating the food of the ancestors: place, tradition, and tourism in a Chinese frontier river town

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Oakes

    1999-01-01

    ourism eats the food prepared by our ancestors,' says Jun Mingyu, a restaurateur in a remote region of south-west China. A tireless advocate of tourism development in his small riverside town, Jun is also a fine cook and runs a successful inn patronized by local truckers and international tourists alike. His story ultimately forms the backbone of this essay, and

  13. Food, Family and Fun: A Seasonal Guide to Healthy Eating. Commemorating 50 Years of School Lunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Helping children make food choices for a healthy diet can be challenging. This book is designed as a resource guide and cookbook for parents to help them make healthful eating and cooking with children tasty, simple, affordable, and fun. The book is a collection of 50 recipes organized by season, and featuring family nutrition education…

  14. Are You What You Eat? An inside Look at High-Tech Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2007-01-01

    If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to…

  15. Food and Eating Practices during the Transition from Secondary School to New Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Wendy J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how the new social contexts experienced by young people after leaving school are related to everyday food practices and eating habits. Findings from in-depth interviews with 31 young people aged 16-24 years studying at a college of further education in South East England are used to explore the role of new social spaces and…

  16. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  17. Fast Food Consumption Pattern and Its Association with Overweight Among High School Boys in Mangalore City of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y.P., Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M.; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Context Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. Aim This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. Settings and Design This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Materials and Methods Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ? 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Results Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (p<0.001). Parental consumption of fast foods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Conclusion Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This would minimize life style disorders among children to a greater extent.

  18. Food intake, hunger, and satiety after preloads in women with eating disorders13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J Rolls; Arnold E Andersen; Timothy H Moran; Amy L McNelis; Hope C Baier; Ingrid C Fedoroff

    Food intake, food selection, macronutrient intake, sensory-specific satiety, and ratings ofhunger and satiety were measured after high- and low-energy salad preloads (2414 Id, or 172 U) or no preload to determine whether patients with eating disorders compensate appropriately for different energy intakes. Subjects were female patients with a DSM-III-R diag- nosis of anorexia nervosa with bulimic features or bulimia ner-

  19. NPR: Nutrition Labels for Fast Foods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This website, from National Public Radio's Morning Edition, offers a look at legislation proposed in Congress that would require fast food and other chain restaurants to provide nutritional information for their menu items. The website offers complete audio of the story, which aired earlier this month. Visitors will also find a short article on the topic, links to related stories from NPR, and a set of Web resources. The site also provides a downloadable report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest -- a sizeable document that provides in-depth information on the subject, and even includes menu mock-ups.

  20. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Harris; John A. Bargh; Kelly D. Brownell

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design: In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained

  1. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    Healthy Eating Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tips Eating healthy foods helps everyone stay well. It’s even more important for people with Alzheimer’s disease. Here are some tips for healthy eating. Buying and Preparing Food When the person with ...

  2. Fast Food Consumption and Academic Growth in Late Childhood.

    PubMed

    Purtell, Kelly M; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

    2014-12-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to examine the associations between fast food consumption and the academic growth of 8544 fifth-grade children in reading, math, and science. Method. This study uses direct assessments of academic achievement and child-reported fast food consumption from a nationally representative sample of kindergartners followed through eighth grade. Results. More than two thirds of the sample reported some fast food consumption; 20% reported consuming at least 4 fast food meals in the prior week. Fast food consumption during fifth grade predicted lower levels of academic achievement in all 3 subjects in eighth grade, even when fifth grade academic scores and numerous potential confounding variables, including socioeconomic indicators, physical activity, and TV watching, were controlled for in the models. Conclusion. These results provide initial evidence that high levels of fast food consumption are predictive of slower growth in academic skills in a nationally representative sample of children. PMID:25480321

  3. ‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2009-01-01

    What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or incentive salience systems important to appetite, such as mesolimbic dopamine systems and opioid motivation circuits that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots. Finally, it considers some potential ways in which ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ might relate to eating disorders. PMID:19336238

  4. Memory updating in sub-clinical eating disorder: differential effects with food and body shape words.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Olivia; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated how eating disorder (ED) relevant information is updated in working memory in people with high vs. low scores on a measure of eating disorder pathology (the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, EDE-Q). Participants performed two memory updating tasks. One was a neutral control task using digits; the other task involved food words and words relating to body-shape, and provided measures of updating speed and post-updating recall. We found that high EDE-Q participants (1) showed no sign of general memory updating impairment as indicated by performance in the control task; (2) showed a general recall deficit in the task involving ED-relevant stimuli, suggesting a general distraction of cognitive resources in the presence of ED-related items; (3) showed a relative facilitation in the recall of food words; and (4) showed quicker updating toward food words and relatively slower updating toward body-shape-related words. Results are discussed in the context of cognitive theories of eating disorders. PMID:25682363

  5. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  6. Time Spent on Home Food Preparation and Indicators of Healthy Eating

    E-print Network

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    for healthy eating. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51 Suppl 2:S36–40. 9. Rose D. Food Stamps, the Thrifty Food Plan, and meal preparation: The importance of the time dimension for US nutrition policy. J Nutr Educ Behav 2007;39(4):226–232. 10. Davis GC, You W... be at odds with recommended meal plans that are optimized for nutrition and affordability. Economic analyses of the U.S. Department of Agriculture 4 (USDA)’s Thrifty Food Plan have found that these nutritious, low-cost meal plans were time- intensive...

  7. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes: Eat Healthy Foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... margarine in a plastic tub • Nuts, olives, and vegetable oil • Avocados. Choose these high fat foods less often. ... serving is • 1 tablespoon peanut butter • 1 teaspoon vegetable, olive, or canola oil • 1/4 cup cooked dry peas or • 1 ...

  8. Environmental Microbiology: Bacteria & Fungi on the Foods We Eat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segner, Suzanne; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2007-01-01

    The near daily news reports on food-borne diseases caused by contaminated produce, dairy, or meats suggests to the public that the safety of the U.S. food supply is in jeopardy. These reports, as well as a general distrust in federal agencies due in part to mad cow disease and toxigenic forms of "E. coli" in ground beef, have resulted in an…

  9. Beliefs about fast food in Australia: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kirsten I; Mohr, Philip B; Wilson, Carlene J; Wittert, Gary A

    2008-09-01

    The consumption of energy-dense fast foods has been implicated as a causal factor in the development of obesity. The development of strategies to modify food choice behaviour requires an understanding of the behaviour and the driving factors. This study examined the rationale behind decisions to either choose or avoid fast foods. Drawing partly on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, (1988)), a qualitative design was employed to examine the beliefs and perceptions associated with fast-food consumption within an Australian sample. Findings provided an indication that positive affective reactions to fast food, convenience, and self-serving cognitions may override cognitive analyses of the longer-term health risks associated with frequent fast-food consumption. PMID:18430490

  10. From disordered eating to addiction: the "food drug" in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Umberg, Erin N; Shader, Richard I; Hsu, L K George; Greenblatt, David J

    2012-06-01

    The high prevalence of substance abuse in individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and the pervasive symptom substitution in many types of drug addiction suggest that a number of substances--including food--can impair an individual's self-control, even in the presence of negative consequences. Nonetheless, the neurobiological similarities between BN and drug addiction are not clearly established. This review explores how the specific eating patterns seen in BN (binge eating and purging, with intermittent dietary restriction) are particularly addictive and differentiate BN from other eating disorders and obesity. A number of peripheral and central biological aberrations seen in BN may result in altered reward sensitivity in these individuals, particularly through effects on the dopaminergic system. Neurobiological findings support the notion that BN is an addictive disorder, which has treatment implications for therapy and pharmacological manipulations. PMID:22544008

  11. Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

  12. Eating for Life: Designing Foods for Appetite Control

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    We are all well aware that rising levels of obesity in developed countries is having a significant impact on the health of the population. This is despite the availability of a wide range of low-calorie foods and an awareness of how important it is to adopt a healthy lifestyle. A new and emerging approach is to design foods that enhance the physiological regulatory mechanisms controlling appetite and energy intake. This is achieved through either promoting gastric distension or slowing intestinal transit in order to promote satiety-enhancing neuroendocrine feedback responses. This commentary explores the background and mechanisms involved in developing these strategies. PMID:20144369

  13. Comparison of student's satisfaction on school food service environment by the eating place and gender.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jisook; Lee, Youngmee; Oh, Yu-Jin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student's satisfaction with school food service environment to improve the quality of middle school meal service. A survey was conducted of 680 students (boys 246, girls 433) from 6 middle schools providing school meals from October to November 2007. The questionnaires were directly distributed to the subjects for comparison of satisfaction of school meals depending on the eating place. As for the quantity of food, classroom group (3.40) expressed significantly higher satisfaction than cafeteria group (3.16, P < 0.01), but as for the satisfaction on hygiene, classroom group (2.76) showed significantly lower satisfaction than cafeteria group (3.03, P < 0.01). About the satisfaction of school meal environment, classroom group showed more satisfaction on distribution time, eating place, eating atmosphere (P < 0.001). The classroom group showed higher satisfaction than cafeteria group in cases of quantity, diversity of types of soup, dessert, and the cost of school meal. To improve eating place and hygiene of school meal, sufficient cafeteria space and pleasant environment is needed to be established. PMID:20098582

  14. Comparison of student's satisfaction on school food service environment by the eating place and gender

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jisook; Oh, Yu-jin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student's satisfaction with school food service environment to improve the quality of middle school meal service. A survey was conducted of 680 students (boys 246, girls 433) from 6 middle schools providing school meals from October to November 2007. The questionnaires were directly distributed to the subjects for comparison of satisfaction of school meals depending on the eating place. As for the quantity of food, classroom group (3.40) expressed significantly higher satisfaction than cafeteria group (3.16, P < 0.01), but as for the satisfaction on hygiene, classroom group (2.76) showed significantly lower satisfaction than cafeteria group (3.03, P < 0.01). About the satisfaction of school meal environment, classroom group showed more satisfaction on distribution time, eating place, eating atmosphere (P < 0.001). The classroom group showed higher satisfaction than cafeteria group in cases of quantity, diversity of types of soup, dessert, and the cost of school meal. To improve eating place and hygiene of school meal, sufficient cafeteria space and pleasant environment is needed to be established. PMID:20098582

  15. Consumer perception about fast food in India: an exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Goyal; N. P. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study applies multivariate statistical tools to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. In addition, the authors analysed the consumption patterns, impact of hygiene and nutritional

  16. Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teija Aarnio; Anne Hämäläinen

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste,

  17. Food Stamp Recipients Eat More Vegetables after Viewing Nutrition Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Amy Block; Feldman, Nancy; Fujii, Mary Lavender; Garcia, Linda; Hudes, Mark; Mitchell, Rita; Bunch, Sybille; Metz, Diane

    1999-01-01

    A study in three California counties found that food stamp recipients who viewed a videotape promoting vegetables had increased their knowledge of vegetables and greatly increased their consumption of potatoes and raw vegetables two to six weeks later. The feasibility of using videotaped nutrition instruction with low-income adults is discussed.…

  18. The Demand for Healthy Eating: Supporting a Transformative Food "Movement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winson, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    To the extent that social science scholarship engages real-world developments it remains grounded and better able to resist elite agendas. With this in mind this article argues for the critical encounter with what I argue is the most significant struggle around food and agriculture today--the amorphous and broad-based movement that strives to…

  19. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  20. Food Advertising and Eating Disorders: Marketing Body Dissatisfaction, the Drive for Thinness, and Dieting in Women's Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…

  1. Eating patterns of children in the Delta: Developing a child food frequency questionnaire for this rural impoverished population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemic of obesity and health risks for children currently present challenges in estimating food intakes and developing appropriate interventions. Obtaining eating patterns is important. No child food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are specific to the Delta. Food intake data collected previous...

  2. How Emotions Expressed by Adults' Faces Affect the Desire to Eat Liked and Disliked Foods in Children Compared to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were…

  3. Extending the shelf-life and proximate composition stability of ready to eat foods in vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Antonia Murcia; Magdalena Mart??nez-Tomé; M. Carmen Nicolás; Ana M Vera

    2003-01-01

    The stability of the proximate composition (moisture, proteins, lipids and ash) and the microbiological state of cooked ‘ready to eatfoods in vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging were examined and compared with conventionally packaged (in air) foods. The study was carried out for 7 and 29 days, during which time the food products were stored at 3°C. Vacuum or modified

  4. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. PMID:23428940

  5. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  6. L'univers des fast-foods Lorsque l'ethnologue entre dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une irrsistible envie de

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    L'univers des fast-foods Lorsque l'ethnologue entre dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une irrésistible envie de mesurer l'étendue des enjeux qui y pratique alimentaire des fast-foods est de manière incontournable liée à une certaine culture de la

  7. Eating Better for Less: A National Discount Program for Healthy Food Purchases in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    An, Ruopeng; Patel, Deepak; Segal, Darren; Sturm, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving diet quality is a key health promotion strategy. The HealthyFood program provides up to a 25% discount on selected food items to about 260,000 households across South Africa. Objectives Examine whether reducing prices for healthy food purchases leads to changes in self-reported measures of food consumption and weight status. Methods Repeated surveys of about 350,000 HealthyFood participants and nonparticipants. Results Program participation is associated with more consumption of fruits/vegetables and wholegrain foods, and less consumption of high sugar/salt foods, fried foods, processed meats, and fast-food. There is no strong evidence that participation reduces obesity. Conclusions A substantial price intervention might be effective in improving diets. PMID:22943101

  8. HACCP workshops – practical guidance for small fast food businesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Worsfold

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the utility of a food hygiene management system training workshop and guidance pack to help small fast food businesses comply with new legal requirements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A pre-course questionnaire was used to determine knowledge and attitudes towards food safety management systems. Levels of compliance with best practice on operating

  9. Issues in-depth: Are you what you eat? An inside look at high-tech food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roxanne Greitz Miller

    2007-04-01

    If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to increase the safety of food supply, create foods that are more appealing to eat and easier to produce, and increase crop yields. This article will summarize a few hot topics in food science, address what is currently known about the safety of these processes, and present resources on the subject to use with your students.

  10. The availability of healthy food options in fast food outlets in six rural counties

    E-print Network

    Creel, Jennifer Sue

    2009-05-15

    were identified from the Brazos Valley Food Environment Study. Store types included fast food, grocery, and convenience stores. Store menus were analyzed with a survey instrument for healthy options which would allow consumers to meet dietary guideline...

  11. Some like it hot: testosterone predicts laboratory eating behavior of spicy food.

    PubMed

    Bègue, Laurent; Bricout, Véronique; Boudesseul, Jordane; Shankland, Rébecca; Duke, Aaron A

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between eating behavior of spicy food and endogenous testosterone. Participants included 114 males between the ages of 18 and 44 recruited from the community. They were asked to indicate their preferences regarding spicy food and were then asked to season a sample of mashed potatoes with pepper sauce and salt (control substance) prior to evaluating the spiciness of the meal. A positive correlation was observed between endogenous salivary testosterone and the quantity of hot sauce individuals voluntarily and spontaneously consumed with a meal served as part of a laboratory task. In contrast, significant correlations were not observed between testosterone and behavioral preference for salty foods. This study suggests that behavioral preference for spicy food among men is related to endogenous testosterone levels. PMID:25462592

  12. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boggiano, Mary M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M.; Sylvester, Maria D.; Morgan, Phillip R.; Morse, Kathryn E.; Burgess, Emilee E.

    2015-01-01

    Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills.

  13. Comparison of two indices of availability of fruits/vegetable and fast food outlets.

    PubMed

    Mercille, Geneviève; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Payette, Hélène; Daniel, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Studies of food environment often examine single dimensions of areas that may not account for complexity of exposure to all food sources. With respect to the deprivation amplification hypothesis, particular needs are to assess whether relative or absolute measures of the food environment are related to characteristics of social environment. The objective of this study was to compare absolute availability (AA) of fast food outlets (FFO) and stores selling fresh fruits and vegetables (FVS) with the relative availability (RA) of the same food sources in relation to area-level poverty and ethnic diversity in 248 selected census tracts (CT) in Montreal, Canada. AA of FFO and FVS were expressed as areal densities of food sources within CTs. RA indices were calculated as the proportion of FVSs relative to total food stores and the proportion of FFOs relative to all restaurants within CTs, respectively. Whereas the AA of FFO was positively associated with area-level poverty and ethnic diversity, the RA of FFO was inversely associated with area-level poverty and not associated with ethnic diversity. Both measures of FVS were positively associated with area-level poverty and ethnic diversity. These findings do not support a model of deprivation amplification. Furthermore, results of FFO suggest that the alternate measure of RA can complement information based on AA indicators of the food environment, with potential utility in predicting eating practices. PMID:22736278

  14. "Is It Okay to Eat a Dog in Korea...like China?" Assumptions of National Food-Eating Practices in Intercultural Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Adam; Jenks, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is a small body of research which shows how intercultural communication is constituted in and through talk-in-interaction, and can be made relevant or irrelevant by interactants on a moment-by-moment basis. Our paper builds on this literature by investigating how cultural assumptions of national food-eating practices are deployed, contested…

  15. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S Creel; Joseph R Sharkey; Alex McIntosh; Jenna Anding; J Charles Huber

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience

  16. The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

  17. A comparison of food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: USDA's MyPyramid, NHLBI's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: the US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard University's Healthy Eating Pyramid. Estimates of nutrient values associated with following each of the food guides at the 2,000-calorie level were made using a composite approach. This approach calculates population-weighted nutrient composites for each food group and subgroup, assuming average choices within food groups. Nutrient estimates were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and other goals and limits. Recommendations were similar regarding almost all food groups for both the type and amount of foods. Primary differences were seen in the types of vegetables and protein sources recommended and the amount of dairy products and total oil recommended. Overall nutrient values were also similar for most nutrients, except vitamin A, vitamin E, and calcium. These food guides were derived from different types of nutrition research, yet they share consistent messages: eat more fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains; eat less added sugar and saturated fat; and emphasize plant oils. PMID:18313434

  18. When the going gets tough, the tough...start eating healthy food? By Claire Gayman and Srishti Hukku (Campus Health Centre Peer Health Educators )

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    When the going gets tough, the tough...start eating healthy food? By Claire Gayman and Srishti failed his first midterm. Every day he was eating food like chips, burgers, fries and his personal lunchtime and healthy food seemed to be the last thing on her mind. Does this sound like you? If it does

  19. Control Your Weight While Eating Out.

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01

    Station ? Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Control Your Weight While Eating Out Mary K. Sweeten* Eating Out Trend The eating out trend is here to stay. Approximately $61 billion was spent for food eaten away from home in 1978. In 1975, 56... percent of food eaten away from home was eaten in conventional restaurants, lunchrooms and cafe terias, or was catered. Fast food restaurants showed an in crease in sales from 10 to 26 percent during a 10-year period. Most employed homemakers...

  20. Calorie and Gram Differences between Meals at Fast Food and Table Service Restaurants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Binkley

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the calorie content of restaurant food have focused on fast food. However, there is no specific evidence that fast food is worse than other food eaten away from home (FAFH). We use the Continuing Survey of Individual Food Intake to compare fast food and table service meals. We find that both are larger and have more calories than

  1. Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Lustig, Robert H

    2005-12-01

    Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite. After examining the epidemiology of fast food consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance, we review insulin's role in the central nervous system's (CNS) regulation of energy balance, and demonstrate the role of CNS insulin resistance as a cause of leptin resistance and in the promotion of the pleasurable or "hedonic" responses to food. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of fast food, including high-energy density, high fat, high fructose, low fiber, and low dairy intake, which favor the development of CNS insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:16166564

  2. Weakened biological signals: highly-developed eating schemas amongst women are associated with maladaptive patterns of comfort food consumption.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Jordan L; Lu, Ji; Dubé, Laurette

    2008-06-01

    We examine the comfort food preferences and consumption patterns of women with highly versus less developed schemas for cognitive restraint, emotional and situational eating. In an online survey, 196 women provided their personal definition of what constitutes a comfort food, indicated their favourite one, and their level of hunger and fullness as well as emotional state before and after consumption. Low/high (n=32/n=30) schematic groups respectively scored below/above the median on all three factors of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). Results support our proposition that complex eating schemas weaken biological signals and produce maladaptive patterns: high schematics preferred high calorie comfort foods, eaten even when feeling full to alleviate negative emotions at the cost of more post-consumption guilt. High schematics reported a lesser post-consumption increase in fullness than low schematics. Low schematics favoured low and high calorie foods equally, their choice motivated by pleasure and positive emotions. High schematics' definitions revealed that comfort foods are eaten to fill a void or when experiencing negative emotions as well as a deep concern with weight gain; low schematics focused on comfort foods' hedonic attributes. Our results highlight the hitherto unexplored influence of possessing all three highly-developed DEBQ eating schemas in reducing the effectiveness of biological signals and leading to maladaptive eating choices and behaviors. PMID:18325547

  3. Healthy Eating

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Sweet

    2012-05-03

    What do you know about healthy eating? Check out the sites below to learn what you should and should not be eating on a daily basis. Before we get started let's see what knowledge you have about healthy eating. What do you think are some of the most healthy foods for you? Do you like to eat these foods? Now look at the sites below and answer the following questions. Blast Off Dining Decisions Nutrients Your Body Neeeds What were some good food choices ...

  4. CONSIDERATIONS FOR ESTABLISHING SAFETY-BASED CONSUME-BY DATE LABELS FOR REFRIGERATED READY-TO-EAT FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to provide advice on the requisite scientific parameters for establishing safety-based use-by dates for refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods to help reduce the incidence of foodborne illness. ...

  5. Maintenance of Effects of the Eat Smart School Food Service Program: Results from the Catch-on Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavroula K. Osganian; Deanna M. Hoelscher; Michelle Zive; Paul D. Mitchell; Patricia Snyder; Larry S. Webber

    2003-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart Program targeted the food service of the 56 CATCH intervention elementary schools to effect positive changes in the total fat and saturated fat content of school lunch. Maintenance of the food service intervention in former intervention (n = 56) and control (n = 20) schools was evaluated 5 years

  6. Endocannabinoid levels in rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus in relation to fasting, feeding and satiation: stimulation of eating by 2-arachidonoyl glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Tim C; Williams, Claire M; Fezza, Filomena; Marzo, Vincenzo Di

    2002-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are implicated in appetite and body weight regulation. In rodents, anandamide stimulates eating by actions at central CB1 receptors, and hypothalamic endocannabinoids may be under the negative control of leptin. However, changes to brain endocannabinoid levels in direct relation to feeding or changing nutritional status have not been investigated.We measured anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) levels in feeding-associated brain regions of rats, during fasting, feeding of a palatable food, or after satiation. Endocannabinoid levels were compared to those in rats fed ad libitum, at a point in their daily cycle when motivation to eat was absent. Fasting increased levels of anandamide and 2-AG in the limbic forebrain and, to a lesser extent, of 2-AG in the hypothalamus. By contrast, hypothalamic 2-AG declined as animals ate. No changes were detected in satiated rats. Endocannabinoid levels in the cerebellum, a control region not directly involved in the control of food intake, were unaffected by any manipulation.As 2-AG was most sensitive to variation during feeding, and to leptin regulation in a previous study, we examined the behavioural effects of 2-AG when injected into the nucleus accumbens shell, a limbic forebrain area strongly linked to eating motivation. 2-AG potently, and dose-dependently, stimulated feeding. This effect was attenuated by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716.These findings provide the first direct evidence of altered brain levels of endocannabinoids, and of 2-AG in particular, during fasting and feeding. The nature of these effects supports a role for endocannabinoids in the control of appetitive motivation. PMID:12055133

  7. Marketing and Distribution: Fast Food Placements--Let's Move Slowly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reece, Barry L.; Stone, James, III

    1978-01-01

    The author presents arguments for and against placing distributive education cooperative students in fast-food outlets, criteria for selecting training stations and students, and a model training plan outline for job and class instruction. (MF)

  8. Fast food prices, obesity, and the minimum wage.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Chad; Tefft, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Recent proposals argue that a fast food tax may be an effective policy lever for reducing population weight. Although there is growing evidence for a negative association between fast food prices and weight among adolescents, less is known about adults. That any measured relationship to date is causal is unclear because there has been no attempt to separate variation in prices on the demand side from that on the supply side. We argue that the minimum wage is an exogenous source of variation in fast food prices, conditional on income and employment. In two-stage least-squares analyses, we find little evidence that fast food price changes affect adult BMI or obesity prevalence. Results are robust to including controls for area and time fixed effects, area time trends, demographic characteristics, substitute prices, numbers of establishments and employment in related industries, and other potentially related factors. PMID:22554473

  9. Fast Food, Race\\/Ethnicity, and Income A Geographic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason P. Block; Richard A. Scribner; Karen B. DeSalvo

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Using geographic information system software, all fast-food restaurants within the city limits of New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2001 were mapped. Buffers around census tracts were generated to simulate 1-mile and 0.5-mile \\

  10. Potential risk and sodium content of children's ready-to-eat foods distributed at major amusement parks in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-Y; Park, S-Y; Lee, Y-M; Choi, S-Y; Jeong, S-H; Chung, M-S; Chang, Y-S; Choi, S-H; Bae, D-H; Ha, S-D

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to help better understand the current sodium intake of Korean children and to establish children's good eating habits through investigation of the sodium content of ready-to-eat foods collected from nine major amusement parks in Korea. The sodium content of a total of 322 products was analysed by using ICP and then the potential risk based on the recommended daily intake of sodium as described in the Korean dietary reference intakes was determined. The results showed that sodium content was the lowest in muffins (245 mg/100 g) and the highest in seasoned dried filefish (1825 mg/100 g). The average amounts of sodium per serving of seasoned dried filefish, tteokbokki and fish paste were 1150, 1248 and 1097 mg, respectively. The values were above 50% of the daily intake of sodium recommended by the Korean dietary reference intake. The ready-to-eat foods were also classified into high, medium and low sodium content on the basis of standards recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. Most snacks were classified as high sodium foods because they exceeded "300 mg (84.5% of the total daily allowance)". Furthermore, the meal substitution foods such as kimbab, tteokbokki, mandus, sandwiches and hamburgers exceeded "600 mg (90.3% of the total daily allowance)" and were also classified as high sodium foods. In addition, ready-to-eat foods in amusement parks are similar to foods eaten on streets and foods around school zones, which contain high sodium content; thus, the intake frequency might be high, which would induce high risk to children health. Koreans already consume a high amount of sodium daily via their usual diets. So, the sodium content in snacks and substitution foods needs to be reduced. Consequently, this study noted that parents and guardians should carefully consider their children's consumption of ready-to-eat foods from Korean amusement parks. PMID:23822106

  11. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:? 1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:? 1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:? 0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds. PMID:22988491

  12. Life and Health Insurance Industry Investments in Fast Food

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U.; Boyd, J. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions. PMID:20395572

  13. Fast food and financial impatience: a socioecological approach.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Sanford E; House, Julian; Zhong, Chen-Bo

    2013-09-01

    We investigated whether the prevalence of fast-food restaurants in the social ecology are associated with greater financial impatience at the national, neighborhood, and individual level. Study 1 shows that the proliferation of fast-food restaurants over the past 3 decades in the developed world was associated with a historic shift in financial impatience, as manifested in precipitously declining household savings rates. Study 2 finds that households saved less when living in neighborhoods with a higher concentration of fast-food restaurants relative to full-service restaurants. With a direct measure of individuals' delay discounting preferences, Study 3 confirms that a higher concentration of fast-food restaurants within one's neighborhood is associated with greater financial impatience. In line with a causal relationship, Study 4 reveals that recalling a recent fast-food, as opposed to full-service, dining experience at restaurants within the same neighborhood induced greater delay discounting, which was mediated behaviorally by how quickly participants completed the recall task itself. Finally, Study 5 demonstrates that pedestrians walking down the same urban street exhibited greater delay discounting in their choice of financial reward if they were surveyed in front of a fast-food restaurant, compared to a full-service restaurant. Collectively, these data indicate a link between the prevalence of fast food and financial impatience across multiple levels of analysis, and suggest the plausibility of fast food having a reinforcing effect on financial impatience. The present investigation highlights how the pervasiveness of organizational cues in the everyday social ecology can have a far-ranging influence. PMID:23773044

  14. Knowledge of Fats\\/Oils and Fat Content of Foods by Fast Food Restaurant Managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bednar; D. Czajka-Narins; F. Elahi

    1998-01-01

    A questionnaire was developed focusing on food preparation and types of fats\\/oils, knowledge of fats\\/oils and fat content of foods. The questionnaire was validated by a group of seven foodservice professionals and was pilot tested with ten local restaurant managers. A nationwide sample of 100 fast food restaurant chains located in the 100 largest metropolitan areas of the country was

  15. High trans fatty acid content in common Indian fast foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aachu Agrawal; Rajeev Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Trans fatty acids (TFA) are deleterious to health and can lead to multiple diseases. The purpose of this paper is to study their content in Indian sweets and snacks (fast foods). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper used the food composition and analysis tables of the Indian National Institute of Nutrition to determine fatty acid composition of common nutrients. Separate

  16. The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hartini, T Ninuk S; Padmawati, R Siwi; Lindholm, Lars; Surjono, Achmad; Winkvist, Anna

    2005-07-01

    This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women, two in-depth interviews were held with traditional birth attendants, and four with midwives. Women were categorized as urban or rural, rich or poor, and according to rice field ownership. The women reported that before the crisis they bought more foods and cooked more meals and snacks. During the crisis, cooking methods became simpler and cooking tasty foods was more important than cooking nutritious foods. This involved using plenty of spices and cooking oil, but reducing the use of expensive nutritious foods. The herbal drink jamu was drunk by 15% of pregnant women; its consumption was lower during than before the economic crisis. Twenty-six percent of the women avoided certain foods due to food taboos, and most of these women avoided beneficial foods; this phenomenon decreased during the crisis among the rich and the rural, poor, landless women. In spite of increased prices for rice, women did not decrease their rice consumption during the crisis because rice was believed to have the highest value for survival, to provide strength during pregnancy and delivery, and to be easier to store and cook. Finally, children and husbands had highest priority in being served food, and women were the last to eat. PMID:15847972

  17. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  18. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R Sharkey; Scott Horel; Daikwon Han; John C Huber Jr

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. METHODS: Data

  19. Food choice in disorders of eating behavior: correlations with the psychopathological aspects of the diseases.

    PubMed

    Segura-García, Cristina; De Fazio, Pasquale; Sinopoli, Flora; De Masi, Roberta; Brambilla, Francesca

    2014-07-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are characterized by alterations in food choice and in the quantity and quality of nutrient intake. In a population of 124 female patients with ED (anorexia nervosa restricting subtype [AN-R, n=37]; AN bingeing-purging subtype [AN-BP, n=18]; bulimia nervosa purging subtype [BN-P, n=40]; and binge eating disorder [BED, n=29]) and healthy age-matched controls ([C], n=20) we compared food choice and macronutrient intake with psychopathologic symptoms of the disorders. Data were collected from the probands' 7-day food diaries and the scores from two assessment scales (Eating Disorder Inventory-2 [EDI-2] and Temperament and Character Inventory-revised [TCI-R]) that measure symptom domains, dimensions of personality and character dimensions, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to the nutritional data and scale scores. When compared to the values for the control group, intake of animal proteins (grams) was significantly lower for all patient groups, intake of lactoproteins was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP than BN-P and BED groups, intake of vegetal proteins was higher for the AN-R, AN-BP, BN-P and BED groups, intake of dietary fats was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP subtype groups, and intake of total carbohydrates and oligosaccharides was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP groups, and oligosaccharides also for the BED, when calculated in grams but not when expressed in percent. When studied as percent values animal proteins were lower in patients than in controls, lactoprotein in BN-P and BED, vegetal proteins higher in all the patients, fat lower in AN-R and AN-BP, while carbohydrates did not differ between patients and controls. Significant correlations emerged between food choice and TCI-R and EDI-2 scale scores. Food choice in ED might depend on alterations in neurotransmitter peptides, neuropeptides, and peripheral peptides, which regulate and are regulated by macronutrient intake and underlie psychological and temperamental alterations. PMID:24703769

  20. Contaminant migration from food packaging laminates used for heat and eat meals.

    PubMed

    Lawson, G; Barkby, C T; Lawson, C

    1996-02-01

    EU legislation requires that components from food contact plastics should not migrate significantly into the food. The nature and extent of species migrating from laminated materials used for packaging 'heat and eat' meals have been investigated. Selected target analytes included additives incorporated into the polyolefin, e.g. the Irganox and Irgafos antioxidants, the diisocyanate and polyol residues from the adhesive and oligomeric material from the nylon. The results identified a wide range of migrants arising from each of the individual components of the laminate. Some of the migrants have been identified as precursors of the principal components of the laminate as well as those anticipated from a knowledge of the laminate construction. The levels of migration for those components identified and quantified has been well below the legal limits. Some significant migrant species have been however left unidentified by this investigation. PMID:15048438

  1. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (?2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  2. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. METHODS: The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File

  3. Fast food restaurants and food stores: longitudinal associations with diet in young adults: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of cross-sectional, small-sample research has led to policy strategies to reduce food deserts – neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy foods – by limiting fast food restaurants and small food stores and increasing access to supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods. Methods We used 15 years of longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of U.S. young adults (n=5,115, 18–30 years at baseline), with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived food resource measures. Using repeated measures from four examination periods (n=15,854 person-exam observations) and conditional regression (conditioned on the individual), we modeled fast food consumption, diet quality, and meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations as a function of fast food chain, supermarket, or grocery store availability (counts per population) within 1 kilometer (km), 1–2.9km, 3–4.9km, and 5–8km of respondents’ homes. Models were sex-stratified, controlled for individual sociodemographics and neighborhood poverty, and tested for interaction by individual-level income. Results Fast food consumption was related to fast food availability in low-income respondents, particularly within 1–2.9km of homes among men [coefficient (95% CI) up to: 0.34 (0.16, 0.51)]. Greater supermarket availability was generally unrelated to diet quality and fruit and vegetable intake and relationships between grocery store availability and diet outcomes were mixed. Conclusions Our findings provide some evidence for zoning restrictions on fast food restaurants within 3km of low-income residents, but suggest that increased access to food stores may require complementary or alternative strategies to promote dietary behavior change. PMID:21747011

  4. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify potential targets for intervention. PMID:19040722

  5. Virulence and resistance gene profiles of staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Andreas; Niederhauser, Isabel; Johler, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning represents the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. Oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins from food can result in emesis and diarrhea and can be fatal in children and the elderly. Few data have been available on the characteristics and sources of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. In this study, we used a DNA microarray to determine virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles of S. aureus from RTE foods. A total of 267 S. aureus strains isolated from 244 RTE foods were investigated. The isolates originated from precooked foods (41% of isolates), meat and fish products (17%), cheese (13%), delicatessen salads (8%), sandwiches and canapés (8%), confectionery and bakery products (6%), and various other RTE foods (7%). Eleven samples (5%), of which 9 were raw milk cheeses, contained > 10(5) CFU/g, which is considered a health risk. Four S. aureus strains were associated with intoxications; three cases were linked to consumption of cheese and one case was linked to consumption of potato salad. DNA microarray results revealed that one-third of the tested strains had at least one major enterotoxin gene (sea through see). We also detected the toxic shock syndrome gene (18% of isolates) and various genes conferring antimicrobial resistance, including genes involved in resistance to beta-lactams (blaZ, 72% of isolates), methicillin (mecA, 1% of isolates), and vancomycin (vanB, 1% of isolates). S. aureus strains were most frequently assigned to clonal complex (CC) 30 (17% of isolates), CC8 (12%), CC15 (11%), and CC45 (10%), which are commonly detected in humans colonized or infected with S. aureus. Although a large proportion of the tested food items contained milk, we did not detect CC705, the most prevalent clonal complex among S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk. Our results suggest that S. aureus isolates from RTE foods do not commonly originate from animals but more likely come from food handlers who contaminate foods. PMID:24988036

  6. Simple Conceptual Model for Fast-Food Restaurant (after Robinson 2004) Problem statement: A fast-food restaurant is experiencing problems with one of its branches in its

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Simple Conceptual Model for Fast-Food Restaurant (after Robinson 2004) Problem statement: A fast-food that this is not the result of shortages in food, but a shortage of service personnel. Objective(s): The number of service Justification Customers Include Flow through service process Staff Service Include Required for response Food

  7. Factors Predicting Staying in School to Eat Lunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…

  8. Food safety issues and training methods for ready-to-eat foods in the grocery industry.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Margaret; Ghiselli, Richard

    2005-10-01

    As Americans have become more pressed for time, the use of convenient, simplified meals become a way of life. One aspect of this trend, known as Home Meal Replacement (IIMR), has increased in sales since its inception. Between 1999 and 2001, the average annual expenditure per consumer rose 5.6 pereent, and $958 per person per year was spent in 2002. Along with this growth, food safety risks may have increased. The study reported here examined efforts being undertaken by grocery and convenience stores to control the wholesomeness of INR food items. After a convenience sample of 500 grocery store executives was identified, a 32-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to the executives. The results indicate that the industry has taken food safety seriously with only 10 pereent reporting that they have no food safety training. The executives cited employee turnover as a major concern in food safety today, along with lack of food safety knowledge of the consumer and improper holding temperatures. PMID:16312253

  9. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR. PMID:21266055

  10. Time to eat: the relationship between the number of people eating and meal duration in three lunch settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick Bell; Patricia L Pliner

    2003-01-01

    We conducted an observational study of customers in three different types of lunch settings: a worksite cafeteria, a fast-food restaurant, and a moderately priced restaurant, and assessed the relationship between meal duration and the number of people eating at each table (group size). Results suggest a significant positive correlation between group size and meal duration, collapsing over eating settings. Analysis

  11. Prevalence, molecular characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. in Chinese ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoke; Li, Chengsi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Yang, Guangzhu

    2015-07-01

    Cronobacter spp. are foodborne pathogens that cause rare but life-threatening diseases in neonates and infants; they can also cause disease in adults. Cronobacter spp. contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods has been reported previously. However, to date, the prevalence and contamination levels of these bacteria in RTE foods in China have not yet been determined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in RTE foods marketed in China. Two-hundred and eighty RTE food samples were collected from different producers and retailers and analyzed using quantitative methods. The isolates obtained were identified to the species level based on fusA sequences, and were subtyped using a PCR-based serotyping technique. Selected isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial sensitivity determination. Of 280 samples tested, 52 (18.6%) were positive for Cronobacter spp. The contamination levels were less than 110MPN/g for 78.8% (41/52) of the samples. The results of the O-antigen serotyping for 111 isolates showed that Cronobacter sakazakii serogroup O2 (28 isolates) was the most prevalent serotype. MLST analyses produced 41 sequence types (STs), including 20 novel STs. ST8 was the most prevalent ST (9 isolates) followed by ST4 (5 isolates). Antimicrobial sensitivity testing showed that 84.5% and 46.5% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin G and cephalothin, respectively; in contrast, all of the tested isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Cronobacter spp. prevalence in RTE foods in China, and the findings of our study nonetheless suggested that Cronobacter spp. contamination of Chinese RTE foods poses a potential risk for the consumer. Thus, the study highlights the significance of developing more effective control strategies during the manufacturing process. PMID:25828706

  12. Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger)?×?2 (portion size: small vs. big)?×?2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25934089

  13. What do children eat in the Delta: Results from development of a regional child food frequency questionnaire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemic of obesity and the fact that children are currently at risk presents challenges in both estimating current food intakes and developing appropriate interventions to address the problem. Obtaining eating patterns and nutritional intakes of children presents a first step in evaluating the ...

  14. Role of quantitative risk assessment and food safety objectives in managing Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Walls

    2006-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes may be found on ready-to-eat (RTE) meats, posing a public health risk. To minimize the public health impact, an appropriate level of protection (ALOP) can be established for a population with respect to L. monocytogenes, and ideally should be based on a scientific assessment of the risk, as well as societal and economic factors. Food safety systems can

  15. Think Before You Eat: Calories and Exercise Equivalents Presented on Menus at Point-of-Choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Stuart Platkin

    2009-01-01

    Although calorie information at the point-of-purchase at fast food restaurants is proposed as a method to decrease calorie choices and combat obesity, research results have been mixed. Much of the supportive research has weak methodology, and is limited. There is a demonstrated need to develop better techniques to assist consumers to make lower calorie food choices. Eating at fast food

  16. Think before you eat: Calories and exercise equivalents presented on menus at point-of-choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Stuart Platkin

    2009-01-01

    Although calorie information at the point-of-purchase at fast food restaurants is proposed as a method to decrease calorie choices and combat obesity, research results have been mixed. Much of the supportive research has weak methodology, and is limited. There is a demonstrated need to develop better techniques to assist consumers to make lower calorie food choices. Eating at fast food

  17. Technologies and Mechanisms for Safety Control of Ready-to-eat Muscle Foods: An Updated Review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2015-11-10

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) muscle foods refer to a general category of meat and poultry products that are fully cooked and consumable without reheating. These products, including whole and sliced pork, beef, turkey, chicken, and variety of meats, in the forms of ham, roast, rolls, sausage, and frankfurter, are widely available in the delicatessen section of retail stores or various food service outlets. However, difficulties in avoidance of contamination by foodborne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes, during product postlethality repackaging render RTE meats labile to outbreaks. Accordingly, the USDA-FSIS has established processing guidelines and regulations, which are constantly updated, to minimize foodborne pathogens in RTE products. Technologies that complement good manufacturing practice have been developed to control RTE meat safety. Among them, various antimicrobial product formulations, postpackaging pasteurization (thermal and nonthermal), and antimicrobial packaging are being used. Through these efforts, outbreaks linked to RTE meat consumption have substantially reduced in recent years. However, the pervasive and virulent nature of L. monocytogenes and the possible presence of other cold-tolerant pathogens entail continuing developments of new intervention technologies. This review updates existing and emerging physical and chemical methods and their mode of action to inactivate or inhibit threatening microorganisms in RTE muscle foods. PMID:24754253

  18. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased. PMID:20305749

  19. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008, Tables 1-4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four table sets include national estimates of mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns (FP) consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,529 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2007-2...

  20. Fast food in a Chinese provincial city: a comparative analysis 

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Haiying

    2006-08-16

    Â?an, by insisting on a high degree of local ownership and by modestly tailoring their products to local taste. Second, the mere presence of these Western chains has encouraged Chinese entrepreneurs to develop decidedly local versions of modern fast food enterprises....

  1. Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast?

    E-print Network

    Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast? Kevin J. Verstrepen1,2 , Dirk 197, Glen Osmond, Adelaide SA-5064, Australia Yeast cells often encounter a mixture of different resist- ance. In an industrial context, these effects lead to several yeast-related problems

  2. Modeling repurchase frequency and customer satisfaction for fast food outlets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes K. Y. Law; Y. V. Hui; Xiande Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Although customer satisfaction and loyalty have attracted a lot of attention in service management research, relatively few studies have examined the impact of waiting time and service quality on customer satisfaction and repurchase frequency. In this study, we model the relationships between customer satisfaction, repurchase frequency, waiting time and other service quality factors in fast food outlets. The results indicate

  3. Eye gaze tracking reveals heightened attention to food in adults with binge eating when viewing images of real-world scenes.

    PubMed

    Popien, Avery; Frayn, Mallory; von Ranson, Kristin M; Sears, Christopher R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with eating disorders often exhibit food-related biases in attention tasks. To assess the engagement and maintenance of attention to food in adults with binge eating, in the present study, eye gaze tracking was used to compare fixations to food among non-clinical adults with versus without binge eating while they viewed images of real-world scenes. Fifty-seven participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-second presentations of scenes containing high-calorie and/or low-caloriefood items in various settings (restaurants, social gatherings, etc.). Participants with binge eating fixated on both high-calorie and low-calorie food items significantly more than controls, and this was the case when the high- and low-calorie food items were presented in the same image and in different images. Participants with binge eating also fixated on food items significantly earlier in the presentations. A time course analysis that divided each 8-second presentation into 2-second intervals revealed that participants with binge eating attended to food items more than control participants throughout the 8-second presentation. These results have implications for theory regarding the initiation and maintenance of binge eating. PMID:25888073

  4. The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet?123

    PubMed Central

    Poti, Jennifer M; Duffey, Kiyah J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although fast food consumption has been linked to adverse health outcomes, the relative contribution of fast food itself compared with the rest of the diet to these associations remains unclear. Objective: Our objective was to compare the independent associations with overweight/obesity or dietary outcomes for fast food consumption compared with dietary pattern for the remainder of intake. Design: This cross-sectional analysis studied 4466 US children aged 2–18 y from NHANES 2007–2010. Cluster analysis identified 2 dietary patterns for the non–fast food remainder of intake: Western (50.3%) and Prudent. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models examined the association between fast food consumption and dietary pattern for the remainder of intake and estimated their independent associations with overweight/obesity and dietary outcomes. Results: Half of US children consumed fast food: 39.5% low-consumers (?30% of energy from fast food) and 10.5% high-consumers (>30% of energy). Consuming a Western dietary pattern for the remainder of intake was more likely among fast food low-consumers (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.85) and high-consumers (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.60, 3.05) than among nonconsumers. The remainder of diet was independently associated with overweight/obesity (?: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 10.5), whereas fast food consumption was not, and the remainder of diet had stronger associations with poor total intake than did fast food consumption. Conclusions: Outside the fast food restaurant, fast food consumers ate Western diets, which might have stronger associations with overweight/obesity and poor dietary outcomes than fast food consumption itself. Our findings support the need for prospective studies and randomized trials to confirm these hypotheses. PMID:24153348

  5. Time to eat: the relationship between the number of people eating and meal duration in three lunch settings.

    PubMed

    Bell, Rick; Pliner, Patricia L

    2003-10-01

    We conducted an observational study of customers in three different types of lunch settings: a worksite cafeteria, a fast-food restaurant, and a moderately priced restaurant, and assessed the relationship between meal duration and the number of people eating at each table (group size). Results suggest a significant positive correlation between group size and meal duration, collapsing over eating settings. Analysis of variance yielded significant main effects of both eating setting and of group size, indicating that meal durations were longest in the moderately priced restaurant and shortest in the fast-food restaurant. An interaction between group size and eating setting indicates that the magnitude of the group size effect on meal duration differed in the different situations, with the effect of group size on duration being smallest, but still significant, in the fast-food setting compared with the other two settings. PMID:14550324

  6. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Girardet, Clémence; Bonnet, Marion S; Jdir, Rajae; Sadoud, Medhi; Thirion, Sylvie; Tardivel, Catherine; Roux, Julien; Lebrun, Bruno; Wanaverbecq, Nicolas; Mounien, Lourdes; Trouslard, Jérôme; Jean, André; Dallaporta, Michel; Troadec, Jean-Denis

    2011-01-01

    Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders. PMID:22022538

  7. Course Syllabus: Food for thought: The cognitive science of eating H205 Honors Seminar (for freshmen)

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    ) indiana.edu Books: Logue, A.W. (2004). The psychology of eating and drinking (3rd ed.). New York: Brunner tba Professor: Peter M. Todd Office Hours: tba, in Psychology 369, phone 855-3914 Email: pmtodd (at-Routledge. Wansink, B. (2006). Mindless eating: Why we eat more than we think. New York: Bantam Books. Other readings

  8. Benchmarking the service quality of fast-food restaurant franchises in the USA : A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hokey Min; Hyesung Min

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – To help fast-food restaurants enhance their competitiveness and then increase their market share, the purpose of this paper is to measure the service performances of fast-food restaurant franchises in the USA and identify salient factors influencing the service performances of fast-food restaurants over time. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper develops a set of benchmarks that helps fast-food restaurants monitor

  9. A national study of the association between neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets and the diet and weight of local residents.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jamie; Hiscock, Rosemary; Blakely, Tony; Witten, Karen

    2009-03-01

    Differential locational access to fast-food retailing between neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status has been suggested as a contextual explanation for the social distribution of diet-related mortality and morbidity. This New Zealand study examines whether neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets is associated with individual diet-related health outcomes. Travel distances to the closest fast-food outlet (multinational and locally operated) were calculated for all neighbourhoods and appended to a national health survey. Residents in neighbourhoods with the furthest access to a multinational fast-food outlet were more likely to eat the recommended intake of vegetables but also be overweight. There was no association with fruit consumption. Access to locally operated fast-food outlets was not associated with the consumption of the recommended fruit and vegetables or being overweight. Better neighbourhood access to fast-food retailing is unlikely to be a key contextual driver for inequalities in diet-related health outcomes in New Zealand. PMID:18499502

  10. www.arts.canterbury.ac.nz/internships Project Title: Density of Fast Food

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    www.arts.canterbury.ac.nz/internships Project Title: Density of Fast Food Outlets and Health of the density of fast food outlets needs to be carried out and an agreement reached on density on issues with site and academic advisers, the intern will conduct a stock take of fast food outlets in: o CBD (within

  11. Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder during pregnancy1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Margaretha Haugen; Helle M Meltzer; Ann Von Holle; Robert Hamer; Leila Torgersen; Cecilie Knopf-Berg; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Cynthia M Bulik

    Background: Little is known concerning the dietary habits during pregnancy of women with eating disorders that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective: We examined the nutrient and food group intakes of womenwithbulimianervosaandbinge-eatingdisorderduringpreg- nancy and compared these with intakes of women with no eating disorders. Design: Data on 30 040 mother-child pairs from the prospective Norwegian

  12. I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others

    PubMed Central

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was M? = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of M? = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers’ meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. PMID:26066013

  13. I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was M? = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of M? = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers' meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. PMID:26066013

  14. "Overeating is not about the food": women describe their experience of a yoga treatment program for binge eating.

    PubMed

    McIver, Shane; McGartland, Michael; O'Halloran, Paul

    2009-09-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods study, data from 20 personal journals were analyzed to examine the experience of a 12-week yoga treatment program for binge eating among a sample of 25 women who were obese. Qualitative analysis revealed a positive shift experienced by the women during the program, summarized by a general structural description: disconnection versus connection. Women's comments suggested that the program appeared to encourage a healthy reconnection to food, as well as the development of physical self-empowerment, through cultivating present-moment awareness. Specifically, women perceived an overall reduction in the quantity of food they consumed, decreased eating speed, and an improvement in food choices throughout the program. The women also reported feeling more connected to and positive about their physical well-being. These evolving outcomes were summarized through two major themes: the way their physicality changed, and the way their food consumption changed over time. Findings provide insights relevant to therapeutic processes that might occur within eating disorder interventions that draw on meditation-based approaches. PMID:19690205

  15. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

  16. Proximate, mineral and fatty acid composition of fast foods consumed in Bahrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger; Jassim H. Al-Jedah; Reshma Dsouza

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the commonly consumed fast foods in Bahrain with respect to proximate, mineral, sterol composition and their fatty acid profile. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Foods were purchased from the most frequented fast food outlets in Manama city, the capital of Bahrain. Similar types of foods were pooled into one sample. Proximate composition was

  17. Mouth-Healthy Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    Mouth-Healthy Eating Immediate Effects of Food Long-Term Effects What To Eat If you want to prevent cavities, how ... oral health is the first step toward mouth-healthy eating. Immediate Effects of Food Changes begin in your ...

  18. Relationship of perceived macronutrient and caloric content to affective cognitions about food in eating-disordered, restrained , and unrestrained subjects1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne R Sunday; Andrea Einhorn

    Cognitive sets concerning food were examined in eating-disorder patients and in restrained and unrestrained control subjects. Subjects rated 38 common foods for preference, presence or absence of guilt and danger, preferred monthly fre- quency, and caloric, fat, and carbohydrate content. Cognitive ratings were examined based upon the individual's perceived amounts ofcalories and macronutrients. Hedonic ratings of foods perceived as high

  19. Fast Fats: A Nutritional Analysis of America's Obsession with Fast Foods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rachelle Kean (AAAS; )

    2008-05-01

    Few will disagree that fast foods are a staple in the diets of many Americans. Even our nation's schools feature vending machines full of foods that are high in calories, short on nutrition, and all too easy to buy. With busy lifestyles and complicated schedules, what are the long term effects of a diet high in saturated fats? What about all the "good carbs" and "bad carbs" we have been hearing so much about?In this three part lesson, students will examine nutrition labels for caloric intake using various snack foods. Then, they will determine the number of calories in a food item. Finally, they will conduct a research project in which they examine the food choices of their classmates.

  20. Eating rate in the treatment of eating disorders and obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Södersten; M. Zandian; I. Ioakimidis; C. Bergh

    The results suggest that linear eaters, who eat at a constant rate, are unable to adjust their intake when challenged to eat at a rate that differs from their baseline rate. This is referred to as disinhibition, which is shown by those at risk for both eating disorders (too little food when eating slowly) and obesity (too much food when

  1. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters or supermarkets, grocery stores, or fast food restaurants. Increasing deprivation was associated with decreasing numbers of grocery stores, mass merchandisers, dollar stores, and fast food restaurants within 3 miles. Conclusion It is important to understand not only the distance that people must travel to the nearest store to make a purchase, but also how many shopping opportunities they have in order to compare price, quality, and selection. Future research should examine how spatial access to the food environment influences the utilization of food stores and fast food restaurants, and the strategies used by low-income families to obtain food for the household. PMID:19220879

  2. Food Rx: A Community-University Partnership to Prescribe Healthy Eating on the South Side of Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Goddu, Anna P.; Roberson, Tonya S.; Raffel, Katie E.; Chin, Marshall H.; Peek, Monica E.

    2013-01-01

    Patients living with diabetes in underserved communities face significant challenges to eating healthy. To support them, we need interventions that integrate community resources into the health care setting. A “prescription” for healthy food may be a promising platform for such a community-linked intervention: it can promote behavior change, provide nutrition education, include financial incentives and connect patients to local resources. We describe Food Rx, a food prescription collaboratively developed by a university research team, Walgreens, a local farmers market, and six health centers on the South Side of Chicago. We share preliminary lessons learned from implementation, highlighting how each stakeholder (university, community partners, and clinics) contributed to this multi-faceted effort while meeting research standards, organizational priorities, and clinic workflow demands. Although implementation is in early stages, Food Rx shows promise as a model for integrating community and health care resources to support the health of underserved patients. PMID:25898221

  3. Food rx: a community-university partnership to prescribe healthy eating on the South side of chicago.

    PubMed

    Goddu, Anna P; Roberson, Tonya S; Raffel, Katie E; Chin, Marshall H; Peek, Monica E

    2015-01-01

    Patients living with diabetes in underserved communities face significant challenges to healthy eating. To support them, we need interventions that integrate community resources into the healthcare setting. A "prescription" for healthy food may be a promising platform for such a community-linked intervention: it can promote behavior change, provide nutrition education, include financial incentives, and connect patients to local resources. We describe Food Rx, a food prescription collaboratively developed by a university research team, Walgreens, a local farmers market, and six health centers on the South Side of Chicago. We share preliminary lessons learned from implementation, highlighting how each stakeholder (university, community partners, and clinics) contributed to this multifaceted effort while meeting research standards, organizational priorities, and clinic workflow demands. Although implementation is in early stages, Food Rx shows promise as a model for integrating community and healthcare resources to support the health of underserved patients. PMID:25898221

  4. THANKSGIVING Eating together, eating alone

    E-print Network

    Albright, Tom

    eating came when I was a graduate student. Nearly every day my Brazilian colleague would walk the halls eaters would seem to benefit because they don't have to compete with others for food, which may be a limited resource. On the other hand, while social eaters must share the food, they benefit from

  5. Survey on the Listeria contamination of ready-to-eat food products and household environments in Vienna, Austria.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M; Auer, B; Trittremmel, C; Hein, I; Schoder, D

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative contamination of ready-to-eat food-stuffs with the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was studied in 1586 samples collected from 103 supermarkets (n = 946) and 61 households (n = 640) in Vienna, Austria. Seventeen groups of ready-to-eat foods were classified into three risk categories for contamination (CP1-CP3). Three to four samples were randomly collected at the retail level from each CP. Regarding the households, the sampling procedure was started with food items of CP1, and if not available, was continued with sampling of food items of CP2 and finally of CP3. Additionally, 184 environmental samples (swabs from the kitchen area, dust samples from the vacuum cleaner) and faecal samples (household members and pet animals) were included. One-hundred and twenty-four (13.1%) and 45 (4.8%) samples out of 946 food samples collected from food retailers tested positive for Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, respectively, with five smoked fish samples exceeding the tolerated limit of 100 CFU/g food. Food-stuffs associated with the highest risk of contamination were twice as frequently contaminated with L. monocytogenes as food-stuffs associated with a medium risk of contamination. Products showing the highest contamination rate were fish and seafood (19.4%), followed by raw meat sausages (6.3%), soft cheese (5.5%) and cooked meat products/patés (4.5%). The overall contamination rate of foods collected at the household level was more than two times lower. Only 5.6% and 1.7% of 640 food-stuffs analysed tested positive for Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, respectively. However, CP1 foods were rarely collected. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of the collected L. monocytogenes isolates revealed a high degree of diversity between the isolates, with some exceptions. PFGE typing of isolates harvested from green-veined cheese revealed a match among strains, although the manufacturer seemed to be distinguishable. Typing of household strains revealed an epidemiological link within one family. In this case, food-stuffs and the kitchen environment were contaminated by an indistinguishable isolate. In addition, the same isolate was collected from a pooled faecal sample of the household members suggesting that consumption of even low contaminated food items (<100 CFU/g) results in Listeria shedding after the passage through the gut. PMID:17359442

  6. Healthy Eating

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Smith

    2011-12-12

    Using websites and interactive games students will discover how eating healthy effects their bodies. Healthy eating is important in helping our bodies function at their best! Follow the links below and then answer the questions in our Healthy Foods project folder on our class wiki! VisitDining Decisionsand play a fun game where you will load your lunch tray with healthy choices. How do your current lunch choices ...

  7. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (?85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. PMID:21439918

  8. INACTIVATION OF PATHOGENS IN COMPLEX READY-TO-EAT FOODS USING GAMMA IRRADIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other “heat and eat” multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on raw meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. ...

  9. Assessing the roles of impulsivity, food-related cognitions, BMI, and demographics in the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Lewis, Robin J

    2015-08-01

    The dual pathway model is a widely accepted model of binge eating that focuses on the role of sociocultural factors, negative affect, and dietary restraint. However, less is known about demographic (e.g., gender and ethnicity) differences in the model and the role of other variables in the model. To further our understanding of the dual pathway model of binge eating, the current study examined the role of demographics (i.e., gender, race, BMI, parental education and obesity), impulsivity, and food-related cognitions in the dual pathway model. A sample of college students completed a battery of measures. Multi-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the dual pathway model separately for men and women. Results supported the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women, and also supported food-related cognitions as an important variable prior to binge eating. In other words, body shame was associated with more dietary restraint and negative affect, and in turn, dietary restraint and negative affect were associated with increased negative food-related cognitions. Then, food-related cognitions predicted binge eating. Additionally impulsivity was related to body shame, negative affect, and food-related cognitions, but was unrelated to binge eating after controlling for the other variables. Racial differences existed among women in BMI and body shame, but there were no racial differences among men. Our results suggest that the dual pathway model adequately explains binge eating among men and women, but that food-related cognitions may be an imporant anteceden to binge eating. PMID:26094134

  10. The association among food addiction, binge eating severity and psychopathology in obese and overweight patients attending low-energy-diet therapy.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Continisio, Massimo; Tamburello, Stella; Lamis, Dorian A; Tamburello, Antonino; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have shown that food addiction (FA) is strongly related with psychopathology. However, this relationship may be partly mediated by the presence and severity of binge eating. The aim of the current study was to assess the strength of the association between FA and psychopathology, and whether this relationship was mediated by the presence and severity of binge eating. Participants were 112 patients seeking weight loss interventions. All the participants were administered the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), The Symptom Check list-90-R (SCL-90), and the Binge Eating Scale (BES). Thirty-eight (33.9%) individuals were diagnosed as having FA. FA severity was strongly associated with binge eating, whereas both FA and binge eating were positively and moderately associated with psychopathology. A mediational model analyzing direct and indirect (through the mediating role of binge eating) effects of FA on psychopathology indicated that the relation between FA and psychopathology was fully mediated by the severity of binge eating. This finding suggests that FA may contribute to the development of psychopathology through its effect on binge eating. PMID:24889343

  11. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Free Stuff Be a Partner Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating Sometimes it’s hard to make smart food choices . ... from Go4Life to help you overcome barriers to healthy eating. Does food taste different? Your sense of taste ...

  12. Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  13. Consumption, health attitudes and perception toward fast food among Arab consumers in Kuwait: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume "double" burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their "fast food" classification. PMID:25363129

  14. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet

    PubMed Central

    Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population. PMID:25490960

  15. The Impact of Caloric Information on College Students' Fast Food Purchasing Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmont, Victoria; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fast food establishments are available on many college campuses and, as a result, many students consume foods that are high in calories and contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Purpose: This study measured college students' knowledge of the calorie content for fast food items and whether the provision of calorie information for those…

  16. Nutritional Profile of Local and Western Fast Foods Consumed in Bahrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger; Reshma DSouza

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the proximate, mineral, and vitamin content of 16 commonly consumed fast foods (local and Western-based) in Bahrain. Samples were collected from several food outlets in Manama city, the capital of Bahrain, and analyzed using standard methods. In general, the findings revealed that local fast foods had higher cholesterol and energy content (ranging

  17. Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation—substitution or concentration?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Macdonald; Steven Cummins; Sally Macintyre

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and

  18. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Lorna K.; Edwards, Kimberly L.; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. PMID:20623025

  19. Solar demonstration project in a fast-food restaurant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenahan, D.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a two-phase program in which the first phase included the successful use of heat reclamation equipment and energy conservation techniques at a typical fast-food restaurant are described. The project's second phase involved the engineering, designing, installation and interfacing of a solar collector system at the facility. The report will help to serve as a guide for other restaurants around the state, and possibly the nation, which wish to install energy saving systems, or adopt energy-saving techniques, geared to their special needs and equipment.

  20. Fast food costs and adolescent body mass index: evidence from panel data. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability of full-service restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and commercial physical activity-related facilities.

  1. What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

  2. Prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw and ready-to-eat foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) strains isolated from select raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were determined during 2011. LM was isolated from 26 (14.4%) of 180 food samples. Raw chicken breast showed the highest ...

  3. Getting my child to eat the right amount. Mothers' considerations when deciding how much food to offer their child at a meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding young children successfully requires parenting skills,trust that children will eat, and nutrition and child development knowledge to ensure that foods and the amounts offered are developmentally appropriate. Mothers are often responsible for determining how much food is offered to their chil...

  4. Cultural resistance to fast-food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15–19 years who are in and out of formal schooling and who are randomly representing upper, central and lower Isan. All were asked about their knowledge of fast-food health risks and their attitudes towards, and consumption of, fast food and traditional food. As well, we used several focus groups to obtain qualitative data to complement the information derived from the questionnaire. Some three quarters of sampled youth were aware that fast food causes obesity and half knew of the link to heart disease. About half consumed fast food regularly, induced by the appeal of ‘modern’ lifestyles, social events and marketing, as well as by the convenience, speed and taste. Nearly two-thirds thought that local foods should be more popular and these beliefs were more likely to be found among children from educated and urban families. Local foods already constitute a cultural resistance to fast-food uptake. We propose several methods to boost this resistance and protect the youth of Thailand against fast food and its many adverse health consequences. PMID:21547247

  5. Impacts of fast food and food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang XiaoYong; H. Dagevos

    2012-01-01

    Objective To simultaneously identify consumer segments based on individual-level consumption and community-level food retail environment data and to investigate whether the segments are associated with BMI and dietary knowledge in China. Design A multilevel latent class cluster model was applied to identify consumer segments based not only on their individual preferences for fast food, salty snack foods, and soft drinks

  6. Treatment of nocturnal eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H

    2009-09-01

    Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care and public health. Obesity is a global pandemic and a leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths annually. Normally, nighttime energy homeostasis is maintained, despite an absence of food intake, through appetite suppression and alterations in glucose metabolism that result in stable energy stores. Two conditions break this nighttime fast and are associated with weight gain as well as medical and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by isolated nocturnal eating, whereas the night-eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian delay in meal timing leading to evening hyperphagia, nocturnal eating, and morning anorexia. Recently, SRED has been associated with the benzodiazepine receptor agonist zolpidem. Both SRED and NES are treatable and represent potentially reversible forms of obesity. In SRED, the antiseizure medication topiramate and dopaminergics have both demonstrated promising results. Nocturnal eating associated with NES has responded well to sertraline. PMID:19744399

  7. THE PREVALENCE AND NUTRITIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION AMONG HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Saud; Leon, Janeen B.; David, Carol L.; Chang, Henry; Sidhu, Sanbir; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Fast food consumption has increased dramatically in the general population over the last 25 years. However, little is known about the prevalence and nutritional implications of fast food consumption among hemodialysis patients. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we obtained data on fast food consumption and nutrient intake (from four separate 24-hour dietary recalls) and nutritional parameters (from chart abstraction) for 194 randomly selected patients from 44 hemodialysis facilities in northeast Ohio. Results Eighty-one subjects (42%) reported consuming at least one fast food meal or snack in four days. Subjects who consumed more fast food had higher kilocalorie, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium intakes. For example, kilocalorie per kilogram intake per day increased from 18.9 to 26.1 with higher frequencies of fast food consumption (p=.003). Subjects who consumed more fast food also had higher serum phosphorus levels and interdialytic weight gains. Conclusion Fast food is commonly consumed by hemodialysis patients and is associated with a higher intake of kilocalories, carbohydrates, fats, and sodium and adverse changes in phosphorus and fluid balance. Further work is needed to understand the long-term benefits and risks of fast food consumption among hemodialysis patients. PMID:17586425

  8. 8 Food Webs in the Ocean: Who Eats Whom and How Much?

    E-print Network

    that form food webs are typically short (3­4 links), and that ecosystems with long food chains may be less stable than those with shorter food chains. Stomach contents have been the primary means for determining any level of the food chain and any size of prey. Food web analysis and estimates of consumption

  9. Effects of consistent food presentation on efficiency of eating and nutritive value of food consumed by children with severe neurological impairment.

    PubMed

    Pinnington, L; Hegarty, J

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine what implications consistent presentation of food, delivered by an assistive feeding device at a position regarded as optimal, would have for the maintenance of food intake, duration of meals, and efficiency of eating. The trial employed an AB within-subjects design and extended over a 9-month period. Twenty children, aged 7 to 17 years, with severe neurological impairment and associated eating difficulties, were studied. The effects of the intervention were compared by examination of diaries recording the sizes and composition of meals consumed during designated periods and by precautionary measures of growth and weight. Although no statistically significant changes in weight were recorded overall, meals presented consistently were consumed less efficiently and sometimes more slowly than were standard ones, where food was presented by hand. However, no change occurred in the amount of energy and protein consumed, which suggested that the children's ability to thrive was neither improved nor further compromised by participation in the study. The findings have implications for the way in which children are assisted during mealtimes by their caregivers. PMID:9828270

  10. The role of familiarity on modeling of eating and food consumption in children

    PubMed Central

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Coelho, Jennifer S.; Jarrin, Denise; Pliner, Patricia P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of peer and sibling influence on the cookie intake of normal-weight children. A total of 44 children (24 girls and 20 boys) aged 5 to 11 participated in this study. Children played a sorting task while being exposed to a large amount of cookies. Children were tested alone or with an unfamiliar peer or with a sibling. Results indicated that the social condition was related to the participants’ energy intake. Children eating with their siblings ate more cookies than did children eating with strangers and also consumed more cookies than did children eating alone. This pattern of results is consistent with previous research in adults indicating that familiarity between co-eaters influence how much one choose to eat. Furthermore, the degree of intake matching was extremely high among strangers, but low and not statistically significant in dyads of siblings. We conclude that matching effect is not ubiquitous and that familiarity affects the level of matching of eating in children. PMID:18068854

  11. Emotional eating moderates the relationship of night eating with binge eating and body mass.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184

  12. Assessing eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in children: new methods using food diaries in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating context is the immediate environment of each eating occasion (EO). There is limited knowledge on the effects of the eating context on food consumption in children, due to the difficulty in measuring the multiple eating contexts children experience throughout the day. This study applied ecological momentary assessment using food diaries to explore the relationships between eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in UK children. Methods Using 4 d unweighed food diaries, data were collected for 642 children aged 1.5-10y in two years of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2010). Participants recorded all foods and drinks consumed at each EO, where and with whom the food was consumed, whether the TV was on and if eaten at a table. Mixed logistic regression and mixed multinomial logistic regression were used to calculate associations between eating contexts and fruit and vegetables (FV) consumed by quartiles. Results Of 16,840 EOs, 73% took place at home and 31% with parents only. Frequency of eating alone and with friends increased with age. Compared to eating at home, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit at care outside home (>10-50g OR:2.39; >50-100g OR:2.12); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:3.53; >100g OR:1.88) and vegetables at school (>30-60g OR:3.56). Compared to eating with parents only, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit with friends (>10-50g OR:2.69; >50-100g OR:3.49), and with carer and other children/others (>10-50g OR:2.25); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:1.96) and vegetables with friends (>30-60g OR:3.56). Children of all ages were more likely to eat vegetables when the TV was off than on and at a table than not at table. Conclusions The use of food diaries to capture multiple eating contexts and detailed fruit and vegetable consumption data was demonstrated at a population level. Higher odds of FV consumption were seen from structured settings such as school and care outside home than at home, as well as when eating at a table and the TV off. This study highlights eating contexts where provision of fruit and vegetables could be improved, especially at home. Future research should take eating context into consideration when planning interventions to target children’s food consumption and eating behaviour. PMID:23078656

  13. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  14. Seizures after eating a snack food contaminated with the pesticide endrin. The tale of the toxic taquitos.

    PubMed

    Waller, K; Prendergast, T J; Slagle, A; Jackson, R J

    1992-12-01

    In September 1988 we investigated reports of seizures in persons who had eaten taquitos, a commercially prepared snack food. We identified and interviewed 5 persons with new-onset seizures within 12 hours of eating taquitos, all purchased during a 1-week period from a single store. Leftover taquitos were found to contain endrin, a highly toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide. Although tissue confirmation of exposure to endrin was not possible and the level of contamination in the tested taquitos was below that previously thought to be capable of inducing seizures, the pattern of symptoms and the common time and place of purchase strongly suggested that the seizures were due to endrin-contaminated taquitos. The source of endrin contamination could not be determined. This episode is the first report of illness associated with endrin-contaminated food products in the United States. PMID:1475948

  15. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

  16. Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melissa; Hopkins, Laura; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Cristello, Angelica; Mccloskey, Morgan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Hurley, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores food preparation behaviors, including types of food prepared, methods of preparation, and frequency of preparation of low-income urban African American youth ages 9-15 in Baltimore City (n = 289) and analyzes a potential association to diet quality as measured through Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) scores. Overall, the youth prepared their own food 6.7 ± 0.33 times per week without significant differences between age groups or genders as measured through pairwise comparison of means. Cereal, noodles, and sandwiches were amongst the foods prepared most frequently. Linear regression analysis found youth food preparation frequency was not significantly associated with total HEI (p = 0.59), sodium (p = 0.58), empty calories (p = 0.96), or dairy scores (p = 0.12). Younger age was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.012) and higher dairy scores (p = 0.01) and female gender was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.03), higher sodium scores (p = 0.03), and lower dairy scores (p = 0.008). PMID:25706350

  17. Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J.

    2013-01-01

    Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach—as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members—were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10–14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

  18. 8 Food Webs in the Ocean: Who Eats Whom and How Much?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew W. Trites

    Over 100 food webs have been published for marine ecosystems to describe the transfer of food energy from its source in plants, through herbivores, to carnivores and higher order predators. The webs suggest that the lengths of the chains that form food webs are typically short (3-4 links), and that ecosystems with long food chains may be less stable than

  19. Availability of Shelf-Stable Foods: Advances in Production of Meal Ready to Eat (MRE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdy Hefnawy

    \\u000a The global food supply chain continues to be vulnerable to threats from a variety of directions. Food security and safety\\u000a became a hot topic worldwide in the academic research arena and food industry practices. Recognizing that food could be a\\u000a cause of significant disaster in communities, the need to secure safe and wholesome food is imperative during and after terrorist

  20. Multi-Attribute Dimensions of Service Quality in the Fast Food Restaurant Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philemon Oyewole

    1999-01-01

    As the fast food restaurant industry grows in the Western industrialized world, it has also become increasingly competitive. In such an environment, marketers are concerned about how to increase or maintain market share through better service quality and effective segmentation strategies. This paper reports a two-phase exploratory study conducted to determine the dimensions of service quality in the fast food

  1. Neighborhood playgrounds, fast food restaurants, and crime: relationships to overweight in low-income preschool children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillary L Burdette; Robert C Whitaker

    2004-01-01

    Background. We examined the relationship between overweight in preschool children and three environmental factors—the proximity of the children's residences to playgrounds and to fast food restaurants and the safety of the children's neighborhoods. We hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods were more likely to be overweight.Methods. This was a

  2. The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast Food Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence F. Katz; Alan B. Krueger

    1992-01-01

    Using data from a longitudinal survey of fast food restaurants in Texas, the authors examine the impact of recent changes in the federal minimum wage on a low-wage labor market The authors draw four main conclusions. First, the survey results indicate that less than 5 percent of fast food restaurants use the new youth subminimum wage even though the vast

  3. From the Cover: Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in fast food: Signatures of corn and confinement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hope Jahren; Rebecca A. Kraft

    2008-01-01

    Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We

  4. Influx of Enterococci and Associated Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Genes from Ready-To-Eat Food to the Human Digestive Tract?

    PubMed Central

    Macovei, Lilia; Zurek, Ludek

    2007-01-01

    The influx of enterococcal antibiotic resistance (AR) and virulence genes from ready-to-eat food (RTEF) to the human digestive tract was assessed. Three RTEFs (chicken salad, chicken burger, and carrot cake) were sampled from five fast-food restaurants five times in summer (SU) and winter (WI). The prevalence of enterococci was significantly higher in SU (92.0% of salad samples and 64.0% of burger samples) than in WI (64.0% of salad samples and 24.0% of burger samples). The overall concentrations of enterococci during the two seasons were similar (?103 CFU/g); the most prevalent were Enterococcus casseliflavus (41.5% of isolates) and Enterococcus hirae (41.5%) in WI and Enterococcus faecium (36.8%), E. casseliflavus (27.6%), and Enterococcus faecalis (22.4%) in SU. Resistance in WI was detected primarily to tetracycline (50.8%), ciprofloxacin (13.8%), and erythromycin (4.6%). SU isolates were resistant mainly to tetracycline (22.8%), erythromycin (22.1%), and kanamycin (13.0%). The most common tet gene was tet(M) (35.4% of WI isolates and 11.9% of SU isolates). The prevalence of virulence genes (gelE, asa1, cylA, and esp) and marker genes for clinical isolates (EF_0573, EF_0592, EF_0605, EF_1420, EF_2144, and pathogenicity island EF_0050) was low (?12.3%). Genotyping of E. faecalis and E. faecium using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the food contamination likely originated from various sources and that it was not clonal. Our conservative estimate (single AR gene copy per cell) for the influx of tet genes alone to the human digestive tract is 3.8 × 105 per meal (chicken salad). This AR gene influx is frequent because RTEFs are commonly consumed and that may play a role in the acquisition of AR determinants in the human digestive tract. PMID:17766449

  5. Impact of fast food meals on nutrient intake of two groups.

    PubMed

    Greecher, C P; Shannon, B

    1977-04-01

    Two groups in different population centers were studied to determine how often consumers frequented fast food restaurants, and consequently, how heavily they relied on this type of food for nutrients. A questionnaire was answered by 280 customers of two fast food restaurants of the same chain. They were asked how often they patronized fast food restaurants, their specific food choices, and other pertinent questions. Food choices were evaluated for energy and seven nutrients on the basis of published analyses of the menu items of the particular fast food chain. Fifty-two per cent of the subjects in the two groups considered their purchases to be meals. Seventy-seven per cent of these consumed one-third or more of the recommended dietary allowance for protein, but no more than 30 per cent received that amount of the other nutrients examined, including food energy. Calcium and particularly vitamin A were least often consumed in amounts equal to one-third of the recommended allowances. Consumer choices were responsible for low consumption of calcium, but no good sources of vitamin A were included on the menus. Fast food items were purchased so infrequently by the majority of our respondents that nutrient composition of the fast food meals or snacks would be of concern in only a small number of cases. This study indicates that any attempts to improve nutritive value of fast food snacks or meals must include efforts to lead consumers to make wiser food choices, as well as encourage the fast food industry to provide rich sources of all the nutrients in their menus. PMID:845349

  6. "I'm ready to eat and grab whatever I can get": Determinants and patterns of African American men's eating practices.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Wooley, Alana M; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-03-01

    This article examines determinants and patterns of African American men's dietary practices. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze data from nine exploratory focus groups conducted with 83 urban, middle-aged and older African American men from southeast Michigan. The men distinguished between healthy and unhealthy foods and "meals" versus other instances of eating. Eating patterns and content differed depending on the meal, work and family schedules, food availability, and whether it was a weekday or weekend. When eating alone or outside the home, men prioritized convenience and preferences for tasty, unhealthy foods. Men often reported skipping breakfast or lunch and grabbing snacks or fast food during the day. They emphasized sharing dinner with their spouses and families-usually a home-cooked, "healthy" meal. On weekends, spouses often cooked less and men snacked and dined out more frequently. Sunday dinners involving favorite, unhealthy comfort foods were the highlight of men's eating practices. African American men tended not to follow healthy eating recommendations because of their busy lives, reliance on spouses to prepare food, and preferences for unhealthy foods. These findings suggest that healthy eating interventions must consider how the contexts of African American men's lives shape their eating practices. PMID:22773618

  7. HOW MUCH WE EAT IN AMERICA--TRANSLATING FOOD PORTIONS INTO NUTRIENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete collection of food consumption data is only the first step in dietary assessment. The details about foods and amounts that are recalled by individuals must be converted into standard units for calculation of nutrients. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is a t...

  8. "Eating at Us": Representations of Knowledge in the Activist Documentary Film "Food, Inc."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Rick; Swan, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Writing on social movement learning and environmental adult education invokes particular views on knowledge that need further examination and development in relation to food social movements. Although food social movements take different forms, the paper argues that the politics of food knowledge is at the centre of many of these movements.…

  9. Providing Calorie Information on Fast-Food Restaurant Menu Boards: Consumer Views

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Rebecca C.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.; Story, Mary T.; French, Simone A.; Oakes, J. Michael; Rydell, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To gather consumer input about approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Design We asked a subset of individuals (n = 150) in an experimental study about the influence of nutrition labeling on fast-food meal choices to evaluate calorie information on mock fast-food menus in various formats. Setting Three community sites in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area. Subjects Adolescents and adults who ate fast food at least once per week were recruited. Measures Via a series of open- and close-ended questions, participants gave feedback about several formats for providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Analysis Means and frequencies were calculated, and ?2 tests were conducted. Results When asked to compare a menu that provided calorie information for each menu item with a menu that provided the number of minutes of running that would be required to burn the calories contained in each menu item, 71.0% of participants preferred the calorie information over the physical activity information. Participants also compared two approaches to providing caloric reference information on the menu (average daily calorie needs per day vs. per meal), and 61.3% preferred the calorie needs–per-meal format. Conclusion Our results may be useful in designing approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. PMID:19928485

  10. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility. PMID:19758736

  11. Caloric restriction in the presence of attractive food cues: External cues, eating, and weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman; Jennifer S. Coelho

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research on caloric restriction (CR) in many species of laboratory animals suggests that underfeeding leads to better health and longevity in the calorically-restricted animal (e.g., see [[34]. J.P. Pinel, S. Assanand and D.R. Lehman, (2000). Hunger, eating and ill health. Am Psychol, 55, 1105–1116.], for a review). Although some objections have been raised by scientists concerned

  12. GS 455534 selectively suppresses binge eating of palatable food and attenuates dopamine release in the accumbens of sugar-bingeing rats.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Paredes, Daniel; von Loga, Isabell; Murray, Susan M; Wang, Miaoyuan; Arolfo, Maria P; Yao, Lina; Diamond, Ivan; Avena, Nicole M

    2014-04-01

    Binge eating palatable foods has been shown to have behavioral and neurochemical similarities to drug addiction. GS 455534 is a highly selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitor that has been shown to reduce alcohol and cocaine intake in rats. Given the overlaps between binge eating and drug abuse, we examined the effects of GS 455534 on binge eating and subsequent dopamine release. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a sugar (experiment 1) or fat (experiment 2) binge eating diet. After 25 days, GS 455534 was administered at 7.5 and 15 mg/kg by an intraperitoneal injection, and food intake was monitored. In experiment 3, rats with cannulae aimed at the nucleus accumbens shell were maintained on the binge sugar diet for 25 days. Microdialysis was performed, during which GS 455534 15 mg/kg was administered, and sugar was available. Dialysate samples were analyzed to determine extracellular levels of dopamine. In experiment 1, GS 455534 selectively decreased sugar intake food was made available in the Binge Sugar group but not the Ad libitum Sugar group, with no effect on chow intake. In experiment 2, GS 455534 decreased fat intake in the Binge Fat group, but not the Ad libitum Fat group, however, it also reduced chow intake. In experiment 3, GS 455534 attenuated accumbens dopamine release by almost 50% in binge eating rats compared with the vehicle injection. The findings suggest that selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors may have the therapeutic potential to reduce binge eating of palatable foods in clinical populations. PMID:24603339

  13. What's NOT to eat--food adulteration in the context of human biology.

    PubMed

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V; Cook, Katsi

    2012-01-01

    Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well-studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of Western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage, and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant polychlorinated biphenyls in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in nonurban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning. PMID:22262531

  14. Customer Health Perceptions of Selected Fast-Food Restaurants According to Their Nutritional Knowledge and Health Consciousness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JungJin Hwang; David Cranage

    2010-01-01

    Though many researchers and media report about the unhealthy nature of fast foods, American people have developed a taste for fast foods. Americans also have an increased interest for nutrition in fast food, as they have become more health conscious. These studies claimed that the trend was that consumers wanted low calorie and light and low fat menu items. In

  15. Determinants of fast-food consumption. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kirsten I; Mohr, Philip; Wilson, Carlene J; Wittert, Gary A

    2011-10-01

    This study applied and extended the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988) in an examination of the variables influencing fast-food consumption in an Australian sample. Four hundred and four participants responded to items measuring TPB constructs and retrospective and prospective measures of fast-food consumption. Additional independent variables included: Consideration of Future Consequences (Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994), Fear of Negative Evaluation (Leary, 1983), and Self-Identification as a Healthy Eater Scale (Armitage & Conner, 1999a). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine predictors of consumption. SEM indicated that the TPB successfully predicted fast-food consumption. Factor analyses assisted in the definition of constructs that underlay attitudes towards fast foods. These constructs were included in an 'extended' TPB model which then provided a richer source of information regarding the nature of the variables influencing fast-food consumption. Findings suggest that fast-food consumption is influenced by specific referent groups as well as a general demand for meals that are tasty, satisfying, and convenient. These factors reflect immediate needs and appear to override concerns about longer-term health risks associated with fast food. Results are discussed in the context of possible applications. PMID:21683749

  16. Television advertising and branding. Effects on eating behaviour and food preferences in children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

    2013-03-01

    Television provides one of the first, and most intimate, experiences of commercial food promotion. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the effects of television advertising on children's brand preferences are well established. However, its effect on actual food intake and the food choices in children of various weight statuses has only recently been characterised. Despite regulation, children in the UK are exposed to considerable numbers of food adverts on television. These are predominantly for foods high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS), which are marketed to children using promotional characters and themes of fun. Such adverts have been shown to cause significant increases in intake, particularly in overweight and obese children, and enhanced preference for high carbohydrate and high fat foods in children who consume the greatest amounts of televisual media. PMID:22421053

  17. Food Prices Are Associated with Dietary Quality, Fast Food Consumption, and Body Mass Index among U.S. Children and Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

    2011-01-01

    Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994–1998) for 6759 children (2–9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10–18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals’ CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2–9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (? ± SE: ?0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (? ± SE: ?3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m2). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10–18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2–9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2–9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables. PMID:21178080

  18. Food security, selection, and healthy eating in a Pacific Community in Auckland New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Puniani, Naita; Snowling, Neil; Paterson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    When an infant is brought home to the family, it is often a time of emotional, economic and physical stress due to the extra demands placed on parents. Household food security means "access at all times to enough and nutritionally appropriate food to provide the energy and nutrients needed to maintain an active and healthy life". Questions about food security were asked of 1376 Pacific Island mothers (as part of the Pacific Island Family Study) approximately six weeks after the birth of their baby. Due to lack of money food sometimes ran out in 39.8% of households and in a further 3.8% food often ran out. Variety of foods was limited by lack of money in 39.3%. Foods that were still bought when money was limited included bread (97%), milk (95%), meat and chicken (91%), vegetables and fruit (83%), rice or pasta (82%), breakfast cereals (69%), fish or shellfish (50%) and biscuits or chips (44%). Alcohol (1%), soft drinks (11%), ice cream (12%) and fruit juice (21%) were the least often bought. Energy density (MJ/kg) and nutrient-density of typical foods limited by lack of money were analysed. Rice, bread and fatty meats provided the most calories per dollar and fruit and vegetables the least. The best protein-value for money was from minced beef, chicken and tinned tuna and the most fibre-rich foods included baked beans and mixed vegetables. Food security is a major problem for Pacific families. The environment of food availability, choice and cost requires attention to help close the health gap. PMID:17704026

  19. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AMERICANS KNOW NOT WHAT THEY EAT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William K. Hallman; Adesoji O. Adelaja; Brian J. Schilling; John T. Lang

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology stands to be a defining technology in the future of food and agriculture. Proponents argue that science and industry are poised to bring consumers a wide variety of products that have potential for meeting basic food needs, as well as delivering a wide-range of health, environmental and economic benefits. Opponents counter that the potential exists for unintended consequences, ranging

  20. Fast Food Consumption, Quality of Diet, and Obesity among Isfahanian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirseifinezhad, Maryam; Omrani, Nasrin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fast food intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fast food consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fast food intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B1 (P = 0.008), phosphorus (P = 0.0250), selenium (P < 0.001) and vitamin B2 (P = 0.012) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fast food intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fast foods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P = 0.0001) and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Fast food consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22619703

  1. Getting my child to eat the right amount. Mothers' considerations when deciding how much food to offer their child at a meal.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan L; Goodell, L Suzanne; Williams, Kimberly; Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-05-01

    Feeding young children successfully requires parenting skills, trust that children will eat, and nutrition and child development knowledge to ensure that foods and the amounts offered are developmentally appropriate. Mothers are often responsible for determining how much food is offered to their children; however, the influences on mothers' decisions regarding how much to offer their children--their motivations, goals for feeding and child consumption--have not been investigated. Study aims included gathering qualitative data regarding mothers' decisional processes related to preparing a dinner meal plate for her preschooler. Low income mothers (n = 15 African American and n = 15 Latina mothers) were recruited from preschools in the Denver, CO metropolitan area to participate in semi-structured interviews. Mothers prepared a plate for their preschooler and were asked about influences on their decisions about portion sizes and their expectations for children's eating. Data were coded by 2 independent coders using a consensus coding process and analyzed by investigators. Three themes emerged: (1) portion sizes differ for children who are "good" eaters and "picky" eaters; (2) mothers know the "right amounts" to serve their child; and (3) mothers have emotional investments in their children's eating. Some influencing factors were child-centered (e.g. child's likes and dislikes, "picky" and "good" eaters, and foods previously eaten in the day) and some related to adult expectations and concerns (nutrient content and waste). Interventions focusing on portion size may be more effective if tailored to the mothers' perceptions regarding her child's eating characteristics. PMID:25510530

  2. Stimulus-response compatibility tests of implicit preference for food and body image to identify people at risk for disordered eating: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saira; Petróczi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to incorporate implicit measures of relevant social cognition into eating disorder research. Fifty-three females diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED), and 41 at-risk females were recruited via ED support websites, along with 23 healthy females for comparison. Computerised online tests assessing subconscious normative ideal body image (IBI-BIAT) and personalised self-identification body image (PBI-BIAT) associations and food preferences (FP-AAT) were administered, followed by the modified version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Anthropometric data, age, need for social approval, self-reported measures of self-esteem, normative perception and body image satisfaction were recorded. Self-reported diagnosed ED status was corroborated with BMI and EDE-Q. Diagnostic performance of the implicit measures was assessed with ROC analysis. Those diagnosed with ED showed significantly stronger automatic preferences for and self-identification with thin body image, compared to healthy females, but no differences were found in food preferences. The IBI-BIAT showed better diagnostic power than PBI-BIAT, correctly classifying 87% of the diagnosed participants. No correlation was found between IBI-BIAT and the explicit measures. The results suggest that the underlying subconscious social cognitive factors of pathological eating are linked to body image, not to food items per se. PMID:25464068

  3. Regular Consumption from Fast Food Establishments Relative to Other Restaurants Is Differentially Associated with Metabolic Outcomes in Young Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M.; Jacobs, David R.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and plasma triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). We used 3 waves of data (exam y 7, 10, and 20) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, a prospective cohort study of black and white young adults [aged 25–42 y in 1992–93, n = 3643 (men, 1659; women, 1984)]. Individuals in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of baseline (defined as the mean of y 7 and 10) fast food consumption had higher y 20 weight [adjusted mean (95% CI): 5.6 kg (CI, 2.1, 9.2); P = 0.002], HOMA-IR [0.9 (CI, 0.4, 1.3); P < 0.001], waist circumference [5.3 cm (CI, 2.8, 7.9); P < 0.000], TG concentrations [0.25 mmol/L (CI, 0.10, 0.40), 22.7 mg/dL (CI, 9.1, 36.3); P = 0.001], and lower HDL-C concentrations [?0.014 mmol/L (CI, ?0.215, ?0.067), 5.4 mg/dL (CI, ?8.3, ?2.6); P < 0.000]. Baseline restaurant consumption was unrelated to y 20 outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant (P < 0.05) and fast food intake (P < 0.001) was associated with 13-y changes in body weight [0.09 kg (CI, 0.02, 0.17) and 0.15 kg (CI, 0.06, 0.24), respectively] and waist circumference [0.08 cm (CI, 0.02, 0.14) and 0.12 cm (CI, 0.04, 0.20), respectively]. Fast food consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes. PMID:19776183

  4. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. PMID:23500173

  5. Fast-food-based hyper-alimentation can induce rapid and profound elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kechagias, S; Ernersson, Å; Dahlqvist, O; Lundberg, P; Lindström, T; Nystrom, F H

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of fast-food-based hyper-alimentation on liver enzymes and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC). Design: Prospective interventional study with parallel control group. Setting: University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. Participants: 12 healthy men and six healthy women with a mean (SD) age of 26 (6.6) years and a matched control group. Intervention: Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5–15% by eating at least two fast-food-based meals a day with the goal to double the regular caloric intake in combination with adoption of a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks. Main outcome measures: Weekly changes of serum aminotransferases and HTGC measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after the intervention. Results: Subjects in the intervention group increased from 67.6 (9.1) kg to 74.0 (11) kg in weight (p<0.001). Serum ALT increased from 22.1 (11.4) U/l at study start to an individual mean maximum level of 97 (103) U/l (range 19.4–447 U/l). Eleven of the 18 subjects persistently showed ALT above reference limits (women >19 U/l, men >30 U/l) during the intervention. Sugar (mono- and disaccharides) intake during week 3 correlated with the maximal ALT/baseline ALT ratio (r?=?0.62, p?=?0.006). HTGC increased from 1.1 (1.9)% to 2.8 (4.8)%, although this was not related to the increase in ALT levels. ALT levels were unchanged in controls. Conclusion: Hyper-alimentation per se can induce profound ALT elevations in less than 4 weeks. Our study clearly shows that in the evaluation of subjects with elevated ALT the medical history should include not only questions about alcohol intake but also explore whether recent excessive food intake has occurred. PMID:18276725

  6. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Adults: United States, 2007-2010

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5):491–7. 2012. Anderson B, Rafferty AP, Lyon-Callo S, Fussman C, Imes G. Fast-food consumption ... Statistics Edward J. Sondik, Ph.D., Director Jennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science Division ...

  7. The association between food cravings and consumption of specific foods in a laboratory taste test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corby K. Martin; Patrick M. O’Neil; Gary Tollefson; Frank L. Greenway; Marney A. White

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study tested the relation between food cravings and food intake in the laboratory. Participants (n=91; mean BMI=35.1kg\\/m2) completed the Food Craving Inventory to measure cravings for sweets, fats, carbohydrates, and fast food fats, and a taste test consisting of four foods (jelly beans, M&M's®, regular potato chips, and baked low-fat potato chips). Thereafter, participants could eat the items

  8. Be Heart Smart! Eat Foods Lower in Saturated Fats and Cholesterol

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    oils. Recent health- related studies have shown that trans fatty acids act like saturated fat.) - Shell fish (shrimp, oysters, crab) There is no cholesterol in plant foods like fruits, vegetables, beans

  9. Food Deserts and Eating Habits of Children Participating in the WIC Program

    E-print Network

    Jewell, Kassi Kae

    2013-08-07

    The USDA’s “My Plate” recommends that preschool-aged children consume specific amounts of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. These foods contain essential nutrients that children and adults alike require to maintain good health. Researchers...

  10. Food Deserts and Eating Habits of Children Participating in the WIC Program 

    E-print Network

    Jewell, Kassi Kae

    2013-08-07

    The USDA’s “My Plate” recommends that preschool-aged children consume specific amounts of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. These foods contain essential nutrients that children and adults alike require to maintain ...

  11. USDA updates nutrient values for fast food pizza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of quick service pizza has increased as Americans are spending more on food away from home. Pizza is consistently a primary Key Food in the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) because it is a contributor of more than 14 nutrients of public health significance to the...

  12. Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36?h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS. PMID:25349245

  13. Fast foods and ethical consumer value: a focus on McDonald's and KFC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika J. A. Schröder; Morven G. McEachern

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Aims to investigate the effect of communicating corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to young consumers in the UK on their fast-food purchasing with reference to McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Focus groups were conducted to clarify themes and inform a questionnaire on fast-food purchasing behaviours and motives. Attitude statements were subjected to an exploratory factor

  14. Consumer Guide to Fast Foods Based On Caloric and Fat Gram Limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AC Brown

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an educational tool for consumers frequenting fast food restaurants. The Fast Food Freeway GuideTM was developed to help people select SizeWiseTM meals that would keep them below a certain level of calories and grams of fat. Surveys show that dietary fat is the number one consumer nutrition concern. It consistently ranks higher

  15. Nutritional impact of brand-name fast foods offered in the Indiana school lunch programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihyun Yoon

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional impact of brand-name fast foods offered as part of reimbursable school lunches on students' lunch intake. Two surveys were conducted to assess the current status of brand-name fast food use in the Indiana school lunch programs. Then, three separate studies were conducted to assess the impact of the brand-name

  16. Microwave ovens and food safety: preparation of Not-Ready-to-Eat products in standard and smart ovens.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of several Not-Ready-to-Eat (NRTE) products, beginning in 2007, has resulted in several recalls and has caused serious concerns about their safe-cooking in microwave ovens. These products are not fully-thermally processed prior to sale but depend upon the consumer to finish cooking them to the safe minimum temperatures, defined by the USDA, in order to destroy any sources of foodborne illnesses. While microwave ovens are a primary means of this finish-cooking step, they are known to cook foods unevenly in terms of temperature distribution, especially from a frozen state, and this may cause parts of the food to be below the required safe-temperature. Hence there are concerns regarding how reliably microwave ovens can provide the minimum required safe temperatures in order to avoid the possibility of foodborne illnesses. To determine this, temperature profiling tests were preformed upon three frozen NRTE entrées, heating them in eight new brand-name 1100-watt and 1200-watt microwave ovens in order to evaluate how well the minimum temperatures were reached throughout the products. By comparison, these same tests were repeated using three "smart" microwave ovens in which internal computer-control makes them user-independent. In addition, a comparison was also made of the microwave output power claimed by the manufacturers of these ovens to that determined using the IEC procedures. PMID:24779134

  17. Re-embodying Eating

    PubMed Central

    Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-01-01

    Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

  18. Bound phytophenols from ready-to-eat cereals: comparison with other plant-based foods.

    PubMed

    Neacsu, M; McMonagle, J; Fletcher, R J; Scobbie, L; Duncan, G J; Cantlay, L; de Roos, B; Duthie, G G; Russell, W R

    2013-12-01

    Whole-grain diets are linked to reduced risk of several chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome) and all-cause mortality. There is increasing evidence that these benefits are associated with the gut microbiota and that release of fibre-related phenolic metabolites in the gut is a contributing factor. Additional sources of these metabolites include fruits and vegetables, but the evidence for their protective effects is less well established. With respect to the availability of bound phytophenols, ready-to-eat cereals are compared with soft fruits (considered rich in antioxidants) and other commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The results demonstrated that when compared with an equivalent serving of fruits or vegetables, a recommended portion of whole-grain cereals deliver substantially higher amounts of bound phytophenols, which are available for metabolism in the colon. The increased amount of these phenolic metabolites may, in part, explain the evidence for the protective effects of whole-grain cereals. PMID:23871037

  19. Depressive symptoms and self-reported fast-food intake in midlife women

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Geoffrey B.; Khedkar, Anuprita; Flaws, Jodi A.; Sorkin, John D.; Gallicchio, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between depressive symptoms and fast-food intake in midlife women. METHODS Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study of 626 women aged 45–54 years conducted from 2000–2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. Presence of depressive symptoms was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale and defined as a score of 16 or greater. The frequency of fast-food intake was assessed using self-reported questionnaire data, and was categorized as “at least weekly”, “at least monthly, but less than weekly” and “less than monthly”. RESULTS Approximately 25% of the study sample reported depressive symptoms; 14% consumed fast-food “at least weekly,” and 27% “at least monthly, but less than weekly”. Compared to their counterparts, women with depressive symptoms had significantly greater odds of reporting higher fast-food intake (confounder-adjusted odds ratio: 1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.06–2.25). Other covariates associated with a higher frequency of fast-food intake included black race and body mass index ?30 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS Findings from this study indicate that the presence of depressive symptoms is positively associated with fast-food intake in midlife women. These results may have important health implications given that both depression and dietary consumption patterns are risk factors for a number of diseases. PMID:21276813

  20. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (? = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (? = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

  1. Cellular respiration We need energy to live, but how do we get it? We eat food and, via the process of respiration, we transfer the energy within this food to energy

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    pyruvate ethanol CO2 ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Occurs in cytoplasm Is oxygen available? AEROBIC RESPIRATION is oxidised, takes place in the cytoplasm. It is the first stage of both aerobic and anaerobic respirationCellular respiration We need energy to live, but how do we get it? We eat food and, via the process

  2. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  3. Food & Retail on Campus Never Stand Still Facilities Management

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    ) QUadranglE BUilding ­ lg Wide range of fresh, fast and tasty food. Various cuisines. The Whitehouse (C15Food & Retail on Campus Never Stand Still Facilities Management Eat, drink, shop, relax! #12;Keen place! #12;UNSW's Kensington Campus has a large variety of food and general retail services, including

  4. [Development children's eating behavior

    PubMed

    Ramos, M; Stein, L M

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: Review the literature, exploring factors that contribute to the development of children's eating behavior such as the role of learning and social context. METHODS: The review of the literature was done using Medline, Psyclit, and Lilacs as resources for assessing international and national research articles on child nutrition, with an emphasis on children's eating behavior. These articles were revised and grouped together according to the topic. RESULTS: Family is responsible for the development of children's eating behavior through social learning. Parents are children's first nutritional educators. Children's eating experiences are influenced by cultural and psychosocial factors. Social context plays a relevant role in this process, especially through the strategies used by parents to encourage children to have a balanced diet and to eat specific foods. These strategies may contain adequate and inadequate stimuli as to the development of children's food preference and food intake self-control. CONCLUSION: The learning process is a determining factor for children's eating behavior, and is associated with three factors: food flavor conditioning, food postingestional consequences, and social context. Parents are deeply concerned with the amount of food their children eat and not with the development of more adequate habits and attitudes related to dietary quality. PMID:14676901

  5. Obesity and fast food in urban markets: a new approach using geo-referenced micro data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Susan Elizabeth; Florax, Raymond J; Snyder, Samantha D

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a new method of assessing the relationship between features of the built environment and obesity, particularly in urban areas. Our empirical application combines georeferenced data on the location of fast-food restaurants with data about personal health, behavioral, and neighborhood characteristics. We define a 'local food environment' for every individual utilizing buffers around a person's home address. Individual food landscapes are potentially endogenous because of spatial sorting of the population and food outlets, and the body mass index (BMI) values for individuals living close to each other are likely to be spatially correlated because of observed and unobserved individual and neighborhood effects. The potential biases associated with endogeneity and spatial correlation are handled using spatial econometric estimation techniques. Our application provides quantitative estimates of the effect of proximity to fast-food restaurants on obesity in an urban food market. We also present estimates of a policy simulation that focuses on reducing the density of fast-food restaurants in urban areas. In the simulations, we account for spatial heterogeneity in both the policy instruments and individual neighborhoods and find a small effect for the hypothesized relationships between individual BMI values and the density of fast-food restaurants. PMID:22911977

  6. Neighborhood Deprivation and Access to Fast Food Retailing A National Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie Pearce; Tony Blakely; Karen Witten; Phil Bartie

    Background: Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed to those for access to healthier food outlets. Methods: Data were collected on

  7. Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Elbel

    2011-01-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey

  8. Microbiological hazard analysis of ready-to-eat meats processed at a food plant in Trinidad, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Syne, Stacey-Marie; Ramsubhag, Adash; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A bacteriological assessment of the environment and food products at different stages of processing was conducted during the manufacture of ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken franks, chicken bologna and bacon at a large meat processing plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Methods Samples of air, surfaces (swabs), raw materials, and in-process and finished food products were collected during two separate visits for each product type and subjected to qualitative or quantitative analysis for bacterial zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator organisms. Results Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen detected in pre-cooked products (mean counts = 0.66, 1.98, and 1.95 log10CFU/g for franks, bologna, and bacon, respectively). This pathogen was also found in unacceptable levels in 4 (16.7%) of 24 post-cooked samples. Fifty percent (10 of 20) of pre-cooked mixtures of bacon and bologna were contaminated with Listeria spp., including four with L. monocytogenes. Pre-cooked mixtures of franks and bologna also contained E. coli (35 and 0.72 log10 CFU/g, respectively) while 5 (12.5%) of 40 pre-cooked mixtures of chicken franks had Salmonella spp. Aerobic bacteria exceeded acceptable international standards in 46 (82.1%) of 56 pre-cooked and 6 (16.7%) of 36 post-cooked samples. Both pre-and post-cooking air and surfaces had relatively high levels of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, including equipment and gloves of employees. A drastic decrease in aerobic counts and Staphylococcus aureus levels following heat treatment and subsequent increase in counts of these bacteria are suggestive of post-cooking contamination. Conclusion A relatively high level of risk exists for microbial contamination of RTE meats at the food plant investigated and there is a need for enhancing the quality assurance programs to ensure the safety of consumers of products manufactured at this plant. PMID:23878681

  9. You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile food quantity on adult reproductive fitness in a hemimetabolous insect. PMID:24130901

  10. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile food quantity on adult reproductive fitness in a hemimetabolous insect. PMID:24130901

  11. Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and sport facility eating environments.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Vermeer, Julianne; McCargar, Linda J; Prowse, Rachel J L; Raine, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n?=?2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n?=?322) and intervention (n?=?313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p?foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items. PMID:25913684

  12. Dispositional and situational factors as determinants of food eating behaviour among sedentary and blue-collar workers in Nigeria's premier teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, Adebayo O

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey investigated the role of dispositional (self-efficacy and self esteem), and situational factors (distractibility and perceived food variety) as determinants of food eating behaviour (FEB). Hospital employees (N500) in Nigeria's premier teaching Hospital participated. Results showed that self-efficacy and self-esteem jointly predicted cognitive restraint dimension of FEB (F(2499) = 26.00; R2 = 0.10; p < .05). Dispositional variables also jointly predicted uncontrolled eating (F(2499) = 17.41; R2 = 0.07; p < .05), emotional eating (F(2499)= 28.58; R2 = 0.10; p < .05), and cognitive restraint (F(2499) = 35.60; R2 = 0.13; p < .05) dimensions of FEB. Age (chi2 = 64.81; df = 1; p < .05), and marital status (chi2 = 32.74; df = 4; p < .05) were associated with FEB. Therefore, dispositional and situational variables are predictors of FEB as evidenced in previous literatures. The need for primary prevention, and assertiveness to reduce distractibility and eating disorders was highlighted towards maintaining health and efficiency at work is recommended. PMID:22073876

  13. Influx of enterococci and associated antibiotic resistance and virulence genes from ready-to-eat food to the human digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Lilia; Zurek, Ludek

    2007-11-01

    The influx of enterococcal antibiotic resistance (AR) and virulence genes from ready-to-eat food (RTEF) to the human digestive tract was assessed. Three RTEFs (chicken salad, chicken burger, and carrot cake) were sampled from five fast-food restaurants five times in summer (SU) and winter (WI). The prevalence of enterococci was significantly higher in SU (92.0% of salad samples and 64.0% of burger samples) than in WI (64.0% of salad samples and 24.0% of burger samples). The overall concentrations of enterococci during the two seasons were similar ( approximately 10(3) CFU/g); the most prevalent were Enterococcus casseliflavus (41.5% of isolates) and Enterococcus hirae (41.5%) in WI and Enterococcus faecium (36.8%), E. casseliflavus (27.6%), and Enterococcus faecalis (22.4%) in SU. Resistance in WI was detected primarily to tetracycline (50.8%), ciprofloxacin (13.8%), and erythromycin (4.6%). SU isolates were resistant mainly to tetracycline (22.8%), erythromycin (22.1%), and kanamycin (13.0%). The most common tet gene was tet(M) (35.4% of WI isolates and 11.9% of SU isolates). The prevalence of virulence genes (gelE, asa1, cylA, and esp) and marker genes for clinical isolates (EF_0573, EF_0592, EF_0605, EF_1420, EF_2144, and pathogenicity island EF_0050) was low (< or =12.3%). Genotyping of E. faecalis and E. faecium using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the food contamination likely originated from various sources and that it was not clonal. Our conservative estimate (single AR gene copy per cell) for the influx of tet genes alone to the human digestive tract is 3.8 x 10(5) per meal (chicken salad). This AR gene influx is frequent because RTEFs are commonly consumed and that may play a role in the acquisition of AR determinants in the human digestive tract. PMID:17766449

  14. Who would eat more with a Food Voucher Programme in South Africa?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan H van Heerden

    2008-01-01

    A Computable General Equilibrium model is used to find the effects of a food voucher scheme on the economy in South Africa. If firms consider the issuing of vouchers as increased remuneration, they will hire fewer labourers. The higher labour cost increases the total cost of production and lowers supply. Real Gross Domestic Product decreases and the economy becomes worse

  15. Korean adolescents' perceptions of nutrition and health towards fast foods in Busan area

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji-young; Lee, Kyung-a

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in Busan area were asked in a survey about their perception and attitudes towards fast food. Most respondents answered that they consume fast food once a month because it is fast, easily accessible and tasty. Although they perceived fast food as unhealthy and less nutritious, they were less aware of its effect on their health and nutritional status. The more knowledgeable respondents were about nutrition and health the less likely they were to choose fast food over other meals. However, respondents who had little or no knowledge about the nutritional factors of fast food accounted for 43.1%. As to their source of dietary information, students relied on themselves (31.0%), parents (20.5%) and friends (19.9%). The medium through which students got the most nutrition and health information was television (66.8%), followed by the Internet (36.7%) and magazines (29.7%). This study will enable educators to plan more effective strategies for improving the dietary knowledge of the adolescent population. PMID:20126603

  16. Food for thought: ego-dystonicity and fear of self in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Purcell Lalonde, Magali; O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick; Coelho, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Degree of ego-dystonicity in obsessions is clinically relevant to the conceptualization and treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Obsessive-compulsive disorder research has suggested that the transformation of intrusive thoughts into obsessions is linked to the degree to which intrusive thoughts threaten core perceptions of the self. This study aims to explore the relationship between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions in ED patients and a fear of self, the link between ED symptom severity and ego-dystonicity in obsessions, and differences between non-clinical and individuals with EDs in the presence of ego-dystonic thoughts and a fear of self. Ego-dystonicity (Ego-dystonicity Questionnaire (EDQ)) and feared self (Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ)) degrees were measured in a clinical sample (n = 57 with EDs) and a non-clinical sample (n = 45). EDQ and FSQ scores were highly correlated in both samples. EDQ scores were not significantly correlated to ED symptom severity with the exception of the EDQ Irrationality subscale, which was strongly related to compulsion severity. Participants with an ED had significantly higher EDQ and FSQ scores compared with controls. PMID:25728327

  17. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97?g/100?g; p?food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1?g/100?g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

  18. Time-temperature profiles of chilled ready-to-eat foods in school catering and probabilistic analysis of Listeria monocytogenes growth.

    PubMed

    Rosset, Philippe; Cornu, Marie; Noël, Véronique; Morelli, Elisabeth; Poumeyrol, Gérard

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chill chain in school catering by monitoring time-temperature profiles. Chilled ready-to-eat foods have been chosen as subject of this study because of their high risk due to their production, storage and distribution steps, separated in time, followed by consumption without any further thermal treatment. In order to integrate the effects of storage duration and storage temperature, a quantitative criterion, namely "TTE" or "Time-Temperature Equivalent", was proposed. To illustrate the sanitary consequences of the recorded thermal history, Listeria monocytogenes growth was predicted based on reference growth curves in chilled ready-to-eat food products. The study of five centralised kitchens and 11 school-lunch canteens demonstrated in general a satisfactory maintenance of the chill chain. However, the coincidence of extended storage duration (due to weekends) and temperature abuse was observed and could lead to a significant microbial development. PMID:15358505

  19. Ready-to-eat street-vended food as a potential vehicle of bacterial pathogens and antimicrobial resistance: An exploratory study in Porto region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Campos, Joana; Gil, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Peixe, Luísa; Antunes, Patrícia

    2015-08-01

    The ready-to-eat street vending commerce, as street mobile food vendors, has grown exponentially worldwide, representing in some countries a significant proportion of food consumed by the urban population. However, the microbiological food safety hazards of mobile vending units in industrialized countries are scarcely evaluated. To assess the microbiological quality and safety of this type of food and try to achieve the connection of its contamination with hygienic conditions of food-handlers, we analyzed hotdogs (n=10), hamburgers (n=10) and hands (n=9) from ten street-vending trailers in the Porto region. Food and food-handler samples were tested for Enterobacteriaceae and coliform counts, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci counts/detection and presence of Salmonella. Aerobic mesophilic counts and detection of Listeria monocytogenes (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis-PFGE and serotyping) were also tested in food samples. E. coli isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF and characterized for clonality (phylogenetic groups-PhG, PFGE and Multilocus Sequence Typing), antibiotic resistance (disk diffusion, PCR/sequencing) and intestinal pathogenic virulence factors (PCR/sequencing). All food samples presented poor microbiological quality (100% Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms; 20% E. coli (4 hamburgers, 4 trailers) and 20% (2 hamburgers/2 hotdogs, 3 trailers) were positive for L. monocytogenes (2 PFGE-types belonging to serotype 1/2a and 4b). Salmonella and coagulase-positive staphylococci were not detected. Food-handlers carried Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms (100%), E. coli (11%) and/or coagulase-positive staphylococci (44%). E. coli was detected in 12 samples (n=30-food/food-handlers; phylogenetic groups A0/A1/B1) with 33% resistant to one or more antibiotics. Two multidrug resistant atypical E. coli pathotype strains (astA-ST165(CC165)/food-handler, eaeA-ST327/food) were detected. Three out of eight E. coli clonal lineages [ST409/ST976(CC10)/ST297] and the two L. monocytogenes clones were spread in different samples/trailers, suggesting cross-contamination or a common source of contamination. This exploratory study, in Porto region, showed ready-to-eat street foods from vending trailers as potential vehicles of clinically relevant L. monocytogenes serotypes and/or E. coli carrying clinically relevant virulence/antibiotic resistance features, and food-handlers as a critical risk factor in this expanding food sector. PMID:25910073

  20. Are we Aware of what we are, we are what we Eat- An Epidemiological Survey.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manpreet; M Hegde, Amitha

    2008-09-01

    The lure of convenience in addition to good taste gets people to junk food addiction. With the advent of television even in the remotest areas people have become more aware of the fast food items available. Children watch television where fast food continues to dominate the food advertisements viewed by children. The easily available fast food in and around school campus and with little knowledge of the far reaching effects of these food items consumed, children fall an easy prey to junk food. Children are unaware of the food they eat and the effects it has on their growth and development. This survey reflects the large percentageof children who surrender to the temptation junk food consumption with little knowledge of its far sighted effects on their health. PMID:25206083

  1. Skylab 2 astronauts eat space food in wardroom of Skylab trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The three members of the prime crew of the first manned Skylab mission dine on specially prepared Skylab space food in the wardromm of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer during Skylab training at the Johnson Space Center. They are, left to right, Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, science pilot; Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, pilot; and Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander.

  2. Does the eating match the teaching? Food habits in people with non insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vindedzis, S A; McCann, V J

    1997-12-01

    Three-day food records were used to assess the dietary intake of 50 patients with non insulin dependent diabetes; body mass index (BMI) exceeded 25 in 74% and exceeded 30 in 20%. Present nutrient intake was determined by the food compositional analysis package known as SODA III analysis. Two at-risk micronutrients were used as markers of food intake quality, namely calcium and thiamin. Calcium intake prior to diagnosis of diabetes by retrospective questionnaire. Serum and red cell thiamin levels were measured. All patients had received nutrition education. Results showed fat intake less than 35% in 50% of subjects and carbohydrate intake greater than 50% in 18% of subjects. Seventy-two percent of subjects had a saturated fat intake greater than 10%. Cholesterol intake exceeded 300mg in 16% of subjects. Dietary thiamin intake was adequate in 98% and did not correlate with serum or red cell thiamin levels. Only 24% of subjects had an adequate calcium intake. Previous to diagnosis of diabetes, 50% of subjects had had adequate calcium intakes. Calcium intake was related to age, increasing with increasing age (p<0.05) and saturated fat intake (p<0.01). This group had an excess intake of fat and calcium intake was largely inadequate. PMID:24394785

  3. The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction

    PubMed Central

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Methods: Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. Results: We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). Interpretation: The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health. PMID:22508978

  4. Survey of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria sp. contamination in different common ready-to-eat food products in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, S S

    2009-12-01

    Incidence and contamination levels of different Listeria monocytogenes serovars and different Listeria sp. in 360 samples of common ready-to-eat food products in Jordan were investigated. The presence of L. monocytogenes was determined using EN ISO protocol and confirmed using PCR technique. Five Listeria sp.: L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. ivanovvi, L. welshimeri and L. seeligeri were isolated. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 19 samples (5.3%), from 6 RTE dairy samples; 6 RTE vegetables samples and 4 traditional dishes samples and 3 miscellaneous samples. L. innocua and L. ivanovvi were the most and least frequently isolated species, 24 and 3 samples, respectively. L. welshimeri was isolated from 8 samples and L. seeligeri from 7 samples. The contamination levels of L. monocytogenes were found to be < or = 100 CFU g(-1) in 84.2% (16 samples) of the positive samples. Only 15.8% (3 samples; 1 vegetable, 1 traditional dish and 1 miscellaneous samples) of the positive samples were found with counts >100 CFU g(-1). L. monocytogenes strains isolated fell into 2 serotype, 1 and 4 and to 5 different serovars, 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 4a, 4c. PMID:20180325

  5. Eating patterns and energy and nutrient intakes of US women.

    PubMed

    Haines, P S; Hungerford, D W; Popkin, B M; Guilkey, D K

    1992-06-01

    A longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to determine whether differences in energy and nutrient intakes were present for women classified into different eating patterns. Ten multidimensional eating patterns were created based on the proportion of energy consumed at home and at seven away-from-home locations. Data were from 1,120 women aged 19 through 50 years who were surveyed up to six times over a 1-year period as part of the 1985 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, US Department of Agriculture. Data from 5,993 days were analyzed. To examine differences in energy and nutrient intakes, longitudinal multivariate analyses were used to control for eating pattern and factors such as demographics, season, and day of week. Younger women in the Fast Food eating pattern consumed the greatest intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Well-educated, higher-income women in the Restaurant pattern consumed diets with the highest overall fat density. Nutrient densities for dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin C, and folacin were particularly low in away-from-home eating patterns. In contrast, moderately educated, middle-aged and middle-income women in the Home Mixed eating pattern (70% at home, 30% away from home) consumed the most healthful diets. We conclude that knowledge of demographics such as income and education is not enough to target dietary interventions. Rather, educational efforts must consider both demographics and the location of away-from-home eating. This will allow development of behavioral change strategies that consider food choices dictated by the eating environment as well as personal knowledge and attitude factors related to adoption of healthful food choices. PMID:1607566

  6. Why do kids eat healthful food? Perceived benefits of and barriers to healthful eating and physical activity among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'dea, Jennifer A

    2003-04-01

    The goal was to have children and adolescents identify and rank the major perceived benefits of and barriers to healthful eating and physical activity and to suggest strategies for overcoming barriers. Semistructured, in-depth focus groups were undertaken using standardized questions and prompts. Students in grades 2 through 11(ages 7 through 17; N=213) from 34 randomly selected schools participated in 38 focus groups. Major benefits of healthful eating included improvements to cognitive and physical performance, fitness, endurance, psychological benefits, physical sensation (feeling good physically), and production of energy. Barriers included convenience, taste, and social factors. Benefits of physical activity included social benefits, enhancement of psychological status, physical sensation, and sports performance. Barriers included a preference for indoor activities, lack of energy and motivation, time constraints, and social factors. Suggested strategies for overcoming barriers included support from parents and school staff, better planning, time management, self-motivation, education, restructuring the physical environment, and greater variety of physical activities. PMID:12669014

  7. Effects of Fast Food Branding on Young Children's Taste Preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas N. Robinson; Dina L. G. Borzekowski; Donna M. Matheson; Helena C. Kraemer

    2007-01-01

    Results: The mean±SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37±0.45 (median, 0.20; in- terquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (P.001), indicating that children preferred the tastes of foods and drinks if they thought they were from McDonald's. Moderator analysis found significantly greater effects of branding among children with more televi- sion sets in their homes

  8. Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3–7 years were shown McDonald’s and Burger King children’s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010–11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Results Premiums/tie-ins were common in children’s but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children’s ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children’s vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002). For children’s ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Children’s net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice. PMID:25738653

  9. Who Eats What?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    This activity is on page 10 (continued on the right side of page 11) of the pdf, part of the Forest Animals Discovery Box. In this game, learners act out the food web. They are introduced to the idea of the food chain in the "Who Eats What" book and then divide into two groups. Learners pretend to be either a bear, deer, or grass and play a game like "Rock, Paper, Scissor" to simulate how the bear eats the deer and the deer eats the grass. Learners compete to "win."

  10. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  11. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  12. Effects of Fast-Food Consumption on Energy Intake and Diet Quality Among Children in a National Household Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanthy A. Bowman; Steven L. Gortmaker; Cara B. Ebbeling; Mark A. Pereira; David S. Ludwig

    Background. Fast food has become a prominent feature of the diet of children in the United States and, increasingly, throughout the world. However, few studies have examined the effects of fast-food con- sumption on any nutrition or health-related outcome. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that fast-food consumption adversely affects dietary factors linked to obesity risk.

  13. Eating up the world’s food web and the human trophic level

    PubMed Central

    Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dubroca, Laurent; Le Pape, Olivier; Barde, Julien; Kaplan, David M.; Chassot, Emmanuel; Nieblas, Anne-Elise

    2013-01-01

    Trophic levels are critical for synthesizing species’ diets, depicting energy pathways, understanding food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning, and monitoring ecosystem health. Specifically, trophic levels describe the position of species in a food web, from primary producers to apex predators (range, 1–5). Small differences in trophic level can reflect large differences in diet. Although trophic levels are among the most basic information collected for animals in ecosystems, a human trophic level (HTL) has never been defined. Here, we find a global HTL of 2.21, i.e., the trophic level of anchoveta. This value has increased with time, consistent with the global trend toward diets higher in meat. National HTLs ranging between 2.04 and 2.57 reflect a broad diversity of diet, although cluster analysis of countries with similar dietary trends reveals only five major groups. We find significant links between socio-economic and environmental indicators and global dietary trends. We demonstrate that the HTL is a synthetic index to monitor human diets and provides a baseline to compare diets between countries. PMID:24297882

  14. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed. PMID:20926059

  15. Familial aggregation in the night eating syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer D. Lundgren; Kelly C. Allison; Albert J. Stunkard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the extent to which the night eating syn- drome (NES) affects first-degree relatives of NES and control probands. Method: NES participants and controls were assessed with the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI), 10 day sleep and food records, the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), the Struc- tured Clinical Interview for

  16. The Influence of Gender and Self-Efficacy on Healthy Eating in a Low-Income Urban Population Affected by Structural Changes to the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although US obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes. PMID:24800064

  17. Pilot Crippen eats rehydrated food at aft flight deck onorbit station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pilot Crippen prepares to open rehydrated food packages while grasping spoon. The Earth's surface appears in the aft flight deck overhead windows W7 and W8. These windows are the ones through which a number of Earth scenes were photographed with a 70mm camera by crewmembers. Clouds over water can be seen through them. Just inches away from the top windows, not quite so obvious at top of frame (if held horizontally) are the two aft cabin windows (W9 and W10) through which the crew viewed the payload bay (PLB) and the aft end of the craft, including the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods. Commander Young took this photo with a 35mm camera.

  18. Effects of disordered eating and obesity on weight, craving, and food intake during ad libitum smoking and abstinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen K. Saules; Cynthia S. Pomerleau; Sandy M. Snedecor; Rebecca Namenek Brouwer; Erin E. M. Rosenberg

    2004-01-01

    Although there is empirical support for the association between smoking, disordered eating, and subsequent weight gain upon smoking cessation, there have been no prospective studies to track changes in eating patterns during smoking abstinence and explore underlying biobehavioral processes. To help fill these gaps, we recruited four groups of women (N=48, 12\\/group) based on presence vs. absence of obesity and

  19. Energy Content of U.S. Fast-Food Restaurant Offerings 14-Year Trends

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Hearst, Mary O.; Earnest, Alicia A.; French, Simone A.; Oakes, J. Michael; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Within the past decade there has been increasing attention to the role of fast food in the American diet, including a rise in legislative and media-based efforts that address the healthfulness of fast food. However, no studies have been undertaken to evaluate changes in the energy content of fast-food chain restaurant menu items during this period. Purpose To examine changes in the energy content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at eight of the leading fast-food chain restaurants in the U.S. between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Methods Menu offerings and nutrient composition information were obtained from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center Food and Nutrient Database. Nutrient composition information for items was updated biannually. Changes in median energy content of all lunch/dinner menu offerings and specific categories of menu items among all restaurants and for individual restaurants were examined. Data were collected between 1997 and 2010 and analysis was conducted in 2011. Results Spanning 1997/1998 and 2009/2010, the number of lunch/dinner menu items offered by the restaurants in the study increased by 53%. Across all menu items, the median energy content remained relatively stable over the study period. Examining specific food categories, the median energy content of desserts and condiments increased, the energy content of side items decreased, and energy content of entrees and drinks remained level. Conclusions While large increases in the number of menu items were observed, there have been few changes in the energy content of menu offerings at the leading fast-food chain restaurants examined in this study. PMID:23079171

  20. Purchasing behavior and calorie information at fast-food chains in New York City, 2007.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Mary T; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina; Silver, Lynn D; Young, Candace; Nonas, Cathy; Matte, Thomas D; Chideya, Sekai; Frieden, Thomas R

    2008-08-01

    We surveyed 7318 customers from 275 randomly selected restaurants of 11 fast food chains. Participants purchased a mean of 827 calories, with 34% purchasing 1000 calories or more. Unlike other chains, Subway posted calorie information at point of purchase and its patrons more often reported seeing calorie information than patrons of other chains (32% vs 4%; P<.001); Subway patrons who saw calorie information purchased 52 fewer calories than did other Subway patrons (P<.01). Fast-food chains should display calorie information prominently at point of purchase, where it can be seen and used to inform purchases. PMID:18556597

  1. Nutrient content of products served by leading Australian fast food chains.

    PubMed

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqui; Barzi, Federica; Neal, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared to currently accepted criteria for healthy foods. The majority of fast food products did not meet criteria for healthy options. Breakfast items had the highest mean sugar content (7.8 g/100 g) and saturated fat (5.5 g/100 g), and chicken items the highest total fat (13.2 g/100 g) and sodium (586 mg/100 g). There was marked variation in nutrient levels between similar products. There was a 10-fold variation in the total fat, saturated fat and sugar content of sandwiches, an 8-fold variation in saturated fat in burgers and >20-fold variation in the sugar and total fat content of salads. Differences were even greater per serve. The considerable variation in the nutrient content of comparable products suggests significant potential for reformulation. Even small improvements in composition could produce important health gains if implemented across all product categories by all companies in unison. PMID:20816711

  2. Occurrence of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ready-to-eat food from supermarkets in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Balagué, Claudia; Khan, Ashraf A; Fernandez, Luisa; Redolfi, Ana Lía; Aquili, Virginia; Voltattorni, Patricia; Hofer, Claudio; Ebner, Guillermo; Dueñas, Susana; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2006-05-01

    Between June 2000 and December 2001, 500 food samples were collected from supermarkets and shops selling ready-to-eat food in Rosario, Argentina, and examined for Escherichia coli. Forty-nine E. coli isolates from food samples were further characterized for virulence genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the stx1, stx2, stx2e, eaeA, CNF1, CNF2, Einv, LTI, STI, and STII genes in four groups. Out of 49 E. coli isolates screened by multiplex PCR, only 10 possessed Shiga toxin genes, stx1 and stx2 genes and none possessed the other genes. The Shiga toxin positive E. coli strains (STEC) were isolated from soft, cottage cheeses, chicken with sauce and vegetables mayonase. These E. coli isolates were serogrouped and belonged to O18 (two strains), O8, O57w, O79, O44, and O128; three strains were untypeable. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI generated a unique profile for each, having 10-15 bands ranging from 50 to 500 kb, except that strain ARG 20 generated small bands and was partly degraded. These strains are potential foodborne pathogens and their presence in ready-to-eat food illustrates the need to keep a careful watch for the source of pathogens and then develop methods to control them. PMID:16943019

  3. Fast and frugal food choices: Uncovering individual decision heuristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Scheibehenne; L. Miesler; Peter M. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Research on food decision making is often based on the assumption that people take many different aspects into account and weight and add them according to their personally assessed importance. Yet there is a growing body of research suggesting that people's decisions can often be better described by simple heuristics—rules of thumb that people use to make choices based on

  4. Fast Food Demand, Physical Activity, Obesity and Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Richards; Lisa Mancino

    As the demand for food-away-from-home (FAFH) increases, there is a growing concern regarding its role in the increasing incidence of obesity among Americans. In this paper, we investigate the role of FAFH pricing in influencing both sides of the weight-gain equation (calories in - calories out = weight gain): FAFH demand, physical activity, health status and, ultimately, body mass index

  5. Light-Element Isotopes (H, C, N, and O) as Tracers of Human Diet: A Case Study on Fast Food Meals

    E-print Network

    Ehleringer, Jim

    for one ubiquitous example of modern convenience food, the fast food meal. In a series of paired observations among cities in the U.S., we com- pared the isotopic composition of components of a fast food meal analysis of proteins highlighted the impact of consumer choice: patrons in a fast food restaurant consumed

  6. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    PubMed Central

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979

  7. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-sun; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-01-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R2 around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.19, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that behavioral intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P < 0.01) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.56, P < 0.001). Attitude toward fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control. PMID:21556232

  8. To eat or not to eat: the effect of AICAR on food intake regulation in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).

    PubMed

    Florant, Gregory L; Fenn, Ashley M; Healy, Jessica E; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Handa, Robert J

    2010-06-15

    Mammals that hibernate (hibernators) exhibit a circannual rhythm of food intake and body mass. In the laboratory during the winter hibernation period, many hibernators enter a series of multi-day torpor bouts, dropping their body temperature to near ambient, and cease to feed even if food is present in their cage. The mechanism(s) that regulates food intake in hibernators is unclear. Recently, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to play a key role in the central regulation of food intake in mammals. We hypothesized that infusing an AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1 B-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into the third ventricle of the hypothalamus would stimulate yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to feed during their hibernation season. Infusion of AICAR ICV into marmots at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in food intake. In addition, animals stimulated to feed did not enter torpor during the infusion period. Marmots ICV infused with saline did not increase food intake and these animals continued to undergo torpor at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. Our results suggest that AICAR stimulated the food intake pathway, presumably by activating AMPK. These results support the hypothesis that AMPK may be involved in regulating food intake in hibernators and that there may be common neural pathways involved in regulating feeding and eliciting torpor. PMID:20511516

  9. Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SA French; M Story; D Neumark-Sztainer; JA Fulkerson; P Hannan

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine demographic, behavioral and dietary correlates of frequency of fast food restaurant use in a community-based sample of 4746 adolescent students.DESIGN: A survey was administered to students in classrooms at 31 secondary schools in a large metropolitan area in Minnesota, United States. Height and body weight were measured.SUBJECTS: Students in grades 7–12 who were enrolled in participating schools,

  10. Measuring food access in Melbourne: Access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Burns; A. D. Inglis

    2007-01-01

    Access to healthy food can be an important determinant of a healthy diet. This paper describes the assessment of access to healthy and unhealthy foods using a GIS accessibility programme in a large outer municipality of Melbourne. Access to a major supermarket was used as a proxy for access to a healthy diet and fast food outlet as proxy for

  11. Subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from retail ready-to-eat foods, processing plants and listeriosis patients in Sweden 2010.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, S Thisted; Ivarsson, S; Lopez-Valladares, G; Sidstedt, M; Lindqvist, R

    2013-08-16

    Identification and prioritisation of food safety interventions requires an understanding of the relationship between food, pathogens and cases. Such understanding can be gained through different approaches, e.g. microbial subtyping to attribute cases of foodborne disease to food vehicles or other sources of illness. In this study, Listeria monocytogenes isolates (n=166) from (i) three categories of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, (ii) food processing plant environments, and (iii) human listeriosis cases, all sampled during 2010 in Sweden, were subtyped. In addition, 121 isolates from human listeriosis cases, collected 2005-2009, were subtyped. Subtyping consisted of both serotyping (conventional method and PCR) and genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serotype 1/2a dominated in all three groups of isolates (range 73-96%). Eighteen percent of the human isolates (2010) belonged to serotype 4b, but only 1.4% of the food isolates. The food isolates differentiated into 19 pulsotypes (ID=0.843), the human isolates collected 2010 into 31 pulsotypes (ID=0.950) and the processing plant isolates into 22 pulsotypes (ID=0.991). Six of the pulsotypes were shared between the food and human isolates. These pulsotypes comprised 42% of the human isolates and 59% of the food isolates. For some processing plants, there was suggested persistence of one or more specific L. monocytogenes strains, as indicated by repetitive isolation of the same pulsotype from food. This study indicated the presence of L. monocytogenes in the processing plant environment as a likely source of contamination of gravad and cold-smoked fish, and this food category as an important source of human exposure to the pathogen. PMID:23911759

  12. Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rosenheck

    2008-01-01

    Summary Consumption of fast food, which have high energy densities and glycemic loads, and expose customers to excessive portion sizes, may be greatly contributing to and escalating the rates of overweight and obesity in the USA. Whether an association exists between fast food consumption and weight gain is unclear. Sixteen studies (six cross sectional, seven prospective cohort, three experimental) meeting

  13. Consumption of takeaway and fast food in a deprived inner London Borough: are they associated with childhood obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Rachel; Risby, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Objective A major concern is the ubiquitous presence of fast food and takeaway outlets within easy walking distance of schools, particularly in the light of the increasing burden of childhood obesity. Here, the associations between the schoolchildren's weights, their consumption of fast food and takeaway outlets were examined in a deprived inner London Borough. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants 193 schoolchildren (aged between 11 and 14?years old) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) percentiles specific for age and gender were obtained. Frequency of food and drinks purchased from fast food outlets and takeaway outlets over a weekly period and preferred types of drinks and food products usually consumed were measured. Results More than 50% of the children in our survey purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets twice or more a week, with about 10% consuming fast food or drinks from these outlets daily. About 70% of these children from Black ethnic groups and 54% of Asians purchased fast food more than twice a week. BMI has a significantly inverse relationship to fast food consumption. However, when age and gender are accounted, the BMI age–gender percentile is no longer significantly related to fast food consumption. Conclusions This study revealed a very high frequency of fast food consumption among the schoolchildren. Taste, quick access and peer influence were major contributing factors. These schoolchildren are exposed to an obesogenic environment, and it is not surprising that in this situation, many of these children are already overweight and will likely become obese as adults. PMID:22721691

  14. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy...

  15. Fast Fourier transform analysis of sounds made while swallowing various foods.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Mitsuru; Kohyama, Kaoru

    2012-10-01

    The cervical auscultation method was applied to investigate sounds generated while swallowing various foods with unique physical properties, including liquid (water), semiliquid (yogurt), and solid (konjac jelly). To study the differences among swallowing sounds for various foods, fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis was applied to signals that were attributed to the flow of a food bolus, which is a swallowable soft mass of chewed food. An FFT program was developed that enabled the calculation of a spectrum for a specified region of time domain swallowing sound signals. The intensity of spectra in the frequency range between 400 and 1000 Hz significantly differed: liquid > semiliquid > solid. The FFT spectrum in this range was suggested to represent the frequency characteristics of the swallowing sounds of various foods. PMID:23039442

  16. Eating Well As You Get Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for people over age 50. Eating Well Promotes Energy Eating well helps keep up your energy level, too. By consuming enough calories -- a way to measure the energy you get from food --you give your body ...

  17. The Caregiver Eating Messages Scale: Development and psychometric investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley M. Kroon Van Diest; Tracy L. Tylka

    2010-01-01

    Certain caregiver eating messages – restriction of food intake and pressures to eat – are associated with body dissatisfaction and eating disturbances among young girls. This study explored whether these messages are also associated with body attitudes and eating behaviors of young adult women and men. The Caregiver Eating Messages Scale was developed to measure this construct. Two studies (Ns=238,

  18. Competition is key when it comes to fast-food outlets.

    PubMed

    Burns, Helen

    2015-01-20

    When University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust announced that it was ending its contract with Burger King and not renewing the fast-food outlet's concession at the city's general hospital, patients launched a campaign against the closure (News January 7). PMID:25585764

  19. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  20. VITAMIN K CONTENTS OF MEAT, DAIRY AND FAST FOOD IN THE U.S. DIET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of three forms of vitamin K [phylloquinone, dihydrophylloquinone and menaquinone-4 (MK-4)] in representative samples of meat (n=128), dairy (n=24) and fast foods (n=169) common to the U.S. diet. Chicken, cheddar cheese, and egg yolks contained ...

  1. Assessing floor slipperiness in fast-food restaurants in Taiwan using objective and subjective measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Ruey Chang; Yueng-Hsiang Huang; Alfred Filiaggi

    2004-01-01

    Slips and falls are major problems in occupational injuries in which floor slipperiness is a critical issue. Most of the studies on slipperiness assessments were conducted in laboratories. Field assessments are rarely reported in the literature. This study investigated floor slipperiness in seven kitchen areas of 10 western-style fast-food restaurants in Taiwan using both objective and subjective measurements which were

  2. Emotional labour: a comparison between fast food and traditional service work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Seymour

    2000-01-01

    There is a strand of thinking on service work which sees it as significantly different from other kinds of work due to the `emotional’ as well as the physical and mental labour which it entails. This study seeks to investigate and compare the `emotional labour’ involved in traditional service work and fast food service work. It examines whether there are

  3. Consumer evaluations of fast-food services: a cross-national comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moonkyu Lee; Francis M. Ulgado

    1997-01-01

    A growing number of US fast-food franchises are expanding operations to overseas markets. Critical to the success of these service firms is an understanding of the way consumers in foreign markets evaluate their services. Reports the findings of a study that examined and compared the expectations and perceptions of US customers with those of South Korean clients about an international

  4. Does Calorie Information Promote Lower Calorie Fast Food Choices Among College Students?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary A. Gerend

    2009-01-01

    This experiment evaluated effects of calorie information on college students' fast food choices. Women chose lower calorie meals, lower calorie items, and lower priced meals when calorie information was provided than when it was not. Men's selections were unaffected. Providing calorie information at point of purchase could have positive implications for public health.

  5. [Fast food: an example of multi-ethnic service].

    PubMed

    Biggi, N

    2011-01-01

    Autogrill is the world's leading provider of food and beverage and retail services for travellers. Because of the peculiarity in the business areas where the Group operates and of the Countries where is present, Autogrill is provided with an organizational structure whose strength is constituted by "multiculture" and by the multiplicity of differences. The knowledge of race, ethnicity, age and gender differences in the health field is a tool for occupational health medicine to warrant wellbeing of all workers in accordance to the legislative decree 81/2008. PMID:22187922

  6. Fried chicken and fresh apples: racial segregation as a fundamental cause of fast food density in black neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A

    2008-03-01

    As rates of overweight and obesity have surged in the US, researchers have turned attention to the environmental context of diet and disparities in access to healthful foods. Despite evidence that Black neighborhoods are disproportionately exposed to fast food, few explanations have been advanced to illuminate explanatory mechanisms. This paper contends that race-based residential segregation is a fundamental cause of fast food density in Black neighborhoods. Segregation's effects on population and economic characteristics, physical infrastructure, and social processes work in tandem to increase the likelihood that Black neighborhoods in urban environments will bear a disproportionate burden of fast food restaurants. PMID:17576089

  7. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in fast food: Signatures of corn and confinement

    PubMed Central

    Jahren, A. Hope; Kraft, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We sampled food from McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's chains, purchasing >480 servings of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches and fries within geographically distributed U.S. cities: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Detroit, Boston, and Baltimore. From the entire sample set of beef and chicken, only 12 servings of beef had ?13C < ?21‰; for these animals only was a food source other than corn possible. We observed remarkably invariant values of ?15N in both beef and chicken, reflecting uniform confinement and exposure to heavily fertilized feed for all animals. The ?13C value of fries differed significantly among restaurants indicating that the chains used different protocols for deep-frying: Wendy's clearly used only corn oil, whereas McDonald's and Burger King favored other vegetable oils; this differed from ingredient reports. Our results highlighted the overwhelming importance of corn agriculture within virtually every aspect of fast food manufacture. PMID:19001276

  8. The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Gimeno, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of fast food consumption on mean population body mass index (BMI) and explore the possible influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and BMI. Methods The within-country association between fast food consumption and BMI in 25 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development between 1999 and 2008 was explored through multivariate panel regression models, after adjustment for per capita gross domestic product, urbanization, trade openness, lifestyle indicators and other covariates. The possible mediating effect of annual per capita intake of soft drinks, animal fats and total calories on the association between fast food consumption and BMI was also analysed. Two-stage least squares regression models were conducted, using economic freedom as an instrumental variable, to study the causal effect of fast food consumption on BMI. Findings After adjustment for covariates, each 1-unit increase in annual fast food transactions per capita was associated with an increase of 0.033 kg/m2 in age-standardized BMI (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.013–0.052). Only the intake of soft drinks – not animal fat or total calories – mediated the observed association (?:?0.030; 95% CI: 0.010–0.050). Economic freedom was an independent predictor of fast food consumption (?:?0.27; 95% CI: 0.16–0.37). When economic freedom was used as an instrumental variable, the association between fast food and BMI weakened but remained significant (?:?0.023; 95% CI: 0.001–0.045). Conclusion Fast food consumption is an independent predictor of mean BMI in high-income countries. Market deregulation policies may contribute to the obesity epidemic by facilitating the spread of fast food. PMID:24623903

  9. Parental feeding styles and adolescents' healthy eating habits. Structure and correlates of a Costa Rican questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne

    2010-10-01

    This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence. PMID:20600415

  10. Do hunger and exposure to food affect scores on a measure of hedonic hunger? An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ashley A; Raggio, Greer A; Butryn, Meghan L; Lowe, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N=67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the "Fed" group drank a protein shake, while those in the "Fasted" group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the "Food Exposure" group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while "Food Absence" participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p's<.33). All effect sizes were small (partial etas squared ?.015). Manipulation checks confirmed that the intended hunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures. PMID:24269255

  11. Modeling circadian rhythms of food intake by means of parametric deconvolution: results from studies of the night eating syndrome1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C Boston; Peter J Moate; Kelly C Allison; Jennifer D Lundgren; Albert J Stunkard

    Background:Disordered temporal eating patterns are a feature of a number of eating disorders. There is currently no standard mathe- matical model to quantify temporal eating patterns. Objective: We aimed to develop a simple model by which to de- scribethetemporaleatingpatternsofadulthumans.Forthispurpose, patients with the night eating syndrome (NES) and persons without an eating disorder were assessed. Design: Data were obtained from 2

  12. Determinants of children's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Silvia; Arrizza, Chiara; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Tedeschi, Sabrina

    2011-12-01

    Parents have a high degree of control over the environments and experiences of their children. Food preferences are shaped by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This article is a review of current data on effective determinants of children's eating habits. The development of children's food preferences involves a complex interplay of genetic, familial, and environmental factors. There is evidence of a strong genetic influence on appetite traits in children, but environment plays an important role in modeling children's eating behaviors. Parents use a variety of strategies to influence children's eating habits, some of which are counterproductive. Overcontrol, restriction, pressure to eat, and a promise of rewards have negative effects on children's food acceptance. Parents' food preferences and eating behaviors provide an opportunity to model good eating habits. Satiety is closely related to diet composition, and foods with low energy density contribute to prevent overeating. Parents should be informed about the consequences of an unhealthy diet and lifestyle and motivated to change their nutritional habits. Parents should be the target of prevention programs because children model themselves on their parents' eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating-related attitudes, and dissatisfaction regarding body image. Pediatricians can have an important role in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life. PMID:22089441

  13. Association between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that the consumption of chilli-containing foods can influence iron absorption and affect serum insulin and glucose concentrations, which may help to alleviate diabetes or prediabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric data, and chilli food habit data collected from 8433 adults (aged 18 to 99), in 2009, as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale longitudinal, household-based survey in China. Chilli food habits were assessed using chilli food eating frequencies (no eating, sometimes eating, often eating, and usually eating) and chilli food types (a little bit hot, moderately hot, and very hot). Fasting serum ferritin, insulin, and fasting plasma glucose were also measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Compared with the chilli-eating group, the no eating group had higher HOMA-IR levels for both men and women (P<.05). There were significant differences in HOMA-IR (P<.05) for both men and women and in ferritin (P<.001) for women according to different chilli food types. However, there was no significant difference in the ferritin level and HOMA-IR components for different chilli food eating frequencies in both sex groups. Chilli food habits, especially the different hotness levels of chilli food, were associated with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference. PMID:24479485

  14. Food and Your Bones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here Home » Food and Your Bones Food and Your Bones The food that you eat ... taking multivitamins or supplements . Good-for-Your-Bones Foods Food Nutrient Dairy products such as low-fat ...

  15. Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  16. Dynamic relations between fast-food restaurant and body weight status: a longitudinal and multilevel analysis of Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwei; Short, Susan E; Liu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Background Mixed findings have been reported on the association between Western fast-food restaurants and body weight status. Results vary across study contexts and are sensitive to the samples, measures and methods used. Most studies have failed to examine the temporally dynamic associations between community exposure to fast-food restaurants and weight changes. Methods Bayesian hierarchical regressions are used to model changes in body mass index, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR) as a function of changes in Western fast-food restaurants in 216 communities for more than 9000 Chinese adults followed up multiple times between 2000 and 2009. Results Number of Western fast-food restaurants is positively associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR among rural population. More fast-food restaurants are positively associated with a future increase in WHpR for urban women. Increased availability of fast food between two waves is related to increased WHtR for urban men over the same period. A past increase in number of fast-food restaurants is associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR for rural population. Conclusions The associations between community exposure to Western fast food and weight changes are temporally dynamic rather than static. Improved measures of exposure to community environment are needed to achieve more precise estimates and better understanding of these relationships. In light of the findings in this study and China’s rapid economic growth, further investigation and increased public health monitoring is warranted since Western fast food is likely to be more accessible and affordable in the near future. PMID:22923769

  17. Toward the Reduction of Population Obesity: Macrolevel Environmental Approaches to the Problems of Food, Eating, and Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myles S. Faith; Kevin R. Fontaine; Monica L. Baskin; David B. Allison

    2007-01-01

    The authors reviewed the evidential basis of three environmental approaches to reducing population obesity: What are the effects of (a) taxing or subsidizing foods, (b) manipulating the ease of food access, and (c) restricting access to certain foods? A narrative review evaluated evidence using National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. There was strong evidence that subsidization influences food purchases,

  18. Bryan: Preeminent Food Safety Champion Most of us have experienced nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea after eating

    E-print Network

    Bryan: Preeminent Food Safety Champion 6/16/2008 Most of us have experienced nausea, vomiting and for another two decades as a food safety consultant to the food industry, universities, states, and to the WHO of this branch came from Dr. Bryan. Environmental factors in food safety were not a niche CDC had filled

  19. Out of Balance: Marketing of Soda, Candy, Snacks and Fast Foods Drowns Out Healthful Messages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Despite the best intentions of many public health educators and concerned parents, the obesity problem in the United States continues to grow. A number of organizations have been interested in looking at the role of advertising as a part of this process, and this particular 31-page report on the subject will be of interest to many. Jointly published by the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network and the Consumers Union (the organization which publishes Consumer Reports), the report looks at the rather ubiquitous nature of advertising by the food, beverage, and restaurant industries as compared to the relatively small amount spent on communicating the importance of eating five or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day. The report contains a number of helpful graphs and charts, along with a set of policy recommendations at the conclusion of the report.

  20. Out of Balance: Marketing of Soda, Candy, Snacks and Fast Foods Drowns Out Healthful Messages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    Despite the best intentions of many public health educators and concerned parents, the obesity problem in the United States continues to grow. A number of organizations have been interested in looking at the role of advertising as a part of this process, and this particular 31-page report on the subject will be of interest to many. Jointly published by the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network and the Consumers Union (the organization which publishes Consumer Reports), the report looks at the rather ubiquitous nature of advertising by the food, beverage, and restaurant industries as compared to the relatively small amount spent on communicating the importance of eating five or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day. The report contains a number of helpful graphs and charts, along with a set of policy recommendations at the conclusion of the report.

  1. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  2. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  3. Healthy Eating and You

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Smith

    2010-12-13

    This project will get kids to explore what it means to be healthy. The students will go through various websites to learn about healthy eating and exercise. Students you will answer the various questions and go to each website to explore what you need to do to be a healthy eater and what your body needs to function daily. Use the following website to explore your body and what the foods you eat really do for your body. Why you need certain foods Use ...

  4. A Multisite Investigation of Binge Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating

  5. Coordinated school health program and dietetics professionals: partners in promoting healthful eating.

    PubMed

    Gross, Sandra M; Cinelli, Bethann

    2004-05-01

    Although research indicates that school meal programs contribute to improved academic performance and healthier eating behaviors for students who participate, fewer than 60% of students choose the National School Lunch Program or School Breakfast Program. School meal programs have a difficult time competing with foods that are marketed to young people through sophisticated advertising campaigns. Youth's preferences for fast foods, soft drinks, and salty snacks; mixed messages sent by school personnel; school food preparation and serving space limitations; inadequate meal periods; and lack of education standards for school foodservice directors challenge school meal programs as well. A coordinated school health program offers a framework for meeting these challenges and provides children and adolescents with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthful eating. This article identifies challenges facing school foodservice directors in delivering healthful meals and acquaints dietetics professionals with the coordinated school health program to be used as a tool for addressing unhealthful weight gain and promoting healthful eating. PMID:15127066

  6. Assessment of Obesity, Overweight and Its Association with the Fast Food Consumption in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Geetanjali; Nair, Sandhya Pillai; Patel, Bhavita; Rawal, Yash; Shah, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat accumulates, which leads to various adverse effects on health, particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which reduce life expectancy and/or increase health problems. Fast food consumption is one of the factors which have been reported as a cause of obesity. Body mass index (BMI) is used to assess obesity and overweight, which can be calculated by using the formula, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres. Aim: This study focused on the relationship of body mass index with fast food consumption, associated soft drink consumption and physical activity. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, SBKS MI and RC, and Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. This study was approved by the ethical review board .One hundred and forty seven medical students from 1st year MBBS course were included in this study. Self-structured questionnaire was used, which contained several data like information on age, height, weight, education level. The formula used for calculating BMI was, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres (Kg/m2). Results: In our study, out of 147 students, a total of 138 students (more than 90%) used to have fast food. Among these, a total of 47 students (34.05%) were pre-obese and obese. Out of 147 students, 87 students (59.18%) were in normal weight range, while 13 (8.84%) students were underweight. Statistical Analysis: Data was compiled in an Excel worksheet and it was analyzed for percentages and proportions. Chi-square and Pearson’s correlation test were also applied wherever they were applicable and Alpha error was set at a 5% level. Conclusion: In our study, a significant relationship was found between BMI and fast food consumption, less physical activity, and intake of soft drinks. PMID:24995170

  7. Acculturation, Physical Activity, and Fast-Food Consumption Among Asian-American and Hispanic Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer B. Unger; Kim Reynolds; Sohaila Shakib; Donna Spruijt-Metz; Ping Sun; C. Anderson Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated acculturation to the US as a risk factor for unhealthy behaviors among Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents, including substance use, violence, and unsafe sex. This study examined the association between acculturation and obesity-related behaviors•physical activity and fast-food consumption•among 619 Asian-American and 1385 Hispanic adolescents in Southern California. Respondents completed surveys in 6th and 7th grade. The 6th

  8. Multi-unit Ownership in Franchising: Evidence from the Fast-Food Industry in Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturs Kalnins; Francine Lafontaine

    2004-01-01

    Using data on all restaurants opened in Texas between 1980 and 1995 by seven large U.S. fast-food chains, we examine the extent of multi-unit ownership among franchisees and analyze how franchisors allocate the ownership of new units. We show that franchisees with nearby units are much more likely to be assigned ownership of a new unit. Further, controlling for distance,

  9. Ownership, Agency, and Wages: An Examination of Franchising in the Fast Food Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan B Krueger

    1991-01-01

    This paper estimates the difference in compensation between company-owned and franchisee-owned fast food restaurants. The contrast is of interest because contractual arrangements give managers of company-owned outlets less of an incentive to monitor and supervise employees. Estimates based on two data sets suggest that employee compensation is slightly greater at company-owned outlets than at franchisee-owned outlets. The earnings gap is

  10. Hormonal Responses to a Fast-Food Meal Compared with Nutritionally Comparable Meals of Different Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Bray; Marlene Most; Jennifer Rood; Stephen Redmann; Steven R. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fast food is consumed in large quantities each day. Whether there are differences in the acute metabolic response to these meals as compared to ‘healthy’ meals with similar composition is unknown. Design: Three-way crossover. Methods: Six overweight men were given a standard breakfast at 8:00 a.m. on each of 3 occasions, followed by 1 of 3 lunches at noon.

  11. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation. PMID:25102252

  12. Effects of binge eating on satiation, satiety, and energy intake of overweight children1234

    PubMed Central

    Mirch, Margaret C; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Yanovski, Susan Z; Schollnberger, Merel; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Theim, Kelly R; Krakoff, Jonathan; Yanovski, Jack A

    2007-01-01

    Background Children who report episodes of binge eating gain more weight than do children not reporting binge eating. However, how binge eating affects children’s food intake at meals is unknown. Objective We compared the energy intake and postmeal satiety of children with and without a history of binge eating during buffet meals. Design Sixty overweight children aged 6–12 y were categorized into those reporting past binge-eating episodes (n = 10) and those reporting no such episodes (n = 50). Children selected lunch twice from a multiple-item, 9835 kcal, buffet meal: after an overnight fast and after a standardized breakfast. Children ate ad libitum, until they reported they were full. The main outcome measures were energy intake during meals and duration of postmeal satiety, after adjustment for covariates, including age, race, sex, socioeconomic status, and body composition. Results After the overnight fast, children in the binge-eating group consumed more energy [x? (±SD): 1748 ± 581 compared with 1309 ± 595 kcal; P = 0.04] and exhibited a shorter satiety duration (194 ± 84 compared with 262 ± 89 min; P = 0.03) than did children in the non-binge-eating group. After the standardized breakfast, binge-eating children reported a shorter satiety duration (75 ± 62 compared with 132 ± 62 min; P = 0.01) and consumed more energy at the postbreakfast meal (1874 ± 560 compared with 1275 ± 566 kcal; P = 0.004). Conclusion The ability to consume large quantities of palatable foods, coupled with decreased subsequent satiety, may play a role in the greater weight gain found in binge-eating children. PMID:17023698

  13. Weight misperception and its association with dieting methods and eating behaviors in South Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunjung; Park, Sangshin; Kim, Cho-il; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES There is little information on the association between weight misperception and eating behavior in Korean adolescents. Therefore, we investigated the association of food intake habits and dieting method and disturbed eating behavior (DEB) in relation to weight misperception. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data was collected by using a nationwide online panel survey from 6,943 adolescents enrolled in middle/high school. DEB was measured with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and those who scored ? 20 on the EAT-26 were considered to have eating disorder. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association between weight misperception based on self-reported weight status and dieting method and eating behaviors. RESULTS The proportion of weight underestimation was 23.5% and that of overestimation was 24.0%. Weight overestimating girls were more likely to engage in various unhealthy dieting practices (OR = 1.69 for fasting; OR = 1.88 for laxative or diuretic use; OR = 2.05 for self-induced vomiting after meals; P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a strong association between overestimation and undesirable eating behaviors, especially among girls, e.g.: having breakfast (OR = 0.85), high consumption of fast foods (OR = 1.28) and regular sodas (OR = 1.39), but not among boys. In both genders, weight overestimation appears to be a major risk factor for DEB (OR = 1.34 for boys and OR = 1.41 for girls; P < 0.05). CONSLUSIONS Weight overestimation is associated with unhealthy weight control practices and eating behaviors. We particularly found a significant association between weight overestimation and DEB among nationwide Korean adolescents. PMID:24741407

  14. Inviting consumers to downsize fast-food portions significantly reduces calorie consumption.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Janet; Riis, Jason; Elbel, Brian; Ariely, Dan

    2012-02-01

    Policies that mandate calorie labeling in fast-food and chain restaurants have had little or no observable impact on calorie consumption to date. In three field experiments, we tested an alternative approach: activating consumers' self-control by having servers ask customers if they wanted to downsize portions of three starchy side dishes at a Chinese fast-food restaurant. We consistently found that 14-33 percent of customers accepted the downsizing offer, and they did so whether or not they were given a nominal twenty-five-cent discount. Overall, those who accepted smaller portions did not compensate by ordering more calories in their entrées, and the total calories served to them were, on average, reduced by more than 200. We also found that accepting the downsizing offer did not change the amount of uneaten food left at the end of the meal, so the calorie savings during purchasing translated into calorie savings during consumption. Labeling the calorie content of food during one of the experiments had no measurable impact on ordering behavior. If anything, the downsizing offer was less effective in changing customers' ordering patterns with the calorie labeling present. These findings highlight the potential importance of portion-control interventions that specifically activate consumers' self-control. PMID:22323171

  15. Toward the reduction of population obesity: macrolevel environmental approaches to the problems of food, eating, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Faith, Myles S; Fontaine, Kevin R; Baskin, Monica L; Allison, David B

    2007-03-01

    The authors reviewed the evidential basis of three environmental approaches to reducing population obesity: What are the effects of (a) taxing or subsidizing foods, (b) manipulating the ease of food access, and (c) restricting access to certain foods? A narrative review evaluated evidence using National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. There was strong evidence that subsidization influences food purchases, but not necessarily food consumption or body weight. Ease of food access may influence food purchases, and possibly food intake and body weight. Data on restriction were lacking. More studies are needed to justify that altering these macro-environmental variables will necessarily reduce population obesity. A proposed conceptual model posits that the steps through environmental interventions may exert intended and unintended influences on body weight and obesity prevalence. Contemplated policy changes should weigh scientific evidence with social judgments and values concerning changes to the environment. PMID:17338597

  16. Role of 5-HT3 Receptor on Food Intake in Fed and Fasted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingjin; Shao, Dongyuan; Luo, Yungang; Wang, Pu; Liu, Changhong; Zhang, Xingyi; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and 5-HT in the brain were examined after acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR-57227 alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Food intake was significantly inhibited within 3 h after acute treatment with SR 57227 in fasted mice but not fed mice, and this inhibition was blocked by ondansetron. Immunohistochemical study revealed that fasting-induced c-Fos expression was further enhanced by SR 57227 in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and this enhancement was also blocked by ondansetron. Furthermore, the fasting-induced downregulation of POMC expression in the hypothalamus and the TH expression in the brain stem was blocked by SR 57227 in the fasted mice, and this effect of SR 57227 was also antagonized by ondansetron. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of SR 57227 on the control of feeding behavior in fasted mice may be, at least partially, related to the c-Fos expression in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as POMC system in the hypothalamus and the TH system in the brain stem. PMID:25789930

  17. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is often accompanied by feelings of disgust or shame. The binge-eating and purging cycle happens anywhere ... and high blood pressure. They also experience guilt, shame, and distress about their binge-eating, which can ...

  18. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... what causes eating disorders, although there are many theories about it. Many people who develop an eating ... therapists, and working with dietitians and other professionals. Learning to be comfortable at your healthy weight is ...

  19. Histopathological changes induced in an animal model by potentially pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains recovered from ready-to-eat food outlets in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olawale, Adetunji Kola; David, Oluwole Moses; Oluyege, Adekemi Olubukunola; Osuntoyinbo, Richard Temitope; Laleye, Solomon Anjuwon; Famurewa, Oladiran

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci have been implicated as an emerging important cause of several diseases and multiple antibiotic resistance. However, there is little information about the prevalence of pathogenic and/or antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in ready-to-eat foods in Nigeria. Here we report the pathogenic potential of three selected antibiotic-resistant E. faecalis strains isolated from food canteens and food outlets with different virulence determinant genes, including EFC 12 (with gel+, esp+, cylA+, and asa1+), EFT 148 (with gel+, ace+, and asa1+), and EFS 18 (with esp+ and cylA+) in an animal model. Enterococcemia, hematological parameters, and histopathological changes in organ tissues were examined in experimental animals. The results showed differences in enterococcemia and hematological parameters between the control group and experimental animal group. Enterococcemia was observed for 7 days, and the animal group infected with EFC 12 showed the highest growth rate, followed by EFT 148, with the lowest growth rate seen in the EFS 18-infected group. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and platelets were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the experimental animals compared with the controls. White blood cells decreased drastically during the study period in rats challenged with EFC 12 (from 7,800 to 6,120 per mm3) but levels remained higher in the control group (from 9,228 to 9,306 per mm3). Histopathological changes included areas of pronounced hemorrhage, necrosis, and distortion in liver tissues, which were more marked in rats infected with EFC 12, followed by EFT 148, then EFS 18. The results of this study suggest the presence of potentially pathogenic E. faecalis strains in food canteens and food outlets; hence, there is a need for strict adherence to good hygiene practices in the study area owing to the epidemiological significance of foods. PMID:26170700

  20. Guide to Eating for Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other ingredients that have caffeine-like effects. Game-Day Eats Your performance on game day will depend on the foods you've eaten over the past several days and weeks. But you can boost your performance ...

  1. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

    This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

  2. Workers intake too much salt from dishes of eating out and food service cafeterias; direct chemical analysis of sodium content

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Seung-Lim; Kim, Jin-Young; Kang, Soon-Ah; Park, Kun-Young; Ryou, Hyun-Joo

    2009-01-01

    The average sodium intake of Koreans was reported to be 5,279.9 mg/day, which is one of the highest intake levels worldwide. The average Koreans intake 19.6% of sodium from kimchi, showing kimchi as the main contributor of sodium in this country (Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2005). The sodium content of dishes that are frequently chosen by workers, and which were served by foodservice cafeterias were chemically analyzed. The average sodium content of one meal provided by 10 foodservice cafeterias was 2,777.7 mg. Twenty-one, one-dish-meals, frequently chosen by workers for a lunch menu, were collected at 4 different restaurants for each menu by one male, aged in the twenties and analyzed chemically also. Workers who eat lunch at a workplace cafeteria everyday could intake about 8 g of salt at a one-time meal and those who eat out for a one-dish-meal would intake 3-8 g of salt without counting sodium content from the side dishes. From these study results, one could estimate that over 10 g of salt could be possible for a single meal for workers who eat out everyday. A nationwide nutrition campaign and education for low salt diets for restaurant owners and foodservice providers should be seriously considered. PMID:20098587

  3. Secular Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Use Among Adolescents and Maternal Caregivers From 1999 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Peter J.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Laska, Melissa N.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined trends from 1999 to 2010 in adolescents’ self-reported fast-food restaurant use alongside maternal reports of fast-food consumption and purchasing from restaurants for family meals. Methods. Middle- and high-school student participants from Minneapolis–St Paul, Minnesota, represented diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Adolescents completed classroom-administered surveys and maternal caregivers responded by phone or mail. Results. The overall prevalence of frequent fast-food consumption, defined as 3 or more times per week, decreased from 1999 to 2010 among adolescents (1999: 25%; 2010: 19%; P?fast-food consumption remained highest and did not significantly decrease among Black or Native American youths. The overall prevalence of frequent fast-food purchases for family meals did not significantly decrease; large decreases were observed only among Hispanic families (1999: 18%; 2010: 6%; P?fast-food consumption to greater weight gain and poor nutrition, the observed decreases in consumption are encouraging and interventions are needed to address observed disparities. PMID:24625157

  4. Measuring food access in Melbourne: access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Burns, C M; Inglis, A D

    2007-12-01

    Access to healthy food can be an important determinant of a healthy diet. This paper describes the assessment of access to healthy and unhealthy foods using a GIS accessibility programme in a large outer municipality of Melbourne. Access to a major supermarket was used as a proxy for access to a healthy diet and fast food outlet as proxy for access to unhealthy food. Our results indicated that most (>80%) residents lived within an 8-10 min car journey of a major supermarket i.e. have good access to a healthy diet. However, more advantaged areas had closer access to supermarkets, conversely less advantaged areas had closer access to fast food outlets. These findings have application for urban planners, public health practitioners and policy makers. PMID:17470408

  5. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sweety; Krug, Susanne; Skurk, Thomas; Halama, Anna; Stank, Antonia; Artati, Anna; Prehn, Cornelia; Malek, Joel A; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Adamski, Jerzy; Hauner, Hans; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient groups such as individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24906381

  6. Feasibility and Use of the Mobile Food Record for Capturing Eating Occasions among Children Ages 3-10 Years in Guam.

    PubMed

    Aflague, Tanisha F; Boushey, Carol J; Guerrero, Rachael T Leon; Ahmad, Ziad; Kerr, Deborah A; Delp, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Children's readiness to use technology supports the idea of children using mobile applications for dietary assessment. Our goal was to determine if children 3-10 years could successfully use the mobile food record (mFR) to capture a usable image pair or pairs. Children in Sample 1 were tasked to use the mFR to capture an image pair of one eating occasion while attending summer camp. For Sample 2, children were tasked to record all eating occasions for two consecutive days at two time periods that were two to four weeks apart. Trained analysts evaluated images. In Sample 1, 90% (57/63) captured one usable image pair. All children (63/63) returned the mFR undamaged. Sixty-two children reported: The mFR was easy to use (89%); willingness to use the mFR again (87%); and the fiducial marker easy to manage (94%). Children in Sample 2 used the mFR at least one day at Time 1 (59/63, 94%); Time 2 (49/63, 78%); and at both times (47/63, 75%). This latter group captured 6.21 ± 4.65 and 5.65 ± 3.26 mean (±SD) image pairs for Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. Results support the potential for children to independently record dietary intakes using the mFR. PMID:26043037

  7. Feasibility and Use of the Mobile Food Record for Capturing Eating Occasions among Children Ages 3–10 Years in Guam

    PubMed Central

    Aflague, Tanisha F.; Boushey, Carol J.; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T.; Ahmad, Ziad; Kerr, Deborah A.; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s readiness to use technology supports the idea of children using mobile applications for dietary assessment. Our goal was to determine if children 3–10 years could successfully use the mobile food record (mFR) to capture a usable image pair or pairs. Children in Sample 1 were tasked to use the mFR to capture an image pair of one eating occasion while attending summer camp. For Sample 2, children were tasked to record all eating occasions for two consecutive days at two time periods that were two to four weeks apart. Trained analysts evaluated images. In Sample 1, 90% (57/63) captured one usable image pair. All children (63/63) returned the mFR undamaged. Sixty-two children reported: The mFR was easy to use (89%); willingness to use the mFR again (87%); and the fiducial marker easy to manage (94%). Children in Sample 2 used the mFR at least one day at Time 1 (59/63, 94%); Time 2 (49/63, 78%); and at both times (47/63, 75%). This latter group captured 6.21 ± 4.65 and 5.65 ± 3.26 mean (±SD) image pairs for Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. Results support the potential for children to independently record dietary intakes using the mFR. PMID:26043037

  8. CRF–CRF1 Receptor System in the Central and Basolateral Nuclei of the Amygdala Differentially Mediates Excessive Eating of Palatable Food

    PubMed Central

    Iemolo, Attilio; Blasio, Angelo; St Cyr, Stephen A; Jiang, Fanny; Rice, Kenner C; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Highly palatable foods and dieting are major contributing factors for the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. We previously demonstrated that intermittent access to palatable food results in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist-reversible behaviors, which include excessive palatable food intake, hypophagia of regular chow, and anxiety-like behavior. However, the brain areas mediating these effects are still unknown. Male Wistar rats were either fed chow continuously for 7 days/week (Chow/Chow group), or fed chow intermittently 5 days/week, followed by a sucrose, palatable diet 2 days/week (Chow/Palatable group). Following chronic diet alternation, the effects of microinfusing the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 (0, 0.5, 1.5??g/side) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BlA), or the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) were evaluated on excessive intake of the palatable diet, chow hypophagia, and anxiety-like behavior. Furthermore, CRF immunostaining was evaluated in the brain of diet cycled rats. Intra-CeA R121919 blocked both excessive palatable food intake and anxiety-like behavior in Chow/Palatable rats, without affecting chow hypophagia. Conversely, intra-BlA R121919 reduced the chow hypophagia in Chow/Palatable rats, without affecting excessive palatable food intake or anxiety-like behavior. Intra-BNST treatment had no effect. The treatments did not modify the behavior of Chow/Chow rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increased number of CRF-positive cells in CeA—but not in BlA or BNST—of Chow/Palatable rats, during both withdrawal and renewed access to the palatable diet, compared with controls. These results provide functional evidence that the CRF–CRF1 receptor system in CeA and BlA has a differential role in mediating maladaptive behaviors resulting from palatable diet cycling. PMID:23748225

  9. Eating Well While Eating Out

    MedlinePLUS

    ... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...

  10. What People Buy From Fast-food Restaurants: Caloric Content and Menu Item Selection, New York City 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara Dumanovsky; Cathy A. Nonas; Christina Y. Huang; Lynn D. Silver; Mary T. Bassett

    2009-01-01

    Fast-food restaurants provide a growing share of daily food intake, but little information is available in the public health literature about customer purchases. In order to establish baseline data on mean calorie intake, this study was completed in the Spring of 2007, before calorie labeling regulations went into effect in New York City. Receipts were collected from lunchtime customers, at

  11. Binge Eating in Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Barbara

    The psychosomatic theory of obesity assumes that binging, eating in response to emotional distress, is characteristic of obese individuals, yet experimental attempts to demonstrate binging have yielded weak support for this assumption. The incidence of binging was investigated by means of structured interviews on food habits with 41 male and 39…

  12. Eating for Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drinks have a lot of sugar and calories. Water is still the best drink for your body and it ... time to practice or play, you'll get energy from the foods you've been eating all week. But it's ...

  13. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: a perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Layman, Donald K

    2014-07-01

    The food industry is the point of final integration of consumer food choices with dietary guidelines. For more than 40 years, nutrition recommendations emphasized reducing dietary intake of animal fats, cholesterol, and protein and increasing intake of cereal grains. The food industry responded by creating a convenient, low cost and diverse food supply that featured fat-free cookies, cholesterol-free margarines, and spaghetti with artificial meat sauce. However, research focused on obesity, aging, and Metabolic Syndrome has demonstrated merits of increased dietary protein and reduced amounts of carbohydrates. Dietary guidelines have changed from a conceptual framework of a daily balance of food groups represented as building blocks in a pyramid designed to encourage consumers to avoid fat, to a plate design that creates a meal approach to nutrition and highlights protein and vegetables and minimizes grain carbohydrates. Coincident with the changing dietary guidelines, consumers are placing higher priority on foods for health and seeking foods with more protein, less sugars and minimal processing that are fresh, natural, and with fewer added ingredients. Individual food companies must adapt to changing nutrition knowledge, dietary guidelines, and consumer priorities. The impact on the food industry will be specific to each company based on their products, culture and capacity to adapt. PMID:24384369

  14. Generational differences in fast food intake among South-Asian Americans: results from a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Monideepa B; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States. PMID:25474383

  15. Control Your Weight While Eating Out. 

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01

    , French pastries or foods prepared with rich gravies or wine sauces. Limited menu restaurants serving only pizzas, tacos, fried chicken, hamburgers or french fries should be avoided. If you do eat these foods, select the small burger without french...

  16. The relationship between eating-related individual differences and visual attention to foods high in added fat and sugar

    E-print Network

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    Visual attention Objective: Attentional biases for food-related stimuli may be associated separately. Methods: One-hundred overweight or obese women, ages 18­50, completed a food-related visual search task components of overt spatial attention are best assessed using visual-search and eye-tracking paradigms

  17. Overweight and obesity: can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    PubMed

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S; Maroko, Andrew R; Schechter, Clyde B; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Maantay, Juliana

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction. Consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities. PMID:23719294

  18. Determinants of Food Choice: Relationships with Obesity and Weight Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Mela

    2001-01-01

    The decision to eat, and to eat particular foods, varies for different individuals and situations. Individual differences in food likes and desires develop throughout life because of differing food experiences and attitudes. There are many internal and external cues, not just stimulation from foods or hunger, which can trigger the immediate desire to eat or orient eating toward certain foods.

  19. Promoters and Barriers to Fruit, Vegetable, and Fast-Food Consumption Among Urban, Low-Income African Americans—A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Barg, Frances K.; Long, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    To identify promoters of and barriers to fruit, vegetable, and fast-food consumption, we interviewed low-income African Americans in Philadelphia. Salient promoters and barriers were distinct from each other and differed by food type: taste was a promoter and cost a barrier to all foods; convenience, cravings, and preferences promoted consumption of fast foods; health concerns promoted consumption of fruits and vegetables and avoidance of fast foods. Promoters and barriers differed by gender and age. Strategies for dietary change should consider food type, gender, and age. PMID:20167885

  20. Shorter communication Loss of control over eating reflects eating disturbances and general psychopathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet D. Latner; Thomas Hildebrandt; Juliet K. Rosewall; Amy M. Chisholm; Kentaro Hayashi

    This study examined the clinical significance of the loss of control over eating as a key component of eating disorders. It investigated the association of eating-related psychopathology and general psychopathology with objective bulimic episodes (OBEs; experiencing a loss of control while consuming large amounts of food) and subjective bulimic episodes (SBEs; experiencing a loss of control while consuming small\\/moderate amounts).

  1. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  2. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). PMID:21492080

  3. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  4. Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Corte, Colleen; Keller, Colleen; Trabold, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:24183140

  5. Density and Proximity of Fast Food Restaurants and Body Mass Index Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Seann D.; Nguyen, Nga; Cromley, Ellen K.; Strong, Larkin L.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to address current gaps in the literature by examining the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) density around the home and FFR proximity to the home, respectively, with body mass index (BMI) among a large sample of African American adults from Houston, Texas. Methods. We used generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations to examine associations of FFR density at 0.5-, 1-, 2-, and 5-mile road network buffers around the home with BMI and associations of the closest FFR to the home with BMI. All models were adjusted for a range of individual-level covariates and neighborhood socioeconomic status. We additionally investigated the moderating effects of household income on these relations. Data were collected from December 2008 to July 2009. Results. FFR density was not associated with BMI in the main analyses. However, FFR density at 0.5, 1, and 2 miles was positively associated with BMI among participants with lower incomes (P???.025). Closer FFR proximity was associated with higher BMI among all participants (P?fast food environment to affect BMI among African Americans, particularly among those of lower economic means. PMID:23678913

  6. Stress eating and health. Findings from MIDUS, a national study of US adults.

    PubMed

    Tsenkova, Vera; Boylan, Jenifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic of obesity and its related chronic diseases has provoked interest in the predictors of eating behavior. Eating in response to stress has been extensively examined, but currently unclear is whether stress eating is associated with obesity and morbidity. We tested whether self-reported stress eating was associated with worse glucose metabolism among nondiabetic adults as well as with increased odds of prediabetes and diabetes. Further, we investigated whether these relationships were mediated by central fat distribution. Participants were 1138 adults (937 without diabetes) in the Midlife in the US study (MIDUS II). Glucose metabolism was characterized by fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMAIR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), prediabetes, and diabetes status. Multivariate-adjusted analyses showed that stress eating was associated with significantly higher nondiabetic levels of glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and HbA1c as well as higher odds of prediabetes or diabetes. Relationships between stress eating and all outcomes were no longer statistically significant once waist circumference was added to the models, suggesting that it mediates such relationships. Findings add to the growing literature on the relationships among psychosocial factors, obesity, and chronic disease by documenting associations between stress eating and objectively measured health outcomes in a national sample of adults. The findings have important implications for interventive targets related to obesity and chronic disease, namely, strategies to modify the tendency to use food as a coping response to stress. PMID:23747576

  7. Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training for Treating Binge Eating Disorder: The Conceptual Foundation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean L. Kristeller; Ruth Q. Wolever

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food

  8. Evaluation of the hygiene of ready-to-eat food preparation areas and practices in mobile food vendors in the UK.

    PubMed

    Little, Christine; Sagoo, Satnam

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to surfaces sampled. Surfaces that were visually dirty, wet, and chopping boards that were plastic or damaged also had high levels of these bacteria. Fifty-four percent of potable water samples were of poor microbiological quality; i.e. contained coliforms, E. coli and/or enterococci. A documented food safety management system was only evident in 40.1% of vendors and cleaning schedules were only used by 43.6%. Deficiencies in the correct use of cleaning materials, such as dilution factors and the minimum contact time for disinfectants, were identified. PMID:20183200

  9. To eat or not to eat-international experiences with eating during hemodialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Brandon; Benner, Deborah; Burgess, Mary; Stasios, Maria; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2014-11-01

    Providing food or nutrition supplements during hemodialysis (HD) may be associated with improved nutritional status and reduced mortality; however, despite these potential benefits, eating practices vary across countries, regions, and clinics. Understanding present clinic practices and clinician experiences with eating during HD may help outline best practices in this controversial area. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine clinical practices and experiences related to eating during HD treatment. We surveyed clinicians about their clinic practices during the 2014 International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism Conference. We received 73 responses from six continents. Respondents were primarily dietitians (71%) working at units housed in a hospital (63%). Sixty-one clinics (85%) allowed patients to eat during treatment, with 47 of these patients (65%) actively encouraging eating. Fifty-three clinics (73%) provided food during HD. None of the nine clinics from North America, however, provided food during treatment. The majority (47 clinics; 64%) provided supplements during treatment. Clinics in the hospital setting were more likely to provide food during treatment, whereas outpatient clinics were less likely to provide nutrition supplements (P? 0.05 for both). We also asked clinicians about their experience with six commonly cited reasons to restrict eating during treatment using a four-point scale. Clinicians responded they observed the following conditions "rarely" or "never": choking (98%), reduced Kt/V (98%), infection control issues (96%), spills or pests (83%), gastrointestinal issues (71%), and hypotension (62%). Our results indicate that while eating is common during treatment in some areas, disparities may exist in global practices, and most of the proposed negative sequelae of eating during HD are not frequently observed in clinical practice. Whether these disparities in practice can explain global differences in albumin warrants further research to help inform decisions regarding eating during HD. PMID:25443543

  10. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chaj?cka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpi?ska, Magda; ?aniewska-Trokenheim, ?ucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25475289

  11. WellBee : mobile therapy for stress-related eating

    E-print Network

    Tam, Sharon W

    2011-01-01

    Stress has been shown to affect eating behavior which may lead to eating disorders. Stress may also affect health by causing the modification of behaviors such as physical exercise, smoking, or food choices. Thus, ...

  12. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Gurenlian, JoAnn R

    2002-01-01

    Eating disorders are a serious concern in clients health and a challenge to oral health professionals. These illnesses, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia, binge eating, and pica, are characterized by serious disturbances in eating and effects on psychological health. Physiologic changes associated with eating disorders may be devastating and can lead to mortality. Despite the serious consequences of eating disorders on physical and psychological health and well being, these disorders are often difficult to diagnose. Even when detected, ill clients may be averse to accepting treatment. Thus, oral health professionals must be aware of the signs of eating disorders, and be prepared to collaborate with other health care providers to treat them. The purpose of this course is to review the medical and dental literature concerning eating disorders types, risk factors, systemic health consequences, oral manifestations, and treatment considerations. The role of oral health professionals as part of an interdisciplinary health team focused on addressing the needs of clients with eating disorders will be addressed. PMID:12271868

  13. [Eating disorders and mass media].

    PubMed

    Peroutsi, A; Gonidakis, F

    2011-01-01

    During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:21971198

  14. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Harrison, Paul J

    2003-02-01

    Eating disorders are an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity in adolescent girls and young adult women. They are much less frequent in men. Eating disorders are divided into three diagnostic categories: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and the atypical eating disorders. However, the disorders have many features in common and patients frequently move between them, so for the purposes of this Seminar we have adopted a transdiagnostic perspective. The cause of eating disorders is complex and badly understood. There is a genetic predisposition, and certain specific environmental risk factors have been implicated. Research into treatment has focused on bulimia nervosa, and evidence-based management of this disorder is possible. A specific form of cognitive behaviour therapy is the most effective treatment, although few patients seem to receive it in practice. Treatment of anorexia nervosa and atypical eating disorders has received remarkably little research attention. PMID:12573387

  15. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    PubMed Central

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary T; Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah A

    2008-01-01

    Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. Results No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu). Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Conclusion Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change. PMID:19061510

  16. Circadian Eating and Sleeping Patterns in the Night Eating Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. O’Reardon; Brenda L. Ringel; David F. Dinges; Kelly Costello Allison; Naomi L. Rogers; Nicole S. Martino; Albert J. Stunkard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the eating and sleep-wake patterns of persons with the night eating syndrome (NES) with those of matched control subjects.Research Methods and Procedures: Forty-six overweight\\/obese NES subjects (mean age 43.3 ± 9.8 years; 32 women) and 43 similar controls (mean age 39.0 ± 11.0 years; 28 women) wore wrist actigraphs for 7 days and completed sleep and food

  17. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: Teen Choice: Food and Fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  18. Involuntary memories and restrained eating.

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher T

    2015-05-01

    Most involuntary memories are elicited by external cues (e.g., smells, sounds) that have unique associations with specific memories (Berntsen's cue-retrieval hypothesis), but involuntary memories can sometimes be elicited by weak, even imperceptible, cues that raise the activation level of an already primed memory (Berntsen's motivation-priming hypothesis) to also reach conscious awareness during times of low attentional focus. The current study examined the effects of a motivation bias (restrained eating) on the involuntary memories recorded in daily diaries for seven days by 56 female participants. A large proportion of the involuntary memories were elicited by food-related cues and occurred in food-related contexts. A significant correlation was found between the participants' scores on a restrained eating scale and the percentage of involuntary memories involving cooking and eating content. These results parallel previous research involving voluntary memory retrievals during restrained eating. PMID:25655207

  19. The Availability of Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants in the United States Associations with Neighborhood Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Powell; Frank J. Chaloupka; Yanjun Bao

    Background: Parallel to the rising obesity epidemic, food consumption patterns and household expenditures show a marked upward trend in total energy intake derived from away-from- home sources. Methods: This study conducted cross-sectional multivariate analyses to examine associations between local-area racial, ethnic, and income characteristics and the availability of full-service and fast-food restaurants. Based on a U.S. national census of 28,050

  20. Association of fast-food restaurant and fruit and vegetable store densities with cardiovascular mortality in a metropolitan population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Daniel; Catherine Paquet; Nathalie Auger; Geng Zang; Yan Kestens

    2010-01-01

    Most studies that link neighbourhoods to disease outcomes have represented neighbourhoods as area-level socioeconomic status.\\u000a Where objective contextual attributes of urban environments have been measured, few studies of food availability have evaluated\\u000a mortality as an outcome. We sought to estimate associations between the availability of fast-food restaurants (FFR), fruit\\u000a and vegetable stores (FVS), and cardiovascular mortality in an urban area.

  1. Comparison of RNA extraction methods for the detection of a norovirus surrogate in ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Girard, Maryline; Morales-Rayas, Rocío; Jean, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Four nucleic acid extraction methods were evaluated for the purpose of quantifying a norovirus surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV-1]) concentrated from different food samples. Simple (strawberries and lettuce) and complex (sliced turkey breast, soft-shell clams, and potato salad) food matrices were inoculated with a viral suspension containing high (4×10(5) PFU) or low (4×10(3) PFU) numbers of viral particles. MNV-1 was eluted using either the Pulsifier™ or repetitive pipetting. The four methods were based on using magnetic silica (MiniMAG), non-magnetic silica (bioMérieux Basic kit), silica membrane (Qiagen kit), and phenol (TriReagent) for RNA extraction. The greatest recovery of viral RNA from simple matrices was obtained using magnetic silica for both inoculation levels. For strawberries, the addition of pectinase during the elution step improved RNA recovery when the Pulsifier was used with silica membrane extraction and when repetitive pipetting was used with magnetic silica extraction. In the case of complex matrices, the extraction of high or low numbers of MNV-1 was highest overall using magnetic silica. The exception was soft-shell clams with a high viral load, in which the greatest recovery was obtained with the phenol-based method. In general, magnetic silica was the most effective for extracting both high and low numbers of MNV-1 particles from a wide range of foods. PMID:23320423

  2. Development and evaluation of a brief screener to estimate fast food and beverage consumption among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Melissa C.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Sweetened beverage and fast food intake have been identified as important targets for obesity prevention. However, there are few brief dietary assessment tools available to evaluate these behaviors among adolescents. The objective of this research was to examine reliability and validity of a 22-item dietary screener assessing adolescent consumption of specific caloric and non-caloric beverages (9 items) and fast food (13 items). The screener was administered to adolescents (ages 11–18 years), recruited from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metro region. One sample of adolescents completed test-retest reliability of the screener (n=33, primarily Caucasian). Another adolescent sample completed the screener along with 3 24-hour dietary recalls to assess criterion validity (n=59 Caucasian). Test-retest assessments were completed approximately 7–14 days apart, and agreement between the two administrations of the screener was substantial, with most items yielding Spearman correlations and Kappa statistics that were >0.60. When compared to the “gold standard” dietary recall data, findings indicate that the validity of the screener items assessing adolescents’ intake of regular soda, sports drinks, milk and water was fair. However, the differential assessment periods captured by the two methods (i.e., one month for the screener vs. 3 days for the recalls) posed challenges in analysis and made it impossible to assess the validity of some screener items. Overall while these screener items largely represent reliable measures with fair validity, our findings highlight the challenges inherent in the validation of brief dietary assessment tools. PMID:19328271

  3. Food partitioning of leaf-eating mangrove crabs ( Sesarminae): Experimental and stable isotope ( 13C and 15N) evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Ditte K.; Kristensen, Erik; Mangion, Perrine

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( ?13C and ?15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.

  4. Brief Report: Disposable Income, and Spending on Fast Food, Alcohol, Cigarettes, and Gambling by New Zealand Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of…

  5. Effect of service supplier performance on satisfaction and loyalty of store managers in the fast food industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore P Stank; Thomas J Goldsby; Shawnee K Vickery

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents research that examines the complex relationship between service quality and profitability in service operations. Specifically, the effects of operational performance and relational performance on customer satisfaction and loyalty in the unique context of industrial services are examined. A model of service performance effects on customer satisfaction and loyalty is introduced and tested in the fast food service

  6. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara Dumanovsky; Christina Y Huang; Cathy A Nonas; Thomas D Matte; Mary T Bassett; Lynn D Silver

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases.Design Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants’ menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly

  7. Fast-Food and Full-service Restaurant Consumption among Children and Adolescents: Impact on Energy, Beverage and Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators and beverage consumption. Design Individual-level fixed effects estimation based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Nationally representative data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Children aged 2 to 11 (N=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 (N=4699) Main Outcome Measures Daily total energy intake in kilocalories, intakes of grams of sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein and milligrams of sodium and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), regular soda and milk consumed. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126 kcal and 160 kcal for children and 310 kcal and 267 kcal for adolescents and higher intakes of regular soda (+74g and +88g for children and +163g and +107g for adolescents) and SSBs generally. Fast-food consumption increased intakes of total fat (+7–8g), saturated fat (+2–5g) and sugar (+6–16g) for both age groups and sodium (+396mg) and protein (+8g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were 1) adverse impacts on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents; and, 2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusions Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality. PMID:23128151

  8. Leukocyte numbers and function in subjects eating n-3 enriched foods: selective depression of natural killer cell levels

    PubMed Central

    Mukaro, Violet R; Costabile, Maurizio; Murphy, Karen J; Hii, Charles S; Howe, Peter R; Ferrante, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Introduction While consumption of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) has been recommended for those at risk of inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, the mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effect remains to be clearly defined, particularly in relation to the dose and type of n-3 LCPUFA. The objective of this study was to determine whether varying the levels of n-3 LCPUFA in erythrocyte membrane lipids, following dietary supplementation, is associated with altered numbers and function of circulating leukocytes conducive to protection against inflammation. Methods In a double-blind and placebo-controlled study, 44 healthy subjects aged 23 to 63 years consumed either standard or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched versions of typical processed foods, the latter allowing a target daily consumption of 1 gram n-3 LCPUFA. After six months, peripheral blood leukocyte and subpopulation proportions and numbers were assessed by flow cytometry. Leukocytes were also examined for lymphoproliferation and cytokine production, neutrophil chemotaxis, chemokinesis, bactericidal, adherence and iodination activity. Erythrocytes were analyzed for fatty-acid content. Results Erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA levels were higher and absolute leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers were lower in subjects consuming n-3 enriched foods than in controls. There were no changes in the number of neutrophils, monocytes, T cells (CD3+), T-cell subsets (CD4+, CD8+) and B cells (CD19+). However, natural killer (NK) (CD3-CD16+CD56+) cell numbers were lower in n-3 supplemented subjects than in controls and were inversely related to the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocytes. No significant correlations were found with respect to lymphocyte lymphoproliferation and production of IFN-? and IL-2, but lymphotoxin production was higher with greater n-3 LCPUFA membrane content. Similarly, neutrophil chemotaxis, chemokinesis, bactericidal activity and adherence did not vary with changes in erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA levels, but the iodination reaction was reduced with higher n-3 LCPUFA content. Conclusion The data show that regular long-term consumption of n-3 enriched foods leads to lower numbers of NK cells and neutrophil iodination activity but higher lymphotoxin production by lymphocytes. These changes are consistent with decreased inflammatory reaction and tissue damage seen in patients with inflammatory disorders receiving n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. PMID:18477409

  9. Does short-term fasting promote changes in state body image?

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Drew A

    2014-03-01

    Fasting, or going a significant amount of time without food, is a predictor of eating pathology in at-risk samples. The current study examined whether acute changes in body image occur after an episode of fasting in college students. Furthermore, it evaluated whether individual difference variables might inform the relationship between fasting and shifts in body image. Participants (N=186) included male (44.7%) and female college students who completed the Body Image States Scale (BISS) and other eating-related measures before a 24-h fast. Participants completed the BISS again after fasting. While no overall changes in BISS scores emerged during the study, some individuals evidenced body image improvement. Baseline levels of disinhibition and self-reported fasting at least once per week uniquely predicted improvement in body image. Individual difference variables may play a role in how fasting could be reinforced by shifts in body image. PMID:24613037

  10. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  11. Editor's Corner: Food for Thought

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steve Metz

    2004-10-01

    Food issues often appear in the news and other media. For example, the media regularly address food safety concerns--from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) or "Mad Cow Disease" to Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli) outbreaks. Obesity is another major concern in the United States, and childhood obesity is a growing concern. Eating disorders are prevalent among teenagers, and healthy dietary habits seem ever more difficult in this age of fast-food restaurants and take-out. It is not surprising that teachers have found the science of food to be a rich and interesting topic. In this month's column, the field editor discusses these relevant issues and shares a favorite food-related activity.

  12. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  13. Food jags

    MedlinePLUS

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  14. Normative influences on food intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

    2005-01-01

    Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. Dieters impose a restrictive intake norm on themselves, but often

  15. Night Eating: Prevalence and Demographic Correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Debra L. Franko; Douglas Thompson; Sandra Affenito; Helena C. Kraemer

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of night eating, the core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome among adolescents and adults, using two public access survey databases of nationally representative samples.Research Methods and Procedures: Data were extracted for individuals age 13 years or older who completed food diary data for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (N

  16. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  17. A new animal model of binge eating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M Hagan; P. K Wauford; P. C Chandler; L. A Jarrett; R. J Rybak; K Blackburn

    2002-01-01

    Dieting and stress are important in the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders, and dieting strongly predicts stress-induced overeating in humans. We hypothesized that caloric restriction and stress interact in a unique manner to promote binge eating. To test this hypothesis, a group of young female rats were cycled through a restriction period (4 days of 66% of control food

  18. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

  19. A New Method to Monitor the Contribution of Fast Food Restaurants to the Diets of US Children

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background American adults consume 11.3% of total daily calories from foods and beverages from fast food restaurants. The contribution of different types of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children is unknown. Objective To estimate the consumption of energy, sodium, added sugars, and solid fats among US children ages 4–19 y by fast food restaurant type. Methods Analyses used the first 24-h recall for 12,378 children in the 2003–2010 cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2010). NHANES data identify foods by location of origin, including stores and fast food restaurants (FFR). A novel custom algorithm divided FFRs into 8 segments and assigned meals and snacks to each. These included burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican, Asian, fish, and coffee/snack restaurants. The contribution of each restaurant type to intakes of energy and other dietary constituents was then assessed by age group (4–11 y and 12–19 y) and by race/ethnicity. Results Store-bought foods and beverages provided 64.8% of energy, 61.9% of sodium, 68.9% of added sugars, and 60.1% of solid fats. FFRs provided 14.1% of energy, 15.9% of sodium, 10.4% of added sugars and 17.9% of solid fats. Among FFR segments, burger restaurants provided 6.2% of total energy, 5.8% of sodium, 6.2% of added sugars, and 7.6% of solid fats. Less energy was provided by pizza (3.3%), sandwich (1.4%), Mexican (1.3%), and chicken restaurants (1.2%). Non-Hispanic black children obtained a greater proportion of their total energy (7.4%), sodium (7.1%), and solid fats (9.5%) from burger restaurants as compared to non-Hispanic white children (6.0% of energy, 5.5% of sodium, and 7.3% of solid fat). Conclusions These novel analyses, based on consumption data by fast food market segment, allow public health stakeholders to better monitor the effectiveness of industry efforts to promote healthier menu options. PMID:25062277

  20. Eat-by-light: fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food safety and quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-07-01

    A selection of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices is presented designed and tested for monitoring the quality and safety of typical foods, namely the extra virgin olive oil, the beer, and the milk. Scattered colorimetry is used for the authentication of various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids that are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma is presented. It is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer is experimented for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk.

  1. Eat-by-light fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food quality and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Grimaldi, M. F.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-06-01

    A selection is presented of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices that have been designed and tested for guaranteeing the quality and safety of typical foods, such as extra virgin olive oil, beer, and milk. Scattered colorimetry is used to authenticate various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids, which are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma that is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil is also presented. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk, is experimented.

  2. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component. PMID:21497626

  3. Fast-food fights: news coverage of local efforts to improve food environments through land-use regulations, 2001-2013. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Nixon, Laura; Mejia, Pamela; Dorfman, Lori; Cheyne, Andrew; Young, Sandra; Friedman, Lissy C; Gottlieb, Mark A; Wooten, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Zoning and other land-use policies are a promising but controversial strategy to improve community food environments. To understand how these policies are debated, we searched existing databases and the Internet and analyzed news coverage and legal documentation of efforts to restrict fast-food restaurants in 77 US communities in 2001 to 2013. Policies intended to improve community health were most often proposed in urban, racially diverse communities; policies proposed in small towns or majority-White communities aimed to protect community aesthetics or local businesses. Health-focused policies were subject to more criticism than other policies and were generally less successful. Our findings could inform the work of advocates interested in employing land-use policies to improve the food environment in their own communities. PMID:25602875

  4. Do We Provide Meaningful Guidance for Healthful Eating? An Investigation into Consumers' Interpretation of Frequency Consumption Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lesley; Watson, Wendy L.; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Hughes, Clare; Crawford, Jennifer; Gill, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate consumers' understanding of terms commonly used to provide guidance about frequency and quantity of food consumption. Methods: A survey of 405 shoppers explored how frequently consumers thought food labeled with the terms "eat often," "eat moderately," "eat occasionally," "a sometimes food," and "an extra food" should be…

  5. Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2012 Central PA SCI Support Group 2 Assistive Device to Hold Eating Utensils

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    , for example it is difficult to eat liquid food. Objectives Device that allows the user to eat liquid food Device that allows the user to cut food with the side of a fork or a knife Reduce bulkiness of design liquid food to be delivered while eating Final design allows for user to now cut with the side of a fork

  6. Eating routines: Embedded, value based, modifiable, and reflective

    PubMed Central

    Jastran, Margaret; Bisogni, Carole A.; Sobal, Jeffery; Blake, Christine; Devine, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Eating routines are a compelling issue because recurring eating behaviors influence nutrition and health. As non-traditional and individualized eating patterns have become more common, new ways of thinking about routine eating practices are needed. This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of working adults' eating routines. Forty-two purposively sampled US adults reported food intake and contextual details about eating episodes in qualitative 24-hour dietary recalls conducted over 7 consecutive days. Using the constant comparative method, researchers analyzed interview transcripts for recurrent ways of eating that were either explicitly reported by study participants as “routines” or emergent in the data. Participants' eating routines included repetition in food consumption as well as eating context, and also involved sequences of eating episodes. Eating routines were embedded in daily schedules for work, family, and recreation. Participants maintained purposeful routines that helped balance tension between demands and values, but they modified routines as circumstances changed. Participants monitored and reflected upon their eating practices and tended to assess their practices in light of their personal identities. These findings provide conceptual insights for food choice researchers and present a perspective from which practitioners who work with individuals seeking to adopt healthful eating practices might usefully approach their tasks. PMID:18835305

  7. Laboratory-Based Studies of Eating Among Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Ann F. Haynos; Lisa A. Kotler; Susan Z. Yanovski; Jack A. Yanovski

    The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits

  8. Evaluation of nutrient variability in highly consumed "fast foods" under the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program generates means and standard errors (S.E.) of nutrients in foods from nationally representative sample sets used in dietary assessment and consumer education. However, genetic makeup, growing/shipping/storage conditions, preparation techniques, and ...

  9. All You Can Eat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Just what's on that apple, or in that salad or ice cream? Although they are unlikely to be happy with what they find, users can now discover which and how many pesticides are likely to be on the food they eat. Provided by the non-profit Environmental Working Group (EWG), this site allows users to match selections from hundreds of food items with more than 90,000 government lab tests. Visitors to the site have four sections to choose from: Daily Fare, which lets users select a full day's worth of meals and find out what pesticides they ate; Fruit Salad Roulette, which reveals the pesticides in a typical fruit salad or individual piece of fruit; the EWG Supermarket, which allows users to fill a cart and then picks random samples of each food chosen from government data and lists the pesticides; and a Kids Menu, which analyzes the pesticides that a child between the ages of one and five eats in a typical day. In addition, the site offers a selection of chemical and food FAQS and tips for reducing exposure.

  10. Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-11-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, p<.001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI: $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains.  PMID:24171876

  11. Healthy Eating

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BRobison

    2010-12-03

    This Project will help you to discover how you're eating, and how that affects your life. You will also use the tools provided to help make healthy eating choices. First, Calculate your Body Mass Index using the BMI Calculator. Then, after exploring the website, answer these questions: 1) What exactly is the BMI? 2) What are two limitations of the BMI Calculator? 3) What is a healthy BMI for YOU (age group height? 4) List 7 other risk factors that can contribute to heart ...

  12. Assessing floor slipperiness in fast-food restaurants in Taiwan using objective and subjective measures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Li, Kai Way; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Filiaggi, Alfred; Courtney, Theodore K

    2004-07-01

    Slips and falls are major problems in occupational injuries in which floor slipperiness is a critical issue. Most of the studies on slipperiness assessments were conducted in laboratories. Field assessments are rarely reported in the literature. This study investigated floor slipperiness in seven kitchen areas of 10 western-style fast-food restaurants in Taiwan using both objective and subjective measurements which were conducted by friction measurements and by employees' ratings of floor slipperiness, respectively. The friction measurement results showed that the sink area had the lowest average friction in the kitchens. Employees, however, rated both the sink and back vat (chicken fry) areas as the most slippery areas. The Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients between the averaged friction coefficients and subjective ratings for all 70 evaluated areas across all 10 restaurants were 0.49 and 0.45, respectively, with p < 0.0001 for both. The results indicate that average friction coefficient and perception are in fair agreement, suggesting that both might be reasonably good indicators of slipperiness. PMID:15159205

  13. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  14. Healthy Eating

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kate Anderson

    2012-04-30

    Questions to Know Beforehand: Image How much food does your body need, daily? What types of food help your body function at its best? What else does your body need to stay healthy? Use the following links to assist you in classifying healthy and not-so-healthy food options and more. Food Nutrition NOVA ...

  15. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...

  16. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    is Disordered Eating? Disordered eating is when a person's attitudes about food, weight, and body size lead or ritualized behavior at mealtime or secretive bingeing? · Has weight loss, dieting, and/or control of food for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www

  17. The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Results Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12’s. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. Conclusions The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors. PMID:24708863

  18. Psychological Consequences of Food Restriction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANET POLIVY

    1996-01-01

    A review of the literature and research on food restriction indicates that inhibiting food intake has consequences that may not have been anticipated by those attempting such restriction. Starvation and self-imposed dieting appear to result in eating binges once food is available and in psychological manifestations such as preoccupation with food and eating, increased emotional responsiveness and dysphoria, and distractibility.

  19. Zoning For Health? The Year-Old Ban On New Fast-Food Restaurants In South LA

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    A regulation banning new fast-food establishments for one year in Los Angeles, California, was passed unanimously by the city council in July 2008. It was motivated by health concerns and excessive obesity rates in South Los Angeles. However, it might not have had the impact that was intended. This paper reviews the empirical evidence for the regulation and whether it is likely to target the primary levers of obesity. We argue that the premises for the ban were questionable. For example, the density of fast-food chain restaurants per capita is actually higher in other parts of Los Angeles than in South LA. Other changes, such as menu calorie labeling, are likely to have a bigger impact on overweight and obesity. PMID:19808703

  20. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya R. Schlam; G. Terence Wilson

    As these two case studies illustrate, homework is absolutely essential to the effective use of CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and in the prevention of relapse. Adherence to homework assignments, including difficult assignments that provoke anxiety, is best achieved in the context of a strong relationship in which clients understand the rationale for the assignment and are able