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1

Eating fast food: attitudes of high-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAlarmingly consistent recent research shows that industrially produced foods such as fast food contain compounds that add to obesity and high cholesterol among young people. Less physical activity and a higher propensity to eat ready-made food (in Sweden and internationally) have aggravated the health situation for the young generation. They also have become ‘addicted’ to sugar by the consumption of

Jan Mattsson; Helge Helmersson

2007-01-01

2

Do Adolescents Who Live or Go to School Near Fast Food Restaurants Eat More Frequently From Fast Food Restaurants?  

PubMed Central

This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents’ eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2,724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adolescents and also ate at fast food restaurants more often. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographics, adolescent males living near high numbers fast food restaurants ate more frequently from these venues compared to their peers. PMID:23064515

Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

3

Effect of exercising while fasting on eating behaviors and food intake  

PubMed Central

Background Alternate day fasting combined with exercise is effective for weight loss. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the behavioral adaptations that occur when ADF is combined with exercise, and to determine how these changes affect weight loss. Design Obese subjects (n?=?64) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: 1) combination (ADF?+?endurance exercise), 2) ADF, 3) exercise, or 4) control, for 12 weeks. Results Body weight decreased (P?fast days (48 ± 2%) as feed days (52 ± 2%). Percent of exercise sessions performed on fast day mornings (20 ± 6%) did not differ (P?=?0.453) from fast day afternoons (28 ± 5%). Likeliness to cheat on the fast day was not higher if the subject exercised in the afternoon (17 ± 7%) versus the morning (10 ± 5%). Hunger decreased (P?eating increased (P?eating decreased (P?

2013-01-01

4

Is fast food addictive?  

PubMed

Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

2011-09-01

5

Eating Healthy Ethnic Food  

MedlinePLUS

... and terms to look for when making your selection: Chinese Zheng (steamed) Jum (poached) Kao (roasted) Shao ( ... Pocket Guide to Eating Healthy on the Go features tips on ordering at a variety of American ...

6

Tempting food words activate eating simulations  

PubMed Central

This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

Papies, Esther K.

2013-01-01

7

Fast-Casual Dining: Our Next Eating Passion?  

PubMed

Americans have a new speedy-eating passion: fast-casual dining! Does this mean that now we can forget about McDonald's, Burger King, KFC, and the other fast-food restaurants that nutritionists have been railing against? Are they yesterday's news? PMID:12813187

Tillotson, James E.

2003-01-01

8

Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

2007-01-01

9

Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food.  

E-print Network

TDOC ,\\ Z TA245.7 8-1283 ,. B873 nO.1283 ~ utrltlon, ~ .. eight Control and Fast Food EMPLOYEO@ OMEMAKER Texas Agricultural Extension Service TpeTexas A&M University System DanielC. Pfannstiel, Director? College Station , Texas [Blank... Page in Original Bulletin] Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food Mary K. Sweeten* The Fast Food Trend More people are eating fewer meals at home and more snack-type meals at fast food ' restaurants. Fast food sales in 1978 in the United States...

Sweeten, Mary K.

1980-01-01

10

Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.  

PubMed

Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996

Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

2007-06-01

11

PFID: Pittsburgh fast-food image dataset  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Weintroduce,the first visual dataset of fast foods with a total of 4,545 still images, 606 stereo pairs, 303 360, videos for structure from motion, and 27 privacy-preserving videos of eating events of volunteers. This work ,was ,motivated ,by research ,on fast ,food recognition for dietary assessment. The data was ,collected by obtaining three instances of 101 foods from 11

Mei Chen; Kapil Dhingra; Wen Wu; Lei Yang; Rahul Sukthankar; Jie Yang

2009-01-01

12

Fast food: friendly?  

PubMed

Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast food, we examined the possibility of imaginative selection of fast food, which would attenuate the potentially unfavorable nutrient composition. We present a sample menu to demonstrate that it is possible to design a fast food menu that provides reasonable level of essential nutrients without exceeding the caloric recommendations. We would like to alert health-care professionals that fast food need not be forbidden under all circumstances, and that a fresh look at the role of fast food may enable its inclusion in meal planning for those who depend on it out of necessity, while adding flexibility. PMID:17342073

Rice, S; McAllister, E J; Dhurandhar, N V

2007-06-01

13

A conceptual model of how US families with athletic adolescent daughters manage food and eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health professionals concerned about the risks of adolescent obesity and disordered eating practices need greater understanding of how families with adolescents manage food in today's fast paced environment. This paper sought to gain conceptual understanding of the food and eating routines of families with a female adolescent athlete from the perspectives of mothers and daughters. Ten white, non-Hispanic mothers and

Susan Travis; Carole Bisogni; Lisa Ranzenhofer

2010-01-01

14

Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... are open Serving Picnic Food: Keep it COLD / HOT Keeping food at proper temperatures - indoor and out - ... water as ice melts and replace ice frequently. HOT FOOD Hot food should be kept hot, at ...

15

Fast food: friendly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast

S Rice; E J McAllister; N V Dhurandhar

2007-01-01

16

Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.  

PubMed

The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

2012-02-01

17

Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Boutelle KN, Birkeland RW, Hannan PJ, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors.

18

The Eating Paradox: How We Tolerate Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that food, which is certainly a necessary commodity with powerful positive reinforcing qualities, also provides a potential threat to organisms, including humans. The act of eating, although necessary for the provision of energy, is a particularly disruptive event in a homeostatic sense. Just as humans learn responses to help them tolerate the administration of dangerous drugs, so

Stephen C. Woods

1991-01-01

19

What's in the Food You Eat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How many calories are in an egg and cheese muffin? A serving of grapefruit? These are pressing questions, whether they are for personal use or for someone who might be in one of the healthcare fields. The "What's in the Food You Eat" database was created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and it contains nutrient profiles for 13,000 foods commonly eaten in the U.S. Visitors can use the online search tool to look for various food products, and they can just type in words like "orange", "yogurt", or "salmon". The engine will return a list of suggested items, and visitors can also focus their search by using food codes from the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). A guide to the FNDDS codes is also available online here for consultation.

20

Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

21

Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments.

22

Relationship of Attitudes Toward Fast Food and Frequency of Fast-food Intake in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fast food and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults (94% white, 65% women, 70% married, 42% with college educated).

Jayna M. Dave; Lawrence C. An; Robert W. Jeffery; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

2009-01-01

23

Observation of eating skills after stroke: dribbling food and chewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating difficulties after stroke are common. The mealtime care of patients is a nursing responsibility, but there are few tools to guide nurses in their assessment of patients' eating skills. In this paper the efficacy of observations of patients eating, as a means of identifying those who have difficulty with dribbling food and chewing, is considered. Twenty patients after a

EK Carr; PJ Hawthorn

1988-01-01

24

Development and Features EatSafe: Modular Portable Food Sensor  

E-print Network

such as carbon monoxide monitoring, gas leak detection, long term food monitoring EVERYDAY USE BREATHALYZER. The convenience of the EatSafe Sensor allows for this. PRONE TO FOOD-POISONING Seniors, children, pregnant women

California at San Diego, University of

25

Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R(2)?=?.57) and patients (R(2)?=?.55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p?eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one's tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one's PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. PMID:25169880

Boggiano, M M; Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Soleymani, T; Daniel, S; Vinson, L D; Lokken, K L; Wingo, B C; Morse, A

2014-12-01

26

Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently ‘healthy’ meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together

S Stender; J Dyerberg; A Astrup

2007-01-01

27

WHAT'S IN THE FOOD YOU EAT SEARCH TOOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The release of the online search tool, What's In The Foods We Eat Search Tool, expands the use of a valuable dietary research tool, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS), to the general public and nutrition professionals. Release 1.0 of the FNDDS was used to process food intake...

28

Enhancing hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation stimulates eating in food-deprived mice.  

PubMed

Hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO) has long been implicated in the control of eating. Nevertheless, direct evidence for a causal relationship between changes in hepatic FAO and changes in food intake is still missing. Here we tested whether increasing hepatic FAO via adenovirus-mediated expression of a mutated form of the key regulatory enzyme of mitochondrial FAO carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1mt), which is active but insensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA, affects eating and metabolism in mice. CPT1mt expression increased hepatocellular CPT1 protein levels. This resulted in an increase in circulating ketone body levels in fasted CPT1mt-expressing mice, suggesting an increase in hepatic FAO. These mice did not show any significant changes in cumulative food intake, energy expenditure, or respiratory quotient after 4-h food deprivation. After 24-h food deprivation, however, the CPT1mt-expressing mice displayed increased food intake. Thus expression of CPT1mt in the liver increases hepatic FAO capacity, but does not inhibit eating. Rather, it may even stimulate eating after prolonged food deprivation. These data do not support the hypothesis that an increase in hepatic FAO decreases food intake. PMID:25427767

Mansouri, Abdelhak; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Ramachandran, Deepti; Arnold, Myrtha; Leitner, Claudia; Prip-Buus, Carina; Langhans, Wolfgang; Morral, Núria

2015-01-15

29

[Fast food promotes weight gain].  

PubMed

The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers. PMID:17537359

Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

2007-05-01

30

Food portion patterns and trends among U.S. children and the relationship to total eating occasion size, 1977-2006.  

PubMed

Food and beverage portion sizes are related to childhood obesity. We examined trends in food portion sizes and the association with total meal sizes among U.S. children. We selected children 2- to 18-y-old (n = 31,337) from 4 nationally representative surveys of food intake between 1977-1978 and 2003-2006. We assessed portion sizes (kcal and g) of selected key foods (soft/fruit drinks, salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, Mexican fast foods, and hot dogs), the total energy from eating occasions that included key foods, and portion sizes of the selected key foods by source (stores, restaurants, and fast-food locations). These foods represented over one-third of children's energy intake in 2003-2006. Portion sizes increased significantly over the 30-y period and increases in pizza were particularly pronounced in the last decade [+176 kcal (736 kJ). Energy from eating occasions including pizzas and soft drinks increased, as did the proportion of energy from these foods in an eating occasion. Hamburgers and cheeseburgers increased in portion size and eating occasion size, but the proportion of these foods in the total eating occasions did not increase. Portion sizes of other key foods increased, although the total energy from eating events that included them remained constant (e.g. Mexican fast-foods, French fries, fruit drinks) or decreased (e.g. salty snacks, desserts). Portion sizes increased across all food sources (stores, restaurants, and fast foods) for soft drinks and pizzas but only at fast-food locations for French fries. Portion sizes continue to grow for selected foods. Fast-food chains appear to be linked with less healthful portion size increases for selected foods. PMID:21525258

Piernas, Carmen; Popkin, Barry M

2011-06-01

31

A Device for Detecting and Counting Bites of Food Taken by a Person During Eating  

E-print Network

, including helping a user with obesity, eating disorders or eating rate problems. Index Terms--Eating monitorA Device for Detecting and Counting Bites of Food Taken by a Person During Eating Yujie Dong1, Adam was recorded of subjects eating, and synchronized with our device, in order to evaluate its performance

Hoover, Adam

32

Suggesting childhood food illness results in reduced eating behavior.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that suggesting childhood events can influence current self-reported attitudes towards future behavior. This study shows that suggesting a false past event (i.e. becoming sick on a specific food during childhood) can modify present behavior (i.e. reduce eating of the food). Participants screened to be normal eaters received or did not receive a suggestion that they likely became sick on spoiled peach yogurt as a child. One week later they took part in an allegedly separate marketing taste-test study, during which they rated preferences for a variety of crackers and yogurts. After completing ratings, participants were invited to freely eat the remaining food while completing questionnaires. Results revealed that the participants receiving the suggestion expressed lower preference specifically for peach yogurt, and ate less yogurt of all the types, while not differing in eating of crackers. These results demonstrate that suggesting false past events influences subsequent behavior. PMID:18417080

Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L

2008-06-01

33

Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

1988-01-01

34

Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5?lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size?=?1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

2015-04-01

35

To eat or not to eat. The effects of expectancy on reactivity to food cues.  

PubMed

Cue reactivity may be determined by the ability of cues to evoke expectations that a reward will be imminently received. To test this possibility, the current study examined the effects of manipulating expectations about the receipt of food (pizza) on self-reported and physiological responses to pizza cues, and attentional bias to pizza pictures. It was predicted that expecting to eat pizza would increase salivation, self-reported measures of motivation and attentional bias to pizza cues relative to conditions where there was no eating expectancy. In a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 42 hungry participants completed two pizza-cue exposures in a single experimental session during which their expectation of consuming the pizza was manipulated (i.e., expectancy of eating imminently vs. no eating expectancy). They also completed a computerised attentional bias task during which the probability of receiving pizza (0%, 50% or 100%) was manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Participants showed reliable increases in hunger and salivation in response to the pizza cues, as well as a bias in attentional maintenance on pizza pictures. However, these responses were not influenced by eating expectancy. Contrastingly, expectancy did influence early attentional processing (initial orientation of attention) in that participants directed their first gaze towards pizza pictures more often on 100% and 50% probability trials relative to 0% trials. Overall, our findings indicate that exposure to food cues triggers appetitive responses regardless of explicit expectancy information. Methodological features of the study that may account for these findings are discussed. PMID:24530655

Hardman, Charlotte A; Scott, Jade; Field, Matt; Jones, Andrew

2014-05-01

36

After the Bell: Calories, energy, and the food you eat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity is a growing problem in the United States, and has recently reached epidemic proportions. Part of the solution in controlling obesity is to make students aware of the amount and type of food they eat. In this activity, students will calculate the average amount of energy that a body consumes per hour, which will help them defeat obesity through education.

Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen J.

2006-02-01

37

What Do Children Think Happens to the Food They Eat?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the explanations of two classes of 10-year old children about what happens to the food that they eat were explored, particularly in the context of theories about the development of children's concepts of the human body. These ideas were investigated in a number of ways: obtaining children's own writing and drawings; semi-structured…

Rowlands, Mark

2004-01-01

38

Fasting for 24 Hours Heightens Reward from Food and Food-Related Cues  

PubMed Central

Introduction We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) ‘wanting’, as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) ‘liking’, as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Methods Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m2 were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food ‘liking’ (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. Results There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of ‘liking’, and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (p<0.05). Under the FASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ significantly increased for all food categories. ‘Liking’ of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Conclusion Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED. PMID:24454949

Cameron, Jameason D.; Goldfield, Gary S.; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E.; Doucet, Éric

2014-01-01

39

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2009-01-01

40

Eating oil: energy use in food production  

Microsoft Academic Search

By incorporating massive amounts of fossil-fuel energy into their food production systems, the developed countries have solved the problems of feeding increasing populations from limited amounts of arable land. The results have been spectacular--outputs of crops per hectare and per man-hour have soared. More and more energy must be used in food production as populations increase, and the law of

1978-01-01

41

Fast Food - the early years  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the development of UK outlets of a major fast food chain, from inauguration in1974 until 1990, after which industry structure changed somewhat. The chain effectivelyintroduced the counter-service burger concept. Locational spread across local authoritydistrict markets is explained by the characteristics of the areas where the outlets are sited. Ofspecial interest is the effect of scale economies, measured by

Michael Waterson; Joanne Sault; Otto Toivanen

42

Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.<\\/span>Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that

P. W. J. Sneijder

2006-01-01

43

Evaluation of strategies used by family food preparers to influence healthy eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family may exert powerful influence on family members' eating habits, though there is very little conclusive literature regarding the specific mechanisms. The authors investigated how often family food preparers use particular strategies to encourage their families to eat more healthily and then related these strategies to healthy eating outcomes in children. We identified significant differences in strategy use between

Emily Bourcier; Deborah J Bowen; Hendrika Meischke; Carol Moinpour

2003-01-01

44

Intuitive Eating, Diet Composition, and the Meaning of Food in Healthy Weight Promotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intuitive eating (an anti-dieting, hunger-based approach to eating) has been popularized as a viable approach to healthy weight management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intuitive eating, diet composition, and the meaning of food. The convenience sample included 343 students enrolled in a general education…

Smith, TeriSue; Hawks, Steven R.

2006-01-01

45

Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children  

PubMed Central

The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295

Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.

2014-01-01

46

Does personality influence eating styles and food choices? Direct and indirect effects.  

PubMed

In a random sample (N?=?951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. PMID:25308432

Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

2015-01-01

47

Nutritional challenges and health implications of takeaway and fast food.  

PubMed

Consumption of takeaway and fast food continues to increase in Western societies and is particularly widespread among adolescents. Since food is known to play an important role in both the development and prevention of many diseases, there is no doubt that the observed changes in dietary patterns affect the quality of the diet as well as public health. The present review examines the nutritional characteristics of takeaway and fast food items, including their energy density, total fat, and saturated and trans fatty acid content. It also reports on the association between the consumption of such foods and health outcomes. While the available evidence suggests the nutrient profiles of takeaway and fast foods may contribute to a variety of negative health outcomes, findings on the specific effects of their consumption on health are currently limited and, in recent years, changes have been taking place that are designed to improve them. Therefore, more studies should be directed at gaining a firmer understanding of the nutrition and health consequences of eating takeaway and fast foods and determining the best strategy to reduce any negative impact their consumption may have on public health. PMID:23590707

Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Davies, Ian G; Stevenson, Leonard

2013-05-01

48

Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the American Dietetic Association Healthy Eating on the Run: A Month of Tips  

E-print Network

. Enjoy fresh fruit as your dessert. 18. Eat your lower-calorie food first. Soup or salad is a good choiceEat Right Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the American Dietetic Association Healthy Eating and good-tasting foods to fit a busy lifestyle. Whether it's carry-out, food court, office cafeteria or sit

Oklahoma, University of

49

Risky Eating Behaviors of Young Adults—Implications for Food Safety Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Par- ticipants (N4,343) completed a risky eating question- naire by

CAROL BYRD-BREDBENNER; JACLYN MAURER ABBOT; VIRGINIA WHEATLEY; DONALD SCHAFFNER; CHRISTINE BRUHN; LYDIA BLALOCK

50

Risky Eating Behaviors of Young Adults—Implications for Food Safety Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Participants (N=4,343) completed a risky eating questionnaire by indicating which

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Jaclyn Maurer Abbot; Virginia Wheatley; Donald Schaffner; Christine Bruhn; Lydia Blalock

2008-01-01

51

Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.  

PubMed

In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. PMID:25310889

Elliott, Charlene

2014-11-01

52

Affect Regulation and Food Intake in Bulimia Nervosa: Emotional Responding to Food Cues After Deprivation and Subsequent Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation

Birgit I. Mauler; Alfons O. Hamm; Almut I. Weike; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier

2006-01-01

53

You Tweet What You Eat: Studying Food Consumption Through Twitter  

E-print Network

Food is an integral part of our lives, cultures, and well-being, and is of major interest to public health. The collection of daily nutritional data involves keeping detailed diaries or periodic surveys and is limited in scope and reach. Alternatively, social media is infamous for allowing its users to update the world on the minutiae of their daily lives, including their eating habits. In this work we examine the potential of Twitter to provide insight into US-wide dietary choices by linking the tweeted dining experiences of 210K users to their interests, demographics, and social networks. We validate our approach by relating the caloric values of the foods mentioned in the tweets to the state-wide obesity rates, achieving a Pearson correlation of 0.77 across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia. We then build a model to predict county-wide obesity and diabetes statistics based on a combination of demographic variables and food names mentioned on Twitter. Our results show significant improvement ove...

Abbar, Sofiane; Weber, Ingmar

2014-01-01

54

CONSUMER CHANGE IN FAST FOOD PREFERENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast food industry is perceived to be an American creation, but the 'fish-n- chip' format has prevailed in the UK since the eighteenth century as an outlet where the working classes could easily purchase inexpensive prepared foods. Whilst in the USA, the first hamburger outlets appeared in the mid 1930's with the sector quickly developing and expanding into fast

James Richardson; Luis Kluwe Aguiar

55

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

56

Attentional bias to food cues in youth with loss of control eating.  

PubMed

Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5?±?2.3 years; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7?±?.73) with (n?=?47) and without (n?=?29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p?=?.01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. PMID:25435490

Shank, Lisa M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise M; Field, Sara E; Vannucci, Anna; Bongiorno, Diana M; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Demidowich, Andrew; Kelly, Nichole R; Cassidy, Omni; Simmons, W Kyle; Engel, Scott G; Pine, Daniel S; Yanovski, Jack A

2015-04-01

57

Vitamin profile of cooked foods: how healthy is the practice of ready-to-eat foods?  

PubMed

During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P < 0.05). The cooking losses were 34.6, 30, 52.2, 45.9 and 32.2% in case of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, beta-carotene and folic acid respectively. Irrespective of whether it is ready-to-eat or a lunch/dinner food item, the contribution of vegetables in the preparations was found to make a marked impact on the vitamin profile. While results justify the concept of a food pyramid, emphasis needs to be given to types of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins; preferably in their uncooked form, rather than considering their total consumption. PMID:11951583

Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi

2002-05-01

58

Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

2007-01-01

59

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

60

The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Anderson A, Dewar J, Marshall D, Cummins S, Taylor M, Dawson J, Sparks L. The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items.

61

Fast Food and Nutritional Perceptions in the Age of “Globesity”: Perspectives from the Provincial Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the influence of corporate fast food expands outside of the U.S. and Europe, many of the health problems previously associated with Western eating habits and nutritional regimes are beginning to proliferate across the developing world. Significantly, their rise serves as a troubling indicator of the “globesity” that threatens to overwhelm existing health care systems worldwide. To better understand the

Ty Matejowsky

2009-01-01

62

Parents' influence on children's diet and eating patterns in food-insecure households  

E-print Network

Parents' influence on children's diet and eating patterns in food- insecure households Michael explained, "We know from previous research that children who are exposed to healthy parental dietary modeling, positive mealtime structure, and authoritative parenting styles are more likely to eat fruits

Almor, Amit

63

Big Macs and Healthy Teens? Exploring Fast Food as Part of a Healthy Adolescent Lifestyle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the set of activities, explorations, and discussions described here, students apply healthy eating information when they make nutrition choices both at home and when eating out. These lessons introduce considerations such as portion size and caloric nutrients, while also exploring tools and resources for understanding both nutritional guidelines and for evaluating the nutritional value of a food. This progression of data collection and analysis culminates with students applying their knowledge as they author position statements that answer the question, “Is it possible to include fast food as part of a healthy lifestyle?”

Michael Harms

2009-03-01

64

Barney and breakfast: messages about food and eating in preschool television shows and how they may impact the development of eating behaviours in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children’s television shows and found that non?nutritious foods are as common as

Leslie Margaret Anderson; Jim Anderson

2010-01-01

65

Fast Food Combos Make Type A Lunches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clark County school district in Las Vegas, Nevada, has combination lunches available for high school students that meet Type A nutrition requirements but which resemble the commercial fast food menus teenagers prefer. (MLF)

Stashower, Gloria

1974-01-01

66

Access and Affordability Saskatchewan Food Banks Explore the Cost of Healthy Eating  

E-print Network

Access and Affordability Saskatchewan Food Banks Explore the Cost of Healthy Eating Executive basket, as determined by the 2009 Saskatchewan Food Costing Report. These case scenarios assisted income households clearly experience the highest rates of food insecurity. In Saskatchewan, those who

Argerami, Martin

67

Eating in Space: Food for Thought. EG-2011-08-00005-SSC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the thousands of questions that need to be answered before astronauts travel to distant planets and asteroids are questions related to the astronauts themselves. How much food will they need and what foods can they take? We are fortunate on Earth to have an amazing variety of foods to eat. When astronauts do go to Mars and other…

Vogt, Gregory L.; Shearer, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

68

Essays on Healthy Eating and Away from Home Food Expenditures of Adults and Children  

E-print Network

ESSAYS ON HEALTHY EATING AND AWAY FROM HOME FOOD EXPENDITURES OF ADULTS AND CHILDREN A Dissertation by BENJAMIN LOUIS CAMPBELL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ESSAYS ON HEALTHY EATING AND AWAY FROM HOME FOOD EXPENDITURES OF ADULTS AND CHILDREN A Dissertation by BENJAMIN LOUIS CAMPBELL...

Campbell, Benjamin Louis

2011-02-22

69

Evaluation of strategies used by family food preparers to influence healthy eating.  

PubMed

The family may exert powerful influence on family members' eating habits, though there is very little conclusive literature regarding the specific mechanisms. The authors investigated how often family food preparers use particular strategies to encourage their families to eat more healthily and then related these strategies to healthy eating outcomes in children. We identified significant differences in strategy use between family age subgroups, and we included strategy types in multiple linear regression models to predict differences in families with children. Results indicate that discussing healthy food related to 'Pressuring' strategies and discussing healthy eating related to 'Feeling and looking good' predicted healthy eating outcomes. Findings have implications for designing dietary interventions to have the largest public health impact. PMID:14637325

Bourcier, Emily; Bowen, Deborah J; Meischke, Hendrika; Moinpour, Carol

2003-12-01

70

Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.  

PubMed

The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. PMID:23910778

Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

2013-08-01

71

Determining empirical thresholds for "definitely large" amounts of food for defining binge-eating episodes.  

PubMed

Binge episodes involve "definitely large" amounts of food, yet limited data exist regarding the upper limits of food consumption in non-binge eating episodes. Study 1 examined the concurrent validity of a self-report measure developed to measure "usual" food consumption. Results support good concurrent validity for most items across response versions. Study 2 identified the upper limits of normal food consumption (i.e., 85(th) percentile of participants' largest reported usual servings). Thresholds differed across types of foods, and men reported higher thresholds than women for several foods. Type of food and gender should be considered when assessing for "definitely large" amounts of food. PMID:24983483

Forney, K Jean; Holland, Lauren A; Joiner, Thomas E; Keel, Pamela K

2015-01-01

72

It’s who I am and what we eat: Mothers’ food-related identities in family food choice  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.

2011-01-01

73

Sweet preference predicts mood altering effect of and impaired control over eating sweet foods.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine association between hedonic response to sweet taste and a mood altering effect associated with eating sweet foods and impaired control over eating sweets. Participants (n=163, 39% males) rated a series of sucrose solutions for intensity of sweetness and palatability and completed a newly developed 12-item Sweet Taste Questionnaire (STQ). It was shown that STQ identifies two factors in the individual's attitude towards sweet foods: sensitivity to the mood altering effect of sweets and impaired control over eating sweet foods. Individuals preferring the taste of the strongest offered sucrose concentration reported a stronger mood altering effect associated with eating of sweet foods and were more likely to have an impaired control over eating sweets than the rest of the group. Women generally had higher scores on both factors compared to men. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that hedonic response to sweet taste is associated with elevated sensitivity to mood altering effects of sweet foods and impaired control over eating sweets. PMID:16843219

Kampov-Polevoy, Alexey B; Alterman, Arthur; Khalitov, Elena; Garbutt, James C

2006-08-01

74

Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite.  

PubMed

Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior. PMID:25009514

Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

2014-01-01

75

Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices. PMID:21599955

2011-01-01

76

Prejudgments of those who eat a “healthy” versus an “unhealthy” food for breakfast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do\\u000a these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a “good” or a “bad” food? For the present study\\u000a we attempted to expand our understanding of the impact of categorical thinking concerning the health value of foods. Respondents

Michael E. Oakes; Carole S. Slotterback

2004-01-01

77

Detection of Noroviruses in Ready-To-Eat Foods by Using Carbohydrate-Coated Magnetic Beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis out- breaks in humans. Food-borne outbreaks of NoV are com- monly caused by shellfish grown in contaminated waters (2) or ready-to-eat food products contaminated by infected food han- dlers (4, 5, 7, 17, 21). Methods for the detection of NoV in foods need to be sensitive due to the low numbers of

Vanessa Morton; Julie Jean; Jeffrey Farber; Kirsten Mattison

2009-01-01

78

College Freshmen Do Not Eat Within Food Pyramid Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students may develop unhealthy eating habits during their freshman year. Poor eating habits or exercise regimens and lifestyle choices could lead to chronic disease later in life. We previously reported that 44 [18 males (41%) and 26 females (59%)] freshmen gained an average of 2.8±2.7kg (6.2±5.9?) during their first year of college, rather than the “The Freshman Fifteen” commonly

D. H. Holben; J. T. Hassell; J. P. Holcomb

1998-01-01

79

Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain

Corinna Hawkes

2009-01-01

80

Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

81

Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.  

PubMed

With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311

Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

2014-09-01

82

Can you eat it? A link between categorization difficulty and food likability  

PubMed Central

In the present study we examined whether categorization difficulty regarding a food is related to its likability. For this purpose, we produced stimulus images by morphing photographs of a tomato and a strawberry. Subjects categorized these images as either a tomato or a strawberry and in separate sessions evaluated the food’s eatability or the subject’s willingness to eat (Experiments 1 and 2) and the likeliness of existence of each food (Experiment 2). The lowest score for ca- tegorization confidence coincided with the lowest scores for eatability, willingness to eat, and likeliness of existence. In Experiment 3, we found that food neophobia, a trait of ingestion avoidance of novel foods, modulated food likability but not categorization confidence. These findings suggest that a high categorization difficulty generally co-occurs with a decrease in food likability and that food neophobia modulates likability. This avoidance of difficult-to-categorize foods seems ecologically valid because before eating we have little information regarding whether a food is potentially harmful. PMID:22956990

Yamada, Yuki; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ihaya, Keiko

2012-01-01

83

Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Sharkey JR, Johnson CM, Dean WR, Horel SA. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults.

84

Effects of Smoking Cessation, Restrained Eating, and Motivational States on Food Intake in the Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty smokers, 20 abstaining smokers (for 24 hr), and 20 nonsmokers completed ratings of motivational state before and after a taste test, to examine the mediating effects of motivations to eat and smoke, cross-motivational satiating effects, and restrained eating on post-smoking-cessation food intake in the laboratory. The results suggest that the abstaining smokers consumed more carbohydrates, calories, fat, protein, and

Jane Ogden

1994-01-01

85

Comparison of College Students’ Current Eating Habits and Recollections of Their Childhood Food Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the stability of food habits from childhood into late adolescence, we compared the current eating habits of college students and their recollections of their childhood caregivers’ feeding practices.The 546 subjects responded to a questionnaire sent to 1000 18- to 23-year-old college students. Subjects’ current eating habits were related to their recollections of their caregivers’ feeding practices

Laurel Branen; Janice Fletcher

1999-01-01

86

Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

2010-01-01

87

Portion Sizes and Obesity: Responses of Fast-Food Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current sizes of sodas, French fries, and hamburgers at three leading

LISA R. Y OUNG; M ARION N ESTLE

2007-01-01

88

In good company. The effect of an eating companion's appearance on food intake.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the presence of an overweight eating companion influences healthy and unhealthy eating behavior, and to determine if the effect is moderated by how the companion serves herself. A professional actress either wore an overweight prosthesis (i.e., "fatsuit") or did not wear one, and served herself either healthily (i.e., a small amount of pasta and a large amount of salad) or unhealthily (i.e., a large amount of pasta and a small amount of salad) for lunch. After observing her, male and female participants were asked to serve themselves pasta and salad to eat. Results demonstrated that regardless of how the confederate served, participants served and ate a larger amount of pasta when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. In addition, when the confederate served herself healthily, participants served and ate a smaller amount of salad when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. Consistent with the "lower health commitment" hypothesis, these results demonstrated that people may eat larger portions of unhealthy food and smaller portions of healthy food when eating with an overweight person, probably because the health commitment goal is less activated. More generally, this study provides evidence that the body type of an eating companion, as well as whether she serves herself healthily or unhealthily, influences the quantity of food intake. PMID:25218720

Shimizu, Mitsuru; Johnson, Katie; Wansink, Brian

2014-12-01

89

Ghrelin increases the motivation to eat, but does not alter food palatability  

PubMed Central

Homeostatic eating cannot explain overconsumption of food and pathological weight gain. A more likely factor promoting excessive eating is food reward and its representation in the central nervous system (CNS). The anorectic hormones leptin and insulin reduce food reward and inhibit related CNS reward pathways. Conversely, the orexigenic gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin activates both homeostatic and reward-related neurocircuits. The current studies were conducted to identify in rats the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusions on two distinct aspects of food reward: hedonic valuation (i.e., “liking”) and the motivation to self-administer (i.e., “wanting”) food. To assess hedonic valuation of liquid food, lick motor patterns were recorded using lickometry. Although ghrelin administration increased energy intake, it did not alter the avidity of licking (initial lick rates or lick-cluster size). Several positive-control conditions ruled out lick-rate ceiling effects. Similarly, when the liquid diet was hedonically devalued with quinine supplementation, ghrelin failed to reverse the quinine-associated reduction of energy intake and avidity of licking. The effects of ghrelin on rats' motivation to eat were assessed using lever pressing to self-administer food in a progressive-ratio paradigm. Ghrelin markedly increased motivation to eat, to levels comparable to or greater than those seen following 24 h of food deprivation. Pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 eliminated ghrelin-induced increases in lever pressing, without compromising generalized licking motor control, indicating a role for D1 signaling in ghrelin's motivational feeding effects. These results indicate that ghrelin increases the motivation to eat via D1 receptor-dependent mechanisms, without affecting perceived food palatability. PMID:22673784

Overduin, Joost; Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Bennett-Jay, Jennifer; Kittleson, Sepideh

2012-01-01

90

Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

Kish, Stacy

2008-01-01

91

Availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at a fast-food restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Given the link between eating out, poor diets, and obesity, we assessed the availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at the largest fast-food restaurant in the U.S., McDonald's. Method. In August 2004, we visited 29 of 33 (88%) of the McDonald's outlets in Washington, DC and visually inspected the premises, as well as asked cashiers or restaurant managers whether they

Margo G. Wootan; Melissa Osborn; Claudia J. Malloy

2006-01-01

92

Eat this, not that! Parental demographic correlates of food-related parenting practices  

PubMed Central

To understand how parents of adolescents attempt to regulate their children’s eating behaviors, the prevalence of specific food-related parenting practices (restriction, pressure-to-eat) by sociodemographic characteristics (parent gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, and household income) were examined within a population-based sample of parents (n=3709) of adolescents. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the association between parent sociodemographic characteristics and parental report of food restriction and pressure-toeat. Overall, findings suggest that use of controlling food-related parenting practices , such as pressuring children to eat and restricting children’s intake, is common among parents of adolescents, particularly among parents in racial/ethnic minority subgroups, parents with less than a high school education, and parents with a low household income. Results indicate that that social or cultural traditions, as well as parental access to economic resources, may contribute to a parent’s decision to utilize specific food-related parenting practices. Given that previous research has found that restriction and pressure-to-eat food-related parenting practices can negatively impact children’s current and future dietary intake, differences in use of these practices by sociodemographic characteristics may contribute, in part, to the disparities that exist in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents by their race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. PMID:23022556

Loth, Katie A.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2013-01-01

93

Eating Behaviors, Mental Health, and Food Intake are Associated with Obesity in Older Congregate Meal Participants  

PubMed Central

The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ? 30kg/m2) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ? 43 inches for men and ? 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American’s Act (OAA) congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food groups group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Fischer, Joan G.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2015-01-01

94

Curbside eating : mobilizing food trucks to activate public space  

E-print Network

In the past 5 years, cities across the United States have seen the rise of a new form of street vending: the modern food truck. Nearly overnight, food trucks have become an expected and anticipated occurrence in many ...

Sheppard, Alison Marguerite

2013-01-01

95

Fat Profiles of Your Favorite Fast-Food Restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast-food restaurant meals may affect the health of individuals. Data from nine popular fast-food establishments showed that sandwiches and desserts are high in fat. Saturated fat was found to be present in amounts higher than monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. Breakfast items contained more fat than lunch sandwiches. Further measures should be taken to reduce the fat content of fast-food. Fast-food

Juanita Bowens

1994-01-01

96

Price Dispersion and Accessibility: A Case study of Fast Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines spatial variation in the price and accessibility of fast food across a major urban area. We use novel data on the price of a representative fast food meal and the location of fast food restaurants belonging to one of three major chains in the District of Columbia and its surrounding suburbs. These data are used to test

Hayden Stewart; David E. Davis

2005-01-01

97

Franchising opportunities in China for American fast food restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast food industry is one of the fastest growing industries of this century. Global expansion has become an important strategic development tool for many American based fast food restaurant chains. American fast food franchisers wanting to operate restaurants in China have to be aware of an environment that imposes a number of constraints upon prospective restaurant franchisers. The goal

Zerong Yu; Karl Titz

2000-01-01

98

Delay discounting and intake of ready-to-eat and away-from-home foods in overweight and obese women  

PubMed Central

A shift from home-prepared to away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods has occurred in recent decades, which has implications for obesity and health. This study tested whether delay discounting, a facet of impulsivity reflecting sensitivity to immediate reward, is associated with the frequency of consumption and typical amount consumed of home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods among overweight and obese women. Seventy-eight participants completed a binary choice task assessing discounting of delayed monetary rewards. Nutrient analysis of weighed food records characterized dietary intake over seven consecutive days. Foods were categorized as home-prepared, away-from-home, or ready-to-eat by a registered dietitian from information provided by participants. Delay discounting was not associated with the frequency of consuming home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods as reflected in the percentages of recorded foods or total energy intake from each category. However, once consuming away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods (but not home-prepared foods), impulsive women consumed more energy than less impulsive women. Exploratory analyses indicated that more impulsive women chose away-from-home foods with a higher energy density (kcal/g). Impulsivity was associated with the quantity of away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods consumed, but not the frequency of their consumption. Home food preparation may be critical to weight control for impulsive individuals. PMID:22819735

Appelhans, Bradley M.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; DeBiasse, Michelle A.; Whited, Matthew C.; Lynch, Elizabeth B.

2012-01-01

99

Delay discounting and intake of ready-to-eat and away-from-home foods in overweight and obese women.  

PubMed

A shift from home-prepared to away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods has occurred in recent decades, which has implications for obesity and health. This study tested whether delay discounting, a facet of impulsivity reflecting sensitivity to immediate reward, is associated with the frequency of consumption and typical amount consumed of home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods among overweight and obese women. Seventy-eight participants completed a binary choice task assessing discounting of delayed monetary rewards. Nutrient analysis of weighed food records characterized dietary intake over seven consecutive days. Foods were categorized as home-prepared, away-from-home, or ready-to-eat by a registered dietitian from information provided by participants. Delay discounting was not associated with the frequency of consuming home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods as reflected in the percentages of recorded foods or total energy intake from each category. However, once consuming away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods (but not home-prepared foods), impulsive women consumed more energy than less impulsive women. Exploratory analyses indicated that more impulsive women chose away-from-home foods with a higher energy density (kcal/g). Impulsivity was associated with the quantity of away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods consumed, but not the frequency of their consumption. Home food preparation may be critical to weight control for impulsive individuals. PMID:22819735

Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L; DeBiasse, Michelle A; Debiasse, Michelle A; Whited, Matthew C; Lynch, Elizabeth B

2012-10-01

100

Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

101

`Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C. Berridge  

E-print Network

`Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C Brainstem Parabrachial nucleus Dopamine Opioid Addiction What brain reward systems mediate motivational? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic `liking', such as the existence

Berridge, Kent

102

Are You What You Eat? An inside Look at High-Tech Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to…

Miller, Roxanne Greitz

2007-01-01

103

Eating as a Pedagogical Act: Food as a Catalyst for Adult Education for Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult education for sustainable development involves forms of learning that support and promote the emergence of sustainability. Food is both central to sustainable development and a catalyst for adult education. Eating can become a transformative learning experience, opening up the possibility of more inclusive, and more sustainable, ways of life. Using a political economy framework, this paper will explore how

Jennifer Sumner

104

Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

2013-01-01

105

Food intake, hunger, and satiety after preloads in women with eating disorders13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake, food selection, macronutrient intake, sensory-specific satiety, and ratings ofhunger and satiety were measured after high- and low-energy salad preloads (2414 Id, or 172 U) or no preload to determine whether patients with eating disorders compensate appropriately for different energy intakes. Subjects were female patients with a DSM-III-R diag- nosis of anorexia nervosa with bulimic features or bulimia ner-

Barbara J Rolls; Arnold E Andersen; Timothy H Moran; Amy L McNelis; Hope C Baier; Ingrid C Fedoroff

106

Hong Kong's fast-food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business continues to boom for Western quick-service operations in Hong Kong, including for those that see the territory as a jumping off point for capitalizing on the expanding mainland-China markets. But it's no longer just Western burger, chicken, and pizza chains that are competing in the market place: several Hong-Kong-based Chinese-style fast-food companies are growing quickly throughout the territory and

Mahmood A Khan

1995-01-01

107

Greater corticolimbic activation to high-calorie food cues after eating in obese vs. normal-weight adults.  

PubMed

The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to eating and after consumption of a typical lunch. Twenty-two overweight/obese (11 male) and 16 normal-weight (6 male) individuals participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task examining neural response to visual cues of high- and low-calorie foods before and after eating. The OB group demonstrated increased neural response to high- and low-calorie foods after eating in comparison to the NW participants in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. In addition, greater activation in corticolimbic regions (lateral OFC, caudate, anterior cingulate) to high-calorie food cues was evident in OB vs. NW participants after eating. These findings suggest that for OB individuals, high-calorie food cues show sustained response in brain regions implicated in reward and addiction even after eating. Moreover, food cues did not elicit similar brain response after eating in the NW group suggesting that neural activity in response to food cues diminishes with reduced hunger for these individuals. PMID:22063094

Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Tkach, Jean; Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James

2012-02-01

108

Greater Corticolimbic Activation to High-Calorie Food Cues after Eating in Obese vs. Normal-Weight Adults  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to eating and after consumption of a typical lunch. Twenty-two overweight/obese (11 male) and 16 normal-weight (6 male) individuals participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task examining neural response to visual cues of high- and low-calorie foods before and after eating. The OB group demonstrated increased neural response to high- and low-calorie foods after eating in comparison to the NW participants in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. In addition, greater activation in corticolimbic regions (lateral OFC, caudate, anterior cingulate) to high-calorie food cues was evident in OB vs. NW participants after eating. These findings suggest that for OB individuals, high-calorie food cues show sustained response in brain regions implicated in reward and addiction even after eating. Moreover, food cues did not elicit similar brain response after eating in the NW group suggesting that neural activity in response to food cues diminishes with reduced hunger for these individuals. PMID:22063094

Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Tkach, Jean; Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James

2011-01-01

109

Food and Culture. We Are What We Eat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enjoyment of ethnic food can be the "point de depart" for tracing the heritage of the people being studied and for broadening students' horizons. This article outlines a study of food throughout the centuries, particularly in Europe. The "gastronomic route" begins historically with the Minoans around 2000 B.C., continues with the Greeks and the…

Perkins, Cynthia

1978-01-01

110

Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures\\u000a of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and\\u000a weekly consumption of fast-food meals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery\\u000a stores, from the 2006 Brazos

Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

2011-01-01

111

A systematic review of fast food access studies.  

PubMed

The frequent consumption of energy-dense fast food is associated with increased body mass index. This systematic review aims to examine the methodology and current evidence on fast food access and its associations with outcomes. Six databases were searched using terms relating to fast food. Only peer-reviewed studies published in English during a 10-year period, with data collection and analysis regarding fast food access were included. Forty articles met the aforementioned criteria. Nearly half of the studies (n?=?16) used their own set of features to define fast food. Studies predominantly examined the relationship between fast food access and socioeconomic factors (n?=?21) and 76% indicated fast food restaurants were more prevalent in low-income areas compared with middle- to higher-income areas. Ten of 12 studies found fast food restaurants were more prevalent in areas with higher concentrations of ethnic minority groups in comparison with Caucasians. Six adult studies found higher body mass index was associated with living in areas with increased exposure to fast food; four studies, however, did not find associations. Further work is needed to understand if and how fast food access impacts dietary intake and health outcomes; and if fast food access has disparate socioeconomic, race/ethnicity and age associations. PMID:20149118

Fleischhacker, S E; Evenson, K R; Rodriguez, D A; Ammerman, A S

2011-05-01

112

‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or incentive salience systems important to appetite, such as mesolimbic dopamine systems and opioid motivation circuits that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots. Finally, it considers some potential ways in which ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ might relate to eating disorders. PMID:19336238

Berridge, Kent C.

2009-01-01

113

Food Deserts' and 'Food Swamps' in Hillsborough County, Florida: Unequal Access to Supermarkets and Fast-Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that the suburbanization of supermarkets has created `food deserts', defined as areas where socially disadvantaged individuals lack access to nutritious food outlets. Additionally, the growing presence of fast-food restaurants has created `food swamps', or areas where socially disadvantaged individuals encounter an overabundance of unhealthy food outlets. While previous studies have analyzed either `food deserts' or `food swamps'

Dana Beth Stein

2011-01-01

114

PFID: PITTSBURGH FAST-FOOD IMAGE DATASET , Kapil Dhingra3  

E-print Network

was collected by obtaining three instances of 101 foods from 11 popular fast food chains, and capturing imagesPFID: PITTSBURGH FAST-FOOD IMAGE DATASET Mei Chen1 , Kapil Dhingra3 , Wen Wu2 , Lei Yang2 , Rahul://pfid.intel-research.net ABSTRACT We introduce the first visual dataset of fast foods with a total of 4,545 still images, 606 stereo

Sukthankar, Rahul

115

Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis  

PubMed Central

The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

Hawkes, Corinna

2009-01-01

116

Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes: Eat Healthy Foods  

MedlinePLUS

... margarine in a plastic tub • Nuts, olives, and vegetable oil • Avocados. Choose these high fat foods less often. ... serving is • 1 tablespoon peanut butter • 1 teaspoon vegetable, olive, or canola oil • 1/4 cup cooked dry peas or • 1 ...

117

Environmental Microbiology: Bacteria & Fungi on the Foods We Eat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The near daily news reports on food-borne diseases caused by contaminated produce, dairy, or meats suggests to the public that the safety of the U.S. food supply is in jeopardy. These reports, as well as a general distrust in federal agencies due in part to mad cow disease and toxigenic forms of "E. coli" in ground beef, have resulted in an…

Segner, Suzanne; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

2007-01-01

118

NPR: Nutrition Labels for Fast Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from National Public Radio's Morning Edition, offers a look at legislation proposed in Congress that would require fast food and other chain restaurants to provide nutritional information for their menu items. The website offers complete audio of the story, which aired earlier this month. Visitors will also find a short article on the topic, links to related stories from NPR, and a set of Web resources. The site also provides a downloadable report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest -- a sizeable document that provides in-depth information on the subject, and even includes menu mock-ups.

2007-12-12

119

Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education…

Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

2007-01-01

120

Using Fast Food Nutrition Facts to Make Healthier Menu Selections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fast food nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fast food restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…

Turley, Jennifer

2009-01-01

121

The relationship between eating-related individual differences and visual attention to foods high in added fat and sugar  

E-print Network

in added fat and sugar Ashley N. Gearhardt a, , Teresa A. Treat b , Andrew Hollingworth b , William R 2012 Accepted 6 July 2012 Available online 16 July 2012 Keywords: Hunger Obesity Disordered eating Food with obesity, disordered eat- ing, and hunger. We tested an integrative model that simultaneously examines

Hollingworth, Andrew

122

Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Food Energy Density and Higher Consumption of Sugary and Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Methods Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ?18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Results Compared to individuals with ?1 OREB, those with ?5 OREB had a higher food energy density (? 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001) and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (? 7; 95% CI ?7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05) and of alcoholic beverages (? 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001). Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. Conclusions OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake. PMID:24204756

Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E.; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

2013-01-01

123

The inverse agonist of CB1 receptor SR141716 blocks compulsive eating of palatable food.  

PubMed

Dieting and the increased availability of highly palatable food are considered major contributing factors to the large incidence of eating disorders and obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the role of the cannabinoid (CB) system in a novel animal model of compulsive eating, based on a rapid palatable diet cycling protocol. Male Wistar rats were fed either continuously a regular chow diet (Chow/Chow, control group) or intermittently a regular chow diet for 2 days and a palatable, high-sucrose diet for 1 day (Chow/Palatable). Chow/Palatable rats showed spontaneous and progressively increasing hypophagia and body weight loss when fed the regular chow diet, and excessive food intake and body weight gain when fed the palatable diet. Diet-cycled rats dramatically escalated the intake of the palatable diet during the first hour of renewed access (7.5-fold compared to controls), and after withdrawal, they showed compulsive eating and heightened risk-taking behavior. The inverse agonist of the CB1 receptor, SR141716 reduced the excessive intake of palatable food with higher potency and the body weight with greater efficacy in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. Moreover, SR141716 reduced compulsive eating and risk-taking behavior in Chow/Palatable rats. Finally, consistent with the behavioral and pharmacological observations, withdrawal from the palatable diet decreased the gene expression of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in the ventromedial hypothalamus while increasing that of CB1 receptors in the dorsal striatum in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. These findings will help understand the role of the CB system in compulsive eating. PMID:23587012

Dore, Riccardo; Valenza, Marta; Wang, Xiaofan; Rice, Kenner C; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

2014-09-01

124

Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice  

PubMed Central

Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

2014-01-01

125

All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?  

PubMed

Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially nesting European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster). We aimed to determine whether this unconsumed food is an indicator of unlimited food supply, the result of mistakes during food transfer between parents and chicks or foraging selectivity of chicks. Therefore, we investigated the amount of dropped food for each nest in relation to reproductive performance and parameters reflecting parental quality. Our data suggest that parents carry more food to the nest than chicks can eat and, hence, food is not limited. This assumption is supported by the facts that there is a positive relationship between dropped food found in a nest and the number of fledglings, nestling age, and chick health condition and that the amount of dropped food is independent of colony size. There is variation in the amount of dropped food within colonies, suggesting that parent foraging efficiency may also be an important determinant. Pairs nesting in the center of a colony performed better than those nesting on the edge, which supports the assumption that quality differences between parents are important as well. However, dropped food cannot be used as an indicator of local food availability as (1) within-colony variation in dropped food is larger than between colony variation and, (2) the average amount of dropped food is not related to colony size. PMID:25691970

Hoi, Herbert; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta

2015-01-01

126

All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?  

PubMed Central

Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially nesting European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster). We aimed to determine whether this unconsumed food is an indicator of unlimited food supply, the result of mistakes during food transfer between parents and chicks or foraging selectivity of chicks. Therefore, we investigated the amount of dropped food for each nest in relation to reproductive performance and parameters reflecting parental quality. Our data suggest that parents carry more food to the nest than chicks can eat and, hence, food is not limited. This assumption is supported by the facts that there is a positive relationship between dropped food found in a nest and the number of fledglings, nestling age, and chick health condition and that the amount of dropped food is independent of colony size. There is variation in the amount of dropped food within colonies, suggesting that parent foraging efficiency may also be an important determinant. Pairs nesting in the center of a colony performed better than those nesting on the edge, which supports the assumption that quality differences between parents are important as well. However, dropped food cannot be used as an indicator of local food availability as (1) within-colony variation in dropped food is larger than between colony variation and, (2) the average amount of dropped food is not related to colony size.

Hoi, Herbert; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta

2015-01-01

127

Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?  

PubMed

Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment. PMID:25027288

Macdiarmid, Jennie I

2014-08-01

128

Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments

Lukar E Thornton; Rebecca J Bentley; Anne M Kavanagh

2009-01-01

129

Neither restrained eating nor tendency toward overeating predict food consumption after tension induction.  

PubMed

The present study investigates whether the so-called disinhibition effect is better accounted for by tendency toward overeating than by restraint. The rationale was that in mood-induction studies, so far, the disinhibition effect has only been found in studies that applied the Restraint Scale and hardly ever in studies that used other restraint scales. Tension was induced by the public-speaking method in half of 86 female college students before they participated in an alleged taste test. The Restraint Scale (RS), the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were used to measure restraint and tendency toward overeating. No differences were found between the tension and the control condition as to the amounts of food the participants ate. Also no proof of the disinhibition effect was obtained and, remarkably, tendency toward overeating did not predict the amount of food eaten. Possible explanations for these results are offered in the discussion. PMID:17984631

Ouwens, M A; van Strien, T; van der Staak, C P

2007-09-01

130

PEOPLE EAT FOOD, A SYMPOSIUM ON THE APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THE USDA FOODLINK DATABASE SYSTEM, SUMMARY REPORT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On November 14, 2005, the People Eat Food, a Symposium on the Applications and Future Directions for the USDA FoodLink Database System was convened in Washington, DC. Over 100 participants attended the symposium, including representatives from the food industry, several universities, government age...

131

Food Advertising and Eating Disorders: Marketing Body Dissatisfaction, the Drive for Thinness, and Dieting in Women's Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…

Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.

1999-01-01

132

Eating patterns of children in the Delta: Developing a child food frequency questionnaire for this rural impoverished population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The epidemic of obesity and health risks for children currently present challenges in estimating food intakes and developing appropriate interventions. Obtaining eating patterns is important. No child food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are specific to the Delta. Food intake data collected previous...

133

Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Before you eat, think about what goes  

E-print Network

Eat Right Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Before you. Over the day, include foods from all the food groups. Try the following tips to "Get Your Plate. Every bit adds up and health benefits increase as you spend more time being active. Children and teens

Oklahoma, University of

134

Fast Food Consumption and Academic Growth in Late Childhood.  

PubMed

Objective. The objective of this study is to examine the associations between fast food consumption and the academic growth of 8544 fifth-grade children in reading, math, and science. Method. This study uses direct assessments of academic achievement and child-reported fast food consumption from a nationally representative sample of kindergartners followed through eighth grade. Results. More than two thirds of the sample reported some fast food consumption; 20% reported consuming at least 4 fast food meals in the prior week. Fast food consumption during fifth grade predicted lower levels of academic achievement in all 3 subjects in eighth grade, even when fifth grade academic scores and numerous potential confounding variables, including socioeconomic indicators, physical activity, and TV watching, were controlled for in the models. Conclusion. These results provide initial evidence that high levels of fast food consumption are predictive of slower growth in academic skills in a nationally representative sample of children. PMID:25480321

Purtell, Kelly M; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

2014-12-01

135

Reliability of a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge of adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutrition knowledge of adolescents and to examine its reliability.Design: A cross-sectional baseline survey. The questionnaire was self-administered to study participants twice with 7 days between each administration.Setting: A school community in Pavia, Italy.Subjects: A group of students (n=72, aged 14–17 y, both sexes) studying in a secondary school

G Turconi; M Celsa; C Rezzani; G Biino; M A Sartirana; C Roggi

2003-01-01

136

Bulimic symptoms and mood predict food relevant Stroop interference in women with troubled eating patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive processing differences based on attentional biases of words pertaining to eating disorders were investigated to assess people's pathological thoughts. Participants were 165 undergraduate women (mean age=19.2) at a large Midwestern university. This Stroop task that included color identification of three word groups (food-related words, neutral words, and color words) was administered to measure differential speed in cognitive processing of

Dana L Rofey; Kevin J Corcoran; Giao Q Tran

2004-01-01

137

Fasting Leptin Is a Metabolic Determinant of Food Reward in Overweight and Obese Individuals during Chronic Aerobic Exercise Training  

PubMed Central

Changes in food reward have been implicated in exercise-induced compensatory eating behaviour. However, the underlying mechanisms of food reward, and the physiological correlates of exercise-induced changes in food reward, are unknown. Methods. Forty-six overweight and obese individuals completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. Body composition, food intake, and fasting metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week six, and postintervention. On separate days, the reward value of high-and-low-fat food (explicit liking and implicit wanting) was also assessed at baseline, week six, and postintervention. Results. Following the intervention, FM, FFM, and VO2peak improved significantly, while fasting leptin decreased. However, food intake or reward did not change significantly. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that FM (P = 0.022) and FFM (P = 0.046) were associated with explicit liking for high-fat food, but implicit wanting was associated with FM only (P = 0.005). Fasting leptin was associated with liking (P = 0.023) and wanting (P = 0.021) for high-fat food. Furthermore, a greater exercise-induced decline in fasting leptin was associated with increased liking (P = 0.018). Conclusion. These data indicate that food reward has a number of physiological correlates. In particular, fasting leptin appears to play an active role in mediating food reward during exercise-induced weight loss. PMID:24734042

Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M.; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John E.

2014-01-01

138

Disordered Eating and Food Restrictions in Children with PANDAS/PANS.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Sudden onset clinically significant eating restrictions are a defining feature of the clinical presentation of some of the cases of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Restrictions in food intake are typically fueled by contamination fears; fears of choking, vomiting, or swallowing; and/or sensory issues, such as texture, taste, or olfactory concerns. However, body image distortions may also be present. We investigate the clinical presentation of PANS disordered eating and compare it with that of other eating disorders. Methods: We describe 29 patients who met diagnostic criteria for PANS. Most also exhibited evidence that the symptoms might be sequelae of infections with Group A streptococcal bacteria (the pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections [PANDAS] subgroup of PANS). Results: The clinical presentations are remarkable for a male predominance (2:1?M:F), young age of the affected children (mean=9 years; range 5-12 years), acuity of symptom onset, and comorbid neuropsychiatric symptoms. Conclusions: The food refusal associated with PANS is compared with symptoms listed for the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-V) diagnosis of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Treatment implications are discussed, as well as directions for further research. PMID:25329522

Toufexis, Megan D; Hommer, Rebecca; Gerardi, Diana M; Grant, Paul; Rothschild, Leah; D'Souza, Precilla; Williams, Kyle; Leckman, James; Swedo, Susan E; Murphy, Tanya K

2014-10-20

139

Swedish students' interpretations of food symbols and their perceptions of healthy eating. An exploratory study.  

PubMed

This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an "inauthenticity discourse" where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully. PMID:25017131

Neuman, Nicklas; Persson Osowski, Christine; Mattsson Sydner, Ylva; Fjellström, Christina

2014-11-01

140

Issues in-depth: Are you what you eat? An inside look at high-tech food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to increase the safety of food supply, create foods that are more appealing to eat and easier to produce, and increase crop yields. This article will summarize a few hot topics in food science, address what is currently known about the safety of these processes, and present resources on the subject to use with your students.

Miller, Roxanne G.

2007-04-01

141

THANKSGIVING Eating together, eating alone  

E-print Network

fast-food chains are populating the globe). My own evolution away from fast food and toward social "fast food" entered our lexicon in 1951. Fast food connotes many things and among them is the fact complete control and freedom over our own consumption. Fast food affords independence. It also happens

Albright, Tom

142

Some like it hot: Testosterone predicts laboratory eating behavior of spicy food.  

PubMed

In the present study, we analyzed the relationship between eating behavior of spicy food and endogenous testosterone. Participants included 114 males between the ages of 18 and 44 recruited from the community. They were asked to indicate their preferences regarding spicy food and were then asked to season a sample of mashed potatoes with pepper sauce and salt (control substance) prior to evaluating the spiciness of the meal. A positive correlation was observed between endogenous salivary testosterone and the quantity of hot sauce individuals voluntarily and spontaneously consumed with a meal served as part of a laboratory task. In contrast, significant correlations were not observed between testosterone and behavioral preference for salty foods. This study suggests that behavioral preference for spicy food among men is related to endogenous testosterone levels. PMID:25462592

Bègue, Laurent; Bricout, Véronique; Boudesseul, Jordane; Shankland, Rébecca; Duke, Aaron A

2015-02-01

143

Brand Name Logo Recognition of Fast Food and Healthy Food among Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are\\u000a well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition,\\u000a food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry\\u000a is among the leaders in

Elva Arredondo; Diego Castaneda; John P. Elder; Donald Slymen; David Dozier

2009-01-01

144

Food deprivation and emotional reactions to food cues: implications for eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined emotional responding to food cues. In experiment 1, normal college students were assigned to 0-, 6- or 24-h of food deprivation prior to presentations of standard emotional and food-related pictures. Food deprivation had no impact on responses elicited by standard emotional pictures. However, subjective and psychophysiological reactions to food pictures were affected significantly by deprivation. Importantly, food-deprived

David J. Drobes; Erica J. Miller; Charles H. Hillman; Margaret M. Bradley; Bruce N. Cuthbert; Peter J. Lang

2001-01-01

145

Inequality in obesigenic environments: fast food density in New York City. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New York City.

146

Ambivalence toward palatable food and emotional eating predict weight fluctuations. Results of a longitudinal study with four waves.  

PubMed

Weight fluctuations pose serious challenges to people's health. Research suggests that the interplay between cognitive dietary restraint and counter-regulative overeating impairs weight control. In a random sample from the general population (N?=?2733, 49% male), a longitudinal survey was conducted over 4 consecutive years (2010-2013). Self-reported weight was used to calculate the variance of three weight changes from one wave to the next. Separate regression analyses for women and men were conducted. The dependent variable was weight fluctuation, and the independent variables were eating styles (emotional, external, and restrained) and ambivalence toward palatable food. Age and weight changes between the fourth and first years were controlled. A significant positive effect of emotional eating for men and women, and a significant positive effect of ambivalence for women, were found. Participants who demonstrated high levels of emotional eating, and women who had high levels of ambivalence in the beginning of the study, had more extreme relative weight fluctuations in the consecutive years than did persons with low levels of emotional eating or women with low levels of ambivalence. Restrained and external eating had no effect. The results suggest that emotional eating and ambivalence toward palatable food need to be addressed to prevent health-damaging weight fluctuations. Furthermore, ambivalence toward palatable food was revealed as an additional overeating tendency beyond emotional eating that must be considered to understand the interplay between dietary restraint and overeating. PMID:25464025

Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

2015-02-01

147

Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

2013-01-01

148

Hong Kong's Fast-Food IndustryAn Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1993 the quick-service-restaurant segment constituted 13 percent of the restaurant market in Hong Kong, where households spend more than half their food budgets on dining out. In addition to Western operations, Cafe de Coral, Maxim's, and Fairwood are Chinese-style fast-food chains that are replacing mom-and-pop dim sum and noodle shops. Despite rapid growth, fast-food chains face challenges: intense competition

Li Lan; Mahmod A. Khan

1995-01-01

149

Mathematical modeling the cross-contamination of food pathogens on the surface of ready-to-eat meats while slicing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The knowledge regarding food pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.) surface transfer on ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meat and the slicer used for slicing different RTE products are needed to ensure RTE food safety. The objectives of this study were to investigat...

150

The neurobiological underpinnings of obesity and binge eating: a rationale for adopting the food addiction model.  

PubMed

The food addiction model of overeating has been proposed to help explain the widespread advancement of obesity over the last 30 years. Parallels in neural substrates and neurochemistry, as well as corresponding motivational and behavioral traits, are increasingly coming to light; however, there are still key differences between the two disorders that must be acknowledged. We critically examine these common and divergent characteristics using the theoretical framework of prominent drug addiction models, investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of both behaviors in an attempt to justify whether classification of obesity and binge eating as an addictive disorder is merited. PMID:23098895

Smith, Dana G; Robbins, Trevor W

2013-05-01

151

Eating everything except food (PICA): A rare case report and review  

PubMed Central

PICA is an act or habit of eating non-food items such as stone, bricks, chalk, soap, paper, soil etc., It occurs in children who actually start seeing the world through the oral cavity. There are many theories behind it such as iron and zinc deficiency etc., We as dentists should be able to diagnose and treat such conditions, as they may cause ill-effects to the developing dentition. This case report attempt to highlights the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of pica. PMID:24818086

Advani, Shweta; Kochhar, Gulsheen; Chachra, Sanjay; Dhawan, Preeti

2014-01-01

152

Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service Surveillance of Ready-to-Eat Foods and Processing Facilities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A panel of 501 Listeria monocytogenes obtained from Food Safety and Inspection Service monitoring of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were subtyped by multilocus genotyping (MLGT) and by sequencing the virulence gene inlA. MLGT analyses confirmed that clonal lineages associated with previous epidemic outbr...

153

If you are good you can have a cookie: How memories of childhood food rules link to adult eating behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether memories of parental rules about food during childhood are linked to adult eating behaviors. Method: An adult community sample (N=122) (56% female, 44% male) with a mean age of 44.6 years completed self-report measures of weight and dieting history, current eating patterns, and recollection of different types of rules about

Rebecca M. Puhl; Marlene B. Schwartz

2003-01-01

154

Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?  

PubMed

The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food. PMID:20696093

Edwards-Jones, Gareth

2010-11-01

155

[Eating disorders].  

PubMed

Abstract Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

2015-02-01

156

The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis.  

PubMed

This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women, two in-depth interviews were held with traditional birth attendants, and four with midwives. Women were categorized as urban or rural, rich or poor, and according to rice field ownership. The women reported that before the crisis they bought more foods and cooked more meals and snacks. During the crisis, cooking methods became simpler and cooking tasty foods was more important than cooking nutritious foods. This involved using plenty of spices and cooking oil, but reducing the use of expensive nutritious foods. The herbal drink jamu was drunk by 15% of pregnant women; its consumption was lower during than before the economic crisis. Twenty-six percent of the women avoided certain foods due to food taboos, and most of these women avoided beneficial foods; this phenomenon decreased during the crisis among the rich and the rural, poor, landless women. In spite of increased prices for rice, women did not decrease their rice consumption during the crisis because rice was believed to have the highest value for survival, to provide strength during pregnancy and delivery, and to be easier to store and cook. Finally, children and husbands had highest priority in being served food, and women were the last to eat. PMID:15847972

Hartini, T Ninuk S; Padmawati, R Siwi; Lindholm, Lars; Surjono, Achmad; Winkvist, Anna

2005-07-01

157

Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience

Jennifer S Creel; Joseph R Sharkey; Alex McIntosh; Jenna Anding; J Charles Huber

2008-01-01

158

Food choice in disorders of eating behavior: correlations with the psychopathological aspects of the diseases.  

PubMed

Eating disorders (ED) are characterized by alterations in food choice and in the quantity and quality of nutrient intake. In a population of 124 female patients with ED (anorexia nervosa restricting subtype [AN-R, n=37]; AN bingeing-purging subtype [AN-BP, n=18]; bulimia nervosa purging subtype [BN-P, n=40]; and binge eating disorder [BED, n=29]) and healthy age-matched controls ([C], n=20) we compared food choice and macronutrient intake with psychopathologic symptoms of the disorders. Data were collected from the probands' 7-day food diaries and the scores from two assessment scales (Eating Disorder Inventory-2 [EDI-2] and Temperament and Character Inventory-revised [TCI-R]) that measure symptom domains, dimensions of personality and character dimensions, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to the nutritional data and scale scores. When compared to the values for the control group, intake of animal proteins (grams) was significantly lower for all patient groups, intake of lactoproteins was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP than BN-P and BED groups, intake of vegetal proteins was higher for the AN-R, AN-BP, BN-P and BED groups, intake of dietary fats was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP subtype groups, and intake of total carbohydrates and oligosaccharides was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP groups, and oligosaccharides also for the BED, when calculated in grams but not when expressed in percent. When studied as percent values animal proteins were lower in patients than in controls, lactoprotein in BN-P and BED, vegetal proteins higher in all the patients, fat lower in AN-R and AN-BP, while carbohydrates did not differ between patients and controls. Significant correlations emerged between food choice and TCI-R and EDI-2 scale scores. Food choice in ED might depend on alterations in neurotransmitter peptides, neuropeptides, and peripheral peptides, which regulate and are regulated by macronutrient intake and underlie psychological and temperamental alterations. PMID:24703769

Segura-García, Cristina; De Fazio, Pasquale; Sinopoli, Flora; De Masi, Roberta; Brambilla, Francesca

2014-07-01

159

The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument.

160

Mood, food, traits, and restraint: an experimental investigation of negative affect, borderline personality, and disordered eating.  

E-print Network

??Eating disorders and borderline personality disorder involve several overlapping features, such as impulsivity, negative affectivity, and dissociation. However, few studies have specifically assessed how eating… (more)

Ambwani, Suman

2009-01-01

161

The availability of healthy food options in fast food outlets in six rural counties  

E-print Network

offer convenient meals but healthy choices at these restaurants may be limited. The number of healthy options may vary among types of fast food outlets. The study area for this project included six rural counties. Fast food outlets within the counties...

Creel, Jennifer Sue

2009-05-15

162

Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during 6 months of dietary energy restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine characteristics of craved foods in relation to dietary energy restriction (ER) with high (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets.Design:Assessments of food cravings before and during a randomized controlled trial of HG and LG diets provided for 6 months.Subjects:Thirty-two healthy, overweight women aged 20–42 years.Measurements:Self-reported food cravings and dietary intake, body weight, weight history and measures of eating

C H Gilhooly; S K Das; J K Golden; M A McCrory; G E Dallal; E Saltzman; F M Kramer; S B Roberts

2007-01-01

163

Consumers' Nutritional Ratings of Fast-Food Meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the area of the nuiritional value of fast-food meals are discussed in this exploratory paper. The work by McNeal, Stem, and Nelson on consumers' ratings of meals is reviewed. Changes made by fast-food chains are summarized, then followed by a discussion on whether or not these changes represent an improvement in nutrition. Finally, the authors discuss findings

Janet Caspers Baikie; Sid Konell; Jeffrey W Totten

1993-01-01

164

Social modeling of eating: A review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice.  

PubMed

A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571

Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J

2015-03-01

165

Home Food Availability, Parental Dietary Intake, and Familial Eating Habits Influence the Diet Quality of Urban Hispanic Children  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Methods: Hispanic children, 10–14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. Results: The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had “good” scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that “need improvement” (HEI, 51–80), and 14% had “poor” scores (HEI, <50). Children with lower HEI scores had sugar-sweetened beverages available at home and participated in family meals while watching television more frequently, when compared with children with higher HEI scores. Conclusions: Home food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health. PMID:25259675

Adams, Alexandra K.; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

2014-01-01

166

Knowledge of Fats\\/Oils and Fat Content of Foods by Fast Food Restaurant Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire was developed focusing on food preparation and types of fats\\/oils, knowledge of fats\\/oils and fat content of foods. The questionnaire was validated by a group of seven foodservice professionals and was pilot tested with ten local restaurant managers. A nationwide sample of 100 fast food restaurant chains located in the 100 largest metropolitan areas of the country was

C. Bednar; D. Czajka-Narins; F. Elahi

1998-01-01

167

Virulence and resistance gene profiles of staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat foods.  

PubMed

Staphylococcal food poisoning represents the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. Oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins from food can result in emesis and diarrhea and can be fatal in children and the elderly. Few data have been available on the characteristics and sources of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. In this study, we used a DNA microarray to determine virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles of S. aureus from RTE foods. A total of 267 S. aureus strains isolated from 244 RTE foods were investigated. The isolates originated from precooked foods (41% of isolates), meat and fish products (17%), cheese (13%), delicatessen salads (8%), sandwiches and canapés (8%), confectionery and bakery products (6%), and various other RTE foods (7%). Eleven samples (5%), of which 9 were raw milk cheeses, contained > 10(5) CFU/g, which is considered a health risk. Four S. aureus strains were associated with intoxications; three cases were linked to consumption of cheese and one case was linked to consumption of potato salad. DNA microarray results revealed that one-third of the tested strains had at least one major enterotoxin gene (sea through see). We also detected the toxic shock syndrome gene (18% of isolates) and various genes conferring antimicrobial resistance, including genes involved in resistance to beta-lactams (blaZ, 72% of isolates), methicillin (mecA, 1% of isolates), and vancomycin (vanB, 1% of isolates). S. aureus strains were most frequently assigned to clonal complex (CC) 30 (17% of isolates), CC8 (12%), CC15 (11%), and CC45 (10%), which are commonly detected in humans colonized or infected with S. aureus. Although a large proportion of the tested food items contained milk, we did not detect CC705, the most prevalent clonal complex among S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk. Our results suggest that S. aureus isolates from RTE foods do not commonly originate from animals but more likely come from food handlers who contaminate foods. PMID:24988036

Baumgartner, Andreas; Niederhauser, Isabel; Johler, Sophia

2014-07-01

168

Heterocyclic amine content in fast-food meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterocyclic aromatic amines are sometimes formed during the cooking of muscle meats, and their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are of potential concern in the aetiology of human cancer. In a large survey of the heterocyclic amine content of foods, fried or charbroiled hamburgers, fried chicken, chicken breast sandwiches, fish sandwiches and breakfast sausages were purchased from fast-food restaurants. At least

M. G. Knize; R. Sinha; N. Rothman; E. D. Brown; C. P. Salmon; O. A. Levander; P. L. Cunningham; J. S. Felton

1995-01-01

169

High trans fatty acid content in common Indian fast foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Trans fatty acids (TFA) are deleterious to health and can lead to multiple diseases. The purpose of this paper is to study their content in Indian sweets and snacks (fast foods). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper used the food composition and analysis tables of the Indian National Institute of Nutrition to determine fatty acid composition of common nutrients. Separate

Aachu Agrawal; Rajeev Gupta

2008-01-01

170

Evaluation of a norovirus detection methodology for ready-to-eat foods.  

PubMed

Despite recent norovirus (NoV) foodborne outbreaks related to consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, a standardized assay to detect NoV in these foods is not available yet. Therefore, the robustness of a methodology for NoV detection in RTE foods was evaluated. The NoV detection methodology consisted of direct RNA extraction with an eventual concentration step, followed by RNA purification and a multiplex RT-qPCR assay for the detection of GI and GII NoV and the murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), the latter used as process control. The direct RNA extraction method made use of the guanidine-isothiocyanate containing reagent (Tri-reagent®, Ambion) to extract viral RNA from the food sample (basic protocol called TriShort), followed by an eventual concentration step using organic solvents (extended protocol called TriConc). To evaluate the robustness of the NoV detection method, the influence of (1) the NoV inoculum level and (2) different food types on the recovery of NoV from RTE foods was investigated. Simultaneously, the effect of two RNA purification methods (manual RNeasy minikit (Qiagen) and automated NucliSens EasyMAG (BioMérieux)) on the recovery of NoV from these foods was examined. Finally, MNV-1 was evaluated as process control. First of all, high level GI and GII NoV inocula (~10? NoV genomic copies/10 g) could be recovered from penne salad samples (10 g) in at least 4 out of 6 PCRs, while low level GI and GII NoV inocula (~10? NoV genomic copies/10 g) could be recovered from this food product in maximally 3 out 6 PCRs, showing a significant influence of the NoV inoculum level on its recovery. Secondly, low level GI and GII NoV inocula (10? NoV genomic copies/10 g) were spiked onto 22 ready-to-eat food samples (10 g) classified in three categories (soups, deli sandwiches and composite meals). The GI and GII NoV inocula could be recovered from 20 of the 22 samples. The TriConc protocol provided better recoveries of GI and GII NoV for soups while the TriShort protocol yielded better results for the recovery of GII NoV from composite meals. NoV recovery from deli sandwiches was problematic using either protocol. Thirdly, the simultaneous comparison of two RNA purification protocols demonstrated that automated RNA purification performed equally or better compared to manual RNA extraction. Finally, MNV-1 was successfully evaluated as process control when detecting NoV in RTE foods using this detection methodology. In conclusion, the evaluated NoV detection method was capable of detecting NoV in RTE foods, although recoveries were influenced by the inoculum level and by the food type. PMID:21333370

Stals, Ambroos; Baert, Leen; De Keuckelaere, Ann; Van Coillie, Els; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2011-02-28

171

Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. METHODS: Data

Joseph R Sharkey; Scott Horel; Daikwon Han; John C Huber Jr

2009-01-01

172

Eat it or beat it. The differential effects of food temptations on overweight and normal-weight restrained eaters.  

PubMed

Dieting is difficult to maintain in an environment where cues of attractive, high-calorie food abound. Overweight and restrained eating have been associated with failures of self-regulation in response to such food cues. A subgroup of successful restrained eaters, however, have been found to activate their dieting goal in response to tempting food cues, which helps them to pursue their dieting goal in such situations. The present research extended this finding by examining the effect of tempting food cues on wanting to eat high-calorie snacks in normal-weight and overweight restrained eaters. In an Internet experiment, normal-weight and overweight participants (N=284) were unobtrusively primed with tempting food or neutral food objects. Next, wanting for high-calorie snacks was assessed with a forced-choice measure presenting pictures of high-calorie snacks and low-calorie alternatives. As predicted, exposure to attractive food cues decreased wanting for high-calorie food in normal-weight restrained eaters, but increased wanting in overweight restrained eaters. These results suggest that, in women who are successful in maintaining their weight, food temptations may trigger processes of successful self-regulation, whereas overweight restrained eaters may seem to forget about their diet goal when they are confronted with attractive food, thereby risking the chance to overeat. PMID:20433882

Ouwehand, Carolijn; Papies, Esther K

2010-08-01

173

The Food We Eat: An Evaluation of Food Items Input into an  

E-print Network

participants in a chronic kidney disease (stage 5) population input food items into an electronic intake in administration and evaluation of the results. We work with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 patients who must. Participants thought this electronic self monitoring application would be helpful for chronically ill

Connelly, Kay

174

Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective Patterns of overweight and obesity are unequally distributed geographically, with elevated rates in Appalachia. Appalachian youth's perceptions toward healthy eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n=68) and moderated by experienced local residents, were conducted with participants aged 8–17. Session transcripts were coded for thematic analysis, using measures to enhance rigor and transferability. Results Participants discussed numerous internal and external factors affecting dietary choices. While expressing confidence in their own nutritional knowledge, they stressed the importance of taste preferences, cost, convenience, social influences, and advertising on diet. Conclusions and Implications Appalachian youths' awareness of the multiple influences on diet may create opportunities for multi-faceted, ecologically-based interventions. In particular, participants stressed the importance of social influences on diet and on successful nutrition programming. PMID:22269474

Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

2011-01-01

175

Technologies and Mechanisms for Safety Control of Ready-to-Eat Muscle Foods: An Updated Review.  

PubMed

Abstract Ready-to-eat (RTE) muscle foods refer to a general category of meat and poultry products that are fully cooked and consumable without reheating. These products, including whole and sliced pork, beef, turkey, chicken, and variety meats, in the forms of ham, roast, rolls, sausage, and frankfurter, are widely available in the delicatessen section of retail stores or various food service outlets. However, difficulties in avoidance of contamination by foodborne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes, during product post-lethality repackaging render RTE meats labile to outbreaks. Accordingly, the USDA-FSIS has established processing guidelines and regulations, which are constantly updated, to minimize foodborne pathogens in RTE products. Technologies that complement good manufacturing practice have been developed to control RTE meat safety. Among them, various antimicrobial product formulations, post-packaging pasteurization (thermal and nonthermal), and antimicrobial packaging, are being used. Through these efforts, outbreaks linked to RTE meat consumption have substantially reduced in recent years. However, the pervasive and virulent nature of L. monocytogenes and the possible presence of other cold-tolerant pathogens entail continuing developments of new intervention technologies. This review updates existing and emerging physical and chemical methods and their mode of action to inactivate or inhibit threatening microorganisms in RTE muscle foods. PMID:24754253

Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

2014-04-22

176

Quantitative risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods: the FAO/WHO approach.  

PubMed

Quantitative microbiological risk assessment is a very new and unique scientific approach able to link, for the first time, data from food (in the farm-to-fork continuum) and the various data on human disease to provide a clear estimation of the impact of contaminated food on human public health. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have recently launched risk assessment studies of a number of pathogen-food commodity combinations (Salmonella in eggs and in broiler chickens, Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods, Campylobacter in broiler chickens, Vibrio in seafood) to be used to lower the risk associated with these food-borne diseases and ensure fair practices in the international trade of food. The FAO/WHO Listeria risk assessment was undertaken in part to determine how previously developed risk assessments done at the national level could be adapted or expanded to address concerns related to L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods at an international level. In addition, after initiation of the risk assessment, the risk assessors were asked by the Codex Committee on Food to consider three specific questions related to ready-to-eat foods in general, which are: (1). estimate the risk for consumers in different susceptible populations groups (elderly, infants, pregnant women and immunocompromised patients) relative to the general population; (2). estimate the risk for L. monocytogenes in foods that support growth and foods that do not support growth under specific storage and shelf-life conditions; (3). estimate the risk from L. monocytogenes in food when the number of organisms ranges from absence in 25 g to 1000 colonies forming units per gram or milliliter, or does not exceed specified levels at the point of consumption. To achieve these goals, new dose-response relationships and exposure assessments for ready-to-eat foods were developed. Preliminary data indicate that eliminating the higher dose levels at the time of consumption has a large impact on the number of predicted cases. PMID:12648845

Rocourt, J; BenEmbarek, P; Toyofuku, H; Schlundt, J

2003-04-01

177

Relation between Changes in Neural Responsivity and Reductions in Desire to Eat High-Calorie Foods Following Gastric Bypass Surgery  

PubMed Central

Reductions in reward-related (e.g., striatal) neural activation have been noted following obesity surgery. It has been speculated that these postoperative neural changes may be related to documented postoperative changes in food preferences; however, this relation has not been previously established. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and rating scales were used to assess neural responsivity, desire to eat (i.e., wanting) and liking for high- and low- calorie food cues in 14 females 1 mo pre and 1 mo post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Pre to post RYGB changes in all variables were assessed, and postoperative changes in neural responsivity were regressed on postoperative changes in desire to eat and liking of foods. Results revealed significant postoperative reductions in mesolimbic (e.g., striatal) neural responsivity, desire to eat (wanting) and liking for high- relative to low- calorie food cues. Postoperative reductions in mesolimbic responsivity were associated with postoperative reductions in wanting, but not liking, for high- vs. low- calorie foods. Interestingly, reductions in food wanting were also related to reductions in inhibitory (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) activation following RYGB. Results are consistent with the hypothesized delineation between wanting and liking, supporting the notion that that wanting, but not liking, is processed through the dopaminergic reward pathway. Concurrent reductions in both reward-related and inhibitory activation predicted reductions in desire to eat might suggest that less dietary inhibition was elicited to resist potential overconsumption as the anticipated reward value of high-calorie foods decreased following RYGB. PMID:22406414

Ochner, Christopher N.; Stice, Eric; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Afifi, Ladan; Geliebter, Allan; Hirsch, Joy; Teixeira, Julio

2012-01-01

178

Eat Right  

MedlinePLUS

... making a diabetes meal plan? Related Materials. What healthy food choices should I make? Eat smaller portions. ... nutrition professional that can help you develop a healthy meal plan ( www.eatright.org ). Visit the American ...

179

Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. METHODS: The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File

Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

2011-01-01

180

The Food-Contaminant Deoxynivalenol Modifies Eating by Targeting Anorexigenic Neurocircuitry  

PubMed Central

Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders. PMID:22022538

Jdir, Rajae; Sadoud, Medhi; Thirion, Sylvie; Tardivel, Catherine; Roux, Julien; Lebrun, Bruno; Wanaverbecq, Nicolas; Mounien, Lourdes; Trouslard, Jérôme; Jean, André; Dallaporta, Michel; Troadec, Jean-Denis

2011-01-01

181

Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR. PMID:21266055

2011-01-01

182

Assessing foods offered to children at child-care centers using the Healthy Eating Index-2005  

PubMed Central

The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) has been applied primarily to assess the quality of individual-level diets, but was recently applied to environmental-level data. Currently, no studies have applied the HEI-2005 to foods offered in child-care settings. This cross-sectional study used the HEI-2005 to assess the quality of foods/beverages offered to preschool children (three-five years old) in child-care centers. Two days of dietary observations were conducted, and 120 children (six children per center) were observed, at 20 child-care centers in North Carolina between July 2005 and January 2006. Data were analyzed between July 2011 and January 2012 using t-tests. The mean total HEI-2005 score (59.12) was significantly (p<0.01) lower than the optimal score of 100, indicating the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children. All centers met the maximum score for milk. A majority also met the maximum scores for total fruit (17 of 20 centers), whole fruit (15 of 20 centers), and sodium (19 of 20 centers). Mean scores for total vegetable (mean=2.26±1.09), dark green/orange vegetables and legumes (mean=0.20±0.43), total grain (mean=1.09±1.25), whole grain (mean=1.29±1.65), oils (mean=0.44±0.25), and meat/beans (mean=0.44±0.25) were significantly (p<0.01) lower than the maximum scores recommended. Mean scores for saturated fat (mean=3.32±3.41; p<0.01), and calories from solid fats and added sugars (mean=14.76±4.08; p<0.01) suggest the need to decrease the provision of foods high in these components. These findings indicate the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children at the centers to ensure that foods provided contribute to children’s daily nutrition requirements. PMID:23773561

Erinosho, Temitope O.; Ball, Sarah C.; Hanson, Phillip P.; Vaughn, Amber E.; Ward, Dianne Stanton

2013-01-01

183

Vitamin K content of fast foods and snack foods in the US diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant dietary form of vitamin K, phylloquinone (K1), is present in certain plant oils. During hydrogenation of these plant oils, K1 is converted to another form of vitamin K, dihydrophylloquinone (dK). The purpose of this study was to determine the K1 and dK content of fast foods and snack foods in the US food supply. Representative samples of key

Nathalie Weizmann; James W. Peterson; David Haytowitz; Pamela R. Pehrsson; Vincent P. de Jesus; Sarah L. Booth

2004-01-01

184

Evaluation of fatty acid content of some Iranian fast foods with emphasis on trans fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of com- mon fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. The most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran: sausage,

Seddigheh Asgary; Bahar Nazari; Nizal Sarrafzadegan; Sahar Parkhideh; Salbali Saberi; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Leila Azadbakht

2009-01-01

185

[Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].  

PubMed

Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight control are "emotional eating" and "externality", which represent an individual's vulnerability to eat in response to emotional states or external cues, respectively. These questionnaires have been translated into French and validated for the French population. Average data are available for normal weight and obese French men and women. A gender difference is often reported: women, and even young girls, tend to have higher scores than males for most dimensions. These questionnaires have been extensively used in populations without psychiatric disorders, with the only exception of diagnosed eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The questionnaires have not been used until now in populations with other types of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disease. Their relevance for such populations is now an important question, since last generation pharmaceutical treatments of such psychiatric disorders seem to adversely affect body weight control. It then becomes critical to know whether the psychological dimensions assessed by such questionnaires reflect the action of pharmacological agents that induce weight gain. A research project is now in progress at Sainte-Anne Hospital to investigate many dimensions of the motivation to eat, as assessed by the questionnaires, in psychiatric patients receiving various types of antipsychotic agents. The results of this original study might provide hints about the mechanisms that lead to body weight gain in patients receiving certain types of antipsychotic pharmacological agents and potentially help in preventing or reversing the weight gain associated with such treatments. PMID:19393389

Bellisle, F

2009-04-01

186

Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Little Change in Fast Food Calorie Counts, Salt Content Researchers tracked popular items from 3 major ... Mundell Wednesday, December 31, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Sodium Nutrition Weight Control WEDNESDAY, Dec. 31, 2014 (HealthDay ...

187

Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Recovered from Selected Ready-To-Eat Foods and Listeriosis Patients in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and serotyping were performed for 544 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes, including 502 isolates recovered from contaminated samples from 31,705 retail ready-to-eat (RTE) food products and 42 isolates recovered from human cases of listeriosis. The isolates were from Maryland (294 isolates) and California (250 isolates) and were collected in 2000 and 2001. The isolates were placed into 16

Stefanie Evans Gilbreth; Jeff E. Call; F. Morgan Wallace; Virginia N. Scott; Yuhuan Chen; John B. Luchansky

2005-01-01

188

Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other "heat and eat" multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a "frankfurter on a roll", a "beef cheeseburger on a bun" and a "vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun" was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log 10 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat" sandwich products.

Sommers, Christopher H.; Boyd, Glenn

2006-07-01

189

Food and drug abuse: the contrasts and comparisons of eating disorders and alcoholism.  

PubMed

The authors present a series of comparisons highlighting the similarities and differences between alcoholism and two eating disorders: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They suggest that diagnostic, psychodynamic and therapeutic similarities are strong and may relate to a common lack of behavioral inhibition once abnormal drinking or eating patterns become set. They point to recent research suggesting that eating disorder patients are at greater risk for alcoholism later in life. They conclude that a scientific comparison of these disorders may yield new research findings that could advance treatment methods for both types of psychopathology and may prevent later morbidity for the eating disorder group. PMID:2813830

Beresford, T P; Hall, R C

1989-01-01

190

A sex difference in the response to fasting.  

PubMed

We determined whether women and men would alter their pattern of food intake after they had deprived themselves of food. We found that women consumed 12% less food after fasting and that men ate 28% more food after fasting. Serving more food on the test day did not increase food intake of women. Women, who ate at a nearly constant rate (linear eaters), consumed less food than those eating at an initially high speed which decreased over the course of the meal (decelerated eaters). Women decreased their food intake after fasting as their eating pattern became more linear. After fasting, men increased their food intake, and the rate at which they ate became more decelerated. Food intake of both women and men was normalized after fasting by providing feedback that encouraged them to eat according to the pattern they showed in the non-fasted condition. The results support the hypothesis that linear eating, and the dieting that elicits linear eating, are risk factors for the development of the abnormal linear eating pattern that characterizes patients with anorexia nervosa. The data also provide additional support for the use of behavioral feedback to normalize the pattern of eating for individuals who have difficulty maintaining their body weight. PMID:21514312

Zandian, Modjtaba; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Bergh, Cecilia; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

2011-07-01

191

The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet?123  

PubMed Central

Background: Although fast food consumption has been linked to adverse health outcomes, the relative contribution of fast food itself compared with the rest of the diet to these associations remains unclear. Objective: Our objective was to compare the independent associations with overweight/obesity or dietary outcomes for fast food consumption compared with dietary pattern for the remainder of intake. Design: This cross-sectional analysis studied 4466 US children aged 2–18 y from NHANES 2007–2010. Cluster analysis identified 2 dietary patterns for the non–fast food remainder of intake: Western (50.3%) and Prudent. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models examined the association between fast food consumption and dietary pattern for the remainder of intake and estimated their independent associations with overweight/obesity and dietary outcomes. Results: Half of US children consumed fast food: 39.5% low-consumers (?30% of energy from fast food) and 10.5% high-consumers (>30% of energy). Consuming a Western dietary pattern for the remainder of intake was more likely among fast food low-consumers (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.85) and high-consumers (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.60, 3.05) than among nonconsumers. The remainder of diet was independently associated with overweight/obesity (?: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 10.5), whereas fast food consumption was not, and the remainder of diet had stronger associations with poor total intake than did fast food consumption. Conclusions: Outside the fast food restaurant, fast food consumers ate Western diets, which might have stronger associations with overweight/obesity and poor dietary outcomes than fast food consumption itself. Our findings support the need for prospective studies and randomized trials to confirm these hypotheses. PMID:24153348

Poti, Jennifer M; Duffey, Kiyah J

2014-01-01

192

Eating Competence: Nutrition Education with the Satter Eating Competence Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…

Satter, Ellyn

2007-01-01

193

Nutrient content of products served by leading Australian fast food chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared

Elizabeth Dunford; Jacqui Webster; Federica Barzi; Bruce Neal

2010-01-01

194

The global burger war: Russians are looking for the best fast food option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fast food market and customer attitudes in Russia, and outline successful and questionable strategies of the Western fast food companies in their attempt to penetrate the Russian market. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The objective has been achieved by reviewing the first Russian entry of the Belgian-French fast food chain “Quick” by

Nikolai V. Ostapenko

2011-01-01

195

Proximate, mineral and fatty acid composition of fast foods consumed in Bahrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the commonly consumed fast foods in Bahrain with respect to proximate, mineral, sterol composition and their fatty acid profile. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Foods were purchased from the most frequented fast food outlets in Manama city, the capital of Bahrain. Similar types of foods were pooled into one sample. Proximate composition was

Abdulrahman O. Musaiger; Jassim H. Al-Jedah; Reshma Dsouza

2008-01-01

196

Fast Fats: A Nutritional Analysis of America's Obsession with Fast Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Few will disagree that fast foods are a staple in the diets of many Americans. Even our nation's schools feature vending machines full of foods that are high in calories, short on nutrition, and all too easy to buy. With busy lifestyles and complicated schedules, what are the long term effects of a diet high in saturated fats? What about all the "good carbs" and "bad carbs" we have been hearing so much about?In this three part lesson, students will examine nutrition labels for caloric intake using various snack foods. Then, they will determine the number of calories in a food item. Finally, they will conduct a research project in which they examine the food choices of their classmates.

Rachelle Kean (AAAS; )

2008-05-01

197

Motivations to eat are related to diet quality and food intake in overweight and obese, low-income women in early postpartum.  

PubMed

Healthful dietary practices and a return to prepregnancy weight are of significant importance in the prevention of obesity for women. The Eating Stimulus Index (ESI) was used to determine the relationship between motivations to eat and diet quality and food intake in 115 overweight/obese, low-income women in early postpartum. In this cross-sectional design, participants completed the ESI and food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed using the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index. Diet quality was related to greater fruit and vegetable availability, convenience eating resistance, and vegetable taste preference. Women with high fruit and vegetable availability consumed more vegetables, as compared to those with low availability. High convenience eating resistance was associated with lower discretionary energy intakes. High taste preference for vegetables was related to greater intakes of these foods. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that convenience eating resistance was the strongest predictor of diet quality followed by vegetable taste preference, and fruit and vegetable availability. Convenience eating resistance was also the strongest predictor of discretionary energy intake. In conclusion, women who were less vulnerable to environmental eating cues, had greater fruit and vegetable availability, and preferred the taste of vegetables consumed a more healthful diet. Thus, the ESI may be a useful screening tool for the design of personalized weight loss messages in the treatment of obesity. PMID:20600414

Cahill, Jodi M; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Shah, Bijal S; Lu, Hongxing

2010-10-01

198

Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women’s eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos’ and a patriarchal gender order that limits women’s mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women’s access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Methods Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. Results The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women’s access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Conclusions Rising food prices and resultant food insecurity due to insufficient incomes are negating the recent efforts that have increased women’s knowledge of healthy eating during pregnancy and their gendered empowerment. In order to maintain the gains in nutritional knowledge and women’s increased mobility and decision-making capacity; policy must also consider the global political economy of food in the creation of the new development goals. PMID:24069937

2013-01-01

199

Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet  

PubMed Central

Background Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population. PMID:25490960

Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

2014-01-01

200

Dietary-induced binge eating increases prefrontal cortex neural activation to restraint stress and increases binge food consumption following chronic guanfacine.  

PubMed

Binge eating is a prominent feature of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Stress or perceived stress is an often-cited reason for binge eating. One notion is that the neural pathways that overlap with stress reactivity and feeding behavior are altered by recurrent binge eating. Using young adult female rats in a dietary-induced binge eating model (30 min access to binge food with or without 24-h calorie restriction, twice a week, for 6 weeks) we measured the neural activation by c-Fos immunoreactivity to the binge food (vegetable shortening mixed with 10% sucrose) in bingeing and non-bingeing animals under acute stress (immobilization; 1 h) or no stress conditions. There was an increase in the number of immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stressed animals previously exposed to the binge eating feeding schedules. Because attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) medications target the mPFC and have some efficacy at reducing binge eating in clinical populations, we examined whether chronic (2 weeks; via IP osmotic mini-pumps) treatment with a selective alpha-2A adrenergic agonist (0.5 mg/kg/day), guanfacine, would reduce binge-like eating. In the binge group with only scheduled access to binge food (30 min; twice a week; 8 weeks), guanfacine increased total calories consumed during the 30-min access period from the 2-week pre-treatment baseline and increased binge food consumption compared with saline-treated animals. These experiments suggest that mPFC is differentially activated in response to an immobilization stress in animals under different dietary conditions and chronic guanfacine, at the dose tested, was ineffective at reducing binge-like eating. PMID:25158105

Bello, Nicholas T; Walters, Amy L; Verpeut, Jessica L; Caverly, Jonathan

2014-10-01

201

Examination of food reward and energy intake under laboratory and free-living conditions in a trait binge eating subtype of obesity  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Trait binge eating has been proposed as a “hedonic subtype” of obesity characterized by enhanced food liking and wanting, and a preference for high-fat sweet foods in the laboratory. The current study examined the influence of trait binge eating in overweight or obese women on eating behavior under laboratory and free-living conditions over a 48-h period. Methods: In a matched pairs design, 24 overweight or obese females (BMI: 30.30 ± 2.60 kg/m2; Age: 25.42 ± 3.65 years) with high or low scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BSE) were divided into one of two groups; Obese Binge (O-B) and Obese Non-binge (O-NB). Energy intake was assessed using combined laboratory energy intake measures and 24-h dietary recall procedures. Liking and wanting were assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). Results: There was a significant association between overall energy consumed, and energy consumed from snack foods under laboratory and free-living conditions. O-B exhibited a greater preference for sweet snack foods in their laboratory and free-living eating behavior. These findings were supported by greater laboratory-based measures of wanting and craving for this food type in O-B. In addition, O-B consumed significantly more energy than their estimated daily energy requirements in the laboratory suggesting that they over-consumed compared to O-NB. Conclusions: The measurement concordance between laboratory and free-living based energy intake supports the validity of laboratory-based test meal methodologies Variation in trait binge eating was associated with increased craving and wanting for high-fat sweet foods and overconsumption in the laboratory. These findings support the use of trait binge eating as a common hedonic subtype of obesity and extend the relevance of this subtype to habitual patterns of energy intake. PMID:24155732

Dalton, Michelle; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham S.

2013-01-01

202

Assessment of bacteriological quality of ready to eat food vended in streets of Silchar city, Assam, India.  

PubMed

A total of 37 street vended food samples were examined for bacterial and the colony forming units counts ranged from 4.5 × 10? to 1.12 × 10?. The isolates were identified as Escherichia coli (37.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.57%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.20%), Salmonella sp. (5.36%), Klebsiella sp. (10.71%), Shigella sp. (19.64%) and Enterobacter sp. (8.93%) respectively. All the 56 isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin while their susceptibility to the other drugs varied. These findings demonstrated that the ready-to-eat foods vended in Silchar city constitute an important potential hazard to human health and provision of health education to the vendors would improve quality of street foods. PMID:24713905

Sharma, I; Mazumdar, J A

2014-01-01

203

Reprint of: Eating like you are overweight: the effect of overweight models on food intake in a remote confederate study.  

PubMed

There is consistent evidence that people model the eating behaviour of others. The extent to which people model the amount of food consumed by other people of different weight statuses has received less attention. Here we tested the effect on food consumption of exposing female participants to information about the food consumption of either normal/healthy weight or overweight individuals. Eighty female participants took part in a between-subjects experiment, in which we used a remote-confederate design and manipulated whether participants saw intake information about normal/healthy weight or overweight previous participants (remote confederates). Regardless of the weight-status of the remote confederates, participants ate more food when they believed that previous participants had eaten a large amount of food, in comparison with when they believed previous participants had eaten a smaller amount of food. These findings indicate that women may model the food intake of other women, even when they believe they are of a different weight status to themselves. PMID:25543076

Robinson, Eric; Sharps, Maxine; Price, Nicola; Dallas, Rebecca

2015-03-01

204

What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

2009-01-01

205

Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters or supermarkets, grocery stores, or fast food restaurants. Increasing deprivation was associated with decreasing numbers of grocery stores, mass merchandisers, dollar stores, and fast food restaurants within 3 miles. Conclusion It is important to understand not only the distance that people must travel to the nearest store to make a purchase, but also how many shopping opportunities they have in order to compare price, quality, and selection. Future research should examine how spatial access to the food environment influences the utilization of food stores and fast food restaurants, and the strategies used by low-income families to obtain food for the household. PMID:19220879

Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

2009-01-01

206

Exploration Linking Self-Reported Disordered Eating and Wellness in Undergraduate Health Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University campus environments are conducive to the development of disordered eating in students. Busy schedules, easy access to fast food, and the transition from high school to college contribute to the development of disordered eating in university students. This researcher explored whether a relationship exists between self-reported disordered…

Owens, Pamela K.

2009-01-01

207

Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether reported fast-food consumption over the previous year is associated with higher childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Design Secondary analysis from a multicentre, multicountry cross-sectional study (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Phase Three). Subjects and methods Parents/guardians of children aged 6–7 completed questionnaires which included questions about their children's asthma and allergies, fast-food consumption, height and weight. Adolescents aged 13–14 completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire asked “In the past 12?months, how often on average did you (your child) eat fast-food/burgers?” The responses were infrequent (never/only occasionally), frequent (once/twice a week) or very frequent (three or more times per week). A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and fast-food consumption, adjusting for Gross National Income per capita by country, measurement type (whether heights/weights were reported or measured), age and sex. Results 72?900 children (17 countries) and 199?135 adolescents (36 countries) provided data. Frequent and very frequent fast-food consumption was reported in 23% and 4% of children, and 39% and 13% of adolescents, respectively. Children in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.15 and 0.22?kg/m2 higher than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Male adolescents in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.14 and 0.28?kg/m2 lower than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Female adolescents in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.19?kg/m2 lower than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Conclusions Reported fast-food consumption is high in childhood and increases in adolescence. Compared with infrequent fast-food consumption, frequent and very frequent consumption is associated with a higher BMI in children. Owing to residual confounding, reverse causation and likely misreporting, the reverse association observed in adolescents should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25488096

Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

2014-01-01

208

Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.  

PubMed

There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (?85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. PMID:21439918

Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

2011-07-01

209

Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: Relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed. PMID:25186250

Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

2015-02-01

210

Energy density effects on food intake, appetite ratings, and loss of control in women with binge eating disorder and weight-matched controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with binge eating disorder have increased gastric capacity and may require excessive food intake and increased volume in the stomach to produce satiation. The present study examined whether lower energy density (ED) meals lead to lower energy intake more than higher-ED meals in women with binge eating disorder (BED) and weight-matched controls. Women with BED (n=15) and healthy weight-matched

Janet D. Latner; Juliet K. Rosewall; Amy M. Chisholm

2008-01-01

211

Islamic Fasting and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 h\\/day. Fasting includes avoidance of drinking liquids and eating foods. The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting. Methods: Related abstracts from 1960 to 2009 were obtained from Medline and

Fereidoun Azizi

2010-01-01

212

Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children  

PubMed Central

Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

2012-01-01

213

Emotional eating moderates the relationship of night eating with binge eating and body mass.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184

Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra

2014-03-01

214

Measuring food access in Melbourne: access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Access to healthy food can be an important determinant of a healthy diet. This paper describes the assessment of access to healthy and unhealthy foods using a GIS accessibility programme in a large outer municipality of Melbourne. Access to a major supermarket was used as a proxy for access to a healthy diet and fast food outlet as proxy for access to unhealthy food.

215

Eating disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

216

Inequality in obesigenic environments: Fast food density in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New York City. We found that predominantly Black areas had higher

Naa Oyo A. Kwate; Chun-Yip Yau; Ji-Meng Loh; Donya Williams

2009-01-01

217

Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation—substitution or concentration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and

Laura Macdonald; Steven Cummins; Sally Macintyre

2007-01-01

218

Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food, especially dairy products, meat, and fish, is the primary source of environmental exposure to dioxins in the general population. Little data exists on dioxin levels in the popular and widely consumed “fast foods”. Data presented in a previously published pilot study was limited to measuring only the levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in three types of U.S. fast food.

Arnold Schecter; Lingjun Li

1997-01-01

219

Nutritional Profile of Local and Western Fast Foods Consumed in Bahrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the proximate, mineral, and vitamin content of 16 commonly consumed fast foods (local and Western-based) in Bahrain. Samples were collected from several food outlets in Manama city, the capital of Bahrain, and analyzed using standard methods. In general, the findings revealed that local fast foods had higher cholesterol and energy content (ranging

Abdulrahman O. Musaiger; Reshma DSouza

2007-01-01

220

Increased portion sizes from energy-dense foods affect total energy intake at eating occasions in US children and adolescents: patterns and trends by age group and sociodemographic characteristics, 1977–2006123  

PubMed Central

Background: Larger portion sizes of foods and beverages could affect overall energy intake at meals and promote overeating. Objective: We investigated trends in portion sizes of energy-dense foods and energy intakes at eating occasions in US children and adolescents. Design: Four US nationally representative surveys from 1977 to 2006 were analyzed (n = 31,337). We measured trends in portion sizes (kcal, g, and mL) of selected foods [sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, and Mexican fast foods] and energy intake (kcal) at eating occasions during which selected foods were consumed. Trends were reported by age group (2–6-, 7–12-, and 13–18-y-olds), sex, and socioeconomic status. Results: In 2003–2006, the selected foods accounted for 38% of daily energy intake in 13–18-y-olds, 35% of the daily energy intake in 7–12-y-olds, and 28% of the daily energy intake in 2–6-y-olds. In all age groups, larger portion sizes of pizza coincided with higher energy intakes at eating occasions during which pizzas were consumed. In 7–12- and 13–18-y-olds, higher energy intakes at meals coincided with larger portion sizes of SSBs, French fries, or salty snacks. In all age groups, nonsignificant larger portions of Mexican fast foods were related to higher energy intakes at meals. Adolescent boys consumed larger portion sizes of the selected foods and had higher energy intakes at meals for all periods than did girls (P < 0.01). The percentage of kilocalories from pizza within a meal increased more sharply in non-Hispanic African Americans, in Hispanics, and in the group with a low household education than in the other groups. Conclusions: Adolescents are more susceptible to increased portion sizing than are younger children. The group of non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics and individuals with a lower education represents key concerns for public health policies. PMID:21918222

Piernas, Carmen

2011-01-01

221

Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment  

PubMed Central

Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach—as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members—were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10–14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J.

2013-01-01

222

Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment.  

PubMed

Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach-as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members-were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10-14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J

2013-08-01

223

Effect of changes to the school food environment on eating behaviours and/or body weight in children: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. PMID:25266705

Driessen, C E; Cameron, A J; Thornton, L E; Lai, S K; Barnett, L M

2014-12-01

224

Saints, sinners and non-believers: the moral space of food. A qualitative exploration of beliefs and perspectives on healthy eating of Irish adults aged 50-70.  

PubMed

Food choices can involve a moral element of which healthy eating has come to play a major part in recent years. This research aimed to explore the moral space of food for older adults in order to understand how they conceptualise and negotiate various moral demands in the context of their general food lives. In-depth interviews on the lived experience of food and eating were conducted with a purposive sample of 50 adults aged 50-70, who varied by dietary quality and health status. An inductive thematic analysis was carried out. Three major themes representing aspects of the "moral space of food" were identified. This moral space was influenced by old religious and secular moralities which have become intertwined with new moralities of "healthism", a trend towards encouraging personal responsibility for health. Participants sought to maintain moral congruence by keeping their behaviour within moral boundaries through balance and moderation. Some resisted immoral positioning by highlighting their own autonomy or by challenging healthist ideology. A fundamental tension exists between the concept of healthy eating as desirable to remain a moral person while simultaneously being equated with sacrifice of pleasure and enjoyment. Healthist ideology perpetuates this tension, problematising enjoyment of food and bodies of those outside of the "norm". Attempting to address negative moralistic undertones of healthy eating messages may help to engage public interest in nutrition. PMID:24184539

Delaney, Mary; McCarthy, Mary B

2014-02-01

225

Persuading people to eat less junk food: a cognitive resource match between attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing.  

PubMed

This study investigated the interactive effects of attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing on persuading people to eat less junk food. Within the heuristic-systematic model of information processing, an attitudinal ambivalence (ambivalent or univalent toward eating junk food) by health message framing (advantage- or disadvantage-framed appeals) between-subjects experiment was conducted to explore a cognitive resource-matching effect and the underlying mediation processes. Ambivalent individuals reported a higher level of cognitive elaboration than univalent individuals did. The disadvantage frame engendered more extensive cognitive elaboration than the advantage frame did. Ambivalent individuals were more persuaded by the disadvantage frame and, for them, cognitive elaboration mediated the persuasion process via the systematic route. Univalent individuals were equally persuaded by the advantage frame and the disadvantage frame and, for them, neither the perceived frame valence nor cognitive elaboration mediated persuasion. Discussion of the null results among the univalent group leads to a response-reinforcement explanation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24597561

Yan, Changmin

2015-03-01

226

8 Food Webs in the Ocean: Who Eats Whom and How Much?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 100 food webs have been published for marine ecosystems to describe the transfer of food energy from its source in plants, through herbivores, to carnivores and higher order predators. The webs suggest that the lengths of the chains that form food webs are typically short (3-4 links), and that ecosystems with long food chains may be less stable than

Andrew W. Trites

227

You Are What You Eat: Genetically Modified Foods, Integrity, and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, the moral debateconcerning genetically modified foods (GMF) hasfocused on extrinsic consequentialist questionsabout the health effects, environmental impacts,and economic benefits of such foods. Thisextrinsic approach to the morality of GMF isdependent on unsubstantiated empirical claimsand fails to account for the intrinsic moralvalue of food and food choice and theirconnection to the agent's concept of the goodlife. I develop a

Assya Pascalev

2003-01-01

228

Inability to Control Eating: Addiction to Food or Normal Response to Abnormal Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the increasing prevalence of obesity in a society obsessed with trying to be thin, and the self-reported inability to control eating in many obese patients, point to the possibility that overeating may be prevalent despite attempts to control it. The apparent lack of control has led some to describe overeating as an addiction. This paper briefly reviews the problem

G. Ken Goodrick

2000-01-01

229

"Eat more foods that grow on plants and less that are processed in plants."  

E-print Network

or demand. Recognize stress and its origins and find ways to combat daily stressors. Deep Breathing Yoga Year... Healthy eating, stress management, and physical activity are all key components to a healthy Managing Stress Find Ways to Rest and Relax! Stress is the automatic non-specific response to any change

Hardy, Christopher R.

230

Teaching Independent Eating to a Developmentally Handicapped Child Showing Chronic Food Refusal and Disruption at Mealtimes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A successful intervention to establish independent eating behaviors in a developmentally handicapped, autistic-like three-year-old involved teaching appropriate behavior in a hospital setting (where he was being treated for dehydration and malnutrition) and then teaching his mother to implement the strategies at home. Skills were maintained at…

MacArthur, Judy; And Others

1986-01-01

231

`You are what you eat': historical changes in ideas about food and identity*  

E-print Network

of `You are what you eat' tended to follow the German sensibility. In 1940, the American popular nutrition]; cf. S. L. Gilman, Diets and Dieting: a Cultural Encyclopedia (New York, 2008), p. 178. 2 J­67. Feuerbach originally used the tag in an enthusiastic 1850 review of a book on nutrition by Jakob Moleschott

Shapin, Steven

232

Availability of Shelf-Stable Foods: Advances in Production of Meal Ready to Eat (MRE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The global food supply chain continues to be vulnerable to threats from a variety of directions. Food security and safety\\u000a became a hot topic worldwide in the academic research arena and food industry practices. Recognizing that food could be a\\u000a cause of significant disaster in communities, the need to secure safe and wholesome food is imperative during and after terrorist

Magdy Hefnawy

233

Cultural resistance to fast-food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15–19 years who are in and out of formal schooling and who are randomly representing upper, central and lower Isan. All were asked about their knowledge of fast-food health risks and their attitudes towards, and consumption of, fast food and traditional food. As well, we used several focus groups to obtain qualitative data to complement the information derived from the questionnaire. Some three quarters of sampled youth were aware that fast food causes obesity and half knew of the link to heart disease. About half consumed fast food regularly, induced by the appeal of ‘modern’ lifestyles, social events and marketing, as well as by the convenience, speed and taste. Nearly two-thirds thought that local foods should be more popular and these beliefs were more likely to be found among children from educated and urban families. Local foods already constitute a cultural resistance to fast-food uptake. We propose several methods to boost this resistance and protect the youth of Thailand against fast food and its many adverse health consequences. PMID:21547247

Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian

2011-01-01

234

Bats eat as many bugs as birds do  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects are fast food for birds flying through tropical forests, which munch on them all day long. But things aren't much safer for the bugs at night, two groups of scientists found out recently. It turns out that bats eat lots of insects when the sun goes down in the forests. In fact, they may eat as many insects as the birds do during the day.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-04-03

235

Microbiological quality of open ready-to-eat salad vegetables: effectiveness of food hygiene training of management.  

PubMed

During September and October 2001, a microbiological study of open, ready-to-eat, prepared salad vegetables from catering or retail premises was undertaken to determine their microbiological quality. The study focused on those salad vegetables that were unwrapped and handled either by staff or customers in the premises where the sample was taken. Examination of salad vegetables from food service areas and customer self-service bars revealed that most (97%; 2,862 of 2,950) were of satisfactory or acceptable microbiological quality, 3% (87) were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality because of Escherichia coli levels in the range of 10(2) to 10(5) colony-forming units per gram. One (<1%) sample was of unacceptable microbiological quality because of the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at 840 colony-forming units per gram. The pathogens E. coli O157, Campylobacter spp., and salmonellas were not detected in any of the samples examined. The display area for most food service and preparation areas (95%) and self-service salad bars (98%) that were visited was judged to be visibly clean by the sampling officer. Most self-service bars (87%) were regularly supervised or inspected by staff during opening hours, and designated serving utensils were used in most salad bars (92%) but in only a minority of food service areas (35%). A hazard analysis system was in place in most (80%) premises, and in 61%, it was documented. Most (90%) managers had received food hygiene training. A direct relationship was shown between increased confidence in the food business management and the presence of food safety procedures and the training of management in food hygiene. PMID:14503709

Sagoo, S K; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

2003-09-01

236

Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children . However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children's and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels

B Elbel; J Gyamfi; R Kersh

2011-01-01

237

The effect of fast-food restaurants on childhood obesity: a school level analysis.  

PubMed

We analyze, using an instrumental variable approach, the effect of the number of fast-food restaurants on school level obesity rates in Arkansas. Using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument, our results suggest that exposure to fast-food restaurants can impact weight outcomes. Specifically, we find that the number of fast-food restaurants within a mile from the school can significantly affect school level obesity rates. PMID:23827821

Alviola, Pedro A; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Thomsen, Michael R; Danforth, Diana; Smartt, James

2014-01-01

238

Culture-specific influences on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women: the roles of faith and traditional fasting.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of local culture on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women. Specifically, we focused on two affiliated factors unique to the Bulgarian context: faith and traditional fasting. Findings revealed that women could be divided into two groups who behaved differently based on the severity of their eating disorder symptomatology. For women with higher EAT-40 scores (i.e., vulnerable women), faith seemed to have harmful effects, perhaps by virtue of motivating or reinforcing asceticism and dietary restraint. For these women fasting was likely but one strategy for weight management and the achievement of a desired thin figure consistent with the socio-cultural models. In contrast, among women with lower EAT-40 scores, faith seemed to have a protective effect against excessive dieting. These women were more likely to use fasting in the way intended by religious scripture, for faith-related reasons that have nothing to do with body image. This study contributes to the literature by emphasizing the importance of culturally unique factors that may be implicated in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and overt eating distress in the trans-cultural context. When expanded, this research can be of use in helping formulate custom interventions and public health policies aimed at preventing such conditions in Bulgaria and possibly in similar post-communist cultures. PMID:23910786

Angelova, Rosa Angelova; Utermohlen, Virginia

2013-08-01

239

Evaluation of immunomagnetic separation in combination with ALOA Listeria chromogenic agar for the isolation and identification of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the ALOA (chromogenic media) in combination with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food products. IMS-ALOA method was found to be equivalent to Health Canada's reference culture method as well as comparable to BAX-PCR method in terms of the sensitivity of the methods for the detection of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods such as turkey roast, beef roast, mixed vegetable salads, potato and egg salad, soft cheese and smoked salmon. The IMS-ALOA method gave 100% sensitivity in the inclusivity tests with 42 pure L. monocytogenes strains. Exclusivity testing with five other species of Listeria genus and 29 pure non-L. monocytogenes strains from 21 different genera showed 97% specificity. The method was able to detect L. monocytogenes at levels near or below 1cfu/25g regulatory limit in ready-to-eat food matrices after 24h enrichment, with a turnaround time of 3days compared to 7-8days for culture method. IMS-ALOA method is a valuable alternate test method for the screening of L. monocytogenes in a variety of foods especially ready-to-eat foods. PMID:20211665

Wadud, Shaila; Leon-Velarde, Carlos G; Larson, Nathan; Odumeru, Joseph A

2010-05-01

240

Food Deserts and Eating Habits of Children Participating in the WIC Program  

E-print Network

have shown, however, that a significant number of children do not consume the recommended amounts of these foods, specifically vegetables and whole grains. Investigators have become increasingly interested in food deserts and whether living...

Jewell, Kassi Kae

2013-08-07

241

Meanings of Food, Eating and Health in Punjabi Families Living in Vancouver, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: South Asians living in western countries have increased risk for developing diet-related chronic disease compared to Caucasians of European heritage. To increase understanding of social and cultural factors associated with their food habits, this study examined the meanings of food, health and well-being embedded in the food practices…

Chapman, Gwen E; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Beagan, Brenda L

2011-01-01

242

What's NOT to eat- Food adulteration in the context of human biology  

PubMed Central

Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant PCBs in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in non-urban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning. PMID:22262531

Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Cook, Katsi

2011-01-01

243

Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Energy, Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content, United States, 1996–2013  

PubMed Central

Introduction Excess intakes of energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat are associated with increased risk for cardiometabolic syndrome. Trends in fast-food restaurant portion sizes can inform policy decisions. We examined the variability of popular food items in 3 fast-food restaurants in the United States by portion size during the past 18 years. Methods Items from 3 national fast-food chains were selected: French fries, cheeseburgers, grilled chicken sandwich, and regular cola. Data on energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content were collated from 1996 through 2013 using an archival website. Time trends were assessed using simple linear regression models, using energy or a nutrient component as the dependent variable and the year as the independent variable. Results For most items, energy content per serving differed among chain restaurants for all menu items (P ? .04); energy content of 56% of items decreased (? range, ?0.1 to ?5.8 kcal) and the content of 44% increased (? range, 0.6–10.6 kcal). For sodium, the content of 18% of the items significantly decreased (? range, ?4.1 to ?24.0 mg) and the content for 33% increased (? range, 1.9–29.6 mg). Absolute differences were modest. The saturated and trans fat content, post-2009, was modest for French fries. In 2013, the energy content of a large-sized bundled meal (cheeseburger, French fries, and regular cola) represented 65% to 80% of a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet, and sodium content represented 63% to 91% of the 2,300-mg-per-day recommendation and 97% to 139% of the 1,500-mg-per-day recommendation. Conclusion Findings suggest that efforts to promote reductions in energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat intakes need to be shifted from emphasizing portion-size labels to additional factors such as total calories, frequency of eating, number of items ordered, menu choices, and energy-containing beverages. PMID:25551184

Urban, Lorien E.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fierstein, Jamie L.; Gary, Christine E.

2014-01-01

244

GS 455534 selectively suppresses binge eating of palatable food and attenuates dopamine release in the accumbens of sugar-bingeing rats.  

PubMed

Binge eating palatable foods has been shown to have behavioral and neurochemical similarities to drug addiction. GS 455534 is a highly selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitor that has been shown to reduce alcohol and cocaine intake in rats. Given the overlaps between binge eating and drug abuse, we examined the effects of GS 455534 on binge eating and subsequent dopamine release. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a sugar (experiment 1) or fat (experiment 2) binge eating diet. After 25 days, GS 455534 was administered at 7.5 and 15 mg/kg by an intraperitoneal injection, and food intake was monitored. In experiment 3, rats with cannulae aimed at the nucleus accumbens shell were maintained on the binge sugar diet for 25 days. Microdialysis was performed, during which GS 455534 15 mg/kg was administered, and sugar was available. Dialysate samples were analyzed to determine extracellular levels of dopamine. In experiment 1, GS 455534 selectively decreased sugar intake food was made available in the Binge Sugar group but not the Ad libitum Sugar group, with no effect on chow intake. In experiment 2, GS 455534 decreased fat intake in the Binge Fat group, but not the Ad libitum Fat group, however, it also reduced chow intake. In experiment 3, GS 455534 attenuated accumbens dopamine release by almost 50% in binge eating rats compared with the vehicle injection. The findings suggest that selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors may have the therapeutic potential to reduce binge eating of palatable foods in clinical populations. PMID:24603339

Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Paredes, Daniel; von Loga, Isabell; Murray, Susan M; Wang, Miaoyuan; Arolfo, Maria P; Yao, Lina; Diamond, Ivan; Avena, Nicole M

2014-04-01

245

Receptivity to Television Fast-Food Restaurant Marketing and Obesity Among U.S. Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768

McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

2013-01-01

246

Evaluation of food handler practices and microbiological status of ready-to-eat foods in long-term care facilities in the Andalusia region of Spain.  

PubMed

Food safety measures in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are being improved by the introduction of quality control management systems during food production and by the implementation of good manufacturing practices. This study was conducted in LTCFs (geriatric homes) in Andalusia, Spain, during 2008 and 2009 to evaluate sanitary conditions and the microbiological quality and safety of salads and cooked meat products served. A regulation-based checklist was applied to the evaluated centers. Samples of ready-to-eat foods (n = 60) were examined for mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), total coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS), Escherichia coli, Listeria spp., and Salmonella. In parallel, food contact surfaces (working tables, cutting boards, sinks, and faucets) were swabbed and analyzed for MAB and Enterobacteriaceae. The air quality in processing rooms, near sinks, and in canteens also was measured through an active air sampling method for MAB and Staphyloccocus spp. The results obtained revealed some deficiencies regarding handling practices and sanitary conditions tested (i.e., use and change of gloves, hand washing, and cleanliness of work surfaces). The microbial safety of foods examined indicated the absence of pathogens. Average levels of coagulase-positive staphylococci were below 10² CFU/g, and prevalence of E. coli was 6.3% in samples collected. Surface counts were higher on cutting boards and faucets, indicating insufficient cleanliness procedures. This study provides a descriptive analysis of the sanitary conditions of food service systems in LTCF, and this information can help risk managers to better define control measures needed to prevent foodborne infections. PMID:21902920

Rodríguez, M; Valero, A; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Carrasco, E; Zurera, G

2011-09-01

247

Television advertising and branding. Effects on eating behaviour and food preferences in children.  

PubMed

Television provides one of the first, and most intimate, experiences of commercial food promotion. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the effects of television advertising on children's brand preferences are well established. However, its effect on actual food intake and the food choices in children of various weight statuses has only recently been characterised. Despite regulation, children in the UK are exposed to considerable numbers of food adverts on television. These are predominantly for foods high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS), which are marketed to children using promotional characters and themes of fun. Such adverts have been shown to cause significant increases in intake, particularly in overweight and obese children, and enhanced preference for high carbohydrate and high fat foods in children who consume the greatest amounts of televisual media. PMID:22421053

Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

2013-03-01

248

Eating Well and Losing Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools & Resources Stroke More Eating Well and Losing Weight Updated:May 20,2014 Eating the right foods ... risk of future heart problems. Good nutrition and weight control are a crucial part of your treatment ...

249

The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Smoyer-Tomic KE, Spence JC, Raine KD, Amrhein C, Cameron N, Yasenovskiy V, Cutumisu N, Hemphill E, Healy J. The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets.

250

Motivational state modulates the hedonic value of food images differently in men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated visual alimentary alliesthesia in non-fasted (N=369) and fasted participants (N=257) viewing photographs of food. Fasted participants were asked to not eat for 12h before the session. Each participant was shown food and non-food images and rated each image on valence (i.e., pleasantness). The strongest evidence of alliesthesia was found in women. Fasting enhanced the pleasantness of food images

Luke E. Stoeckel; James E. Cox; Edwin W. Cook; Rosalyn E. Weller

2007-01-01

251

Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits following occasionally ingestion of animal tissue (hypothesis 3).

Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

2005-10-01

252

Food security, selection, and healthy eating in a Pacific Community in Auckland New Zealand.  

PubMed

When an infant is brought home to the family, it is often a time of emotional, economic and physical stress due to the extra demands placed on parents. Household food security means "access at all times to enough and nutritionally appropriate food to provide the energy and nutrients needed to maintain an active and healthy life". Questions about food security were asked of 1376 Pacific Island mothers (as part of the Pacific Island Family Study) approximately six weeks after the birth of their baby. Due to lack of money food sometimes ran out in 39.8% of households and in a further 3.8% food often ran out. Variety of foods was limited by lack of money in 39.3%. Foods that were still bought when money was limited included bread (97%), milk (95%), meat and chicken (91%), vegetables and fruit (83%), rice or pasta (82%), breakfast cereals (69%), fish or shellfish (50%) and biscuits or chips (44%). Alcohol (1%), soft drinks (11%), ice cream (12%) and fruit juice (21%) were the least often bought. Energy density (MJ/kg) and nutrient-density of typical foods limited by lack of money were analysed. Rice, bread and fatty meats provided the most calories per dollar and fruit and vegetables the least. The best protein-value for money was from minced beef, chicken and tinned tuna and the most fibre-rich foods included baked beans and mixed vegetables. Food security is a major problem for Pacific families. The environment of food availability, choice and cost requires attention to help close the health gap. PMID:17704026

Rush, Elaine; Puniani, Naita; Snowling, Neil; Paterson, Janis

2007-01-01

253

Food Culture in the Home Environment: Family Meal Practices and Values Can Support Healthy Eating and Self-Regulation in Young People in Four European Countries.  

PubMed

Background: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. Methods: Young people aged 10-17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13.2 years; 49.1% girls) completed a self-report questionnaire in class, providing information on healthy and unhealthy eating, joint family meals and communal meal values and use of eating-related self-regulation strategies. Results: Path analysis found that family meal culture variables were significantly associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. Conclusions: Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors. Findings extend and link previously separate lines of enquiry by showing how food cultures can play out in the home environment. Importantly, the study contributes novel evidence suggesting that self-regulation is shaped by the home environment and mediates its influence. PMID:25346476

de Wit, John B F; Stok, F Marijn; Smolenski, Derek J; de Ridder, Denise D T; de Vet, Emely; Gaspar, Tania; Johnson, Fiona; Nureeva, Lyliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

2014-10-27

254

Heating and eating: brown adipose tissue thermogenesis precedes food ingestion as part of the ultradian basic rest-activity cycle in rats.  

PubMed

Laboratory rats, throughout the 24 hour day, alternate between behaviorally active and non active episodes that Kleitman called the basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC). We previously demonstrated that brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures and arterial pressure and heart rate increase in an integrated manner during behaviorally active phases. Studies show that eating is preceded by increases in body and brain temperature, but whether eating is integrated into the BRAC has not been investigated. In the present study of chronically instrumented, unrestrained Sprague-Dawley rats, peaks in BAT temperature occurred every 96 ± 7 and 162 ± 16 min (mean ± SE, n=14 rats) in dark and light periods respectively, with no apparent underlying regularity. With food available ad libitum, eating was integrated into the BRAC in a temporally precise manner. Eating occurred only after an increase in BAT temperature, commencing 15 ± 1 min (mean ± SE) after the onset of an increase, with no difference between dark and light phases. There were either no or weak preprandial and postprandial relations between intermeal interval and amount eaten during a given meal. Remarkably, with no food available the rat still disturbed the empty food container 16 ± 1 min (p>0.05 versus ad libitum food) after the onset of increases in BAT temperature, and not at other times. Rather than being triggered by changes in levels of body fuels or other meal-associated factors, in sedentary laboratory rats with ad libitum access to food eating commences as part of the ultradian BRAC, a manifestation of intrinsic brain activity. PMID:22115948

Blessing, William; Mohammed, Mazher; Ootsuka, Youichirou

2012-02-28

255

Market Potential of a Fast-Food Outlet Against Location Based on Customer Traveling Distance Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how best to estimate the market potential of a fast-food outlet based on customer traveling distance profiles. We selected two outlets from a fast-food chain in Hong Kong, one located in a business district, the other in an urban area, as typical demonstrations. According to the hourly sales indices of either outlet, sales can be categorized into

Francis Kit-Nam Leung; Carmen Ka-Man Cheuk

2000-01-01

256

From the Cover: Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in fast food: Signatures of corn and confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We

A. Hope Jahren; Rebecca A. Kraft

2008-01-01

257

College Students' Perceptions of Fast Food Restaurant Menu Items on Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Examining the beliefs about fast food and health, especially the consequences of fast food intake (FFI) on health, among college students will be a crucial factor in turning the tide on current morbidity and mortality statistics. Purpose: This article examines the results of a survey among Midwestern college-aged students about their…

Stockton, Susan; Baker, David

2013-01-01

258

Stimulus-response compatibility tests of implicit preference for food and body image to identify people at risk for disordered eating: a validation study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to incorporate implicit measures of relevant social cognition into eating disorder research. Fifty-three females diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED), and 41 at-risk females were recruited via ED support websites, along with 23 healthy females for comparison. Computerised online tests assessing subconscious normative ideal body image (IBI-BIAT) and personalised self-identification body image (PBI-BIAT) associations and food preferences (FP-AAT) were administered, followed by the modified version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Anthropometric data, age, need for social approval, self-reported measures of self-esteem, normative perception and body image satisfaction were recorded. Self-reported diagnosed ED status was corroborated with BMI and EDE-Q. Diagnostic performance of the implicit measures was assessed with ROC analysis. Those diagnosed with ED showed significantly stronger automatic preferences for and self-identification with thin body image, compared to healthy females, but no differences were found in food preferences. The IBI-BIAT showed better diagnostic power than PBI-BIAT, correctly classifying 87% of the diagnosed participants. No correlation was found between IBI-BIAT and the explicit measures. The results suggest that the underlying subconscious social cognitive factors of pathological eating are linked to body image, not to food items per se. PMID:25464068

Khan, Saira; Petróczi, Andrea

2015-01-01

259

Fast Food and Animal Rights: An Examination and Assessment of the Industry's Response to Social Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTFast food chains such as McDonald's, KFC, and Burger King are major players in the production, marketing, and consumption of animal-derived food throughout the world. Animal rights activists are quick to point out the link between the highly efficient factory farms that supply these chains and extreme animal cruelty and environmental degradation. Strategically, fast food is well positioned to leverage

RONALD J. ADAMS

2008-01-01

260

Eating Better on a Budget: 10 Tips to Help You Stretch Your Food Dollars  

MedlinePLUS

... for a less expensive protein food. For vegetables, buy carrots, greens, or potatoes. As for fruits, apples ... make a list for what you need to buy. get the best price Check the local newspaper, ...

261

Emotions in overweight and normal-weight women immediately after eating foods differing in energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediate effects of low-, medium-, and high-energy foods on the emotional state of normal-weight and overweight women were studied experimentally. Nineteen normal-weight (body mass index [BMI]: 19–25 kg\\/m2) and 19 overweight women (BMI: 26–40 kg\\/m2) aged 18–40 years received samples of food that differed in energy content (low vs. medium vs. high energy) and rated their emotional state immediately after

Michael Macht; Jutta Gerer; Heiner Ellgring

2003-01-01

262

Virulent Bacteriophage for Efficient Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-To-Eat Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-borne Listeria monocytogenes is a serious threat to human health, and new strategies to combat this opportunistic pathogen in foods are needed. Bacteriophages are natural enemies of bacteria and are suitable candidates for the environmentally friendly biocontrol of these pathogens. In a comprehensive set of experi- ments, we have evaluated the virulent, broad-host-range phages A511 and P100 for control of

Susanne Guenther; Dominique Huwyler; Simon Richard; Martin J. Loessner

2009-01-01

263

The Value of Indirect Measures for Assessing Food Preferences in Abnormal Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Indirect measures have been used for the assessment of food preferences. These measures are indirect in the sense that the\\u000a researcher does not ask a participant directly for his food preference, but derives his preference from a behavior. Typically,\\u000a the affective priming paradigm and the Implicit Association Test have been used. The relevant processes in these paradigms\\u000a are relatively automatic.

A. Roefs; M. Q. Werrij; F. T. Y. Smulders; A. Jansen

2006-01-01

264

Food insecurity with past experience of restrained eating is a recipe for increased gestational weight gain.  

PubMed

Food insecurity is linked to higher weight gain in pregnancy, as is dietary restraint. We hypothesized that pregnant women exposed to marginal food insecurity, and who reported dietary restraint before pregnancy, will paradoxically show the greatest weight gain. Weight outcomes were defined as total kilograms, observed-to-recommended weight gain ratio, and categorized as adequate, inadequate or excessive weight gain based on 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A likelihood ratio test assessed the interaction between marginal food insecurity and dietary restraint and found significant. Adjusted multivariate regression and multinomial logistic models were used to estimate weight gain outcomes. In adjusted models stratified by dietary restraint, marginal insecurity and low restraint was significantly associated with lower weight gain and weight gain ratio compared to food secure and low restraint. Conversely, marginal insecurity and high restraint was significantly associated with higher weight gain and weight gain ratio compared to food secure and high restraint. Marginal insecurity with high restraint was significantly associated with excessive weight gain. Models were consistent when restricted to low-income women and full-term deliveries. In the presence of marginal food insecurity, women who struggle with weight and dieting issues may be at risk for excessive weight gain. PMID:23402720

Laraia, Barbara; Epel, Elissa; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

2013-06-01

265

Tips to Help You Eat Whole Grains  

MedlinePLUS

Tips to Help You Eat Whole Grains At Meals: To eat more whole grains, substitute a whole-grain product for a ... on the front of the food label can help you identify foods that contain less salt (or ...

266

Effect of light intensity on food detection in captive great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).  

PubMed

Bats are known for their well-developed echolocation. However, several experiments focused on the bat visual system have shown evidence of the importance of visual cues under specific luminosity for different aspects of bat biology, including foraging behavior. This study examined the foraging abilities of five female great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus, under different light intensities. Animals were given a series of tasks to test for discrimination between a food target against an inedible background, under light levels similar to the twilight illumination (18lx), the full moon (2lx) and complete darkness (0lx). We found that the bats required a longer time frame to detect targets under a light intensity similar to twilight, possibly due to inhibitory effects present under a more intense light level. Additionally, bats were more efficient at detecting and capturing targets under light conditions similar to the luminosity of a full moon, suggesting that visual cues were important for target discrimination. These results demonstrate that light intensity affects foraging behavior and enables the use of visual cues for food detection in frugivorous bats. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25153795

Gutierrez, Eduardo de A; Pessoa, Valdir F; Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Pessoa, Daniel M A

2014-11-01

267

Re-embodying Eating  

PubMed Central

Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

2014-01-01

268

Cellular respiration We need energy to live, but how do we get it? We eat food and, via the process of respiration, we transfer the energy within this food to energy  

E-print Network

pyruvate ethanol CO2 ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Occurs in cytoplasm Is oxygen available? AEROBIC RESPIRATION is oxidised, takes place in the cytoplasm. It is the first stage of both aerobic and anaerobic respirationCellular respiration We need energy to live, but how do we get it? We eat food and, via the process

Rambaut, Andrew

269

Food prices are associated with dietary quality, fast food consumption, and body mass index among U.S. children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994-1998) for 6759 children (2-9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10-18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals' CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2-9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (? ± SE: -0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (? ± SE: -3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10-18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2-9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2-9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables. PMID:21178080

Beydoun, May A; Powell, Lisa M; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

2011-02-01

270

You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid  

PubMed Central

Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile food quantity on adult reproductive fitness in a hemimetabolous insect. PMID:24130901

Barry, Katherine L.

2013-01-01

271

Ramadan fasting and the goals of sports nutrition around exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramadan fasting, involving abstinence from fluid and food from sunrise to sundown, results in prolonged periods without nutrient intake and inflexibility with the timing of eating and drinking over the day. Dietary choices may also change due to special eating rituals. Although nutrition guidelines are specific to the sport, to the periodized training and competition calendar, and to the individual,

Louise M. Burke; Christine King

2012-01-01

272

Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. OBJECTIVE: To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. METHODS: Data on median household

Philip M Hurvitz; Anne V Moudon; Colin D Rehm; Laura C Streichert; Adam Drewnowski

2009-01-01

273

Food Scarcity, Neuroadaptations, and the Pathogenic Potential of Dieting in an Unnatural Ecology: Binge Eating and Drug Abuse  

PubMed Central

In the laboratory, food restriction has been shown to induce neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitry which are likely to be among those that facilitate survival during periods of food scarcity in the wild. However, the upregulation of mechanisms that promote foraging and reward-related learning may pose a hazard when food restriction is self-imposed in an ecology of abundant appetitive rewards. For example, episodes of loss of control during weight-loss dieting, use of drugs with addictive potential as diet aids, and alternating fasting with alcohol consumption in order to avoid weight gain, may induce synaptic plasticity that increases the risk of enduring maladaptive reward-directed behavior. In the present mini-review, representative basic research findings are outlined which indicate that food restriction alters the function of mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons, potentiates cellular and behavioral responses to D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptor stimulation, and increases stimulus-induced synaptic insertion of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens. Possible mechanistic underpinnings of increased drug reward magnitude, drug-seeking, and binge intake of sucrose in food-restricted animal subjects are discussed and possible implications for human weight-loss dieting are considered. PMID:21530562

Carr, Kenneth D.

2011-01-01

274

The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders  

E-print Network

Review The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders Kent C circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain in obesity or in eating disorders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Obesity Eating Food

Berridge, Kent

275

The United States food supply is not consistent with dietary guidance: evidence from an evaluation using the healthy eating index-2010.  

PubMed

The US food system is primarily an economic enterprise, with far-reaching health, environmental, and social effects. A key data source for evaluating the many effects of the food system, including the overall quality and extent to which it provides the basic elements of a healthful diet, is the Food Availability Data System. The objective of the present study was to update earlier research that evaluated the extent to which the US food supply aligns with the most recent federal dietary guidance, using the current Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and food supply data extending through 2010. The HEI-2010 was applied to 40 years of food supply data (1970-2010) to examine trends in the overall food supply as well as specific components related to a healthy diet, such as fruits and vegetables. The HEI-2010 overall summary score hovered around half of optimal for all years evaluated, with an increase from 48 points in 1970 to 55 points (out of a possible 100 points) in 2010. Fluctuations in scores for most individual components did not lead to sustained trends. Our study continues to demonstrate sizable gaps between federal dietary guidance and the food supply. This disconnect is troublesome within a context of high rates of diet-related chronic diseases among the population and suggests the need for continual monitoring of the quality of the food supply. Moving toward a food system that is more conducive to healthy eating requires consideration of a range of factors that influence food supply and demand. PMID:25441965

Miller, Paige E; Reedy, Jill; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

2015-01-01

276

Eat now, pay later? Evidence of deferred food-processing costs in diving seals.  

PubMed

Seals may delay costly physiological processes (e.g. digestion) that are incompatible with the physiological adjustments to diving until after periods of active foraging. We present unusual profiles of metabolic rate (MR) in grey seals measured during long-term simulation of foraging trips (4-5 days) that provide evidence for this. We measured extremely high MRs (up to almost seven times the baseline levels) and high heart rates during extended surface intervals, where the seals were motionless at the surface. These occurred most often during the night and occurred frequently many hours after the end of feeding bouts. The duration and amount of oxygen consumed above baseline levels during these events was correlated with the amount of food eaten, confirming that these metabolic peaks were related to the processing of food eaten during foraging periods earlier in the day. We suggest that these periods of high MR represent a payback of costs deferred during foraging. PMID:17443975

Sparling, Carol E; Fedak, Mike A; Thompson, Dave

2007-02-22

277

International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods. PMID:22838731

2012-01-01

278

Fast Food Consumption, Quality of Diet, and Obesity among Isfahanian Adolescent Girls.  

PubMed

Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fast food intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fast food consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fast food intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B(1) (P = 0.008), phosphorus (P = 0.0250), selenium (P < 0.001) and vitamin B(2) (P = 0.012) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fast food intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fast foods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P = 0.0001) and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Fast food consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22619703

Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirseifinezhad, Maryam; Omrani, Nasrin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

2012-01-01

279

Inequality in obesigenic environments: fast food density in New York City.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New York City. We found that predominantly Black areas had higher densities of fast food than predominantly White areas; high-income Black areas had similar exposure as low-income Black areas; and national chains were most dense in commercial areas. The results highlight the importance of policy level interventions to address disparities in food environments as a key goal in obesity prevention efforts. PMID:18722151

Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Yau, Chun-Yip; Loh, Ji-Meng; Williams, Donya

2009-03-01

280

Exposure to food advertising on television: Associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey–Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to

Tatiana Andreyeva; Inas Rashad Kelly; Jennifer L. Harris

2011-01-01

281

A Comparison of Company Owned and Franchised Fast Food Outlet Performance: Insights from Health Inspection Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares the performance of franchised and company owned fast food outlets located within the same region in the\\u000a USA. These outlets are inspected by the same team of health inspectors who use a standardized 44 item scale derived from Federal\\u000a Drug Administration guidelines. Analysis of the health inspection scores received by the fast food outlets over approximately\\u000a two

Roy L. Beheler; Seth W. Norton; Kabir C. Sen

282

Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.  

PubMed

A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36?h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS. PMID:25349245

de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

2015-01-01

283

Eating up the world's food web and the human trophic level.  

PubMed

Trophic levels are critical for synthesizing species' diets, depicting energy pathways, understanding food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning, and monitoring ecosystem health. Specifically, trophic levels describe the position of species in a food web, from primary producers to apex predators (range, 1-5). Small differences in trophic level can reflect large differences in diet. Although trophic levels are among the most basic information collected for animals in ecosystems, a human trophic level (HTL) has never been defined. Here, we find a global HTL of 2.21, i.e., the trophic level of anchoveta. This value has increased with time, consistent with the global trend toward diets higher in meat. National HTLs ranging between 2.04 and 2.57 reflect a broad diversity of diet, although cluster analysis of countries with similar dietary trends reveals only five major groups. We find significant links between socio-economic and environmental indicators and global dietary trends. We demonstrate that the HTL is a synthetic index to monitor human diets and provides a baseline to compare diets between countries. PMID:24297882

Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dubroca, Laurent; Le Pape, Olivier; Barde, Julien; Kaplan, David M; Chassot, Emmanuel; Nieblas, Anne-Elise

2013-12-17

284

Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (? = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (? = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

2013-01-01

285

Who Eats What?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is on page 10 (continued on the right side of page 11) of the pdf, part of the Forest Animals Discovery Box. In this game, learners act out the food web. They are introduced to the idea of the food chain in the "Who Eats What" book and then divide into two groups. Learners pretend to be either a bear, deer, or grass and play a game like "Rock, Paper, Scissor" to simulate how the bear eats the deer and the deer eats the grass. Learners compete to "win."

Omsi

2004-01-01

286

Habitat selection according to the ability of animals to eat, digest and detoxify foods.  

PubMed

Large herbivores play a major role in shaping vegetation community dynamics through selective consumption of particular plants and plant communities. An understanding of the factors influencing diet selection at the level of individual bites ('bite scale') is important for prediction of the impact of herbivores on vegetation at the habitat scale. Bite-scale diet selection represents an integration of the twin goals of maximizing nutrient intake and minimizing toxin intake. Recent research with ruminants in pen-fed situations has shown that animals are able to make choices between artificial foods that maximize growth and other production variables. The role of post-ingestive feedback as an important mechanism for allowing animals to assess the nutritional quality of particular foods, and so select optimal diets, has been recognized in a number of recent experiments. Our understanding of the role of toxin intake minimization in diet selection decisions is more rudimentary. An important advance in the last decade has been the acknowledgement of the role of post-ingestive feedback and learning as a mechanism for avoidance of dietary toxicity. Further research is required to assess the importance of these processes in relation to free-grazing animals. The extent to which an understanding of bite-scale diet selection can be used to predict habitat utilization is not well understood. At the habitat scale additional factors such as predator avoidance, social constraints, avoidance of parasitism and microclimatic effects have an important influence on foraging decisions. Future research needs to focus on developing a quantitative understanding of such decisions at the habitat scale. PMID:10817146

Duncan, A J; Gordon, I J

1999-11-01

287

Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey

Brian Elbel

2011-01-01

288

Fast Food Consumption and Gestational Diabetes Incidence in the SUN Project  

PubMed Central

Background Gestational diabetes prevalence is increasing, mostly because obesity among women of reproductive age is continuously escalating. We aimed to investigate the incidence of gestational diabetes according to the consumption of fast food in a cohort of university graduates. Methods The prospective dynamic “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) cohort included data of 3,048 women initially free of diabetes or previous gestational diabetes who reported at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and March 2011. Fast food consumption was assessed through a validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fast food was defined as the consumption of hamburgers, sausages, and pizza. Three categories of fast food were established: low (0–3 servings/month), intermediate (>3 servings/month and ?2 servings/week) and high (>2 servings/week). Non-conditional logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. Results We identified 159 incident cases of gestational diabetes during follow-up. After adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, total energy intake, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease/hypertension at baseline, parity, adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern, alcohol intake, fiber intake, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption, fast food consumption was significantly associated with a higher risk of incident gestational diabetes, with multivariate adjusted OR of 1.31 (95% conficence interval [CI]:0.81–2.13) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.13–3.06) for the intermediate and high categories, respectively, versus the lowest category of baseline fast food consumption (p for linear trend: 0.007). Conclusion Our results suggest that pre-pregnancy higher consumption of fast food is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes. PMID:25215961

Dominguez, Ligia J.; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Gea, Alfredo; Barbagallo, Mario; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

2014-01-01

289

Documentary on Fast Food Sparks Both Criticism and Intrigue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Morgan Spurlock's recent documentary and extended nutrition experiment has garnered great attention, both in the United States and abroad. By now, most people know that the documentary consists of him making his way to McDonalds and eating there several times a day for 30 days in a row. Since its release, the film has also done quite well, as it passed the 200-screen week this past week, and has already grossed over $6 million. Things continue to look positive for Spurlock as he has recently signed a tentative book deal, and has also just signed a deal to create a one-hour reality television show. All is not completely tranquil, as a number of critics and other pundits have begun to embark on their own separate projects that emphasize personal responsibility when it comes to eating habits and such matters. One such critic is Soso Whaley, an animal trainer based in Washington, DC, who is making her own documentary where she also eats at McDonald's for thirty days. The twist is that she eats the healthier options available on their menu, and as a result loses weight and her cholesterol also drops significantly. She plans to enter her film in the Sundance Film Festival as well, thereby keeping the ball rolling on the whole debate for at least another year.The first link leads to a good piece in the Guardian that talks both about the film itself and the interesting response from a number of parties, including critics of Mr. Spurlock's message and methods. The second link offers a recent interview transcript with Mr. Spurlock that includes answers to such thorny questions as: What book are you currently reading?. The third link will take visitors to the site that provides information on the documentary being made by Soso Whaley that attempts to debunk Spurlock's work. The fourth link leads to one conservative thinktank's webpage that attempts to address some of the inherent scientific problems with Spurlock's work. The fifth link (which is probably the most fun) is the link to the Super Size Me homepage, where visitors can view a trailer for the film and view stills from the movie. The sixth and final link leads to a listing of America's "fattest and fittest" cities for the year 2004, provided by Men's Health magazine. The "fattest" city, as determined by the survey, is Detroit, while the "fittest" happens to be Honolulu. [KMG

290

The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97?g/100?g; p?food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1?g/100?g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

2014-12-01

291

To eat or not to eat: the effect of AICAR on food intake regulation in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).  

PubMed

Mammals that hibernate (hibernators) exhibit a circannual rhythm of food intake and body mass. In the laboratory during the winter hibernation period, many hibernators enter a series of multi-day torpor bouts, dropping their body temperature to near ambient, and cease to feed even if food is present in their cage. The mechanism(s) that regulates food intake in hibernators is unclear. Recently, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to play a key role in the central regulation of food intake in mammals. We hypothesized that infusing an AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1 B-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into the third ventricle of the hypothalamus would stimulate yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to feed during their hibernation season. Infusion of AICAR ICV into marmots at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in food intake. In addition, animals stimulated to feed did not enter torpor during the infusion period. Marmots ICV infused with saline did not increase food intake and these animals continued to undergo torpor at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. Our results suggest that AICAR stimulated the food intake pathway, presumably by activating AMPK. These results support the hypothesis that AMPK may be involved in regulating food intake in hibernators and that there may be common neural pathways involved in regulating feeding and eliciting torpor. PMID:20511516

Florant, Gregory L; Fenn, Ashley M; Healy, Jessica E; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Handa, Robert J

2010-06-15

292

To eat or not to eat: the effect of AICAR on food intake regulation in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)  

PubMed Central

Mammals that hibernate (hibernators) exhibit a circannual rhythm of food intake and body mass. In the laboratory during the winter hibernation period, many hibernators enter a series of multi-day torpor bouts, dropping their body temperature to near ambient, and cease to feed even if food is present in their cage. The mechanism(s) that regulates food intake in hibernators is unclear. Recently, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to play a key role in the central regulation of food intake in mammals. We hypothesized that infusing an AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1 B-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into the third ventricle of the hypothalamus would stimulate yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to feed during their hibernation season. Infusion of AICAR ICV into marmots at an ambient temperature of 22°C caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in food intake. In addition, animals stimulated to feed did not enter torpor during the infusion period. Marmots ICV infused with saline did not increase food intake and these animals continued to undergo torpor at an ambient temperature of 22°C. Our results suggest that AICAR stimulated the food intake pathway, presumably by activating AMPK. These results support the hypothesis that AMPK may be involved in regulating food intake in hibernators and that there may be common neural pathways involved in regulating feeding and eliciting torpor. PMID:20511516

Florant, Gregory L.; Fenn, Ashley M.; Healy, Jessica E.; Wilkerson, Gregory K.; Handa, Robert J.

2010-01-01

293

Occurrence of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ready-to-eat food from supermarkets in Argentina.  

PubMed

Between June 2000 and December 2001, 500 food samples were collected from supermarkets and shops selling ready-to-eat food in Rosario, Argentina, and examined for Escherichia coli. Forty-nine E. coli isolates from food samples were further characterized for virulence genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the stx1, stx2, stx2e, eaeA, CNF1, CNF2, Einv, LTI, STI, and STII genes in four groups. Out of 49 E. coli isolates screened by multiplex PCR, only 10 possessed Shiga toxin genes, stx1 and stx2 genes and none possessed the other genes. The Shiga toxin positive E. coli strains (STEC) were isolated from soft, cottage cheeses, chicken with sauce and vegetables mayonase. These E. coli isolates were serogrouped and belonged to O18 (two strains), O8, O57w, O79, O44, and O128; three strains were untypeable. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI generated a unique profile for each, having 10-15 bands ranging from 50 to 500 kb, except that strain ARG 20 generated small bands and was partly degraded. These strains are potential foodborne pathogens and their presence in ready-to-eat food illustrates the need to keep a careful watch for the source of pathogens and then develop methods to control them. PMID:16943019

Balagué, Claudia; Khan, Ashraf A; Fernandez, Luisa; Redolfi, Ana Lía; Aquili, Virginia; Voltattorni, Patricia; Hofer, Claudio; Ebner, Guillermo; Dueñas, Susana; Cerniglia, Carl E

2006-05-01

294

Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat foods and ready-to-bake frozen pastries from university canteens.  

PubMed

During a 10-year inspection survey (2001-2010), a microbiological study of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and ready-to-bake frozen pastries from 15 canteens of the university campus was undertaken to determine their microbiological quality. The cumulative study revealed that the aerobic colony counts for the RTE product groups were as follows: from 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/g for 50% of sandwiches; under the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) for 88.6% of oven baked pastries; <10(5) CFU/g for 86.5% of desserts oven baked; from 10(3) to 10(9) CFU/g for desserts with dairy cream. The highest mean Enterobacteriaceae counts were recorded for desserts with dairy cream. The highest percentages of foodborne pathogens were: 20% Listeria monocytogenes and 12.5% Staphylococcus aureus in desserts with dairy cream; 17.5% Salmonella spp. and 8.5% presumptive Escherichia coli O157 in sandwiches; 14.6% Bacillus cereus in oven baked pastries. Aerobic colony counts were in the range 10(7)-10(8) CFU/g for 48.8% of frozen pastries; whereas Enterobacteriaceae counts between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/g were detected in 35.3%. Foodborne pathogens prevalences for frozen pastries were as follows: B. cereus, 31.8%; Salmonella spp., 28.6%; presumptive E. coli O157, 25%; S. aureus, 8.7%; L. monocytogenes, 8.7%. Improved sanitary conditions in the processing plants and precautionary measures are necessary for consumer protection. PMID:23541200

Kotzekidou, Parthena

2013-06-01

295

The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction  

PubMed Central

Background: Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Methods: Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. Results: We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). Interpretation: The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health. PMID:22508978

Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

2012-01-01

296

[Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians during fasting at Ramadan].  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of fasting during Ramadan on nutritional intake and plasma lipoproteins in 20 healthy adults of normal weight. A 5-day food questionnaire was completed for every participant. Clinical investigations, anthropometrical measurements and laboratory analysis were also undertaken. Body weight, blood pressure and blood glucose were not influenced by fasting but there were non-significant modifications in the plasma lipid fractions. The total cholesterol remained unchanged. Total daily energy intake was comparable before, during and after Ramadan despite the decrease in meal frequency during fasting. Thus fasting in Ramadan did not affect dietary intake, clinical, anthropometrical and most biological parameters. PMID:15603043

Beltaifa, L; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C; Jabrane, H; El-Khadhi, A; Ben Rayana, M C; Doghri, T

2002-01-01

297

Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy...

298

Subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from retail ready-to-eat foods, processing plants and listeriosis patients in Sweden 2010.  

PubMed

Identification and prioritisation of food safety interventions requires an understanding of the relationship between food, pathogens and cases. Such understanding can be gained through different approaches, e.g. microbial subtyping to attribute cases of foodborne disease to food vehicles or other sources of illness. In this study, Listeria monocytogenes isolates (n=166) from (i) three categories of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, (ii) food processing plant environments, and (iii) human listeriosis cases, all sampled during 2010 in Sweden, were subtyped. In addition, 121 isolates from human listeriosis cases, collected 2005-2009, were subtyped. Subtyping consisted of both serotyping (conventional method and PCR) and genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serotype 1/2a dominated in all three groups of isolates (range 73-96%). Eighteen percent of the human isolates (2010) belonged to serotype 4b, but only 1.4% of the food isolates. The food isolates differentiated into 19 pulsotypes (ID=0.843), the human isolates collected 2010 into 31 pulsotypes (ID=0.950) and the processing plant isolates into 22 pulsotypes (ID=0.991). Six of the pulsotypes were shared between the food and human isolates. These pulsotypes comprised 42% of the human isolates and 59% of the food isolates. For some processing plants, there was suggested persistence of one or more specific L. monocytogenes strains, as indicated by repetitive isolation of the same pulsotype from food. This study indicated the presence of L. monocytogenes in the processing plant environment as a likely source of contamination of gravad and cold-smoked fish, and this food category as an important source of human exposure to the pathogen. PMID:23911759

Lambertz, S Thisted; Ivarsson, S; Lopez-Valladares, G; Sidstedt, M; Lindqvist, R

2013-08-16

299

Fries or a fruit bag? Investigating the nutritional composition of fast food children's meals.  

PubMed

The impact of children's fast food meals on their daily nutritional requirements has not been assessed in Australia. Analysis of the nutritional composition of children's meals from six fast food chains was conducted. The energy, saturated fat, sugar and sodium content of all children's meals from the chains were assessed against the fast food industry-defined nutrient criteria for healthy meals and children's recommended daily nutritional requirements, as defined by the Nutrient Reference Values and the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia. Overall children's fast food meals are high in saturated fat, sugar and sodium. Only 16% and 22% of meals met the industry's nutrient criteria for children aged 4-8 and 9-13 years, respectively. Seventy-two percent of fast food meals exceeded 30% of the daily energy recommendations for 4 year old children, and 90% of meals exceeded 30% of the upper limit for sodium for children aged 4-8. Some meals also exceeded the upper limit for sodium and daily saturated fat recommendations for children aged 4-8 years. Reformulation of children's meals to improve their nutritional composition and revision of the industry's nutrient criteria to align with children's dietary requirements are urgently needed. PMID:22001747

Wellard, Lyndal; Glasson, Colleen; Chapman, Kathy

2012-02-01

300

Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.  

PubMed

A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

2013-09-01

301

Development and Reliability Testing of a Fast-Food Restaurant Observation Form.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To develop a reliable observational data collection instrument to measure characteristics of the fast-food restaurant environment likely to influence consumer behaviors, including product availability, pricing, and promotion. Design . The study used observational data collection. Setting . Restaurants were in the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area. Subjects . A total of 131 chain fast-food restaurant outlets were included. Measures . Interrater reliability was measured for product availability, pricing, and promotion measures on a fast-food restaurant observational data collection instrument. Analysis . Analysis was done with Cohen's ? coefficient and proportion of overall agreement for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables. Results . Interrater reliability, as measured by average ? coefficient, was .79 for menu characteristics, .84 for kids' menu characteristics, .92 for food availability and sizes, .85 for beverage availability and sizes, .78 for measures on the availability of nutrition information,.75 for characteristics of exterior advertisements, and .62 and .90 for exterior and interior characteristics measures, respectively. For continuous measures, average ICC was .88 for food pricing measures, .83 for beverage prices, and .65 for counts of exterior advertisements. Conclusion . Over 85% of measures demonstrated substantial or almost perfect agreement. Although some measures required revision or protocol clarification, results from this study suggest that the instrument may be used to reliably measure the fast-food restaurant environment. PMID:24819996

Rimkus, Leah; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Powell, Lisa M; Zenk, Shannon N; Quinn, Christopher M; Barker, Dianne C; Pugach, Oksana; Resnick, Elissa A; Chaloupka, Frank J

2014-05-12

302

Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics  

PubMed Central

A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

2013-01-01

303

An important part of a healthy diet is eating fiber-rich foods. This handout will explain what fiber is, where it's found, and how to increase the amount of fiber in your diet.  

E-print Network

Fiber An important part of a healthy diet is eating fiber-rich foods. This handout will explain what fiber is, where it's found, and how to increase the amount of fiber in your diet. What is fiber, barley and rolled oats and oat bran are good foods to add to a low cholesterol diet, and can help people

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

304

Foodborne Pathogens Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Foods from Roadside Cafeterias and Retail Outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections. PMID:23066386

Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Odjadjare, Collins E.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.

2012-01-01

305

Current Status of Antibiograms of Listeria ivanovii and Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from Ready-To-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of 51 Listeria ivanovii and 33 Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Isolates were identified using standard microbiological tests and further confirmed using API 20E and API Listeria kits. The disc diffusion technique was used to screen for antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobials; minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics was determined by the broth dilution method. All the strains of E. cloacae (100%) and 96% of L. ivanovii isolates were resistant to at least four or more of the antibiotics; nineteen antibiotypes were obtained based on the antibiotics used in the study. Antibiotype A5: AR PGR VAR ER APR was predominant in both L. ivanovii (23.5%) and E. cloacae (57.5%) isolates. Marked susceptibility of Listeriaivanovii was observed against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (100%) each while E. cloacae registered 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin only. Various percentages of susceptibility was reported to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (91%) each, nalidixic acid (97%) and streptomycin (94%). The MIC90 ranged from 0.004–7.5 µg/mL with E. cloacae being the most susceptible organism. The study demonstrated the presence of multi-resistant strains of bacteria in ready-to-eat-foods and speculates that these foods could serve as important vehicles transmitting multi-resistant bacteria to humans. PMID:23202673

Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.

2012-01-01

306

Current status of antibiograms of Listeria ivanovii and Enterobacter cloacae isolated from ready-to-eat foods in Alice, South Africa.  

PubMed

This study assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of 51 Listeria ivanovii and 33 Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Isolates were identified using standard microbiological tests and further confirmed using API 20E and API Listeria kits. The disc diffusion technique was used to screen for antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobials; minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics was determined by the broth dilution method. All the strains of E. cloacae (100%) and 96% of L. ivanovii isolates were resistant to at least four or more of the antibiotics; nineteen antibiotypes were obtained based on the antibiotics used in the study. Antibiotype A5: AR PGR VAR ER APR was predominant in both L. ivanovii (23.5%) and E. cloacae (57.5%) isolates. Marked susceptibility of Listeria ivanovii was observed against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (100%) each while E. cloacae registered 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin only. Various percentages of susceptibility was reported to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (91%) each, nalidixic acid (97%) and streptomycin (94%). The MIC(90 )ranged from 0.004-7.5 µg/mL( )with E. cloacae being the most susceptible organism. The study demonstrated the presence of multi-resistant strains of bacteria in ready-to-eat-foods and speculates that these foods could serve as important vehicles transmitting multi-resistant bacteria to humans. PMID:23202673

Nyenje, Mirriam E; Tanih, Nicoline F; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N

2012-09-01

307

Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies  

PubMed Central

Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to examine the effects of two promising approaches - skill-building and price reductions - on diet amongst women. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN39432901 PMID:21936957

2011-01-01

308

Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

Spearing, Melissa

309

Food sustainability education as a route to healthier eating: evaluation of a multi-component school programme in English primary schools.  

PubMed

Promising approaches to the promotion of healthier eating among children in primary school settings include the opportunity to practise practical cooking and growing, promoting the take up of healthier school meals and nutritional education. However, less is known about the potential for strategies that integrate approaches through a focus on food sustainability issues--such as the promotion of awareness about local, seasonal, organic, fair trade and higher animal welfare foods. This paper presents an evaluation of the Food for Life Partnership, a multi-component programme that sought to address both the health and sustainability aspects of food. The study consisted of a two-stage cross-sectional survey of Years 5 and 6 students (ages 9-11) in 30 primary schools at enrolment and after 18-24 months, combined with an analysis of programme delivery. Higher self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption in the second stage survey was associated with a range of indicators of school participation in the programme. These included the reform of school meal procurement and preparation; experiential food growing, cooking and farm-based education and improved opportunities for stakeholder engagement. The study therefore develops a case for multilevel programmes that incorporate sustainability issues alongside experiential food education in primary school settings. PMID:22355199

Jones, M; Dailami, N; Weitkamp, E; Salmon, D; Kimberlee, R; Morley, A; Orme, J

2012-06-01

310

Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake. PMID:25621284

Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

2014-01-01

311

Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. PMID:22019449

Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

2012-02-01

312

Nutrient content of products served by leading Australian fast food chains.  

PubMed

With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared to currently accepted criteria for healthy foods. The majority of fast food products did not meet criteria for healthy options. Breakfast items had the highest mean sugar content (7.8 g/100 g) and saturated fat (5.5 g/100 g), and chicken items the highest total fat (13.2 g/100 g) and sodium (586 mg/100 g). There was marked variation in nutrient levels between similar products. There was a 10-fold variation in the total fat, saturated fat and sugar content of sandwiches, an 8-fold variation in saturated fat in burgers and >20-fold variation in the sugar and total fat content of salads. Differences were even greater per serve. The considerable variation in the nutrient content of comparable products suggests significant potential for reformulation. Even small improvements in composition could produce important health gains if implemented across all product categories by all companies in unison. PMID:20816711

Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqui; Barzi, Federica; Neal, Bruce

2010-12-01

313

Multicultural Student Perceptions of Fast Food Restaurant Brands: An Australian Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian food-services business is worth an estimated AUD$24 billion, of which the fast-food industry is one of the fastest-growing segments. The industry is dominated by a number of fiercely competitive multinational chains, and price is a common strategy to increase market share. However, in view of changing customer expectations and the growing multicultural market, the industry is becoming aware

Tajulurrus Mohammad; Sunita Barker; Jay Kandampully

2005-01-01

314

Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors  

PubMed Central

Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R2 around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.19, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that behavioral intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P < 0.01) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.56, P < 0.001). Attitude toward fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control. PMID:21556232

Seo, Hyun-sun; Nam, Soyoung

2011-01-01

315

Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA  

PubMed Central

Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979

Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

2009-01-01

316

Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... your food safer to eat. Salmonella is a bacteria and a common cause of foodborne illness, sometimes ... more common in the summer . Warmer weather gives bacteria more opportunity to contaminate food. When eating outdoors ...

317

Bryan: Preeminent Food Safety Champion Most of us have experienced nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea after eating  

E-print Network

Bryan: Preeminent Food Safety Champion 6/16/2008 Most of us have experienced nausea, vomiting and for another two decades as a food safety consultant to the food industry, universities, states, and to the WHO of this branch came from Dr. Bryan. Environmental factors in food safety were not a niche CDC had filled

318

Physiological responses to food deprivation in the house sparrow, a species not adapted to prolonged fasting.  

PubMed

Many wild birds fast during reproduction, molting, migration, or because of limited food availability. Species that are adapted to fasting sequentially oxidize endogenous fuels in three discrete phases. We hypothesized that species not adapted to long fasts have truncated, but otherwise similar, phases of fasting, sequential changes in fuel oxidization, and similar changes in blood metabolites to fasting-adapted species. We tested salient predictions in house sparrows (Passer domesticus biblicus), a subspecies that is unable to tolerate more than ~32 h of fasting. Our main hypothesis was that fasting sparrows sequentially oxidize substrates in the order carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. We dosed 24 house sparrows with [(13)C]glucose, palmitic acid, or glycine and measured (13)CO(2) in their breath while they fasted for 24 h. To ascertain whether blood metabolite levels reflect fasting-induced changes in metabolic fuels, we also measured glucose, triacylglycerides, and ?-hydroxybutyrate in the birds' blood. The results of both breath (13)CO(2) and plasma metabolite analyses did not support our hypothesis; i.e., that sparrows have the same metabolic responses characteristic of fasting-adapted species, but on a shorter time scale. Contrary to our main prediction, we found that recently assimilated (13)C-tracers were oxidized continuously in different patterns with no definite peaks corresponding to the three phases of fasting and also that changes in plasma metabolite levels accurately tracked the changes found by breath analysis. Notably, the rate of recently assimilated [(13)C]glycine oxidization was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that of the other metabolic tracers at all postdosing intervals. We conclude that the inability of house sparrows to fast for longer than 32 h is likely related to their inability to accrue large lipid stores, separately oxidize different fuels, and/or spare protein during fasting. PMID:22785424

Khalilieh, Anton; McCue, Marshall D; Pinshow, Berry

2012-09-01

319

Do Fast-Food Chains Price Discriminate on the Race and Income Characteristics of an Area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports tests for differences in prices charged by fast-food restaurants that serve markets with customers of widely divergent incomes and ethnic backgrounds. The data contain detailed prices on items sold at over 400 Burger King, Wendy's, KFC, and Roy Rogers restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania locations. I find significant differences in price based on the race and

Kathryn Graddy

1997-01-01

320

Pricing Decisions in Franchised Chains: A Look at the Restaurant and Fast-Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines empirical issues of pricing and price dispersion within franchised restaurant and fast-food chains. Given the per se illegality of resale price maintenance (RPM) under current U.S. Antitrust laws, and the fact that franchised outlets are independent businesses under the law, franchisors must delegate the power to set prices to franchisees whereas corporate chains can control downstream prices

Francine Lafontaine

1995-01-01

321

Consumer evaluations of fast-food services: a cross-national comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of US fast-food franchises are expanding operations to overseas markets. Critical to the success of these service firms is an understanding of the way consumers in foreign markets evaluate their services. Reports the findings of a study that examined and compared the expectations and perceptions of US customers with those of South Korean clients about an international

Moonkyu Lee; Francis M. Ulgado

1997-01-01

322

VITAMIN K CONTENTS OF MEAT, DAIRY AND FAST FOOD IN THE U.S. DIET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of three forms of vitamin K [phylloquinone, dihydrophylloquinone and menaquinone-4 (MK-4)] in representative samples of meat (n=128), dairy (n=24) and fast foods (n=169) common to the U.S. diet. Chicken, cheddar cheese, and egg yolks contained ...

323

Competition is key when it comes to fast-food outlets.  

PubMed

When University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust announced that it was ending its contract with Burger King and not renewing the fast-food outlet's concession at the city's general hospital, patients launched a campaign against the closure (News January 7). PMID:25585764

Burns, Helen

2015-01-14

324

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in fast food: signatures of corn and confinement.  

PubMed

Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We sampled food from McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's chains, purchasing >480 servings of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches and fries within geographically distributed U.S. cities: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Detroit, Boston, and Baltimore. From the entire sample set of beef and chicken, only 12 servings of beef had delta(13)C < -21 per thousand; for these animals only was a food source other than corn possible. We observed remarkably invariant values of delta(15)N in both beef and chicken, reflecting uniform confinement and exposure to heavily fertilized feed for all animals. The delta(13)C value of fries differed significantly among restaurants indicating that the chains used different protocols for deep-frying: Wendy's clearly used only corn oil, whereas McDonald's and Burger King favored other vegetable oils; this differed from ingredient reports. Our results highlighted the overwhelming importance of corn agriculture within virtually every aspect of fast food manufacture. PMID:19001276

Jahren, A Hope; Kraft, Rebecca A

2008-11-18

325

A Multisite Investigation of Binge Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating

Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.

2007-01-01

326

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... get help, and be persistent. Many colleges have treatment programs for these conditions and trained counselors who can relate to people with an eating disorder. They can help the person with an eating ...

327

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

328

Association between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

Some studies have indicated that the consumption of chilli-containing foods can influence iron absorption and affect serum insulin and glucose concentrations, which may help to alleviate diabetes or prediabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric data, and chilli food habit data collected from 8433 adults (aged 18 to 99), in 2009, as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale longitudinal, household-based survey in China. Chilli food habits were assessed using chilli food eating frequencies (no eating, sometimes eating, often eating, and usually eating) and chilli food types (a little bit hot, moderately hot, and very hot). Fasting serum ferritin, insulin, and fasting plasma glucose were also measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Compared with the chilli-eating group, the no eating group had higher HOMA-IR levels for both men and women (P<.05). There were significant differences in HOMA-IR (P<.05) for both men and women and in ferritin (P<.001) for women according to different chilli food types. However, there was no significant difference in the ferritin level and HOMA-IR components for different chilli food eating frequencies in both sex groups. Chilli food habits, especially the different hotness levels of chilli food, were associated with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference. PMID:24479485

Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Cheng

2014-04-01

329

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... to be alone after a meal. Back Continue Treatment for Eating Disorders Fortunately, eating disorders can be treated. People with ... your doctor, or another trusted adult. Remember that eating disorders are very common among teens. Treatment options depend on each person and their families, ...

330

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and cardiovascular diseases. More on binge eating disorder. Treatment Eating disorders clearly illustrate the close links between emotional and ... by these illnesses, it is important that any treatment plan for a person with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder include general ...

331

Toward the Reduction of Population Obesity: Macrolevel Environmental Approaches to the Problems of Food, Eating, and Obesity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors reviewed the evidential basis of three environmental approaches to reducing population obesity: What are the effects of (a) taxing or subsidizing foods, (b) manipulating the ease of food access, and (c) restricting access to certain foods? A narrative review evaluated evidence using National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria.…

Faith, Myles S.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Baskin, Monica L.; Allison, David B.

2007-01-01

332

Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…

Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

2007-01-01

333

Associations of fast food restaurant availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000-2004. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Hickson DA, Diez Roux AV, Smith AE, Tucker KL, Gore LD, Zhang L, Wyatt SB. Associations of fast food restaurant availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000-2004.

334

Coordinated school health program and dietetics professionals: partners in promoting healthful eating.  

PubMed

Although research indicates that school meal programs contribute to improved academic performance and healthier eating behaviors for students who participate, fewer than 60% of students choose the National School Lunch Program or School Breakfast Program. School meal programs have a difficult time competing with foods that are marketed to young people through sophisticated advertising campaigns. Youth's preferences for fast foods, soft drinks, and salty snacks; mixed messages sent by school personnel; school food preparation and serving space limitations; inadequate meal periods; and lack of education standards for school foodservice directors challenge school meal programs as well. A coordinated school health program offers a framework for meeting these challenges and provides children and adolescents with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthful eating. This article identifies challenges facing school foodservice directors in delivering healthful meals and acquaints dietetics professionals with the coordinated school health program to be used as a tool for addressing unhealthful weight gain and promoting healthful eating. PMID:15127066

Gross, Sandra M; Cinelli, Bethann

2004-05-01

335

Out of Balance: Marketing of Soda, Candy, Snacks and Fast Foods Drowns Out Healthful Messages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the best intentions of many public health educators and concerned parents, the obesity problem in the United States continues to grow. A number of organizations have been interested in looking at the role of advertising as a part of this process, and this particular 31-page report on the subject will be of interest to many. Jointly published by the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network and the Consumers Union (the organization which publishes Consumer Reports), the report looks at the rather ubiquitous nature of advertising by the food, beverage, and restaurant industries as compared to the relatively small amount spent on communicating the importance of eating five or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day. The report contains a number of helpful graphs and charts, along with a set of policy recommendations at the conclusion of the report.

2006-01-09

336

Out of Balance: Marketing of Soda, Candy, Snacks and Fast Foods Drowns Out Healthful Messages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the best intentions of many public health educators and concerned parents, the obesity problem in the United States continues to grow. A number of organizations have been interested in looking at the role of advertising as a part of this process, and this particular 31-page report on the subject will be of interest to many. Jointly published by the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network and the Consumers Union (the organization which publishes Consumer Reports), the report looks at the rather ubiquitous nature of advertising by the food, beverage, and restaurant industries as compared to the relatively small amount spent on communicating the importance of eating five or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day. The report contains a number of helpful graphs and charts, along with a set of policy recommendations at the conclusion of the report.

2005-01-01

337

Correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents Findings from Project EAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study aims to identify correlates of fruits and vegetables from within the domains of personal factors (taste preferences, health\\/nutrition attitudes, weight\\/body concerns, and self-efficacy), behavioral factors (meal frequency, fast food intake, and weight control behaviors), and socio-environmental factors (social support for healthy eating, family meal patterns, food security, socio-economic status, and home availability of fruits\\/vegetables). This study further

Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Melanie Wall; Cheryl Perry

338

Eating Right for Kidney Health  

MedlinePLUS

... to your dietitian about how to choose the right combination for you. Animal-protein Foods l Chickenl Fishl Meatl EggslDairy Plant-protein Foods l BeanslNutslGrains Eating Right for Kidney Health 2 STEP 3 Choose foods ...

339

CRF–CRF1 Receptor System in the Central and Basolateral Nuclei of the Amygdala Differentially Mediates Excessive Eating of Palatable Food  

PubMed Central

Highly palatable foods and dieting are major contributing factors for the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. We previously demonstrated that intermittent access to palatable food results in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist-reversible behaviors, which include excessive palatable food intake, hypophagia of regular chow, and anxiety-like behavior. However, the brain areas mediating these effects are still unknown. Male Wistar rats were either fed chow continuously for 7 days/week (Chow/Chow group), or fed chow intermittently 5 days/week, followed by a sucrose, palatable diet 2 days/week (Chow/Palatable group). Following chronic diet alternation, the effects of microinfusing the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 (0, 0.5, 1.5??g/side) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BlA), or the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) were evaluated on excessive intake of the palatable diet, chow hypophagia, and anxiety-like behavior. Furthermore, CRF immunostaining was evaluated in the brain of diet cycled rats. Intra-CeA R121919 blocked both excessive palatable food intake and anxiety-like behavior in Chow/Palatable rats, without affecting chow hypophagia. Conversely, intra-BlA R121919 reduced the chow hypophagia in Chow/Palatable rats, without affecting excessive palatable food intake or anxiety-like behavior. Intra-BNST treatment had no effect. The treatments did not modify the behavior of Chow/Chow rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increased number of CRF-positive cells in CeA—but not in BlA or BNST—of Chow/Palatable rats, during both withdrawal and renewed access to the palatable diet, compared with controls. These results provide functional evidence that the CRF–CRF1 receptor system in CeA and BlA has a differential role in mediating maladaptive behaviors resulting from palatable diet cycling. PMID:23748225

Iemolo, Attilio; Blasio, Angelo; St Cyr, Stephen A; Jiang, Fanny; Rice, Kenner C; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

2013-01-01

340

At-Home and Away-from-Home Eating Patterns Influencing Preadolescents' Intake of Calcium-Rich Food as Perceived by Asian, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore at-home and away-from-home eating patterns influencing Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white preadolescents' intake of calcium-rich food from a parental perspective. Design: Individual semistructured interviews. Setting: Home or community site. Participants: Convenience sample (n = 201) of self-reported Asian (n = 54),…

Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Olson, Beth; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry; Bock, Margaret A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Bruhn, Christine; Goldberg, Dena; Misner, Scottie; Wang, Changzheng; Zaghloul, Sahar

2008-01-01

341

Healthy Eating After 50  

MedlinePLUS

... through your intestines. Should I Cut Back On Salt? The usual way people get sodium is by eating salt. The body needs sodium, but too much can ... contain some sodium, especially those high in protein. Salt is added to many canned and prepared foods. ...

342

Metabolism and Hormonal Regulation Collagen Production in Fasted and Food-Restricted Rats: Response to Duration and Severity of Food Deprivation1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutritionis associated with defects in connective tissue metabolism such as altered growth and wound healing. Because collagen is the major protein in most tissues, we determined the threshold for induction of altered collagen production by partial food restriction in rats. Groups of animals were fasted 2 or 4 d or were fed 20-100% of a predetermined food intake for 4

ROBERT SPANHEIMER; NKO ZLATEV; GUILLERMO ÃœMPIERREZ; MARIO DiGIROLAMO

343

Antagonism of glutamatergic NMDA and mGluR5 receptors decreases consumption of food in baboon model of binge-eating disorder.  

PubMed

Excessive consumption of highly palatable foods may contribute to the development of weight gain. Therefore medications that selectively suppress eating of such foods would be useful in clinical practice. We compared the effects of the glutamatergic antagonists memantine and MTEP to dexfenfluramine in baboons given periodic access to highly palatable food and ad libitum access to a standard chow diet. Three days a week baboons received a sugar-coated candy during the first meal and standard standard-diet chow pellets were available in subsequent meals. All baboons derived a greater amount of energy from the single single-candy meal than from the standard diet across an entire day. Pre-treatment with dexfenfluramine, memantine, and MTEP produced decreases in candy consumption without altering candy-seeking behaviour. At the same time, dexfenfluramine and memantine, but not MTEP, produced a decrease in seeking and consumption of standard chow pellets. Both memantine and MTEP are promising agents for the treatment of obesity. PMID:18573641

Bisaga, Adam; Danysz, Wojciech; Foltin, Richard W

2008-11-01

344

Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: a perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry.  

PubMed

The food industry is the point of final integration of consumer food choices with dietary guidelines. For more than 40 years, nutrition recommendations emphasized reducing dietary intake of animal fats, cholesterol, and protein and increasing intake of cereal grains. The food industry responded by creating a convenient, low cost and diverse food supply that featured fat-free cookies, cholesterol-free margarines, and spaghetti with artificial meat sauce. However, research focused on obesity, aging, and Metabolic Syndrome has demonstrated merits of increased dietary protein and reduced amounts of carbohydrates. Dietary guidelines have changed from a conceptual framework of a daily balance of food groups represented as building blocks in a pyramid designed to encourage consumers to avoid fat, to a plate design that creates a meal approach to nutrition and highlights protein and vegetables and minimizes grain carbohydrates. Coincident with the changing dietary guidelines, consumers are placing higher priority on foods for health and seeking foods with more protein, less sugars and minimal processing that are fresh, natural, and with fewer added ingredients. Individual food companies must adapt to changing nutrition knowledge, dietary guidelines, and consumer priorities. The impact on the food industry will be specific to each company based on their products, culture and capacity to adapt. PMID:24384369

Layman, Donald K

2014-07-01

345

Multi-unit Ownership in Franchising: Evidence from the Fast-Food Industry in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data on all restaurants opened in Texas between 1980 and 1995 by seven large U.S. fast-food chains, we examine the extent of multi-unit ownership among franchisees and analyze how franchisors allocate the ownership of new units. We show that franchisees with nearby units are much more likely to be assigned ownership of a new unit. Further, controlling for distance,

Arturs Kalnins; Francine Lafontaine

2004-01-01

346

Measuring customer satisfaction in the fast food industry: a cross-national approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's ever-increasing globalization of services and brands, service-oriented businesses need to attend to the satisfaction of their customers both domestically and abroad while transcending unique cultural differences from country to country. This study provides a cross-cultural comparison of service satisfaction of fast food establishments in four English-speaking countries. It is based on data collected from customers of five globally-franchised

G. Ronald Gilbert; Cleopatra Veloutsou; Mark M. H. Goode; Luiz Moutinho

2004-01-01

347

Assessment of Obesity, Overweight and Its Association with the Fast Food Consumption in Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat accumulates, which leads to various adverse effects on health, particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which reduce life expectancy and/or increase health problems. Fast food consumption is one of the factors which have been reported as a cause of obesity. Body mass index (BMI) is used to assess obesity and overweight, which can be calculated by using the formula, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres. Aim: This study focused on the relationship of body mass index with fast food consumption, associated soft drink consumption and physical activity. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, SBKS MI and RC, and Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. This study was approved by the ethical review board .One hundred and forty seven medical students from 1st year MBBS course were included in this study. Self-structured questionnaire was used, which contained several data like information on age, height, weight, education level. The formula used for calculating BMI was, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres (Kg/m2). Results: In our study, out of 147 students, a total of 138 students (more than 90%) used to have fast food. Among these, a total of 47 students (34.05%) were pre-obese and obese. Out of 147 students, 87 students (59.18%) were in normal weight range, while 13 (8.84%) students were underweight. Statistical Analysis: Data was compiled in an Excel worksheet and it was analyzed for percentages and proportions. Chi-square and Pearson’s correlation test were also applied wherever they were applicable and Alpha error was set at a 5% level. Conclusion: In our study, a significant relationship was found between BMI and fast food consumption, less physical activity, and intake of soft drinks. PMID:24995170

Purohit, Geetanjali; Nair, Sandhya Pillai; Patel, Bhavita; Rawal, Yash; Shah, R. M.

2014-01-01

348

Hormonal Responses to a Fast-Food Meal Compared with Nutritionally Comparable Meals of Different Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fast food is consumed in large quantities each day. Whether there are differences in the acute metabolic response to these meals as compared to ‘healthy’ meals with similar composition is unknown. Design: Three-way crossover. Methods: Six overweight men were given a standard breakfast at 8:00 a.m. on each of 3 occasions, followed by 1 of 3 lunches at noon.

George A. Bray; Marlene Most; Jennifer Rood; Stephen Redmann; Steven R. Smith

2007-01-01

349

Neural Responsivity to Food Cues in Fasted and Fed States Pre and Post Gastric Bypass Surgery  

PubMed Central

Reductions in mesolimbic responsivity have been noted following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; Ochner et al., 2011a). Given potential for postoperative increases in postprandial gut (satiety) peptides to affect mesolimbic neural responsivity, we hypothesized that: 1) post RYGB changes in mesolimbic responsivity would be greater in the fed relative to the fasted state and; 2) fasted vs. fed state differences in mesolimbic responsivity would be greater post- relative to pre- surgery. fMRI was used to asses neural responsivity to high- and low-calorie food cues in five women 1mo pre- and 1mo post-RYGB. Scans were repeated in fasted and fed states. Significant post RYGB decreases in the insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) responsivity were found in the fasted state. These changes were larger than neural changes in the fed state, which were non-significant. Preoperatively, fasted vs. fed differences in neural responsivity were greater in the precuneus, with large but nonsignificant clusters in the vmPFC and dlPFC. Postoperatively, however, no fasted vs. fed differences in neural responsivity were noted. Results were opposite to that predicted and appear inconsistent with the initial hypothesis that postoperative increases in postprandial gut peptides are the primary driver of postoperative changes in neural responsivity. PMID:22921709

Ochner, Christopher N.; Laferrère, Blandine; Afifi, Ladan; Atalayer, Deniz; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Geliebter, Allan; Teixeira, Julio; Hirsch, Joy

2013-01-01

350

Nonthermal processing technologies to improve the safety of raw meat and poultry products and ready-to-eat foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newly emerging nonthermal and advanced thermal processing technologies are now being adopted by the food processing industry for the purpose of providing safe and high quality food products to consumers. Scientists and engineers at USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center in Wyndmoor, PA are activel...

351

Healthy Eating During Pregnancy: Determinants and Supportive Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of the determinants of healthy eating in pregnancy by synthesizing current research findings and offers strategies to promote healthy eating during pregnancy. This article is guided by the ecological model for health promotion that suggests the determinants of healthy eating as intrapersonal or collective determinants of food choices and public policies that support healthy eating

Eileen R. Fowles; Sarah L. Fowles

2008-01-01

352

Are meals at full-service and fast-food restaurants "normal" or "inferior"?  

PubMed

Whereas some studies show statistically significant linear associations between consumption at full-service restaurants and consumer incomes, studies of fast-food restaurants fail to find statistically significant linear associations. In this study, nationally representative data were drawn from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the accompanying Diet and Health Knowledge Survey. The sample contained 4972 individuals who were 21 years of age or older. Dependent variables measured number of restaurant visits on 2 nonconsecutive days. Income was total annual household income. Control variables reflected sociodemographic, economic, lifestyle, and attitudinal variables. To capture possible curvilinear relationships between income and food consumption, we analyzed frequency distributions, regressions on full samples including income squared, and we divided samples into above- and below-average income groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions accounted for excessive zeros within dependent variables. We found that fast-food restaurants were "normal goods" for below-average income, but "inferior goods" for above-average income, whereas full-service restaurants were "normal" for virtually all income levels. Earlier studies were flawed because they only tested for linear associations. Our results have implications for the poverty and obesity debate. PMID:21827320

Kim, DaeHwan; Leigh, J Paul

2011-12-01

353

Prejudgments of Those Who Eat a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a \\

MICHAEL E. OAKES; CAROLE S. SLOTTERBACK

2004-01-01

354

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eating disorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders\\u000a as one of the nine

Rita DeBate; Heather Blunt; Marion Ann Becker

355

Determinants of intention to leave a non-managerial job in the fast-food industry of West Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine determinants of an intention to quit a job held by non-managerial staff in the Malaysian fast food industry. It examines issues such as job stress and peer groups. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A quantitative analysis of 806 respondents working in international fast food chains was undertaken following an initial semi-structured interview process

Chris Ryan; Hazrina Ghazali; Asad Mohsin

2011-01-01

356

Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake  

PubMed Central

High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient groups such as individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24906381

2014-01-01

357

Nickel levels in convenience and fast foods: in vitro study of the dialyzable fraction.  

PubMed

Nickel presence was determined in 170 samples of 43 different convenience and fast foods widely consumed in Spain. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used as analytical technique. Reliability of the procedure was checked. Ni levels ranged from 18.50 to 95.00 ng g(-1) (fresh weight of edible portion). The most elevated Ni concentrations were found in egg- and pork-based foods and in sauces but there is a high variability inside of each one of these foods. Ni content increases in products that contain spices and aromatic herbs, whole cereals, dry fruits, cheese and mushrooms. Mean Ni dialyzable fraction estimated by in vitro assays ranged from 4.50 to 7.75%. This study shows that the probability of exposure to health risks from these foods is overall small. However, the present findings are of potential use in food composition tables and to estimate the Ni dietary intake and tolerable intake levels in accordance with the current dietary habits. PMID:21295328

Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Mesías, Marta; Bouzas, Paula R

2011-03-15

358

Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

Getty, Morgan

359

Supermarket and Grocery Store–Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. Methods We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category. Results We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence. Conclusion More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed. PMID:23578398

Meinen, Amy M.; Nitzke, Susan A.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

2013-01-01

360

What People Buy From Fast-food Restaurants: Caloric Content and Menu Item Selection, New York City 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast-food restaurants provide a growing share of daily food intake, but little information is available in the public health literature about customer purchases. In order to establish baseline data on mean calorie intake, this study was completed in the Spring of 2007, before calorie labeling regulations went into effect in New York City. Receipts were collected from lunchtime customers, at

Tamara Dumanovsky; Cathy A. Nonas; Christina Y. Huang; Lynn D. Silver; Mary T. Bassett

2009-01-01

361

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.

Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart

2004-01-01

362

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25475289

Chaj?cka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpi?ska, Magda; ?aniewska-Trokenheim, ?ucja

2015-04-01

363

Generational Differences in Fast Food Intake Among South-Asian Americans: Results From a Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States. PMID:25474383

Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E.

2014-01-01

364

PUREED MEAL PLAN (4 WEEKS) IF A FOOD OR BEVERAGE IS NOT ON THIS LIST DO NOT EAT IT  

E-print Network

FAT OR FAT FREE MAYO · MUSTARD · FAT FREE SPRAY BUTTER · SPICES / HERBS #12;HIGH PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT to season foods or spices as tolerated. IMPORTANT TIPS TO REMEMBER · Aim for AT LEAST 60-75 GRAMS of protein

Goldman, Steven A.

365

WHAT WE EAT IN AMERICA, NHANES 2001-2002: USUAL NUTRIENT INTAKES FROM FOOD COMPARED TO DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report presents national estimates of usual nutrient intake distributions from food for 24 nutrients and dietary components and compares those estimates to the Dietary Reference Intakes published by the Institute of Medicine. Data are based on 8,940 individuals ages 1 year and older (excluding...

366

Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better Energize Yourself  

E-print Network

and eat better?............................................ 2 How much physical activity do I need? ................................. 3 How can I handle barriers to becoming more physically active know? Eating healthy foods and staying physically active can help you keep up with the demands of your

Rau, Don C.

367

I Have Braces: How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies?  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Food & Nutrition > I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? Print ...

368

WellBee : mobile therapy for stress-related eating  

E-print Network

Stress has been shown to affect eating behavior which may lead to eating disorders. Stress may also affect health by causing the modification of behaviors such as physical exercise, smoking, or food choices. Thus, ...

Tam, Sharon W

2011-01-01

369

Overweight and obesity: can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction. Consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities. PMID:23719294

Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S; Maroko, Andrew R; Schechter, Clyde B; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Maantay, Juliana

2013-08-01

370

The Use of Force-Field Analysis to Prevent the Intrusion of a Fast-Food Chain on Campus Food Service Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change, whether in an individual's health behavior or in an institutional food service operation, does not have to be haphazard. Kurt Lewin's method of force-field analysis is designed to facilitate change by providing a systematic problem-solving model that can be widely generalized. This model was applied to a campaign opposing the intrusion of a fast-food chain on San Diego State

David A. Sleet; Lois M. Kohn

1979-01-01

371

Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others.  

PubMed

Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure within-subjects design, thirty-seven participants (21 males) visited the laboratory 4 times to eat a buffet-style lunch ad libitum. All eating episodes were filmed. Energy intake (EI) was measured when participants ate alone (A), ate alone while watching TV (B), ate with two same sex strangers (C), and ate with two same sex friends (D) in a counterbalanced order. EI was significantly enhanced by presence of familiar others (D: 4565+/-272 kJ, p < 0.001) and watching TV (B: 4350+/-252 kJ, p < 0.05) compared to baseline (A: 3861+/-200 kJ). Length of eating episode correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with EI, however, amount of time spent eating and looking at food differed by condition with a greater percentage of time focussed on food during baseline (p < 0.001). Eating with friends increased EI by 18% and eating in front of the TV increased EI by 14% relative to baseline. Engaging in conversation or watching TV draws attention away from the eaten food and can stimulate food intake. However, since eating with strangers also drew attention away from food but did not result in increased intake, social facilitation effects are not simply due to distraction. Thus food intake can be enhanced when attention to food and self-monitoring are impaired during distraction, however, this effect is moderated when eating with strangers. PMID:16757007

Hetherington, Marion M; Anderson, Annie S; Norton, Geraldine N M; Newson, Lisa

2006-07-30

372

Investigational drugs for eating disorders.  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are common, significant public health problems which are treated with nutritional, psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions. A number of drugs (mostly antidepressant drugs) are currently used in their treatment to some benefit, but there is substantial room for improvement. A wide variety of compounds are listed as under investigation for the treatment of eating disorders. They have a diverse variety of mechanisms of action, reflecting the complex nature of the control of food intake. While none of these compounds are close to release at present, the diversity of mechanisms under study lend some optimism that more effective approaches will be identified. PMID:12605570

Crow, Scott; Brown, Eric

2003-03-01

373

Eating what you like induces a stronger decrease of ‘wanting’ to eat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human eating behavior may be influenced non-homeostatically by the rewarding value of foods, i.e. ‘liking’ (pleasure\\/palatability) and ‘wanting’ (incentive motivation). The objectives of this study were to validate a computer test for assessment of rewarding value of food, and to assess how rewarding value of food is affected by eating a dessert-specific (chocolate mousse, CM) vs. dessert non-specific, neutral food

Sofie G. T. Lemmens; Paul F. M. Schoffelen; Loek Wouters; Jurriaan M. Born; Mieke J. I. Martens; Femke Rutters; Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga

2009-01-01

374

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... women from developing an eating disorder. Also, specialized treatment of anorexia nervosa may help reduce the risk of death. Treating bulimia nervosa As with anorexia nervosa, treatment for bulimia nervosa often involves a combination of ...

375

Balance Food and Activity  

MedlinePLUS

... Activity Maintain a Healthy Weight for Life Why Obesity Is a Health Problem Eat Right Choosing Foods for Your Family Limit Fat and Sugar Portion Distortion and Serving Size Healthy Eating Plans ...

376

76 FR 38669 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comment Request; Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating Assessment Study (FEAST) (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions...Collection: Title: Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating Assessment...

2011-07-01

377

What people buy from fast-food restaurants: caloric content and menu item selection, New York City 2007.  

PubMed

Fast-food restaurants provide a growing share of daily food intake, but little information is available in the public health literature about customer purchases. In order to establish baseline data on mean calorie intake, this study was completed in the Spring of 2007, before calorie labeling regulations went into effect in New York City. Receipts were collected from lunchtime customers, at randomly selected New York City fast-food chains. A supplementary survey was also administered to clarify receipt items. Calorie information was obtained through company websites and ascribed to purchases. Lunchtime purchases for 7,750 customers averaged 827 calories and were lowest for sandwich chains (734 calories); and highest for chicken chains (931 calories). Overall, one-third of purchases were over 1,000 calories, predominantly from hamburger chains (39%) and chicken chains (48%); sandwich chains were the lowest, with only 20% of purchases over 1,000 calories. "Combination meals" at hamburger chains accounted for 31% of all purchases and averaged over 1,200 calories; side orders accounted for almost one-third of these calories. Lunch meals at these fast-food chains are high in calorie content. Although calorie posting may help to raise awareness of the high calories in fast-food offerings, reducing portion sizes and changing popular combination meals to include lower calorie options could significantly reduce the average calorie content of purchases. PMID:19343015

Dumanovsky, Tamara; Nonas, Cathy A; Huang, Christina Y; Silver, Lynn D; Bassett, Mary T

2009-07-01

378

Electroencephalography in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

379

Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

2014-01-01

380

Eat-by-light: fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food safety and quality assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A selection of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices is presented designed and tested for monitoring the quality and safety of typical foods, namely the extra virgin olive oil, the beer, and the milk. Scattered colorimetry is used for the authentication of various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids that are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma is presented. It is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer is experimented for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk.

Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

2007-07-01

381

Eat-by-light fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food quality and safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A selection is presented of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices that have been designed and tested for guaranteeing the quality and safety of typical foods, such as extra virgin olive oil, beer, and milk. Scattered colorimetry is used to authenticate various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids, which are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma that is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil is also presented. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk, is experimented.

Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Grimaldi, M. F.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

2007-06-01

382

Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

2014-01-01

383

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Project will help you to discover how you're eating, and how that affects your life. You will also use the tools provided to help make healthy eating choices. First, Calculate your Body Mass Index using the BMI Calculator. Then, after exploring the website, answer these questions: 1) What exactly is the BMI? 2) What are two limitations of the BMI Calculator? 3) What is a healthy BMI for YOU (age group height? 4) List 7 other risk factors that can contribute to heart ...

BRobison

2010-12-03

384

All You Can Eat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just what's on that apple, or in that salad or ice cream? Although they are unlikely to be happy with what they find, users can now discover which and how many pesticides are likely to be on the food they eat. Provided by the non-profit Environmental Working Group (EWG), this site allows users to match selections from hundreds of food items with more than 90,000 government lab tests. Visitors to the site have four sections to choose from: Daily Fare, which lets users select a full day's worth of meals and find out what pesticides they ate; Fruit Salad Roulette, which reveals the pesticides in a typical fruit salad or individual piece of fruit; the EWG Supermarket, which allows users to fill a cart and then picks random samples of each food chosen from government data and lists the pesticides; and a Kids Menu, which analyzes the pesticides that a child between the ages of one and five eats in a typical day. In addition, the site offers a selection of chemical and food FAQS and tips for reducing exposure.

1999-01-01

385

Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women  

PubMed Central

Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (?12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (?7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (?22 ±5%), influence of emotions (?27±5%) and external food cues (?30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of ?-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

2013-01-01

386

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders, and binge eating disorder. Genuine awareness will help you avoid judgmental or mistaken attitudes about food

Walker, Matthew P.

387

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders will avoid categorizing foods as either "good" or "bad." I will not associate guilt or shame with eating

Jacobs, Lucia

388

Future food.  

PubMed

Journalists and science fiction writers love to speculate that soon we will not be eating food as we have known it for millennia, but only the encapsulated products of the 'farmaceutical' industry. What nonsense! PMID:11852285

Malcolm, Alan D B

2002-02-01

389

Oligoclonal antibody targeting ghrelin increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake in fasted mice.  

PubMed

Ghrelin, an enteric peptide hormone linked to the pathophysiology of obesity has been a therapeutic target of great interest over the past decade. Many research efforts have focused on the antagonism of ghrelin's endogenous receptor GHSR1a, which is found along ascending vagal afferent fibers, as well as in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Additionally, peptidic inhibitors of ghrelin O-acyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for the paracrine activation of ghrelin, have recently been studied. Our research has taken an alternative immunological approach, studying both active and passive vaccination as a means to sequester ghrelin in the periphery, with the original discovery in rat of decreased feed efficiency and adiposity, as well as increased metabolic activity. Using our previous hapten designs as a stepping-stone, three monoclonal antibodies (JG2, JG3, and JG4) were procured against ghrelin and tested in vivo. While mAb JG4 had the highest affinity for ghrelin, it failed to attenuate the orexigenic effects of food deprivation on energy metabolism or food intake in mice. However, animals that were administered a combination of JG3:JG4 (termed a doublet) or JG2:JG3:JG4 (termed a triplet) demonstrated higher heat dispersion and rate of respiration (higher CO(2) emission and O(2) consumption) during a 24 h fast refeed. Mice administered the triplet cocktail of JG2:JG3:JG4 also demonstrated decreased food intake upon refeeding as compared to control animals. Recently, Lu and colleagues reported that a passive approach using a single, high affinity N-terminally directed monoclonal antibody did not abrogate the effects of endogenous ghrelin. Our current report corroborates this finding, yet, refutes that a monoclonal antibody approach cannot be efficacious. Rather, we find that a multiple monoclonal antibody (oligoclonal) approach can reproduce the underlying logic to previously reported efficacies using active vaccinations. PMID:22149064

Zakhari, Joseph S; Zorrilla, Eric P; Zhou, Bin; Mayorov, Alexander V; Janda, Kim D

2012-02-01

390

Food Scorecard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

391

A Historical Review of Five of the Top Fast Food Restaurant Chains to Determine the Secrets of Their Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this paper is to critically examine five of the top nine US fast food chains to look at their history and to determine what factors have lead to their massive success. The companies that will be analyzed include: McDonald's, Taco Bell, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Domino's Pizza, and Subway. Similarities and differences of these companies are compared

Alex Leon Lichtenberg

2012-01-01

392

The Impact of Advertising Spokesperson of Fast-food Chain Store on Willingness to Buy of Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, first, explores the preference degree of consumers for advertising spokesperson and the advertising effects of spokesperson from the marketing strategy of fast-food chain store and they influence the consumers' willingness to buy. Second, how the gender's difference of spokesperson influences the consumers' willingness to buy is also be investigated. This study finds that it is significantly and highly

Yang Yih Yuan; Wu Yao Chang

393

Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases.Design Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants’ menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly

Tamara Dumanovsky; Christina Y Huang; Cathy A Nonas; Thomas D Matte; Mary T Bassett; Lynn D Silver

2011-01-01

394

Fast Food - the early years: Geography and the growth of a chain-store in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the development of UK outlets of a major fast food chain, from inauguration in 1974 until 1990, after which industry structure changed somewhat. The chain effectively introduced the counter-service burger concept. Locational spread across local authority district markets is explained by the characteristics of the areas where the outlets are sited. Of special interest is the effect of

Michael Waterson; Otto Toivanen

2003-01-01

395

NEWS & VIEWS NATURE|Vol 439|26 January 2006 limited utility. High-fat, fast-food diets can  

E-print Network

NEWS & VIEWS NATURE|Vol 439|26 January 2006 402 limited utility. High-fat, fast-food diets can of active thyroid hormone in fat cells (Fig. 1). Bile acids have been shown to mitigate diet- induced this observation, showing that feeding mice with cholic acid moderates the effects of a high-fat diet. The animals

Shull, Kenneth R.

396

Determinants of Children's Use of and Time Spent in Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Identify parental and children's determinants of children's use of and time spent in fast-food (FF) and full-service (FS) restaurants. Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Parents were interviewed by phone; children were interviewed in their homes. Participants: Parents and children ages 9-11 or 13-15 from 312 families…

McIntosh, Alex; Kubena, Karen S.; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jan, Jie-Sheng; Anding, Jenna

2011-01-01

397

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are serious psychiatric disorders with significant medical and psychological morbidity and mortality. Most research has focused on the psychological and psychosocial risk factors for these disorders; however, recent genetic, neurocognitive, and neurotransmitter studies illustrate the biological underpinnings of these disorders. Treatments have generally focused on psychological interventions as well; however, a range of medications have been studied. Unfortunately,

B. Fleitlich-Bilyk; J. Lock

2008-01-01

398

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat can ... Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video (MP4) Keywords: self-management , healthy eating , National Diabetes ...

399

Editor's Corner: Food for Thought  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food issues often appear in the news and other media. For example, the media regularly address food safety concerns--from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) or "Mad Cow Disease" to Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli) outbreaks. Obesity is another major concern in the United States, and childhood obesity is a growing concern. Eating disorders are prevalent among teenagers, and healthy dietary habits seem ever more difficult in this age of fast-food restaurants and take-out. It is not surprising that teachers have found the science of food to be a rich and interesting topic. In this month's column, the field editor discusses these relevant issues and shares a favorite food-related activity.

Metz, Steve

2004-10-01

400

Dietary correlates of emotional eating in adolescence.  

PubMed

To better understand the relation between emotional eating and dietary choices, dietary correlates of emotional eating were investigated in an adolescent sample. Participants were 617 predominantly Latino middle school students from seven schools in Los Angeles County. Analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that emotional eating was associated with increased frequency of intake of sweet high energy-dense foods, such as cake and ice cream, salty high energy-dense foods like chips, and soda. Gender stratified analyses revealed an association between emotional eating and more frequent fruit and vegetable intake in boys only, and a positive association between emotional eating and salty high energy-dense intake in both boys and girls. These data support previous literature that reports a preference for high energy-dense food in emotional eating, and shows that this association may be generalizable to Latino youth. Considering that emotional eating may lead to overeating because it often takes place in the absence of hunger, it may be appropriate to develop interventions to teach youth healthier substitutions and regulate mood by means other than eating in order to reduce risk for obesity, especially in high risk populations, such as Latinos. PMID:17466408

Nguyen-Michel, Selena T; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

2007-09-01

401

Eating at America's Table Study  

Cancer.gov

Data collection for EATS has been completed. Several analyses have been conducted and results published. Other analyses are ongoing, with investigators examining the validity of reports of foods, the contribution of portion size questions to overall questionnaire validity, and the effects of demographic and social factors on validity.

402

Eat for a Healthy Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... found in some types of fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Check product labels for foods high in potassium (unless you’ve been advised to restrict the amount of potassium you eat). ... beans, vegetables, and whole grains. Feel like getting creative in ...

403

Eating Disorders About eating disorders  

E-print Network

-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes). It is accompanied by feeling of being out of control, guilt and shame. Bulimia also involves being overly concerned with body weight and shape. Binge eating disorder (BED) is a condition that resembles bulimia nervosa

Leistikow, Bruce N.

404

Does disgust enhance eating disorder symptoms?  

PubMed

In the present study, the hypothesized causal relationship between disgust and eating pathology was investigated. Female undergraduates were either assigned to an experimental condition in which feelings of disgust were induced by means of a bad smelling odorant, or to a control condition in which no such disgust manipulation was carried out. Both groups completed questionnaires for measuring various eating disorder-related concepts (i.e., body esteem, restraint eating, and body change strategies). In addition, explicit and implicit preferences for high-caloric food were measured. Results demonstrated that women in the experimental condition did not report lower levels of body esteem, and neither showed higher levels of restraint eating or other body change strategies. Furthermore, they did not display a decreased explicit or implicit preference for high-caloric food. Thus, in the present study no indication for a causal relation between disgust and eating disorder symptoms in young females was found. PMID:18167331

Mayer, Birgit; Bos, Arjan E R; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Vlielander, Martha

2008-01-01

405

Does short-term fasting promote changes in state body image?  

PubMed

Fasting, or going a significant amount of time without food, is a predictor of eating pathology in at-risk samples. The current study examined whether acute changes in body image occur after an episode of fasting in college students. Furthermore, it evaluated whether individual difference variables might inform the relationship between fasting and shifts in body image. Participants (N=186) included male (44.7%) and female college students who completed the Body Image States Scale (BISS) and other eating-related measures before a 24-h fast. Participants completed the BISS again after fasting. While no overall changes in BISS scores emerged during the study, some individuals evidenced body image improvement. Baseline levels of disinhibition and self-reported fasting at least once per week uniquely predicted improvement in body image. Individual difference variables may play a role in how fasting could be reinforced by shifts in body image. PMID:24613037

Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Drew A

2014-03-01

406

Fast-food fights: news coverage of local efforts to improve food environments through land-use regulations, 2000-2013.  

PubMed

Zoning and other land-use policies are a promising but controversial strategy to improve community food environments. To understand how these policies are debated, we searched existing databases and the Internet and analyzed news coverage and legal documentation of efforts to restrict fast-food restaurants in 77 US communities in 2001 to 2013. Policies intended to improve community health were most often proposed in urban, racially diverse communities; policies proposed in small towns or majority-White communities aimed to protect community aesthetics or local businesses. Health-focused policies were subject to more criticism than other policies and were generally less successful. Our findings could inform the work of advocates interested in employing land-use policies to improve the food environment in their own communities. PMID:25602875

Nixon, Laura; Mejia, Pamela; Dorfman, Lori; Cheyne, Andrew; Young, Sandra; Friedman, Lissy C; Gottlieb, Mark A; Wooten, Heather

2015-03-01

407

A New Method to Monitor the Contribution of Fast Food Restaurants to the Diets of US Children  

PubMed Central

Background American adults consume 11.3% of total daily calories from foods and beverages from fast food restaurants. The contribution of different types of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children is unknown. Objective To estimate the consumption of energy, sodium, added sugars, and solid fats among US children ages 4–19 y by fast food restaurant type. Methods Analyses used the first 24-h recall for 12,378 children in the 2003–2010 cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2010). NHANES data identify foods by location of origin, including stores and fast food restaurants (FFR). A novel custom algorithm divided FFRs into 8 segments and assigned meals and snacks to each. These included burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican, Asian, fish, and coffee/snack restaurants. The contribution of each restaurant type to intakes of energy and other dietary constituents was then assessed by age group (4–11 y and 12–19 y) and by race/ethnicity. Results Store-bought foods and beverages provided 64.8% of energy, 61.9% of sodium, 68.9% of added sugars, and 60.1% of solid fats. FFRs provided 14.1% of energy, 15.9% of sodium, 10.4% of added sugars and 17.9% of solid fats. Among FFR segments, burger restaurants provided 6.2% of total energy, 5.8% of sodium, 6.2% of added sugars, and 7.6% of solid fats. Less energy was provided by pizza (3.3%), sandwich (1.4%), Mexican (1.3%), and chicken restaurants (1.2%). Non-Hispanic black children obtained a greater proportion of their total energy (7.4%), sodium (7.1%), and solid fats (9.5%) from burger restaurants as compared to non-Hispanic white children (6.0% of energy, 5.5% of sodium, and 7.3% of solid fat). Conclusions These novel analyses, based on consumption data by fast food market segment, allow public health stakeholders to better monitor the effectiveness of industry efforts to promote healthier menu options. PMID:25062277

Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

2014-01-01

408

The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Results Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12’s. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. Conclusions The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors. PMID:24708863

2014-01-01

409

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Research was conducted to obtain a profile of nutrition therapy currently in practice for patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia\\/bulimia (mixed diagnosis) and to identify the areas of dietetics education and research regarding eating disorders that need more attention.Design A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted by mailing a questionnaire composed of open- and closed-ended questions to US

SHERYL L WHISENANT; BARBARA A SMITH

1995-01-01

410

Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.  

PubMed

Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, p<.001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI: $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains.  PMID:24171876

Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

2013-11-01

411

Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.

2009-10-21

412

Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.  

PubMed

There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopsticks and scissors) on the neuromuscular systems during the observation of food stimuli. We found that eating tools (chopsticks) enhanced the masseter MEPs more greatly than other tools (scissors) during the visual recognition of food, although this covert change in motor excitability was not detectable at the behavioral level. In Experiment 3, we further observed that chopsticks overall increased MEPs more greatly than scissors and this tool-driven increase of MEPs was greater when participants viewed food stimuli than when they viewed non-food stimuli. A joint analysis of the three experiments confirmed a significant impact of eating tools on the masseter MEPs during food recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that eating tools in hand exert a category-specific impact on the neuromuscular system for eating. PMID:24835403

Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakajima, Yasoichi

2014-07-01

413

We Are What We Eat! But Who Controls Our Choice? An Active Learning Project on Food & Nutrition with Activities for Key Stages 1, 2, 3, and 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book is designed to create awareness about all the issues attached to food supply and a healthy diet with factual information. Materials are provided for teachers to teach children about food in its entirety. The nine units include: (1) "Starting Activities: Sorting Foods and Factors Which Control Our Diet"; (2) "Food Likes and…

Jarvis, Heather

414

Super-size me: Portion size effects on young children's eating  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large portions of energy-dense foods are believed to favor obesity-promoting eating behaviors in young children. The following review presents evidence on food portion size effects on children's eating behavior and eating regulation, with comparison of findings to adult studies of portion size. Indi...

415

Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. METHODS: To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast

Lisa J Harnack; Simone A French; J Michael Oakes; Mary T Story; Robert W Jeffery; Sarah A Rydell

2008-01-01

416

Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study: dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine demographic, behavioral and dietary correlates of frequency of fast food restaurant use in a community-based sample of 891 adult women.DESIGN: A survey was administered at baseline and 3 y later as part of a randomized, prospective intervention trial on weight gain prevention.SUBJECTS: Women (n=891) aged 20–45 y who enrolled in the Pound of Prevention study.MEASUREMENTS: Frequency of

SA French; L Harnack; RW Jeffery

2000-01-01

417

[Eating addiction - a behavioral addiction?].  

PubMed

With the introduction of the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in DSM-5 for the first time behavioral addictions have entered the medical classification system. Food Addiction can be diagnosed with a 25-item questionnaire based on DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. Food Addiction centers between substance-based addiction and non-substance-based behavioral addiction. To date, there is no evidence for a food component displaying addictive properties similar to psychotropic substances, such as cocaine or heroin. There is a lack of valid and reliable psychiatric-diagnostic criteria that aim to characterize Eating-Addiction as a behavioral addiction. PMID:25594277

Albayrak, Özgür; Hebebrand, Johannes

2015-01-01

418

Post-fasting olfactory, transcriptional, and feeding responses in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The sensation of hunger after a period of fasting and of satiety after eating is crucial to behavioral regulation of food intake, but the biological mechanisms regulating these sensations are incompletely understood. We studied the behavioral and physiological adaptations to fasting in the vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster). Here we show that both male and female flies increased their rate of food intake transiently in the post-fasted state. Although the basal feeding rate was higher in females than males, the magnitude of the post-fasting feeding response was the same in both sexes. Flies returned to a stable baseline feeding rate within 12 h after return to food for males and 24 h for females. This modulation in feeding was accompanied by a significant increase in the size of the crop organ of the digestive system, suggesting that fasted flies responded both by increasing their food intake and storing reserve food in their crop. Flies demonstrated increased behavioral attraction to an attractive odor when food-deprived. Expression profiling of head, body, and chemosensory tissues by microarray analysis revealed 415 genes regulated by fasting after 24 h and 723 genes after 48 h, with downregulated genes outnumbering upregulated genes in each tissue and fasting time point. These transcriptional changes showed rich temporal dynamics and affected genes across multiple functional gene ontology categories. These observations suggest that a coordinated transcriptional response to internal physiological state may regulate both ingestive behaviors and chemosensory perception of food. PMID:21945372

Farhadian, Shelli F; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Cho, Christine E; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Vosshall, Leslie B

2012-01-18

419

When the going gets tough, the tough...start eating healthy food? By Claire Gayman and Srishti Hukku (Campus Health Centre Peer Health Educators )  

E-print Network

night working on a paper. No dinner. No breakfast - only coffee to keep her awake. It was almost schedule doesn't seem to leave time to eat properly, but in order to keep the body and brain running can cause your blood sugar to drop and it may only partially recover to normal levels if the body

Thompson, Michael

420

Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

2008-01-01

421

What types of nutrition menu labelling lead consumers to select less energy-dense fast food? An experimental study.  

PubMed

This study assessed whether the inclusion of kilojoule labelling alone or accompanied by further nutrition information on menus led adults to select less energy-dense fast food meals. A between-subjects experimental design was used with online menu boards systematically varied to test the following labelling conditions: none (control); kilojoule; kilojoule+percent daily intake; kilojoule+traffic light; and kilojoule+traffic light+percent daily intake. Respondents were 1294 adults aged 18-49 in Victoria, Australia who had purchased fast food in the last month and were randomly assigned to conditions. Respondents in the no labelling condition selected meals with the highest mean energy content and those viewing the kilojoule and kilojoule+traffic light information selected meals with a significantly lower mean energy content, that constituted a reduction of around 500kJ (120kcal). Respondents most commonly reported using the traffic light labels in making their selections. These findings provide support for the policy of disclosure of energy content on menus at restaurant chains. Given the magnitude of the reduction in energy density reported, and the prevalence of fast food consumption, this policy initiative has the potential to yield health benefits at the population level. PMID:23523666

Morley, Belinda; Scully, Maree; Martin, Jane; Niven, Philippa; Dixon, Helen; Wakefield, Melanie

2013-08-01

422

MyFoodAdvisor  

MedlinePLUS

... Password? Login Cancel Can I eat this? . . . Meal Planning and Tips Managing diabetes is a challenge that ... can make it easier. Discover more about meal planning options and how MyFoodAdvisor can help. Explore Foods ...

423

Should We Go ''Home'' to Eat?: Toward a Reflexive Politics of Localism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

''Coming home to eat'' [Nabhan, 2002. Coming Home to Eat: The Pleasures and Politics of Local Foods. Norton, New York] has become a clarion call among alternative food movement activists. Most food activist discourse makes a strong connection between the localization of food systems and the promotion of environmental sustainability and social…

DuPuis, E. Melanie; Goodman, David

2005-01-01

424

Food jags  

MedlinePLUS

Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... you can do to help your child try new foods include: Have other family members help set ... that are pleasing to the eye. Start introducing new tastes, especially green vegetables, beginning at 6 months, ...

425

Fast and Sweet: Nutritional Attributes of Television Food Advertisements With and Without Black Characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a content analysis of food advertisements featured in television programming popular with children. Advertisements featuring no Black primary characters were compared on the basis of character and food attributes with ads featuring at least one Black primary character. Advertised foods were then analyzed for the compliance of their nutritional content with the federal government's recommended daily values

Kristen Harrison

2006-01-01

426

CHANGES IN SERUM LEPTIN LEVELS DURING FASTING AND FOOD LIMITATION IN STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS).  

E-print Network

secreted by adipocytes which has been shown to have a role in energy metabolism and food intake in rodents, high levels of leptin are secreted and signal the brain to regulate energy balance (i.e. decrease food content) on circulating leptin levels could be addressed. In rodents and humans, food intake has been

427

The value of unhealthy eating and the ethics of healthy eating policies.  

PubMed

Unhealthy eating can have value for individuals and groups, even while it has disvalue in virtue of being unhealthy. In this paper, we discuss some ways in which unhealthy eating has value and draw out implications for the ethics of policies limiting access to unhealthy food. Discussing the value and disvalue of unhealthy eating helps identify opportunities for reducing unhealthy eating that has little value, and helps identify opportunities for eliminating trade-offs between health and other values by making unhealthy food experiences healthier without eliminating their value. It also helps us think through when it is ethically acceptable, and when it might be ethically unacceptable, to limit valuable experience in order to promote health. Our discussion of the value and disvalue of eating is offered here as a necessary supplement to the familiar discussion of paternalism, autonomous choice, and public policy. PMID:25423848

Barnhill, Anne; King, Katherine F; Kass, Nancy; Faden, Ruth

2014-09-01

428

UF in Poland Learn, Eat, Teach (LET)  

E-print Network

UF in Poland Learn, Eat, Teach (LET) Summer A: June 7 - 20, 2015 Learn about the specificity of food in Poland Enjoy flavors of Polish and other regional cuisines Teach others about UF and the U of Life Sciences ALS 4404: Food Customs & Production in Poland (3 UF GPA credits) Total Number of Credits

Jawitz, James W.

429

[Affective disorders and eating disorders].  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. PMID:25550240

Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

2014-12-01

430

Neighborhood Disparities in Access to Healthy Foods and Their Effects on Environmental Justice  

PubMed Central

Environmental justice is concerned with an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. These burdens comprise immediate health hazards as well as subtle inequities, such as limited access to healthy foods. We reviewed the literature on neighborhood disparities in access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. Low-income neighborhoods offered greater access to food sources that promote unhealthy eating. The distribution of fast-food outlets and convenience stores differed by the racial/ethnic characteristics of the neighborhood. Further research is needed to address the limitations of current studies, identify effective policy actions to achieve environmental justice, and evaluate intervention strategies to promote lifelong healthy eating habits, optimum health, and vibrant communities. PMID:22813465

Dave, Jayna

2012-01-01

431

EVALUATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN EATING IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States' Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires more accurate assessment of children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Since children have unstructured eating behaviors, their excess exposures, caused by eating activities, becomes an importan...

432

Stress and Eating Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsively behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

2014-01-01

433

Social norms and their influence on eating behaviours.  

PubMed

Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms. PMID:25451578

Higgs, Suzanne

2014-10-22

434

Emmanuel Levinas and the ontology of eating.  

PubMed

This essay examines the existential philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas in relation to issues of food and eating. I argue that for Levinas, the act of eating is central to founding the ethical self, and that any understanding of Levinas's approach to embodiment must begin with what it means for us to ingest the outside world. Even in Levinas's earliest work, food is already a freighted ontological category. As his ideas mature, eating is transformed from the grounding for an ethical system to the system itself. The act of giving bread to another person takes its place as the ethical gesture par excellence. The story is not that we eat. The story is that we eat and develop a relationship to eating, and that relationship in turn helps determine our sense of ourselves in the world. Eating is the ethical event. The essay ends by asking how Levinas can help us answer the question, what would it mean to imagine every bite I take, or give to another, as a direct engagement with my own and my neighbor's existence? PMID:21542212

Goldstein, David

2010-01-01

435

In a country as affluent as America, people should be eating: experiences with and perceptions of food insecurity among rural and urban Oregonians.  

PubMed

Many factors are associated with food insecurity in the United States. We conducted interviews with 25 low-income and/or food-insecure Oregonians to explore their experiences with food insecurity, the role of social support, and whether these experiences differed based on rural/urban residence. Ill health and unemployment emerged as food-insecurity contributors. Coping strategies cited included use of nutrition assistance programs, alternate food sources, and drawing on social support. The findings suggest that policy and practice efforts should be directed at increasing the human capital of low-income Oregonians and the benefit levels of essential nutrition assistance programs. PMID:19556404

De Marco, Molly; Thorburn, Sheryl; Kue, Jennifer

2009-07-01

436

Gastrointestinal and nutritional aspects of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are potentially fatal eating disorders which primarily affect adolescent females. Differentiating eating disorders from primary gastrointestinal (GI) disease may be difficult. GI disorders are common in eating disorder patients, symptomatic complaints being seen in over half. Moreover, many GI diseases sometimes resemble eating disorders. Inflammatory bowel disease, acid peptic diseases, and intestinal motility disorders such as achalasia may mimic eating disorders. However, it is usually possible to distinguish these by applying the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and by obtaining common biochemical tests. The primary features of AN are profound weight loss due to self starvation and body image distortion; BN is characterized by binge eating and self purging of ingested food by vomiting or laxative abuse. GI complications in eating disorders are common. Recurrent emesis in BN is associated with dental abnormalities, parotid enlargement, and electrolyte disturbances including metabolic alkalosis. Hyperamylasemia of salivary origin is regularly seen, but may lead do an erroneous diagnosis of pancreatitis. Despite the weight loss often seen in eating disorders, serum albumin, cholesterol, and carotene are usually normal. However, serum levels of trace metals such as zinc and copper often are depressed, and hypophosphatemia can occur during refeeding. Patients with eating disorders frequently have gastric emptying abnormalities, causing bloating, postprandial fullness, and vomiting. This usually improves with refeeding, but sometimes treatment with pro-motility agents such as metoclopromide is necessary. Knowledge of the GI manifestations of eating disorders, and a high index of suspicion for one condition masquerading as the other, are required for the correct diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:8409109

McClain, C J; Humphries, L L; Hill, K K; Nickl, N J

1993-08-01

437

Eating Disorders and Spirituality in College Students.  

PubMed

Associations were examined between eating disorder symptoms and spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of college students. Undergraduate nursing students at a university in a Mid-Atlantic coastal beach community were recruited for the study. A total of 115 students completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS), the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food (SCOFF) screening questionnaire, and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Approximately one quarter of students had positive screens for an eating disorder, and 40% admitted to binging/purging. SWBS scores reflected low life satisfaction and a lack of clarity and purpose among students. A significant association was found between EAT-26 scores and SWBS Existential Well-Being (EWB) subscale scores (p = 0.014). SCOFF scores were significantly associated with SWBS EWB scores (p = 0.001). Symptoms of eating disorders were pervasive. Future research that assesses the impact of spiritual factors on eating disorders may help health care providers better understand the unique contributions to the development of eating diorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. PMID:25490775

Phillips, Lauren; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Mechling, Brandy M; MacKain, Sally; Kim-Godwin, Yeounsoo; Leopard, Louisa

2014-12-10

438

A cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).  

PubMed

Strain gage transducers were permanently implanted on the muscular stomachs of 13 turkeys, 3 great-horned owls and 2 red-tailed hawks to monitor gastric motility before, during and after eating. Following fasting, the sight of food resulted in significant increases in gastric contractile activity in all three species. Gastric motility further increased when the birds were allowed to eat. In raptors, however, a brief interruption in gastric motility occurred immediately after eating. This is apparently analogous to receptive relaxation which occurs in the stomach of mammals. PMID:1019075

Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T

1976-11-01

439

An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…

Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

2012-01-01

440

Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating.  

PubMed

Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. PMID:24768894

van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina

2014-08-01

441

Emotional Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... quality may actually make you reach for these foods again when feeling upset. Physical Hunger vs. Emotional Hunger We're all emotional eaters to some extent (who hasn't suddenly found room for dessert after a filling dinner?). But for some people, ...

442

Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... little later to accommodate a teen who's at sports practice. It also can mean setting aside time on the weekends when it may be more convenient to gather as a group, such as for Sunday brunch. Continue Stock Up on Healthy Foods Kids, especially younger ones, ...

443

Get Healthy, Eat The Pyramid!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The kind of food you eat makes a difference in how you feel and even how you are able to think in school. This activity will give you the chance to learn how to keep your body happy and healthy! Introduction Just like cars need gasoline to run, our bodies need food to give us energy to learn in school, run at recess and play our favorite games. You get the chance to learn all about the Pyramid, which helps us better design our diets, play fun games and eventually ...

Malan, Miss

2009-04-24

444

Food restriction by intermittent fasting induces diabetes and obesity and aggravates spontaneous atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolaemic mice.  

PubMed

Different regimens of food restriction have been associated with protection against obesity, diabetes and CVD. In the present study, we hypothesised that food restriction would bring benefits to atherosclerosis- and diabetes-prone hypercholesterolaemic LDL-receptor knockout mice. For this purpose, 2-month-old mice were submitted to an intermittent fasting (IF) regimen (fasting every other day) over a 3-month period, which resulted in an overall 20 % reduction in food intake. Contrary to our expectation, epididymal and carcass fat depots and adipocyte size were significantly enlarged by 15, 72 and 68 %, respectively, in the IF mice compared with the ad libitum-fed mice. Accordingly, plasma levels of leptin were 50 % higher in the IF mice than in the ad libitum-fed mice. In addition, the IF mice showed increased plasma levels of total cholesterol (37 %), VLDL-cholesterol (195 %) and LDL-cholesterol (50 %). As expected, in wild-type mice, the IF regimen decreased plasma cholesterol levels and epididymal fat mass. Glucose homeostasis was also disturbed by the IF regimen in LDL-receptor knockout mice. Elevated levels of glycaemia (40 %), insulinaemia (50 %), glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were observed in the IF mice. Systemic inflammatory markers, TNF-? and C-reactive protein, were significantly increased and spontaneous atherosclerosis development were markedly increased (3-fold) in the IF mice. In conclusion, the IF regimen induced obesity and diabetes and worsened the development of spontaneous atherosclerosis in LDL-receptor knockout mice. Although being efficient in a wild-type background, this type of food restriction is not beneficial in the context of genetic hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:24176004

Dorighello, Gabriel G; Rovani, Juliana C; Luhman, Christopher J F; Paim, Bruno A; Raposo, Helena F; Vercesi, Anibal E; Oliveira, Helena C F

2014-03-28

445

Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This entire issue is devoted to the problem of producing enough food for the world population and of distributing it equitably. Areas covered include reports on the latest agricultural research, biological research concerned with more efficient photosynthesis, nutrition, and the world social structure, politics, and economics of food. (MA)

Science, 1975

1975-01-01

446

Parental modelling of eating behaviours: Observational validation of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours scale (PARM).  

PubMed

Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during t