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Based on recent advancements in the behavioral priming literature, three experiments investigated how incidental exposure to fastfood can induce impatient behaviors and choices outside of the eating domain. We found that even an unconscious exposure to fast-food symbols can automatically increase participants' reading speed when they are under no time pressure and that thinking about fastfood increases preferences for time-saving products while there are potentially many other product dimensions to consider. More strikingly, we found that mere exposure to fast-food symbols reduced people's willingness to save and led them to prefer immediate gain over greater future return, ultimately harming their economic interest. Thus, the way people eat has far-reaching (often unconscious) influences on behaviors and choices unrelated to eating. PMID:20483836
The Korean fastfood industry has grown rapidly since the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. There are now 1500 fastfood restaurants in Korea. This study investigated the relationships between consumer values of eating-out and the importance of fastfood restaurant attributes in Korea. Using a questionnaire, 279 fastfood restaurant patrons were surveyed. The results showed that consumer values of
A convenience sample of adolescents and adults who regularly eat at fast-food restaurants were recruited to participate in an experimental trial to examine the effect of nutrition labeling on meal choices. As part of this study, participants were asked to indicate how strongly they agreed or disagreed with 11 statements to assess reasons for eating at fast-food restaurants. Logistic regression was conducted to examine whether responses differed by demographic factors. The most frequently reported reasons for eating at fast-food restaurants were: fastfood is quick (92%), restaurants are easy to get to (80%), and food tastes good (69%). The least frequently reported reasons were: eatingfastfood is a way of socializing with family and friends (33%), restaurants have nutritious foods to offer (21%), and restaurants are fun and entertaining (12%). Some differences were found with respect to the demographic factors examined. It appears that in order to reduce fast-food consumption, food and nutrition professionals need to identify alternative quick and convenient food sources. As motivation for eating at fast-food restaurants appears to differ somewhat by age, sex, education, employment status, and household size, tailored interventions could be considered. PMID:19027410
Rydell, Sarah A; Harnack, Lisa J; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary; Jeffery, Robert W; French, Simone A
Senior citizens were surveyed at 11 senior centers in two states to determine their use of fastfood restaurants for food and socialization purposes. Six and 11 percent of respondents in New Jersey and Texas, respectively, eat in fastfood restaurants at least once a week. One-fifth of respondents in both states frequent fastfood restaurants so they do not have to cook. One-quarter of respondents cited economics as the reason for fastfood restaurant patronage. The study provided evidence that seniors patronize fastfood restaurants in large numbers, have strong reasons for doing so, and their patronage and motivations do not differ geographically. PMID:8715450
... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fastfood place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fastfood place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...
Understanding the relationship between obesity and fastfood consumption encompasses a broad range of individual level and environmental factors. One theoretical approach, the health capability framework, focuses on the complex set of conditions allowing individuals to be healthy. This qualitative study aimed to identify factors that influence individual level health agency with respect to healthy eating choices in uniformly constrained environments (e.g., fastfood restaurants). We used an inductive qualitative research design to develop an interview guide, conduct open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of 14 student fastfood workers (aged 18-25), and analyze the data. Data analysis was conducted iteratively during the study with multiple coders to identify themes. Emergent themes included environmental influences on eating behaviors (time, cost, restaurant policies, social networks) and internal psychological factors (feelings associated with hunger, food knowledge versus food preparation know-how, reaction to physical experiences, perceptions of food options, delayed gratification, and radical subjectivity). A localized, embedded approach to analyzing the factors driving the obesity epidemic is needed. Addressing contextual interactions between internal psychological and external environmental factors responds to social justice and public health concerns, and may yield more relevant and effective interventions for vulnerable communities. PMID:22634194
Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Womack, Catherine A; Oddo, Vanessa M
... sell or share your name. Food, Eating and Alzheimer's Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Regular, nutritious ... Encourage independence Map out a plan to approach Alzheimer's There are many questions you'll need to ...
Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fastfood falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fastfood, the characteristics of fastfood consumers or the presentation and packaging of fastfood may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fastfood meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fastfood sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fastfood may increase addictive potential. Fastfood restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fastfood than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fastfood advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fastfood addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fastfood as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689
Background Increased density of fastfood restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fastfood outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fastfood preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fastfood consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fastfood and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fastfood restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fastfood as fastfood, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fastfood (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fastfood and non-fastfood restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fastfood restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fastfood restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fastfood was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fastfood compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood.
The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000–2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n?=?5,633; aged 45–84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or ?1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eatingfastfood had a 2–3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eatingfastfood ?1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fastfood near home increased 11%–61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%–17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fastfood and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful.
Diez Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Jacobs, David R.; Franco, Manuel
Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. PMID:22306931
Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fastfood generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fastfood from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996
Fastfoods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fastfoods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...
Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eating disorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exacerbates risk for developing eating disorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a battery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disordered eating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implications for designing early interventions for disordered eating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disordered eating who also report high levels of perfectionism. PMID:23121786
Brown, Amanda Joelle; Parman, Kortney M; Rudat, Deirdre A; Craighead, Linda W
The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fastfood and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults (94% white, 65% women, 70% married, 42% with college educated). Attitudes toward fastfood was measured using an 11-item, 4-dimensional scale: perceived convenience of fastfood (alpha=0.56); fastfood is fun and social (alpha=0.55); fastfood perceived as unhealthful (alpha=0.45); and dislike toward cooking (alpha=0.52). Frequency of fast-food intake was found to be significantly associated with age (odds ratios (OR)=0.981, P=0.001), gender (men>women), and marital status of the participants (single>married/partnered and divorced/separated/widowed). Additionally, frequency of fast-food intake was also found to be significantly associated with perceived convenience of fastfood (OR=1.162, P<0.001) and dislike toward cooking (OR=1.119, P<0.001) but not with perceived unhealthfulness of fastfood (OR=0.692, P=0.207). These findings suggest public education regarding the unhealthfulness of fastfood may not influence fastfood consumption. Interventions targeting the issue of convenience and quick or efficient preparation of nutritious alternatives to fastfood could be more promising. PMID:19247277
Dave, Jayna M; An, Lawrence C; Jeffery, Robert W; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special emphasis is placed on how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are relevant to understanding excess energy intake and obesity and how they provide a framework for examining factors that may influence eating and are outside of those that may regulate energy homeostasis. Methods to measure food reinforcement are reviewed, along with factors that influence the reinforcing value of eating. Contributions of neuroscience and genetics to the study of food reinforcement are illustrated by using the example of dopamine. Implications of food reinforcement for obesity and positive energy balance are explored, with suggestions for novel approaches to obesity treatment based on the synthesis of behavioral and pharmacological approaches to food reinforcement.
Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.
Many young children display some sort of picky eating. Although most children's diets will eventually consist of an adequate number of foods, some children's diets may not change without intervention. Children with limited diets typically have difficulty consuming new foods because they have some stomach discomfort, have limited oral-motor skills,…
Berkowitz, Merrill; Kerwin, Mary Louise; Feldstein, Melissa
Objective Eating at "fastfood" restaurants has increased and is linked to obesity. This study examined whether living or working near "fastfood" restaurants is associated with body weight. Methods A telephone survey of 1033 Minnesota residents assessed body height and weight, frequency of eating at restaurants, and work and home addresses. Proximity of home and work to restaurants was assessed by Global Index System (GIS) methodology. Results Eating at "fastfood" restaurants was positively associated with having children, a high fat diet and Body Mass Index (BMI). It was negatively associated with vegetable consumption and physical activity. Proximity of "fastfood" restaurants to home or work was not associated with eating at "fastfood" restaurants or with BMI. Proximity of "non-fastfood" restaurants was not associated with BMI, but was associated with frequency of eating at those restaurants. Conclusion Failure to find relationships between proximity to "fastfood" restaurants and obesity may be due to methodological weaknesses, e.g. the operational definition of "fastfood" or "proximity", or homogeneity of restaurant proximity. Alternatively, the proliferation of "fastfood" restaurants may not be a strong unique cause of obesity.
Jeffery, Robert W; Baxter, Judy; McGuire, Maureen; Linde, Jennifer
The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fastfood, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fastfood to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023
In recent years, a major food consumption trend in the USA and Canada is that more people are eating more meals outside their homes. It is predicted that this trend will accelerate in the future. As a result, fast-food markets will offer greater growth opportunities for marketers. Presents consumers? perceptions of and preferences for fast-food restaurants in the USA and
Posits that, in recent years, a major food consumption trend in the USA and Canada is that more people are eating more meals outside their homes. It is predicted that this trend will accelerate in the future. As a result, fast-food markets will offer greater growth opportunities for marketers. Presents consumers’ perceptions of and preferences for fast-food restaurants in the
Food intake can be increased by learning to anticipate the omission of subsequent meals. We present here a new theory that such anticipatory eating depends on an associative process of instrumental reinforcement by the nutritional repletion that occurs when access to food is restored. Our evidence over the last decade from a smooth-brained omnivore has been that food after deprivation rewards intake even when those reinforced ingestive responses occur long before the physiological signals from renewed assimilation. Effects of food consumed after self-deprivation might therefore reward extra eating in human beings, through brain mechanisms that could operate outside awareness. That would have implications for efforts to reduce body weight. This food reward mechanism could be contributing to the failure of the dietary component of interventions on obesity within controlled trials of the management or prevention of disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. PMID:22841813
Booth, David A; Jarvandi, Soghra; Thibault, Louise
Boutelle KN, Birkeland RW, Hannan PJ, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors.
This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings
In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eatfastfood at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fastfood restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fastfood than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments.
Background Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent–parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fastfood at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eatfastfood compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07,1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. Conclusions In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake.
Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.
Many believe that fastfood promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fastfood promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fastfood restaurant choice and food
... events where food is served You stop at fast-food restaurants for breakfast and choose high fat, high calorie ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of the ...
Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women. PMID:22576675
Given that health department inspections of fast-food restaurants may not be sufficient to ensure compliance with food safety regulations, managers must be vigilant in ensuring conformity with practices that safeguard public health. This case study of one fast-food employee's experience at three different fast-food restaurants suggests that employees' training and supervision require more attention to safety procedures. Greater manager accountability
This study analyzed the relationships among sociodemographic and economic characteristics of households and food spending in restaurants. Spending was analyzed separately by type of eating place and by meal occasion. Meal occasions are defined as breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, and types of eating places are defined as fastfood, family type, atmosphere, cafeteria, coffee shops, and take-out from restaurants.
... lower right-hand corner of the player. FastFood and Childhood Obesity HealthDay January 24, 2014 Related ... Nutrition Obesity in Children Weight Control Transcript Fastfood is to blame for rising rates of childhood ...
A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…
Background Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals) and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended. Methodology/Principal Findings We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992–1993) and one wet season (January-February1994). We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content. Conclusions/Significance Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry season when food was scarce for other frugivores and granivores.
In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eatfastfood at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fastfood restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fastfood than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors. PMID:21830348
Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L
The author explores consumer fastfood preferences in Saudi Arabia, a developing country where U.S. fastfood companies have been mushrooming since the early ?90s. Utilizing a sample of 250 fastfood restaurant patrons, the study examines the attributes of fastfood restaurants that are important to consumers, the pattern of fastfood purchases, and the variations in fastfood
A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…
Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and ?(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fastfood 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; P<0.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459
Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew
Cognitive and behavioural responses to food reward, such as attentional biases and overeating, have been associated with individual differences in reward-responsiveness and impulsivity. This study investigated relationships between external eating, impulsivity and attentional bias to food cues, assessed using the pictorial visual-probe task. As previously reported, attentional bias correlated positively with external eating. Additional novel findings were: (i) attentional bias for food cues was positively related to trait impulsivity, (ii) attentional bias remained related to attention impulsivity after controlling for external eating. Our findings highlight the relationship between the ability to control impulsive responding and selective attention to food cues. PMID:21256908
The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eatfoods and to develop ready-to-eatfood market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eatfoods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eatfood consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eatfood consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eatfoods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eatfoods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eatfood market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies.
The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eatfoods and to develop ready-to-eatfood market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eatfoods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eatfood consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eatfood consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eatfoods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eatfoods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eatfood market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350
Eating away from home and particularly fastfood consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fastfood outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fastfood and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association.
Individual differences in food-related knowledge structures were explored by applying schema theory to examine the categories 42 adults used to classify foods across four eating contexts. Food card-sort labels were organized into 12 categories, category salience for each person was evaluated, and cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of participants according to the salience of their categories. Clusters were
Background Young adulthood is a critical age for weight gain, yet scant research has examined modifiable contextual influences on weight that could inform age-appropriate interventions. Purpose The aims of this research included: (1) describing where young adults eat and purchase food, including distance from home, and (2) estimating the percentage of eating/purchasing locations contained within GIS-generated buffers traditionally used in research. Methods Forty-eight participants (aged 18–23 years, n=27 women) represented diverse lifestyle groups. Participants logged characteristics of all eating/drinking occasions (including location) occurring over 7 days (n=1237) using PDAs. Participants recorded addresses for stores where they purchased food to bring home. Using GIS, estimates were made of distances between participants’ homes and eating/purchasing locations. Data collection occurred in 2008–2009 and data analysis occurred in 2010. Results Among participants living independently or with family (n=36), 59.1% of eating occasions were at home. Away-from-home eating locations averaged 6.7 miles from home; food- shopping locations averaged 3.1 miles from home. Only 12% of away-from-home eating occasions fell within ½-mile residential buffers, versus 17% within 1 mile and 34% within 2 miles. Additionally, 12%, 19%, and 58% of shopping trips fell within these buffers, respectively. Results were similar for participants residing in dormitories. Conclusions Young adults often purchase and eatfood outside of commonly used GIS-generated buffers around their homes. This suggests the need for a broader understanding of their food environments.
Laska, Melissa Nelson; Graham, Dan J.; Moe, Stacey G.; Van Riper, David
This article borrows fragments of memory to chart a drifting course towards an imagined ‘other’ of ‘Asia’, produced and consumed in the kitchens of the west and available for diasporic digestion. Specifically, the argument focuses on micro-narratives of ‘Asian’ food, with these emerging here during an interview on food and transnationalism, conducted while the interviewer and household members eat together
Food and beverage portion sizes are related to childhood obesity. We examined trends in food portion sizes and the association with total meal sizes among U.S. children. We selected children 2- to 18-y-old (n = 31,337) from 4 nationally representative surveys of food intake between 1977–1978 and 2003–2006. We assessed portion sizes (kcal and g) of selected key foods (soft/fruit drinks, salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, Mexican fastfoods, and hot dogs), the total energy from eating occasions that included key foods, and portion sizes of the selected key foods by source (stores, restaurants, and fast-food locations). These foods represented over one-third of children’s energy intake in 2003–2006. Portion sizes increased significantly over the 30-y period and increases in pizza were particularly pronounced in the last decade [+176 kcal (736 kJ). Energy from eating occasions including pizzas and soft drinks increased, as did the proportion of energy from these foods in an eating occasion. Hamburgers and cheeseburgers increased in portion size and eating occasion size, but the proportion of these foods in the total eating occasions did not increase. Portion sizes of other key foods increased, although the total energy from eating events that included them remained constant (e.g. Mexican fast-foods, French fries, fruit drinks) or decreased (e.g. salty snacks, desserts). Portion sizes increased across all food sources (stores, restaurants, and fastfoods) for soft drinks and pizzas but only at fast-food locations for French fries. Portion sizes continue to grow for selected foods. Fast-food chains appear to be linked with less healthful portion size increases for selected foods.
Objective: This study investigated the effect of exposure to television food advertising on accessibility of food-related cognitions and motivation to eat. Design and main outcome measures: We initially developed a word stem completion task to measure accessibility of food-related cognitions. In two subsequent experiments, 160 female undergraduate students (Experiment 1) and 124 overweight or obese community-dwelling women (Experiment 2) viewed a series of television commercials advertising either food or non-food products. They then completed the word stem task and also rated their desire to eat. Results: Exposure to televised food advertisements led to the completion of word stems with more food- and eating-related words in both experiments. It also increased self-reported desire to eat, but only for overweight and obese individuals (Experiment 2). In both samples, there was a positive association between accessibility of food-related cognitions and reported desire to eat, following priming with television food advertisements. Conclusion: We conclude that an increased activation of food-related cognitions may provide a mechanism for the link between food advertising and consumption. This has implications for tackling pathological (over)eating. PMID:24773418
Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294
Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael
During the latter half of the nineteenth century the public outcry about the adulteration of food in Britain led to the passing in 1875 of the first effective Sale of Food and Drugs Act. This Act, which is the basis of our present law, contained for the first time the requirement that all food sold must be of the nature,
On January 18, 2001, the Alaska Division of Public Health was informed by a local physician of a possible botulism outbreak in a southwest Alaska village. This report summarizes the findings of the outbreak investigation, which linked disease to eating fermented food, and describes a new botulism prevention program in Alaska. PMID:11785568
Cue reactivity may be determined by the ability of cues to evoke expectations that a reward will be imminently received. To test this possibility, the current study examined the effects of manipulating expectations about the receipt of food (pizza) on self-reported and physiological responses to pizza cues, and attentional bias to pizza pictures. It was predicted that expecting to eat pizza would increase salivation, self-reported measures of motivation and attentional bias to pizza cues relative to conditions where there was no eating expectancy. In a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 42 hungry participants completed two pizza-cue exposures in a single experimental session during which their expectation of consuming the pizza was manipulated (i.e., expectancy of eating imminently vs. no eating expectancy). They also completed a computerised attentional bias task during which the probability of receiving pizza (0%, 50% or 100%) was manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Participants showed reliable increases in hunger and salivation in response to the pizza cues, as well as a bias in attentional maintenance on pizza pictures. However, these responses were not influenced by eating expectancy. Contrastingly, expectancy did influence early attentional processing (initial orientation of attention) in that participants directed their first gaze towards pizza pictures more often on 100% and 50% probability trials relative to 0% trials. Overall, our findings indicate that exposure to food cues triggers appetitive responses regardless of explicit expectancy information. Methodological features of the study that may account for these findings are discussed. PMID:24530655
Hardman, Charlotte A; Scott, Jade; Field, Matt; Jones, Andrew
In recent years, a major food consumption trend in North America is that more people are eating more meals outside their homes. It is predicted that this trend will accelerate in the future. As a result, fast-food markets will offer greater growth opportunities for marketers. Along with the socio-economic, demographic and behavioral changes, consumer demand for eating out and purchasing
Numerous studies have shown that people adjust their intake directly to that of their eating companions; they eat more when others eat more, and less when others inhibit intake. A potential explanation for this modeling effect is that both eating companions' food intake becomes synchronized through processes of behavioral mimicry. No study, however, has tested whether behavioral mimicry can partially account for this modeling effect. To capture behavioral mimicry, real-time observations of dyads of young females having an evening meal were conducted. It was assessed whether mimicry depended on the time of the interaction and on the person who took the bite. A total of 70 young female dyads took part in the study, from which the total number of bites (N?=?3,888) was used as unit of analyses. For each dyad, the total number of bites and the exact time at which each person took a bite were coded. Behavioral mimicry was operationalized as a bite taken within a fixed 5-second interval after the other person had taken a bite, whereas non-mimicked bites were defined as bites taken outside the 5-second interval. It was found that both women mimicked each other's eating behavior. They were more likely to take a bite of their meal in congruence with their eating companion rather than eating at their own pace. This behavioral mimicry was found to be more prominent at the beginning than at the end of the interaction. This study suggests that behavioral mimicry may partially account for social modeling of food intake.
Hermans, Roel C. J.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Bevelander, Kirsten E.; Herman, C. Peter; Larsen, Junilla K.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths' lunchtime eating behavior, and youths' obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13-15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fastfood restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1-2, 3-4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84-2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10-3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56-4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity. PMID:23041489
Héroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian
This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths’ lunchtime eating behavior, and youths’ obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13–15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fastfood restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1–2, 3–4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84–2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56–4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity.
Heroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian
Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.
Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.
This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the food groups of the food guide pyramid. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words.…
This project examined adults' food cognitions by applying schema theory to explain how adults categorized foods for different contexts. Qualitative interviews and repeated card sort activities for different eating contexts were conducted to elicit as many food categories as possible from 42 US adults. Participants labeled card sort piles with their own words, providing 991 card sort labels. Qualitative analysis of the labels resulted in the emergence of 12 category types. Personal-experience-based types were specific to the individual (e.g. Preference). Context-based types were related to situational aspects of eating episodes (e.g. Location). Food-based types were related to intrinsic properties of the foods (e.g. Physical characteristics). Different combinations of the 12 category types were used for different eating contexts. Personal-experience and context-based types were used most frequently overall. Some category types were used more frequently for specific contexts (e.g. Convenience for work contexts). Food-based taxonomic category types were used most frequently when no context was defined. Script-oriented categories were more often used in response to specific eating contexts. These findings provide a framework to consider how individuals classify foods in real-life eating contexts. Attention to personal-experience and context-based category types may help improve understanding of relationships between knowledge and food choice behaviors.
Blake, C.E.; Bisogni, C.A.; Sobal, J.; Devine, C.M.; Jastran, M.
The study empirically examines the attributes of fastfood restaurants that influence the consumer preference of fastfood outlets in Saudi Arabia. Based on the existing literature and an examination of the socio-cultural and economic environment of Saudi Arabia, two hypotheses have been developed. The hypotheses are that the fastfood restaurant attributes of nutrition, price, taste, speed, delivery service,
This curriculum guide was developed by the Utah State Board of Education to assist teachers in developing lesson plans for food science and food preparation courses at the high school level. Key features include the lesson plans and a brief nutrient review. The lesson plans are divided into eleven categories covering topics such as microorganisms, the scientific method, the nature of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fats and oils. The nutrient review briefly describes some fundamental nutrients; a table listing eleven nutrients, their associated purpose and food source is included. An understanding of basic and intermediate nutrition is assumed.
Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…
Recent research shows that environmental cues such as lighting and music strongly bias the eating behavior of diners in laboratory situations. This study examines whether changing the atmosphere of a fastfood restaurant would change how much patrons ate. The results indicated that softening the lighting and music led people to eat less, to rate the food as more enjoyable, and to spend just as much. In contrast to hypothesized U-shaped curves (people who spend longer eat more), this suggests a more relaxed environment increases satisfaction and decreases consumption. PMID:23045865
We examined the associations of emotional eating and depressive symptoms with the consumption of sweet and non-sweet energy-dense foods and vegetables/fruit, also focusing on the possible interplay between emotional eating and depressive symptoms. The participants were 25-64-year-old Finnish men (n=1679) and women (n=2035) from the FINRISK 2007 Study (DILGOM substudy). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and a 132-item Food Frequency Questionnaire were used. Emotional eating and depressive symptoms correlated positively (r=0.31 among men and women), and both were related to a higher body mass. Emotional eating was related to a higher consumption of sweet foods in both genders and non-sweet foods in men independently of depressive symptoms and restrained eating. The positive associations of depressive symptoms with sweet foods became non-significant after adjustment for emotional eating, but this was not the case for non-sweet foods. Depressive symptoms, but not emotional eating, were related to a lower consumption of vegetables/fruit. These findings suggest that emotional eating and depressive symptoms both affect unhealthy food choices. Emotional eating could be one factor explaining the association between depressive symptoms and consumption of sweet foods, while other factors may be more important with respect to non-sweet foods and vegetables/fruit. PMID:20138944
Konttinen, Hanna; Männistö, Satu; Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Silventoinen, Karri; Haukkala, Ari
Consumption of takeaway and fastfood continues to increase in Western societies and is particularly widespread among adolescents. Since food is known to play an important role in both the development and prevention of many diseases, there is no doubt that the observed changes in dietary patterns affect the quality of the diet as well as public health. The present review examines the nutritional characteristics of takeaway and fastfood items, including their energy density, total fat, and saturated and trans fatty acid content. It also reports on the association between the consumption of such foods and health outcomes. While the available evidence suggests the nutrient profiles of takeaway and fastfoods may contribute to a variety of negative health outcomes, findings on the specific effects of their consumption on health are currently limited and, in recent years, changes have been taking place that are designed to improve them. Therefore, more studies should be directed at gaining a firmer understanding of the nutrition and health consequences of eating takeaway and fastfoods and determining the best strategy to reduce any negative impact their consumption may have on public health. PMID:23590707
Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Davies, Ian G; Stevenson, Leonard
Americans frequently eatfastfoods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to 24 years of age, enrolled at a Midwestern university served as subjects. The subjects completed a 12-item written questionnaire. Five and seven percent of the students typically ate lunch and dinner, respectively, at a fast-food restaurant. The predominant reasons given for eating at fast-food restaurants were "limited time," "enjoy taste," "eat with family/friends," and "inexpensive and economical." A larger (P = .0592) percentage of men than women reported eating at fast-food restaurants because they thought these restaurants were "inexpensive and economical." Most of the subjects reported eating at fast-food restaurants 1 to 3 times weekly. The frequency of eating at fast-food restaurants was significantly different for men than for women (P < .01) as was the response distribution for considering the energy content of items on a fast-food menu when making their selections (P < .0001). Body mass indices of men were significantly higher (P < .0001) than those of women. A significantly higher (P < .0001) percentage of women than men strongly agreed with the statement that "the nutrition content of food is important to me." Several sex differences were observed in the fast-food consumption and nutrition beliefs of these college students. PMID:19358931
Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1?km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fastfood restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fastfood restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1?km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1?km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers.
... dishes. • Eat fruit, vegetables, or unsalted nuts as snacks—they are nature’s original fastfoods. Switch to ... life by providing and eating healthy meals and snacks. For example, don’t just tell your children ...
City data is used to estimate the demand for fastfood. Demographic and income differences across cities are found to be less important than market characteristics like population density and outlets per person. Prices are important determinants of fastfood demand as well.
... normal weight or can be overweight. Continue Binge Eating Disorder This eating disorder is similar to anorexia and ... and celebrations involving food Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? No one is really sure what causes eating ...
Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fastfood restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fastfood restaurant availability promotes fastfood consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fastfood availability on frequency of fastfood consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fastfood availability and individual-level self-reported fastfood consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fastfood availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fastfood consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fastfood consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fastfood outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research.
Dietary, clinical, and biochemical data from the Ten-State Nutrition Survey (1968 to 1970) and the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (1971 to 1974), have been reexamined by factor analysis to focus attention on eating patterns as a means of relating food intake to health. The seven statistically different eating patterns generated were characterized by disproportionate consumption of different food
Horace S. Schwerin; John L. Stanton; Alvin M. Riley; Arnold E. Schaefer; Gilbert A. Leveille; James G. Elliott; Kenneth M. Warwick; Barbara E. Brett
The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice. PMID:21153961
Although fastfood is affordable and convenient, it is also high in calories, saturated fat, and sodium. The frequency of fastfood intake at the time of and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is modifiable. However, patterns of fastfood intake and characteristics associated with its consumption in patients with AMI are unknown. The aim of this study was to study fastfood consumption at the time of AMI and 6 months later in 2,481 patients from the prospective, 24-center Translational Research Investigating Underlying Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients' Health Status (TRIUMPH) study of patients with AMI. Fastfood intake was categorized as frequent (weekly or more often) or infrequent (less than weekly). Multivariate log-binomial regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with frequent fastfood intake 6 months after AMI. At baseline, 884 patients (36%) reported frequent fastfood intake, which decreased to 503 (20%) 6 months after discharge (p <0.001). Male gender, white race, lack of college education, current employment, and dyslipidemia were independently associated with frequent fastfood intake 6 months after AMI. In contrast, older patients and those who underwent coronary bypass surgery were less likely to eatfastfood frequently. Documentation of discharge dietary counseling was not associated with 6-month fastfood intake. In conclusion, fastfood consumption by patients with AMI decreased 6 months after the index hospitalization, but certain populations, including younger patients, men, those currently working, and less educated patients were more likely to consume fastfood, at least weekly, during follow-up. Novel interventions that go beyond traditional dietary counseling may be needed to address continued fastfood consumption after AMI in these patients. PMID:21306695
Salisbury, Adam C; Chan, Paul S; Gosch, Kensey L; Buchanan, Donna M; Spertus, John A
The aim of the present study was to investigate an attentional bias toward food stimuli in binge eating disorder (BED). To this end, a BED and a weight-matched control group (CG) completed a clarification task and a spatial cueing paradigm. The clarification task revealed that food stimuli were faster detected than neutral stimuli, and that this difference was more pronounced in BED than in the CG. The spatial cueing paradigm indicated a stimulus engagement effect in the BED group but not in the CG, suggesting that an early locus in stimulus processing contributes to differences between BED patients and obese controls. Both groups experienced difficulty disengaging attention from food stimuli, and this effect was only descriptively larger in the BED group. The effects obtained in both paradigms were found to be correlated with reported severity of BED symptoms. Of note, this relationship was partially mediated by the arousal associated with food stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, as predicted by an account on incentive sensitization. PMID:24816319
Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Trentowska, Monika; Svaldi, Jennifer
Objectives. We examined the relationship between fast-food restaurants near schools and obesity among middle and high school students in California. Methods. We used geocoded data (obtained from the 2002–2005 California Healthy Kids Survey) on over 500 000 youths and multivariate regression models to estimate associations between adolescent obesity and proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools. Results. We found that students with fast-food restaurants near (within one half mile of) their schools (1) consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables, (2) consumed more servings of soda, and (3) were more likely to be overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.10) or obese (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.12) than were youths whose schools were not near fast-food restaurants, after we controlled for student- and school-level characteristics. The result was unique to eating at fast-food restaurants (compared with other nearby establishments) and was not observed for another risky behavior (smoking). Conclusions. Exposure to poor-quality food environments has important effects on adolescent eating patterns and overweight. Policy interventions limiting the proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools could help reduce adolescent obesity.
Explores family-style meal service as a means to building autonomy and healthy eating behaviors in young children. Discusses the development of food preferences, age-related developmental responses to food, and the importance of socially mediated exposure to food as a way to increased food acceptance. Presents guidelines for implementing…
The market survey covers the fastfood market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tar...
This article describes how classroom discussion and field trips can be used to teach students with disabilities to engage in comparative shopping and informed choice making when they dine in fastfood restaurants. (JDD)
Many attribute the rise in obesity since the early 1980's to the overconsumption of fastfood. A dynamic model of a different-product industry equilibrium shows that a firm with market power will price below marginal cost in a steady-state equilibrium. A spatial hedonic pricing model is used to test whether fastfood firms set prices in order to exploit their
Timothy J. Richards; Paul M. Patterson; Stephen F. Hamilton
Recently, public health agents and the popular media have argued that rising levels of obesity are due, in part, to "obesogenic" environments, and in particular to the clustering of fastfood establishments in Western urban centers that are poor and working class. Our findings from a multi-site, cross-national qualitative study of teenaged Canadians' eating practices in urban and rural areas offer another perspective on this topic, showing that fastfood consumption is not simply a function of the location of fastfood outlets, and that Canadian teens engage in complex ways with the varied dimensions of choosing (or rejecting) fastfoods. Drawing on evidence gleaned from semi-structured interviews with 132 teenagers (77 girls and 55 boys, ages 13-19 years) carried out between 2007 and 2009, we maintain that no easy relationship exists between the geographical availability of fastfood and teen eating behaviors. We use critical obesity literature that challenges widely accepted understandings about obesity prevalence and etiology, as well as Lamont's (1992, 2000) concept of "moral boundary work," to argue that teen fastfood consumption and avoidance is multifaceted and does not stem exclusively nor directly from spatial proximity or social class. Through moral boundary work, in which teens negotiated with moralistic notions of healthy eating, participants made and re-made themselves as "good" and successful subjects by Othering those who were "bad" in references to socially derived discourses of healthy eating. PMID:21689876
McPhail, Deborah; Chapman, Gwen E; Beagan, Brenda L
Anderson A, Dewar J, Marshall D, Cummins S, Taylor M, Dawson J, Sparks L. The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items.
This study describes restaurant-eating behaviors for nonpurge binge-eating women in comparison to dieters. Restaurant-eating behaviors were determined from a content analysis of 14-day food diaries using a convenience sample of 71 women who reported binging without purging and 46 dieters without a recent binge history. Comparing bingers to dieters, there were no significant differences in frequency of eating out, dessert consumption at restaurants, or fastfoodeating. Bingers more often perceived restaurant eating to be uncontrolled and excessive. Both bingers and dieters consumed significantly more calories (226-253 kcal) and fat (10.4-16.0 gm) on restaurant days. Extra calories consumed on restaurant-eating days may contribute to weight gain over time, especially with frequent restaurant eating. Restaurants may present a high-risk food environment for bingers and dieters, contributing to loss of control and excess consumption. PMID:17056775
Cowpeas are a nutritious legume, but their consumption in the U.S. is limited. Akara is a popular West African food made form cowpea and has potential for extending the use of dry cowpeas in the U.S. markets. The study used survey data of 267 teenagers to assess Akara's acceptability by American teenagers as a fastfood alternative. An ordered probit
Sukant K. Misra; Stanley M. Fletcher; Kay H. McWatters
This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fastfood industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…
Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. Twelve focus group discussions of single-sex groups of boys or
This study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for problematic eating behavior. A non-clinical sample of 26 women with disordered eating behavior was randomly assigned to an 8-week MBCT-based eating intervention or a waiting list control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to controls, participants in the mindfulness intervention showed significantly greater decreases in food cravings, dichotomous thinking, body image concern, emotional eating and external eating. These findings suggest that mindfulness practice can be an effective way to reduce factors that are associated with problematic eating behaviour. PMID:22265753
Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating.
Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.
The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…
It was shown previously that houseflies in fast-food restaurants commonly carry antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci. In this study, the potential of field-collected houseflies to contaminate ready-to-eat (RTE) food with enterococci was assessed by laboratory bioassays. Houseflies were collected with a sweep net in a cattle feedlot and exposed in groups of 5, 10, 20, and 40 to a beef patty (from an RTE hamburger) for 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 24 h. The exposure of RTE food to flies resulted in 100% contamination with enterococci in all bioassays, regardless of the number of houseflies and the length of exposure time. In addition, with the increasing number of houseflies as well as with the increasing time exposure, the concentration of enterococci in RTE food increased. Even a short time exposure (0.5 h) resulted in food contamination, ranging from 3.1 x 10(3) CFU/g (5 houseflies) to 8.4 x 10(4) CFU/g (40 houseflies). The analysis of 23 randomly selected enterococcal isolates from RTE food after the fly exposure revealed a single species, Enterococcus faecalis. In contrast, four Enterococcus species, including E. faecalis (57.1%), E. gallinarum (19.1%), E. hirae (14.3%), and E. faecium (9.5%), represented 21 randomly selected and identified isolates from houseflies. Phenotypic screening showed that E. faecalis isolates from RTE food were resistant to ciprofloxacin (17.4%), tetracycline (13.0%), erythromycin (13.0%), and chloramphenicol (4.3%). This study demonstrates a great potential of houseflies from a cattle feedlot to contaminate RTE food with enterococci in a short time. PMID:18326202
Food, Mood, and Attitude (FMA) is a CD-ROM prevention program developed to decrease risk for eating disorders in college women. Female 1st-year students (N = 240) were randomly assigned to the intervention (FMA) or control group. Equal numbers of students at risk and of low risk for developing an eating disorder were assigned to each condition. Participants in the FMA
Debra L. Franko; Laurie B. Mintz; Mona Villapiano; Traci Craig Green; Dana Mainelli; Lesley Folensbee; Stephen F. Butler; M. Meghan Davidson; Emily Hamilton; Debbie Little; Maureen Kearns; Simon H. Budman
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a preliminary case study exploration of the ways in which the UK's top ten food retailers are addressing healthy eating agendas as part of their CSR agendas and how these agendas are being promoted within their stores. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper begins with a short discussion of the healthy eating
In deciding how much to eat, people are influenced by environmental cues. The unit size of food (i.e. the number of units in which a given amount of food is divided) provides such a cue. Previous research showed that given equal caloric and volumetric content, smaller units of food tend to reduce food consumption. We propose that the unit size of food impacts intake as it influences perceptions of impulsiveness and appropriateness. Our analysis is based on three experimental studies, all employing between subject designs. When consuming similar amounts of chocolates in studies 1 (n?=?118) and 2 (n?=?124), both studies show that consumption of five small units of chocolates is considered to be more impulsive, excessive and less appropriate than consuming one large unit of chocolate. Results of a third study (n?=?165) indicate that about 23% less chocolate is eaten when it is presented in small unit size vs. a large unit size and this effect is mediated by perceptions of impulsivity. All three studies suggest that perceptions of impulsivity and excess eating while eating several smaller units of food compared to one large unit might be a key factor explaining consumption effects in earlier studies on this bias. PMID:24678943
van Kleef, Ellen; Kavvouris, Christos; van Trijp, Hans C M
Decreasing access to competitive foods in schools has produced only modest effects on adolescents' eating patterns. This qualitative case study investigated persistent barriers to healthful eating among students attending an ethnically diverse middle school in a working-class urban neighborhood that had banned on campus competitive food sales. Participant observations, semi-structured interviews and document reviews were conducted. Unappealing school lunches and easily accessible unhealthful foods, combined with peer and family influences, increased the appeal of unhealthy foods. Areas for further inquiry into strategies to improve urban middle school students' school and neighborhood food environments are discussed. PMID:24735212
People eat less and make different food choices as they get older. It is unclear what impact these dietary changes may have on health status. However, lower food intake among the elderly has been associated with lower intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, B vitamins and vitamin E. Low energy intakes or low nutrient density of the diet may increase the risk of diet-related illnesses and so pose a health problem. Several factors may influence this observed decline in energy intake. Older adults tend to consume less energy-dense sweets and fastfoods, and consume more energy-dilute grains, vegetables and fruits. Daily volume of foods and beverages also declines as a function of age. Physiological changes associated with age, including slower gastric emptying, altered hormonal responses, decreased basal metabolic rate, and altered taste and smell may also contribute to lowered energy intake. Other factors such as marital status, income, education, socioeconomic status, diet-related attitudes and beliefs, and convenience likely play a role as well. Many age-related nutritional problems may be remedied to some extent by providing nutrient-dense meals through home delivery or meal congregate programs. Management of medical and dental problems and the provision of vitamin and mineral supplements may also be effective. More studies that integrate nutrition research, public health intervention, and outcomes research are needed to determine the impact of diet on nutrition, health, and overall quality of life. PMID:11426286
Zinc deficiency has been reported in individuals with eating disorders, the risks of which increase during the adolescent and early adult years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific for zinc-rich foods was tested for its usefulness in identifying problematic eating behaviour tendencies in college-age women. Ninety-two female students enrolled in a university introductory psychology course volunteered to complete demographic information, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and a zinc-specific FFQ (ZnFFQ). Relationships among estimated zinc intakes, food/lifestyle habits, and eating attitude variables were examined. Twenty-five women had estimated intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc. Individuals in the highest zinc intake group (over twice the RDA) had a tendency to score higher on the EAT-26 and the bulimia subscale. Vegetarians also scored high on the EAT-26. Although our data are limited, the ZnFFQ should be studied further to determine whether it could play a useful role in identifying individuals at risk for bulimia. The ZnFFQ is a simple, non-confrontational assessment tool and may be a helpful starting point for identifying women with unhealthy eating habits. PMID:19958578
Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status. PMID:24148250
Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J
This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families.
Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.
Aims: Dieting is a behavioral phenomenon which is becoming more frequent among adolescents and the search for weight loss, through dieting, may result in an unbalanced nutrition both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our study intended to look at the eating habits and behavior on a cohort of adolescent girls to verify the presence of unbalanced diets and the prevalence of eating
V. Boschi; M. Siervo; P. D’Orsi; N. Margiotta; E. Trapanese; F. Basile; G. Nasti; A. Papa; O. Bellini; C. Falconi
Sharkey JR, Johnson CM, Dean WR, Horel SA. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults.
Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.
Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A.; Ohla, Kathrin
The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do\\u000a these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a “good” or a “bad” food? For the present study\\u000a we attempted to expand our understanding of the impact of categorical thinking concerning the health value of foods. Respondents
This coordinator's guide consists of materials for use in implementing four individualized units that have been developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and are employed in fastfood restaurants. Addressed in the individual units are the following occupations: cashier (DOT No. 211.462-010), counter attendant (DOT No.…
Binge eating is an eating disorder in which a person eats a much larger amount of food in a shorter period of time than he or ... may occur on its own or with another eating disorder, such as bulimia . People with bulimia typically eat ...
It has been shown that mice and rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs, scopolamine or atropine, after fasting for 48 h develop convulsions soon after refeeding. The present study was performed to evaluate whether mice also develop convulsions after being deprived of food for 1-24 h. The effect of day-night fasting on the development of convulsions was also determined in 12-h deprived animals. Mice were deprived of food for periods of 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h. Animals fasted for 12 h during the day or night were deprived of food at 08:00 or 20:00 h, respectively. At the time of testing, animals were treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline or 3 mg/kg scopolamine. Twenty minutes later, they were given food and allowed to eat ad lib. All animals were observed for 30 min for the incidence and onset of convulsions. Fasted animals treated with scopolamine developed clonic convulsions after food intake. Incidence of convulsions was significant in 2-, 3-, 12-, 18-, 24-, and 48-h deprived animals. Convulsions observed after deprivation of food for 12 h during the day or at night were almost similar in both regimens. Our results indicate that food deprivation itself, rather than its duration, seems to be the principal factor in the development of these convulsions. PMID:18801035
Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Ozünal, Zeynep Güne?; Zengin, Asli
Purpose To examine variation in obesity among older adults relative to the joint influences of density of neighborhood fast-food outlets and residents' behavioral, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics. Design Cross-sectional and multilevel design. Setting Census block groups, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, within the metropolitan region's Urban Growth Boundary in Portland, Oregon. Subjects A total of 1,221 residents (mean age=65 years old) recruited randomly from 120 neighborhoods (48% response rate). Measures A Geographic Information System-based measure of fast-food restaurant density across 120 neighborhoods was created. Residents within the sampled neighborhoods were assessed with respect to their body mass index (BMI), frequency of visits to local fast-food restaurants, fried food consumption, levels of physical activity, self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables, household income, and race/ethnicity. Analyses Multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Significant associations were found between resident-level individual characteristics and the likelihood of being obese (BMI?30) for neighborhoods with a high-density of fast-food restaurants in comparison to those with a low density: odds ratios [OR] for obesity, 95% confidence interval [CI] were: 1.878 (CI=1.006-3.496) for weekly visits to local fast-food restaurants; 1.792 (CI=1.006-3.190) for not meeting physical activity recommendations; 1.212 (CI=1.057-1.391) for low confidence in eating healthy food; and 8.057 (CI=1.705-38.086) for non-Hispanic black residents. Conclusion Increased density of neighborhood fast-food outlets was associated with unhealthy lifestyles, poorer psychosocial profiles, and increased risk of obesity among older adults.
Previous research has shown that exposure to food cues increases eating, especially in restrained eaters. The present study attempted to determine whether this elevated consumption reflects a general desire to eat in response to food cues, or specific desire\\/craving for the cued food. Restrained and unrestrained eaters were exposed to the smell of either pizza, cookies, or no smell for
In the present study we examined whether categorization difficulty regarding a food is related to its likability. For this purpose, we produced stimulus images by morphing photographs of a tomato and a strawberry. Subjects categorized these images as either a tomato or a strawberry and in separate sessions evaluated the food’s eatability or the subject’s willingness to eat (Experiments 1 and 2) and the likeliness of existence of each food (Experiment 2). The lowest score for ca- tegorization confidence coincided with the lowest scores for eatability, willingness to eat, and likeliness of existence. In Experiment 3, we found that food neophobia, a trait of ingestion avoidance of novel foods, modulated food likability but not categorization confidence. These findings suggest that a high categorization difficulty generally co-occurs with a decrease in food likability and that food neophobia modulates likability. This avoidance of difficult-to-categorize foods seems ecologically valid because before eating we have little information regarding whether a food is potentially harmful.
The development of fastfood industry is critically dependent upon the main product it offers. At the end of growth phase, responding to the first shake out, fastfood organizations experienced menu diversification, leading to the differentiation of the \\
To understand how parents of adolescents attempt to regulate their children's eating behaviors, the prevalence of specific food-related parenting practices (restriction, pressure-to-eat) by sociodemographic characteristics (parent gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, and household income) were examined within a population-based sample of parents (n=3709) of adolescents. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the association between parent sociodemographic characteristics and parental report of food restriction and pressure-to-eat. Overall, findings suggest that use of controlling food-related parenting practices, such as pressuring children to eat and restricting children's intake, is common among parents of adolescents, particularly among parents in racial/ethnic minority subgroups, parents with less than a high school education, and parents with a low household income. Results indicate that that social or cultural traditions, as well as parental access to economic resources, may contribute to a parent's decision to utilize specific food-related parenting practices. Given that previous research has found that restriction and pressure-to-eatfood-related parenting practices can negatively impact children's current and future dietary intake, differences in use of these practices by sociodemographic characteristics may contribute, in part, to the disparities that exist in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents by their race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. PMID:23022556
... meals . Serve a variety of healthy foods and snacks. Be a role model by eating healthy yourself. ... eat fruits, vegetables, and grains less likely to snack on unhealthy foods less likely to smoke, use ...
Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…
Knowledge of food safety among consumers has various dimensions. Due to a number of food-related incidents and reported outbreaks worldwide, consumer confidence has begun to vacillate. The objective of this quantitative survey (n=1030) was to determine Slovenian consumers’ food safety knowledge and practices during purchase, transportation and storage of food, as well as food handling practices at home. The study
This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eating behaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n ¼ 596). External eating turned out to be the most prevalent disturbed eating behaviour for boys
The fastfood industry is one of the fastest growing industries of this century. Global expansion has become an important strategic development tool for many American based fastfood restaurant chains. American fastfood franchisers wanting to operate restaurants in China have to be aware of an environment that imposes a number of constraints upon prospective restaurant franchisers. The goal
This study examines spatial variation in the price and accessibility of fastfood across a major urban area. We use novel data on the price of a representative fastfood meal and the location of fastfood restaurants belonging to one of three major chains in the District of Columbia and its surrounding suburbs. These data are used to test
Although African American consumers form a large and growing market segment, relatively little study has been done on their fastfood consumption preferences. This paper examines the frequency of patronizing fastfood restaurants by this important sub-cultural group, the criteria that they use to evaluate service quality in fastfood restaurants, as well as the socio-economic and demographic factors that
Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fastfood; until recently, it was not known whether the fastfood was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fastfood that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff,
Between October 1998 and April 2000, 429 food samples were investigated for the presence ofListeria spp. The foodstuffs included 138 ready-to-eatfoods (68 traditional hard and semi-hard Portuguese cheeses, 23 salad vegetables and 47 cooked and\\/or cured meats) and 291 uncooked foods (14 raw vegetables, 65 raw chicken and 212 raw ewe's, cow's or goat's milk). Listeria spp. were recovered
In two studies, we examined trait and state food craving levels in people with a bulimic disorder (BD) (bulimia nervosa and related disorders) and healthy controls (HC) using multidimensional self-report assessments. In study 1, trait food craving was assessed in 70 people with a BD and 69 HC using the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait. Participants also completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). In study 2, 45 people with a BD and 29 HC completed the Food Craving Questionnaire-State and the EDE-Q following exposure to visual and real high-caloric food cues. The results showed that both trait and state food cravings were significantly higher in people with a BD, compared to HC. Trait food craving was associated with eating disorder symptomatology in both the HC and BD groups. State food craving was associated with eating disorder psychopathology, but only in the BD group. This research underscores the importance of food craving in the study and conceptualization of BD. PMID:23121801
Van den Eynde, Frederique; Koskina, Antonia; Syrad, Hayley; Guillaume, Sébastien; Broadbent, Hannah; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike
Business continues to boom for Western quick-service operations in Hong Kong, including for those that see the territory as a jumping off point for capitalizing on the expanding mainland-China markets. But it's no longer just Western burger, chicken, and pizza chains that are competing in the market place: several Hong-Kong-based Chinese-style fast-food companies are growing quickly throughout the territory and
Obesity has been promoted by a food environment that encourages excessive caloric intake. An understanding of how the food environment contributes to obesogenic eating behavior in different types of individuals may facilitate healthy weight control efforts.
This study examines food insecurity during and after pregnancy and how that affects postpartum weight retention. The results show that food insecurity was associated with higher levels of stress, eating behaviors, dietary fat intake, and higher postpartum weight status....
Street-vended ready-to-eatfood sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ?10(3)?CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, and products of plant origin). Most of the samples contaminated by L. monocytogenes had high levels of total viable bacterial counts. The results obtained may help to clarify the epidemiology of listeriosis in the country and draw the attention of the decision makers to issue hygienic regulations for food processing industries as well as street vendors in order to ensure safe street-vended ready-to-eatfood. PMID:22194742
El-Shenawy, Moustafa; El-Shenawy, Mohamed; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose M
Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fastfood restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fastfood restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fastfood order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fastfood meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085
Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fastfood restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fastfood restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fastfood order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fastfood meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale.
The frequent consumption of energy-dense fastfood is associated with increased body mass index. This systematic review aims to examine the methodology and current evidence on fastfood access and its associations with outcomes. Six databases were searched using terms relating to fastfood. Only peer-reviewed studies published in English during a 10-year period, with data collection and analysis regarding fastfood access were included. Forty articles met the aforementioned criteria. Nearly half of the studies (n?=?16) used their own set of features to define fastfood. Studies predominantly examined the relationship between fastfood access and socioeconomic factors (n?=?21) and 76% indicated fastfood restaurants were more prevalent in low-income areas compared with middle- to higher-income areas. Ten of 12 studies found fastfood restaurants were more prevalent in areas with higher concentrations of ethnic minority groups in comparison with Caucasians. Six adult studies found higher body mass index was associated with living in areas with increased exposure to fastfood; four studies, however, did not find associations. Further work is needed to understand if and how fastfood access impacts dietary intake and health outcomes; and if fastfood access has disparate socioeconomic, race/ethnicity and age associations. PMID:20149118
Fleischhacker, S E; Evenson, K R; Rodriguez, D A; Ammerman, A S
Objective: To investigate the response of appetite sensations and eating behaviors to fasting in obese and non-obese individuals.Design: Prospective study on inpatients enrolled in weight loss program including fasting at the obesity clinic, an oriental medical center in Seoul, Korea.Subjects and measurements: For seven obese (body mass index BMI?30) and 11 non-obese (BMI<30) patients, the modified visual analog scale (VAS)
The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277
Research has shown that the suburbanization of supermarkets has created `food deserts', defined as areas where socially disadvantaged individuals lack access to nutritious food outlets. Additionally, the growing presence of fast-food restaurants has created `food swamps', or areas where socially disadvantaged individuals encounter an overabundance of unhealthy food outlets. While previous studies have analyzed either `food deserts' or `food swamps'
Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)
An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...
... gov for more information. eating better on a budget 10 tips Get the most for your food budget! There are many ways to save money on ... seafood—often the most expensive items on your list. compare and contrast Locate the “Unit Price” on the shelf directly below the product. Use ...
If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to…
The paper describes a mechanistic mathematical model for aroma release in the oropharynx to the nasal cavity during food consumption. The model is based on the physiology of the swallowing process and is validated with atmospheric pressure chem- ical ionization coupled with mass spectrometry measurements of aroma concentration in the nasal cavity of subjects eating flavored yogurt. The study is
Ioan Cristian Trelea; S. Atlan; I. Deleris; A. Saint-Eve; M. Marin; I. Souchon
Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…
The quality as well as the microbiological and sensory shelf-life of selected chilled cooked meat products and ready-to-eatfoods using nitrogen and carbon dioxide (gas packaging) were studied and compared with those of regularly packed products (air or a...
This paper examines how the new social contexts experienced by young people after leaving school are related to everyday food practices and eating habits. Findings from in-depth interviews with 31 young people aged 16-24 years studying at a college of further education in South East England are used to explore the role of new social spaces and…
Helping children make food choices for a healthy diet can be challenging. This book is designed as a resource guide and cookbook for parents to help them make healthful eating and cooking with children tasty, simple, affordable, and fun. The book is a collection of 50 recipes organized by season, and featuring family nutrition education…
This website, from National Public Radio's Morning Edition, offers a look at legislation proposed in Congress that would require fastfood and other chain restaurants to provide nutritional information for their menu items. The website offers complete audio of the story, which aired earlier this month. Visitors will also find a short article on the topic, links to related stories from NPR, and a set of Web resources. The site also provides a downloadable report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest -- a sizeable document that provides in-depth information on the subject, and even includes menu mock-ups.
Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fastfood nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fastfood restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…
Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fastfood restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fastfood environment might be influenced by nutrition education…
Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne
Many believe that fastfood promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. This study weighs into the debate by specifying and estimating a discrete\\/continuous model of fastfood restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and
Women who leave school with few or no educational qualifications are less likely to have diets that meet current recommendations than women who attain more qualifications at school. We hypothesise that lower 'food involvement', meaning that food has a lower level of importance in their lives, explains the poorer quality diets of women of lower educational attainment. We administered Bell and Marshall [(2003). The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: Scale development and validation. Appetite, 40, 235-244.] Food Involvement scale to 242 women of varied educational attainment, of whom 127 were also asked how often they ate fruit and vegetables. Women's food involvement decreased with decreasing educational attainment. Forty-two percent of women who had no educational qualifications were in the lowest quarter of the food involvement score, compared with 12% of women with degrees. Women with lower scores on the food involvement scale also reported eating fruit and vegetables less often. The odds of eating fewer fruit and vegetables rose with lower educational attainment and with lower food involvement scores, suggesting that each has an independent effect. We have shown that the Food Involvement scale discriminates between women, is associated with other characteristics and predicts dietary quality. We now plan to use it in a larger, representative population of women of lower educational attainment to examine its role along with other psychological variables in determining dietary quality. PMID:18023500
Barker, M; Lawrence, W; Woadden, J; Crozier, S R; Skinner, T C
The ability of L. monocytogenes to grow in a series of Japanese ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, including boiled baby sardine and Japanese pickle, was tested at two different refrigeration temperatures. In RTE foods in which L. monocytogenes can grow, growth was significantly higher at 10°C than that at 4°C during their shelf lives and growth patterns varied extensively among the different types of foods. However, growth did not occur at 4°C within the shelf life of certain RTE foods, such as broiled squid. The patterns of growth were varied extensively with different sample types. These results suggest that some types of traditional Japanese RTE foods stored at 10°C may be potential sources of listeriosis. To reduce the risk of food-borne listeriosis, studies to determine the contamination levels in RTE foods and the effects of storage temperature on their shelf lives are needed. PMID:23697335
A microbiological study of ready-to-eatfoods with added spices or spice ingredients was undertaken to identify any risk factors in the production, storage and display of this product and to establish their effect on microbiological quality. Examination of 1946 ready-to-eatfoods from sandwich bars, cafés, public houses, restaurants, specialist sandwich producers, bakers, delicatessens, market stalls and mobile vendors found that 1291 (66%) were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality, 609 (32%) were of unsatisfactory quality, and 46 (2%) were of unacceptable quality. Unacceptable results were due to high levels of B. cereus and/or other Bacillus spp. (>/=10(5) cfu g(-1)). Unsatisfactory results were mostly due to high Aerobic Colony Counts (up to >/=10(7) cfu g(-1)), Enterobacteriaceae (>/=10(4) cfu g(-1)), Escherichia coli (>/=10(2) cfu g(-1)), and Bacillus spp (>/=10(4) cfu g(-1)). Examination of 750 spices and spice ingredients revealed that B. cereus were present in 142 (19%) samples, other Bacillus spp. in 399 (53%) samples, and Salmonella spp. (S. enteritidis PT 11) in one (<1%) sample. Approximately a third (222) of spice and spice ingredients examined contained high counts (>/=10(4) cfu g(-1)) of B. cereus and/or other Bacillus spp., and appeared to be associated with the corresponding ready-to-eatfoods containing similar high counts of these organisms (P<0.0001). Acceptable microbiological quality of ready-to-eatfoods to which spices or spice ingredients have been added was associated with premises that had management food hygiene training and hazard analysis in place. Poor microbiological quality was associated with preparation on the premises, premises type, little or no confidence in the food business management of food hygiene, and small premises as indicated by local authority inspectors' confidence in management and consumer at risk scores. PMID:12745346
Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16?±?2.5 SD years) completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.8?±?2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70%) did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5?±?13.5 SD) and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491?±?471 SD kcal/day (31?±?10 SD kcal/kg), with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients.
... been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service U.S. Department of ... for you. That’s why the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service and the U.S. ...
What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or incentive salience systems important to appetite, such as mesolimbic dopamine systems and opioid motivation circuits that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots. Finally, it considers some potential ways in which ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ might relate to eating disorders.
Regulations have historically been able to shape public behavior in various ways. As poor dietary practices and obesity continue to pose major health and economic threats to society, attention will continue to be directed towards the ethical and legal responsibilities of fastfood manufacturers as potential contributors to these problems. In light of these considerations, several opportunities emerge that may impact dietary behavior and obesity through regulation of the fastfood industry. This article addresses the health consequences of fastfood consumption, as well as the historical and legal contexts of fastfood regulation in the United States. PMID:19999644
Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...
Background.The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) tested the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention aimed at promoting a healthful school environment and positive eating and physical activity behaviors in children. The CATCH Eat Smart Program targeted the school food service staff and aimed to lower the total fat, saturated fat, and sodium content of school meals.Methods.The Eat Smart
Stavroula K. Osganian; Mary Kay Ebzery; Deanna H. Montgomery; Theresa A. Nicklas; Marguerite A. Evans; Paul D. Mitchell; Leslie A. Lytle; M. Patricia Snyder; Elaine J. Stone; Michelle M. Zive; Kathryn J. Bachman; Rochelle Rice; Guy S. Parcel
Ghrelin figures prominently in the regulation of appetite in normal-weighed individuals. The apparent failure of this mechanism in eating disorders and the connection to addictive behavior in general demand a deeper understanding of the endogenous central-nervous processes related to ghrelin. Thus, we investigated processing of pictures showing palatable food after overnight fasting and following a standardized caloric intake (i.e. a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and correlated it with blood plasma levels of ghrelin. Twenty-six healthy female and male volunteers viewed food and control pictures in a block design and rated their appetite after each block. Fasting levels of ghrelin correlated positively with food-cue reactivity in a bilateral network of visual processing-, reward- and taste-related regions, including limbic and paralimbic regions. Notably, among those regions were the hypothalamus and the midbrain where ghrelin receptors are densely concentrated. In addition, high fasting ghrelin levels were associated with stronger increases of subjective appetite during the food-cue-reactivity task. In conclusion, brain activation and subjective appetite ratings suggest that ghrelin elevates the hedonic effects of food pictures. Thereby, fasting ghrelin levels may generally enhance subjective craving when confronted with reward cues. PMID:22974271
Kroemer, Nils B; Krebs, Lena; Kobiella, Andrea; Grimm, Oliver; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N
Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…
Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary
Assessment of eating habits in young children from multicultural backgrounds has seldom been conducted. Our objectives were to study the reproducibility and the results of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to assess changes in eating habits of preschool children with a high migrant population, in the context of a multidisciplinary multilevel lifestyle intervention. Three kindergarten classes (53% from migrant
Vincent Ebenegger; Pedro Marques-Vidal; Jérôme Barral; Susi Kriemler; Jardena J. Puder; Andreas Nydegger
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208
Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline
The fastfood industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are\\u000a well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition,\\u000a food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fastfood industry\\u000a is among the leaders in
Elva Arredondo; Diego Castaneda; John P. Elder; Donald Slymen; David Dozier
The purpose of this study was to compare student's satisfaction with school food service environment to improve the quality of middle school meal service. A survey was conducted of 680 students (boys 246, girls 433) from 6 middle schools providing school meals from October to November 2007. The questionnaires were directly distributed to the subjects for comparison of satisfaction of school meals depending on the eating place. As for the quantity of food, classroom group (3.40) expressed significantly higher satisfaction than cafeteria group (3.16, P < 0.01), but as for the satisfaction on hygiene, classroom group (2.76) showed significantly lower satisfaction than cafeteria group (3.03, P < 0.01). About the satisfaction of school meal environment, classroom group showed more satisfaction on distribution time, eating place, eating atmosphere (P < 0.001). The classroom group showed higher satisfaction than cafeteria group in cases of quantity, diversity of types of soup, dessert, and the cost of school meal. To improve eating place and hygiene of school meal, sufficient cafeteria space and pleasant environment is needed to be established.
Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.
Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Garcia-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M.; Iglesias-Gutierrez, Eduardo
Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P?=?0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P?=?0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981
Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment. PMID:25027288
This study investigated the effect of pre-exposure to two types of food cues (olfactory and cognitive) on food intake by restrained and unrestrained eaters. Subjects were exposed to either no cue, an olfactory cue, a cognitive cue or a combination of the two types of food cues for ten minutes prior to eating. Restrained eaters ate significantly more than did
INGRI D. C. FEDOROFF; JANET POLIVY; C. PETER HERMAN
A study in three California counties found that food stamp recipients who viewed a videotape promoting vegetables had increased their knowledge of vegetables and greatly increased their consumption of potatoes and raw vegetables two to six weeks later. The feasibility of using videotaped nutrition instruction with low-income adults is discussed.…
The present study investigates whether the so-called disinhibition effect is better accounted for by tendency toward overeating than by restraint. The rationale was that in mood-induction studies, so far, the disinhibition effect has only been found in studies that applied the Restraint Scale and hardly ever in studies that used other restraint scales. Tension was induced by the public-speaking method in half of 86 female college students before they participated in an alleged taste test. The Restraint Scale (RS), the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were used to measure restraint and tendency toward overeating. No differences were found between the tension and the control condition as to the amounts of food the participants ate. Also no proof of the disinhibition effect was obtained and, remarkably, tendency toward overeating did not predict the amount of food eaten. Possible explanations for these results are offered in the discussion. PMID:17984631
Background: Exposure of children to kids meals at fastfood res- taurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. Objective: We assessed the nutrient quality of fastfood meals marketed to young children, ie, \\
Sharon I O'Donnell; Sharon L Hoerr; Jason A Mendoza; Eugenia Tsuei Goh
This book, by the creator of the Clark County (Nevada) School District fastfoods program, describes a fastfood program that was introduced into the schools and the rationale that prompted its creation. The program is based on "combo" lunches that consist of a sandwich, salad or fries, and milk or a special "milk shake." This lunch meets…
The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fastfood industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fastfood industry is packaging waste,
Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fastfood intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fastfood meals per week show strong relationships between fastfood consumption and prices of fastfood and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fastfood intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fastfood restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fastfood intake in an age group at high risk for obesity.
Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.
Of 3,063 ready-to-eatfood samples tested, 91 (2.97%) were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, and lineage 1 strains outnumbered lineage 2 strains 57 to 34. Seventy-one isolates (78%) exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance, and an L. monocytogenes-specific bacteriophage cocktail lysed 65 of 91 (71%) isolates. Determining phage, acid, and antibiotic susceptibility phenotypes enabled us to identify differences among strains which were otherwise
Yuelian Shen; Yan Liu; Yifan Zhang; Jennifer Cripe; William Conway; Jianghong Meng; Grace Hall; Arvind A. Bhagwat
Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fastfood restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fastfood restaurant chains. Setting 89 fastfood restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fastfood restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation.
By 1993 the quick-service-restaurant segment constituted 13 percent of the restaurant market in Hong Kong, where households spend more than half their food budgets on dining out. In addition to Western operations, Cafe de Coral, Maxim's, and Fairwood are Chinese-style fast-food chains that are replacing mom-and-pop dim sum and noodle shops. Despite rapid growth, fast-food chains face challenges: intense competition
Competition among fastfood restaurants has intensified during the last ten years. How could an existing restaurant survive in such a competitive environment? We conducted a survey of college students' preferences over a variety of different types of lunch food. The results are analyzed to reveal some interesting points about choices of foods made by a certain group of students.
Nancy Rumore; Zhiwei Zhu; John Tanner; Larry Scheuerman
If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to increase the safety of food supply, create foods that are more appealing to eat and easier to produce, and increase crop yields. This article will summarize a few hot topics in food science, address what is currently known about the safety of these processes, and present resources on the subject to use with your students.
The fastfood industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fastfood industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fastfood restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fastfood restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fastfood restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fastfood advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos. PMID:18830690
Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David
Background Improving diet quality is a key health promotion strategy. The HealthyFood program provides up to a 25% discount on selected food items to about 260,000 households across South Africa. Objectives Examine whether reducing prices for healthy food purchases leads to changes in self-reported measures of food consumption and weight status. Methods Repeated surveys of about 350,000 HealthyFood participants and nonparticipants. Results Program participation is associated with more consumption of fruits/vegetables and wholegrain foods, and less consumption of high sugar/salt foods, fried foods, processed meats, and fast-food. There is no strong evidence that participation reduces obesity. Conclusions A substantial price intervention might be effective in improving diets.
An, Ruopeng; Patel, Deepak; Segal, Darren; Sturm, Roland
Studies of food environment often examine single dimensions of areas that may not account for complexity of exposure to all food sources. With respect to the deprivation amplification hypothesis, particular needs are to assess whether relative or absolute measures of the food environment are related to characteristics of social environment. The objective of this study was to compare absolute availability (AA) of fastfood outlets (FFO) and stores selling fresh fruits and vegetables (FVS) with the relative availability (RA) of the same food sources in relation to area-level poverty and ethnic diversity in 248 selected census tracts (CT) in Montreal, Canada. AA of FFO and FVS were expressed as areal densities of food sources within CTs. RA indices were calculated as the proportion of FVSs relative to total food stores and the proportion of FFOs relative to all restaurants within CTs, respectively. Whereas the AA of FFO was positively associated with area-level poverty and ethnic diversity, the RA of FFO was inversely associated with area-level poverty and not associated with ethnic diversity. Both measures of FVS were positively associated with area-level poverty and ethnic diversity. These findings do not support a model of deprivation amplification. Furthermore, results of FFO suggest that the alternate measure of RA can complement information based on AA indicators of the food environment, with potential utility in predicting eating practices. PMID:22736278
Background: Cognitive processes such as attention and memory may influence food intake, but the degree to which they do is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine whether such cognitive processes influence the amount of food eaten either immediately or in subsequent meals. Design: We systematically reviewed studies that examined experimentally the effect that manipulating memory, distraction, awareness, or attention has on food intake. We combined studies by using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between experimental and control groups and assessing heterogeneity with the I2 statistic. Results: Twenty-four studies were reviewed. Evidence indicated that eating when distracted produced a moderate increase in immediate intake (SMD: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.53) but increased later intake to a greater extent (SMD: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.07). The effect of distraction on immediate intake appeared to be independent of dietary restraint. Enhancing memory of food consumed reduced later intake (SMD: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.68), but this effect may depend on the degree of the participants’ tendencies toward disinhibited eating. Removing visual information about the amount of food eaten during a meal increased immediate intake (SMD: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.68). Enhancing awareness of food being eaten may not affect immediate intake (SMD: 0.09; 95% CI: ?0.42, 0.35). Conclusions: Evidence indicates that attentive eating is likely to influence food intake, and incorporation of attentive-eating principles into interventions provides a novel approach to aid weight loss and maintenance without the need for conscious calorie counting.
Objective: Research has demonstrated that emotional eating (eating induced by negative affect or distress) is associated with overconsumption and weight gain. This study tests whether recreational physical activity attenuates the relationship between emotional eating and body weight. Design: Analyses are based on the second (2011) and third (2012) wave of the Swiss Food Panel, an ongoing longitudinal survey of the eating and activity behaviour of the Swiss population. Data from 3425 participants (47% males) with a mean age of 56?years (SD?=?14) were analysed. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, health consciousness and food consumption (vegetables/fruits and sweet, high-fat foods). Results: Analyses revealed an independent interaction effect of emotional eating and recreational physical activity, over and above other predictors of Body Mass Index (BMI). Compared to their low-active counterparts, highly active emotional eaters had a lower BMI and consumed more vegetables and fruits. No difference was found for sweet, high-fat foods. Conclusion: The results suggest that emotional eaters who are also highly active may still feel the urge to eat when under emotional distress; however, they also choose more healthy foods to cope with this distress. Increasing physical activity could be a promising intervention strategy in preventing weight gain in emotional eaters. PMID:24689843
Dohle, Simone; Hartmann, Christina; Keller, Carmen
Objective Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fastfood restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fastfood restaurant visits. Design and Methods Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fastfood restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fastfood receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. Results The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Post-labeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33 percentage point (p<.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fastfood visits did not change in either city over time. Conclusions While some consumer reports noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fastfood visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law.
The purpose of this research was to compare food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: the US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard University's Healthy Eating Pyramid. Estimates of nutrient values associated with following each of the food guides at the 2,000-calorie level were made using a composite approach. This approach calculates population-weighted nutrient composites for each food group and subgroup, assuming average choices within food groups. Nutrient estimates were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and other goals and limits. Recommendations were similar regarding almost all food groups for both the type and amount of foods. Primary differences were seen in the types of vegetables and protein sources recommended and the amount of dairy products and total oil recommended. Overall nutrient values were also similar for most nutrients, except vitamin A, vitamin E, and calcium. These food guides were derived from different types of nutrition research, yet they share consistent messages: eat more fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains; eat less added sugar and saturated fat; and emphasize plant oils. PMID:18313434
\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown
During the latter half o f t he twentieth c entury, the A merican food system wa s tr ansformed by a technological revolution in American agriculture. While these changes provided benefits such as lower-cost food, it also generated concerns that the unconditional embrace of technology would harm rural communities and the environment. Additional concerns were raised about food quality
HEATHER MCILVAINE-NEWSAD; WES TER N I L L I NOI S UNI; V ER S I TY; CHRISTOPHER D. MERRETT; WILLIAM MAAKESTAD; PATRICK MCLAUGHLIN
With the rapid development of economy in China and the acceleration of people's living pace, Chinese fastfood came into a new stage of fast development. However, the western fastfood holds most part of the market, and the situation about the development of Chinese fastfood becomes even worse. Especially the tableware of Chinese fastfood in present market,
Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument.
This study was conducted to help better understand the current sodium intake of Korean children and to establish children's good eating habits through investigation of the sodium content of ready-to-eatfoods collected from nine major amusement parks in Korea. The sodium content of a total of 322 products was analysed by using ICP and then the potential risk based on the recommended daily intake of sodium as described in the Korean dietary reference intakes was determined. The results showed that sodium content was the lowest in muffins (245 mg/100 g) and the highest in seasoned dried filefish (1825 mg/100 g). The average amounts of sodium per serving of seasoned dried filefish, tteokbokki and fish paste were 1150, 1248 and 1097 mg, respectively. The values were above 50% of the daily intake of sodium recommended by the Korean dietary reference intake. The ready-to-eatfoods were also classified into high, medium and low sodium content on the basis of standards recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. Most snacks were classified as high sodium foods because they exceeded "300 mg (84.5% of the total daily allowance)". Furthermore, the meal substitution foods such as kimbab, tteokbokki, mandus, sandwiches and hamburgers exceeded "600 mg (90.3% of the total daily allowance)" and were also classified as high sodium foods. In addition, ready-to-eatfoods in amusement parks are similar to foods eaten on streets and foods around school zones, which contain high sodium content; thus, the intake frequency might be high, which would induce high risk to children health. Koreans already consume a high amount of sodium daily via their usual diets. So, the sodium content in snacks and substitution foods needs to be reduced. Consequently, this study noted that parents and guardians should carefully consider their children's consumption of ready-to-eatfoods from Korean amusement parks. PMID:23822106
Lee, N-Y; Park, S-Y; Lee, Y-M; Choi, S-Y; Jeong, S-H; Chung, M-S; Chang, Y-S; Choi, S-H; Bae, D-H; Ha, S-D
The study provides data on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods from supermarkets in Southern Italy. The pathogen was detected in 105/1045 (10%) RTE food samples. In particular, it was highlighted in 4/392 (1%) pastries, 23/112 (20.5%) vacuum-packaged sliced salami samples, 2/108 (1.9%) cream cheese samples, 31/115 (27%) mayonnaise based deli salads and 45/132 (34.1%) smoked salmon samples. The mozzarella samples were L. monocytogenes negative. Given the considerable public health implications, the study confirms that surveillance of listeriosis in Europe should be improved and coordinated between European Union Member States in order to better estimate the burden of disease and to prevent foodborne outbreaks, assessing the human health risk arising from RTE foods. PMID:20954443
Quantitative analyses of Listeria monocytogenes in imported ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold at retail stores in Japan were performed. Of the 77 non-cooked meat products, 6 samples (7.8%) tested positive. The levels of contamination of 4 of the samples were below 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/g, which is the microbiological criterion for L. monocytogenes in RTE foods as determined by Codex. However, Listeria cells at levels of 100 and 400 CFU/g were detected in a salami sample and a raw ham sample, respectively. All of the 70 cheese samples and the 3 samples made from raw ham and cheese showed negative test results. These results suggest that imported RTE foods are potential sources of the causative agent of listeriosis. PMID:22041477
The market survey covers the fastfood and equipment market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation, and mark...
The author presents arguments for and against placing distributive education cooperative students in fast-food outlets, criteria for selecting training stations and students, and a model training plan outline for job and class instruction. (MF)
The study covers franchises for all of products and services except fast-food. The main products and services subject to franchise in Mexico are: restaurants, dry cleaning, beauty shops, bottled purified water, real estate services, car rental, convenienc...
The market survey covers the fastfood restaurants market in Hong Kong. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Hong Kong consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and ...
A large number of applications exist in fastfood restaurants (5000+ for McDonald's alone) that could benefit from gas fired cogeneration systems. Typically, these applications have long operating hours with relatively constant electrical usage. Although ...
We investigated whether the prevalence of fast-food restaurants in the social ecology are associated with greater financial impatience at the national, neighborhood, and individual level. Study 1 shows that the proliferation of fast-food restaurants over the past 3 decades in the developed world was associated with a historic shift in financial impatience, as manifested in precipitously declining household savings rates. Study 2 finds that households saved less when living in neighborhoods with a higher concentration of fast-food restaurants relative to full-service restaurants. With a direct measure of individuals' delay discounting preferences, Study 3 confirms that a higher concentration of fast-food restaurants within one's neighborhood is associated with greater financial impatience. In line with a causal relationship, Study 4 reveals that recalling a recent fast-food, as opposed to full-service, dining experience at restaurants within the same neighborhood induced greater delay discounting, which was mediated behaviorally by how quickly participants completed the recall task itself. Finally, Study 5 demonstrates that pedestrians walking down the same urban street exhibited greater delay discounting in their choice of financial reward if they were surveyed in front of a fast-food restaurant, compared to a full-service restaurant. Collectively, these data indicate a link between the prevalence of fastfood and financial impatience across multiple levels of analysis, and suggest the plausibility of fastfood having a reinforcing effect on financial impatience. The present investigation highlights how the pervasiveness of organizational cues in the everyday social ecology can have a far-ranging influence. PMID:23773044
Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fastfood industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fastfood companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.
McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U.; Boyd, J. Wesley
Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fastfood industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fastfood companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions. PMID:20395572
Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fastfood outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fastfood outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fastfood outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:? 1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:? 1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fastfood outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:? 0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.
Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bj?rn E.; Due, Pernille
It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and all chains combined.
PICA is an act or habit of eating non-food items such as stone, bricks, chalk, soap, paper, soil etc., It occurs in children who actually start seeing the world through the oral cavity. There are many theories behind it such as iron and zinc deficiency etc., We as dentists should be able to diagnose and treat such conditions, as they may cause ill-effects to the developing dentition. This case report attempt to highlights the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of pica.
PICA is an act or habit of eating non-food items such as stone, bricks, chalk, soap, paper, soil etc., It occurs in children who actually start seeing the world through the oral cavity. There are many theories behind it such as iron and zinc deficiency etc., We as dentists should be able to diagnose and treat such conditions, as they may cause ill-effects to the developing dentition. This case report attempt to highlights the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of pica. PMID:24818086
Objective:To investigate the reproducibility of food consumption frequencies derived from the food frequency section of the Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire (CEHQ-FFQ) that was developed and used in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) project to assess food habits in 2- to 9-year-old European children.Design and methods:From a subsample of 258 children
A Lanfer; A Hebestreit; W Ahrens; V Krogh; S Sieri; L Lissner; G Eiben; A Siani; I Huybrechts; H-M Loit; S Papoutsou; É Kovács; V Pala
The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze messages related to food and eating behavior as presented on prime time television (8:00-11:00 pm) both in programming and commercials. Food references occurred an average of 4.8 times per 30 minutes of programming time. Over half (60 percent) of all food references in programs were for low nutrient beverages and sweets. The prime time diet is inconsistent with dietary guidelines for healthy Americans. PMID:2343968
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fastfood restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fastfood restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. METHODS: Data
Joseph R Sharkey; Scott Horel; Daikwon Han; John C Huber Jr
Eating disorders (ED) are characterized by alterations in food choice and in the quantity and quality of nutrient intake. In a population of 124 female patients with ED (anorexia nervosa restricting subtype [AN-R, n=37]; AN bingeing-purging subtype [AN-BP, n=18]; bulimia nervosa purging subtype [BN-P, n=40]; and binge eating disorder [BED, n=29]) and healthy age-matched controls ([C], n=20) we compared food choice and macronutrient intake with psychopathologic symptoms of the disorders. Data were collected from the probands' 7-day food diaries and the scores from two assessment scales (Eating Disorder Inventory-2 [EDI-2] and Temperament and Character Inventory-revised [TCI-R]) that measure symptom domains, dimensions of personality and character dimensions, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to the nutritional data and scale scores. When compared to the values for the control group, intake of animal proteins (grams) was significantly lower for all patient groups, intake of lactoproteins was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP than BN-P and BED groups, intake of vegetal proteins was higher for the AN-R, AN-BP, BN-P and BED groups, intake of dietary fats was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP subtype groups, and intake of total carbohydrates and oligosaccharides was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP groups, and oligosaccharides also for the BED, when calculated in grams but not when expressed in percent. When studied as percent values animal proteins were lower in patients than in controls, lactoprotein in BN-P and BED, vegetal proteins higher in all the patients, fat lower in AN-R and AN-BP, while carbohydrates did not differ between patients and controls. Significant correlations emerged between food choice and TCI-R and EDI-2 scale scores. Food choice in ED might depend on alterations in neurotransmitter peptides, neuropeptides, and peripheral peptides, which regulate and are regulated by macronutrient intake and underlie psychological and temperamental alterations. PMID:24703769
Segura-García, Cristina; De Fazio, Pasquale; Sinopoli, Flora; De Masi, Roberta; Brambilla, Francesca
Among 48,901 samples of ready-to-eatfood products at the Danish retail market, 0.5% had counts of Bacillus cereus-like bacteria above 10(4) cfu g(-1). The high counts were most frequently found in starchy, cooked products, but also in fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. Forty randomly selected strains had at least one gene or component involved in human diarrhoeal disease, while emetic toxin was related to only one B. cereus strain. A new observation was that 31 out of the 40 randomly selected B. cereus-like strains could be classified as Bacillus thuringiensis due to crystal production and/or content of cry genes. Thus, a large proportion of the B. cereus-like organisms present in food may belong to B. thuringiensis. PMID:16043311
Rosenquist, Hanne; Smidt, Lasse; Andersen, Sigrid R; Jensen, Gert B; Wilcks, Andrea
Ionizing radiation is a safe and effective method for eliminating bacterial pathogens from food products and disinfestation of fruits and vegetables. Since 1980 research has been conducted at USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center pertaining to the elimination of food-borne pathogens from meat, poultry, fruit and vegetable products. Recent work has focused on elimination of pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from ready-to-eat (RTE) food products including hot dogs, bologna, lettuce, cilantro, sprouts and seeds, and frozen vegetables. The ionizing radiation dose required to eliminate those pathogens from RTE foods has been found to be commodity, formulation and temperature dependent. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from RTE food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and organoleptic quality have also been determined. A review of the studies conducted at USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center in 2002 and 2003 is presented in this article.
Food-borne Listeria monocytogenes is a serious threat to human health, and new strategies to combat this opportunistic pathogen in foods are needed. Bacteriophages are natural enemies of bacteria and are suitable candidates for the environmentally friendly biocontrol of these pathogens. In a comprehensive set of experiments, we have evaluated the virulent, broad-host-range phages A511 and P100 for control of L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) and WSLC 1001 (serovar 1/2a) in different ready-to-eat (RTE) foods known to frequently carry the pathogen. Food samples were spiked with bacteria (1 × 103 CFU/g), phage added thereafter (3 × 106 to 3 × 108 PFU/g), and samples stored at 6°C for 6 days. In liquid foods, such as chocolate milk and mozzarella cheese brine, bacterial counts rapidly dropped below the level of direct detection. On solid foods (hot dogs, sliced turkey meat, smoked salmon, seafood, sliced cabbage, and lettuce leaves), phages could reduce bacterial counts by up to 5 log units. Variation of the experimental conditions (extended storage over 13 days or storage at 20°C) yielded similar results. In general, the application of more phage particles (3 × 108 PFU/g) was more effective than lower doses. The added phages retained most of their infectivity during storage in foods of animal origin, whereas plant material caused inactivation by more than 1 log10. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that virulent broad-host-range phages, such as A511 and P100, can be very effective for specific biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in contamination-sensitive RTE foods.
Guenther, Susanne; Huwyler, Dominique; Richard, Simon; Loessner, Martin J.
Food-borne Listeria monocytogenes is a serious threat to human health, and new strategies to combat this opportunistic pathogen in foods are needed. Bacteriophages are natural enemies of bacteria and are suitable candidates for the environmentally friendly biocontrol of these pathogens. In a comprehensive set of experiments, we have evaluated the virulent, broad-host-range phages A511 and P100 for control of L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) and WSLC 1001 (serovar 1/2a) in different ready-to-eat (RTE) foods known to frequently carry the pathogen. Food samples were spiked with bacteria (1 x 10(3) CFU/g), phage added thereafter (3 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(8) PFU/g), and samples stored at 6 degrees C for 6 days. In liquid foods, such as chocolate milk and mozzarella cheese brine, bacterial counts rapidly dropped below the level of direct detection. On solid foods (hot dogs, sliced turkey meat, smoked salmon, seafood, sliced cabbage, and lettuce leaves), phages could reduce bacterial counts by up to 5 log units. Variation of the experimental conditions (extended storage over 13 days or storage at 20 degrees C) yielded similar results. In general, the application of more phage particles (3 x 10(8) PFU/g) was more effective than lower doses. The added phages retained most of their infectivity during storage in foods of animal origin, whereas plant material caused inactivation by more than 1 log(10). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that virulent broad-host-range phages, such as A511 and P100, can be very effective for specific biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in contamination-sensitive RTE foods. PMID:19011076
Guenther, Susanne; Huwyler, Dominique; Richard, Simon; Loessner, Martin J
Background Western-style fastfood contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fastfood intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fastfood items (?2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fastfood intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions.
Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.
BACKGROUND: Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fastfood. METHODS: The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File
Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel
Background A growing body of cross-sectional, small-sample research has led to policy strategies to reduce food deserts – neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy foods – by limiting fastfood restaurants and small food stores and increasing access to supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods. Methods We used 15 years of longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of U.S. young adults (n=5,115, 18–30 years at baseline), with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived food resource measures. Using repeated measures from four examination periods (n=15,854 person-exam observations) and conditional regression (conditioned on the individual), we modeled fastfood consumption, diet quality, and meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations as a function of fastfood chain, supermarket, or grocery store availability (counts per population) within 1 kilometer (km), 1–2.9km, 3–4.9km, and 5–8km of respondents’ homes. Models were sex-stratified, controlled for individual sociodemographics and neighborhood poverty, and tested for interaction by individual-level income. Results Fastfood consumption was related to fastfood availability in low-income respondents, particularly within 1–2.9km of homes among men [coefficient (95% CI) up to: 0.34 (0.16, 0.51)]. Greater supermarket availability was generally unrelated to diet quality and fruit and vegetable intake and relationships between grocery store availability and diet outcomes were mixed. Conclusions Our findings provide some evidence for zoning restrictions on fastfood restaurants within 3km of low-income residents, but suggest that increased access to food stores may require complementary or alternative strategies to promote dietary behavior change.
Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Popkin, Barry M.
Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eating behaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fastfood fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fastfood fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fastfood fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fastfoodfoods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent. PMID:17349717
Staphylococcal food poisoning represents the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. Oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins from food can result in emesis and diarrhea and can be fatal in children and the elderly. Few data have been available on the characteristics and sources of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. In this study, we used a DNA microarray to determine virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles of S. aureus from RTE foods. A total of 267 S. aureus strains isolated from 244 RTE foods were investigated. The isolates originated from precooked foods (41% of isolates), meat and fish products (17%), cheese (13%), delicatessen salads (8%), sandwiches and canapés (8%), confectionery and bakery products (6%), and various other RTE foods (7%). Eleven samples (5%), of which 9 were raw milk cheeses, contained > 10(5) CFU/g, which is considered a health risk. Four S. aureus strains were associated with intoxications; three cases were linked to consumption of cheese and one case was linked to consumption of potato salad. DNA microarray results revealed that one-third of the tested strains had at least one major enterotoxin gene (sea through see). We also detected the toxic shock syndrome gene (18% of isolates) and various genes conferring antimicrobial resistance, including genes involved in resistance to beta-lactams (blaZ, 72% of isolates), methicillin (mecA, 1% of isolates), and vancomycin (vanB, 1% of isolates). S. aureus strains were most frequently assigned to clonal complex (CC) 30 (17% of isolates), CC8 (12%), CC15 (11%), and CC45 (10%), which are commonly detected in humans colonized or infected with S. aureus. Although a large proportion of the tested food items contained milk, we did not detect CC705, the most prevalent clonal complex among S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk. Our results suggest that S. aureus isolates from RTE foods do not commonly originate from animals but more likely come from food handlers who contaminate foods. PMID:24988036
Americans have a growing desire to select foods that promote good health. The Government needs to adopt a set of nutrition principles and provide authoritative guidance on safe levels of intake for controversial dietary substances that have been associate...
Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fastfood outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fastfood, fastfoods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fastfoods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fastfood, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fastfood; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fastfood outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fastfoods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fastfood outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fastfood options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fastfood environment and the availability of healthier fastfood options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify potential targets for intervention.
Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles
Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fastfood. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fastfood (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fastfood, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fastfood, and not just traditional FFR.
Lawsuits brought by obese plaintiffs against fast-food chains have been the subject of some derision in the late-night talk shows and popular press, and have not succeeded so far. But the common law tort theories on which such lawsuits should be grounded are straightforward, unremarkable, and mainstream. This article first offers an overview of obesity-related health problems that can arise from fast-food diets. It then critiques the seminal Pelman v. McDonald's--how it was pleaded and how it should have been pleaded--and offers alternative legal theories under which such lawsuits can be brought in the future. PMID:15702534
Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…
Listeria monocytogenes may be found on ready-to-eat (RTE) meats, posing a public health risk. To minimize the public health impact, an appropriate level of protection (ALOP) can be established for a population with respect to L. monocytogenes, and ideally should be based on a scientific assessment of the risk, as well as societal and economic factors. Food safety systems can
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess long-term changes in food consumption and eating behaviour during and 2 y after dietary counselling in weight-reduced obese men.DESIGN: Observational study from a randomised controlled trial.SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a research institute.SUBJECTS: A total of 36 subjects with complete data on food intake during the study. Subjects were obese (mean body mass index (BMI)
These instructional materials are designed for a course in food production, management, and services for fastfoods. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 15 references; and a…
The effect of storage on sterol oxidation of ready-to-eat infant foods was evaluated. Two different liquid infant foods (honey or fruits flavors), prepared with milk and cereals, were stored for 0, 2, 4, 7 and 9 months at 25 degrees C. Sterol oxidation products (SOP) were isolated by cold saponification, purified by silica solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. beta-Sitosterol was the most representative sterol, followed by cholesterol and campesterol. No significant differences in the total and single SOP content (0.8-1 mg/kg of product) were observed with respect to storage time and type of sample; the main SOP found was 7-ketositosterol (<0.2 mg/kg of product). The extent of stigmasterol oxidation (2.9%) was higher than that of cholesterol (1.9%) and beta-sitosterol (1.4%). The type and quality of raw materials, as well as the processing conditions, seem to greatly influence SOP formation and accumulation in infant foods. PMID:18167071
García-Llatas, Guadalupe; Cercaci, Luisito; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Lagarda, M Jesús; Farré, Rosaura; Lercker, Giovanni
In June 1993 an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection at a primary school in south east England affected 42% of 327 pupils and staff. Attack rates of diarrhoea and fever were 33% for children aged 4 to 8 years, and 8% for those aged 8 to 12 years (p < 0.00001). Illness was associated with eating canteen food (relative risk 5.9; 95% confidence interval 3.4, -10.3). All strains examined were S. sonnei phage type 3, with the same antibiogram (ttSTSS), and were indistinguishable using colicin typing and biotyping (colicin type 9, E8) and pulse field gel electrophoresis. Molecular epidemiology suggested but could not confirm that the outbreak strain was introduced into the school population from the community. PMID:9854890
Maguire, H C; Seng, C; Chambers, S; Cheasty, T; Double, G; Soltanpoor, N; Morse, D
Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fastfood. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fastfood samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fastfood samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fastfood ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fastfood and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.
Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse
Purpose – To explore mothers’ attitudes to fastfood companies’ use of toy premiums as a marketing technique. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two focus groups and 12 individual interviews were conducted with 21 mothers of young children. Findings – The mothers considered toy premiums to be a highly effective form of marketing targeted at their children. Such purchase incentives stimulate a constant
This report details the results of a two-phase program in which the first phase included the successful use of heat reclamation equipment and energy conservation techniques at a typical fast-food restaurant. The project's second phase involved the enginee...
Although calorie information at the point-of-purchase at fastfood restaurants is proposed as a method to decrease calorie choices and combat obesity, research results have been mixed. Much of the supportive research has weak methodology, and is limited. There is a demonstrated need to develop better techniques to assist consumers to make lower calorie food choices. Eating at fastfood
Although calorie information at the point-of-purchase at fastfood restaurants is proposed as a method to decrease calorie choices and combat obesity, research results have been mixed. Much of the supportive research has weak methodology, and is limited. There is a demonstrated need to develop better techniques to assist consumers to make lower calorie food choices. Eating at fastfood
... if they give you diarrhea. Keeping a Food Diary A food diary can help you identify foods that cause diarrhea ... to your bowel control problem. Discuss your food diary with your doctor. For more information about eating ...
The paper describes a mechanistic mathematical model for aroma release in the oropharynx to the nasal cavity during food consumption. The model is based on the physiology of the swallowing process and is validated with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with mass spectrometry measurements of aroma concentration in the nasal cavity of subjects eating flavored yogurt. The study is conducted on 3 aroma compounds representative for strawberry flavor (ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl hexanoate) and 3 panelists. The model provides reasonably accurate time predictions of the relative aroma concentration in the nasal cavity and is able to simulate successive swallowing events as well as imperfect velopharyngeal closure. The most influent parameters are found to be the amount of the residual product in the pharynx and its contact area with the air flux, the volume of the nasal cavity, the equilibrium air/product partition coefficient of the volatile compound, the breath airflow rate, as well as the mass transfer coefficient of the aroma compound in the product, and the amount of product in the mouth. This work constitutes a first step toward computer-aided product formulation by allowing calculation of retronasal aroma intensity as a function of transfer and volatility properties of aroma compounds in food matrices and anatomophysiological characteristics of consumers. PMID:18048371
The expansion of transnational fastfood chains, although concentrated developed countries, has been recently visible in developing countries as well, especially in Latin America and South-east Asia. Large fastfood chains either operate their outlets abr...
Sixty-seven staphylococcal isolates belonging to 12 species were obtained from 70 ready-to-eatfood products. Staphylococcus aureus (n=25), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=13) were dominant. Susceptibility to penicillin, oxacillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin was determined. All investigated S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and fifteen isolates were resistant to four and more antibiotics. Thirty-eight coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and seventeen to four and more antibiotics. Fifteen CNS isolates were mecA positive, and grew in the presence of 6 ?g/mL oxacillin. All S. aureus isolates were mecA-negative. Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was found in seven S. epidermidis isolates. Five S. epidermidis isolates harbored ica operon, ACME and were able to form biofilm. Three of them also possessed IS256 element and were mecA-positive. The expression of icaA gene was comparable in five ica-positive S. epidermidis isolates. One of six mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates was classified as sequence type (ST)155, one as ST110, and two as ST88. Two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermis (MRSE) belonged to new STs, that is, ST362, and ST363. Enterotoxin genes were found in 92% of S. aureus isolates. No enterotoxin gene was detected in analyzed CNS population. We show that ready-to-eat products are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CNS and potentially virulent strains of S. epidermidis, including genotypes undistinguishable from hospital-adapted clones. PMID:21988402
Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystro?, Jaros?aw; Bania, Jacek
There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals' abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age=13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants' responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths' health behaviors. PMID:21094193
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Germeroth, Lisa J; Roemmich, James N
Purpose – To help fast-food restaurants enhance their competitiveness and then increase their market share, the purpose of this paper is to measure the service performances of fast-food restaurant franchises in the USA and identify salient factors influencing the service performances of fast-food restaurants over time. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper develops a set of benchmarks that helps fast-food restaurants monitor
Selenium concentrations were determined via hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in more than 100 convenience and fastfoods including 34 vegetarian dishes. The foods were purchased mainly in Ayrshire, Scotland but some came from other parts of the UK. The results indicate a considerable amount of selenium in certain mushrooms, spinach, fish, offals and chicken-based products. The selenium content of beef- and pork-based products was generally somewhat lower. Vegetarians having a sufficient intake of mushrooms (in particular button and closed cap mushrooms) and spinach do not seem to be at risk of selenium deficiency provided of course that the selenium in mushrooms, in particular, is bioavailable. PMID:8574861
Objectives. Using a sample of elementary and middle school students, we examined the associations between body mass index (BMI), obesity, and measures of the proximity of fastfood and full service restaurants to students' residences. We controlled for socioeconomic status using a novel proxy measure based on housing values. Methods. We used BMI and obesity measures based on height and weight data collected as part of a school health assessment along with geocoded data on addresses of residences and food establishments.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fastfood market and customer attitudes in Russia, and outline successful and questionable strategies of the Western fastfood companies in their attempt to penetrate the Russian market. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The objective has been achieved by reviewing the first Russian entry of the Belgian-French fastfood chain “Quick” by
This study examines whether exposure to supermarkets and fastfood outlets varies with neighborhood-level socioeconomic status in Edmonton, Canada. Only market area and fastfood proximity predicted supermarket exposure. For fastfood outlets, the odds of exposure were greater in areas with more Aboriginals, renters, lone parents, low-income households, and public transportation commuters; and lower in those with higher median
Karen E. Smoyer-Tomic; John C. Spence; Kim D. Raine; Carl Amrhein; Nairne Cameron; Vladimir Yasenovskiy; Nicoleta Cutumisu; Eric Hemphill; Julia Healy
The study is concerned in identifying and comparing the different buying behaviors of Filipino consumers and the marketing practices adopted by eight selected fastfood companies in relation with the four P's of marketing. The fastfood industry is a sub-sector of the larger restaurant industry. There are 15,000 fastfood restaurants operating in Metro Manila. The most common tools
With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fastfood products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fastfood would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fastfood market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared
Elizabeth Dunford; Jacqui Webster; Federica Barzi; Bruce Neal
This paper provides an overview of the application of microeconomic theories in fastfood marketing. The aim is to bring out the interrelationship between marketing and microeconomics with respect to the fastfood industry. The paper examines some conceptual and theoretical tools that will enhance the marketing practices of managers in the fastfood industry. Hence, the marketing aspects of
Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fastfood viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fastfood consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fastfood advertising to
Julie Henderson; John Coveney; Paul Ward; Anne Taylor
Few will disagree that fastfoods are a staple in the diets of many Americans. Even our nation's schools feature vending machines full of foods that are high in calories, short on nutrition, and all too easy to buy. With busy lifestyles and complicated schedules, what are the long term effects of a diet high in saturated fats? What about all the "good carbs" and "bad carbs" we have been hearing so much about?In this three part lesson, students will examine nutrition labels for caloric intake using various snack foods. Then, they will determine the number of calories in a food item. Finally, they will conduct a research project in which they examine the food choices of their classmates.
This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fastfood and if their behaviour is…
Exploring the idea that urban culture has changed food sharing practices and, in effect, produced a cultural "advertisement" in the marketing and selling of the fastfood franchise, this paper discusses the commercial replication of community and the communion of food sharing in this new fastfood culture. Following an introduction that addresses…
The increased availability of highly palatable foods is a major contributing factor toward the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. It has been proposed that compulsive eating may develop as a form of self-medication to alleviate the negative emotional state associated with withdrawal from highly palatable foods. This study was aimed at determining whether withdrawal from chronic, intermittent access to a highly palatable food was responsible for the emergence of depressive-like behavior. For this purpose, a group of male Wistar rats was provided a regular chow diet 7 days a week (Chow/Chow), whereas a second group of rats was provided chow for 5 days a week, followed by a 2-day access to a highly palatable sucrose diet (Chow/Palatable). Following 7 weeks of diet alternation, depressive-like behavior was assessed during withdrawal from the highly palatable diet and following renewed access to it, using the forced swim test, the sucrose consumption test, and the intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure. It was found that Chow/Palatable rats withdrawn from the highly palatable diet showed increased immobility time in the forced swim test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose consumption test compared with the control Chow/Chow rats. Interestingly, the increased immobility in the forced swim test was abolished by renewing access to the highly palatable diet. No changes were observed in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure. These results validate the hypothesis that withdrawal from highly palatable food is responsible for the emergence of depressive-like behavior, and they also show that compulsive eating relieves the withdrawal-induced negative emotional state.
Iemolo, Attilio; Valenza, Marta; Tozier, Lisa; Knapp, Clifford M.; Kornetsky, Conan; Steardo, Luca; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro
The increased availability of highly palatable foods is a major contributing factor toward the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. It has been proposed that compulsive eating may develop as a form of self-medication to alleviate the negative emotional state associated with withdrawal from highly palatable foods. This study was aimed at determining whether withdrawal from chronic, intermittent access to a highly palatable food was responsible for the emergence of depressive-like behavior. For this purpose, a group of male Wistar rats was provided a regular chow diet 7 days a week (Chow/Chow), whereas a second group of rats was provided chow for 5 days a week, followed by a 2-day access to a highly palatable sucrose diet (Chow/Palatable). Following 7 weeks of diet alternation, depressive-like behavior was assessed during withdrawal from the highly palatable diet and following renewed access to it, using the forced swim test, the sucrose consumption test, and the intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure. It was found that Chow/Palatable rats withdrawn from the highly palatable diet showed increased immobility time in the forced swim test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose consumption test compared with the control Chow/Chow rats. Interestingly, the increased immobility in the forced swim test was abolished by renewing access to the highly palatable diet. No changes were observed in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure. These results validate the hypothesis that withdrawal from highly palatable food is responsible for the emergence of depressive-like behavior, and they also show that compulsive eating relieves the withdrawal-induced negative emotional state. PMID:22854309
Iemolo, Attilio; Valenza, Marta; Tozier, Lisa; Knapp, Clifford M; Kornetsky, Conan; Steardo, Luca; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro
The relationship between obesity and the intake of macronutrients and specific foods is uncertain. Thus, there is growing interest in some eating behaviours because they may reflect the joint effect of several foods and nutrients and, thus, increase the likelihood of finding a link to obesity. This study examined the association between selected eating behaviours and excess weight in the general population throughout a systematic review of publications written in English, Spanish or Portuguese identified in a PubMed search up to 31 December 2010. We included 153 articles, 73 of which have been published since 2008. Only 30 studies had a prospective design; of these, 15 adjusted for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and energy or food intake. Moreover, definitions of eating behaviours varied substantially across studies. We found only small or inconsistent evidence of a relationship between excess weight and skipping breakfast, daily eating frequency, snacking, irregular meals, eating away from home, consumption of fastfood, takeaway food intake, consumption of large food portions, eating until full and eating quickly. In conclusion, this review highlights the difficulty in measuring human behaviour, and suggests that a more systematic approach is needed for capturing the effects of eating behaviours on body weight. PMID:21955734
Mesas, A E; Muñoz-Pareja, M; López-García, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F
Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other "heat and eat" multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a "frankfurter on a roll", a "beef cheeseburger on a bun" and a "vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun" was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log 10 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat" sandwich products.
Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fastfood outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms). PMID:11902388
Consumer spending at full-service and fastfood restaurants will continue to grow over the remainder of this decade and the next. However, the larger increase is predicted to occur at full-service restaurants. Simulations assuming modest growth in househo...
Although young African-American males are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American males. This study explored the activities of young African-American males to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited which included five groups of African-American males (15–22 years of age, n=106): high school athletes and non-athletes, college athletes and non-athletes, and non-students. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices over the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, non-student status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American males which take into consideration how school, athletics and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods.
Flint, Tara L.; Morton, Tiffany B.; Johnson, Lakeisha T.; Bell, Nancy M.; Aronson, Robert E.; Wallace, Debra C.
In the Western rich food environment, people are constantly confronted with palatable but unhealthy food products. For those who would like to watch their weight, the appeal of immediate satisfaction is in conflict with their long-term weight watching goal, constituting a classic self-control dilemma. The current studies were designed to test the effect of food temptations on self-regulation mechanisms. Hypotheses were based on counteractive control theory stating that temptations trigger goal-directed behavior, thereby forming an adaptive self-regulation mechanism. Two experimental studies showed that exposure to food temptations, compared to a control condition, yielded enhanced goal importance (Study 1), goal intentions, and goal-directed behavior (i.e., healthy eating; Study 2). It is concluded that confrontation with temptations is not always undermining self-control and may even be beneficial for long-term goal pursuit. PMID:19666065
Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand how food is used to create identity and community for gamers during core rituals. These meanings are to be explored within the broader context of subcultural experience in an investigation of the motives and the self-concept dynamics underlying this symbolic consumer behaviour. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses an interpretive research
... come from matters. If you eat sweets or junk food, the extra calories don't provide the nutrients ... own body. Your health could suffer. Instead of junk food, choose foods that are: High in protein Low ...
When eatingfood containing both liquid and solid phases (two-phase food), the liquid component frequently enters the hypopharynx before swallowing, which may increase the risk of aspiration. We therefore tested whether preswallow bolus transport and swallow initiation would change as the viscosity of two-phase food was increased. Fiberoptic endoscopy was recorded while 18 adult subjects ate 5 g of steamed rice with 3 ml of blue-dye water. Liquid viscosity was set at four levels by adding a thickening agent (0, 1, 2, and 4 wt%, respectively). We measured the timing of the leading edge of the food reaching the base of the epiglottis, as well as the location of the leading edge at swallow initiation. As viscosity increased, the leading edge of the food reached the epiglottis significantly later during chewing and was higher in the pharynx at swallow onset. The time after the leading edge reached the epiglottis did not vary among the viscosities of the two-phase food. This study found that the initial viscosity of two-phase food significantly altered oropharyngeal bolus flow and the timing of swallow initiation. Accordingly, increased two-phase food viscosity may delay food entry into the pharynx and be of use in dysphagic diets. PMID:22653081
Healthy eating is a major concern of the public and has been under-researched for decades. A successful healthy eating campaign can help to raise awareness and in the long run, prevent and minimize long-term diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer. This can also reduce the burden on the National Health Service. For all of these reasons,
Using websites and interactive games students will discover how eating healthy effects their bodies. Healthy eating is important in helping our bodies function at their best! Follow the links below and then answer the questions in our Healthy Foods project folder on our class wiki! VisitDining Decisionsand play a fun game where you will load your lunch tray with healthy choices. How do your current lunch choices ...
There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fastfood restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fastfood television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fastfood among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fastfood advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fastfood. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fastfood advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (?85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. PMID:21439918
Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L
Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument. We find that non-whites tend to exhibit higher obesity rates, greater access to fast-food establishments and higher consumption of fast-food meals compared to their white counterparts. In addition, we found that whites and non-whites respond differently to the availability of fast-food in rural environments. Greater availability is not associated with either greater consumption of fast-food meals or a higher obesity risk among the sample of whites. In contrast, greater availability of fast-food is positively associated with both the number of meals consumed for non-white rural residents and their obesity. While our results are robust to specification, the effect of availability on weight outcomes is notably weaker when indirectly calculated from the implied relationship between consumption and caloric intake. This highlights the importance of directly examining the proposed mechanism through which an environmental factor influences weight outcomes. PMID:22094047
This paper examines the changing nature of the quick-service food industry. From the introduction of the drive-in restaurant to the advent of the fastfood industry to the niche market of fast casual dining we focus on the competitive environment that is clearly representative of a growing demand from value conscious consumers. Coupled with the economic growth post World War
Several studies have shown that food addiction (FA) is strongly related with psychopathology. However, this relationship may be partly mediated by the presence and severity of binge eating. The aim of the current study was to assess the strength of the association between FA and psychopathology, and whether this relationship was mediated by the presence and severity of binge eating. Participants were 112 patients seeking weight loss interventions. All the participants were administered the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), The Symptom Check list-90-R (SCL-90), and the Binge Eating Scale (BES). Thirty-eight (33.9%) individuals were diagnosed as having FA. FA severity was strongly associated with binge eating, whereas both FA and binge eating were positively and moderately associated with psychopathology. A mediational model analyzing direct and indirect (through the mediating role of binge eating) effects of FA on psychopathology indicated that the relation between FA and psychopathology was fully mediated by the severity of binge eating. This finding suggests that FA may contribute to the development of psychopathology through its effect on binge eating. PMID:24889343
Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 h\\/day. Fasting includes avoidance of drinking liquids and eatingfoods. The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting. Methods: Related abstracts from 1960 to 2009 were obtained from Medline and
A large body of literature documents the occurrence of alterations in the physiology of both central and peripheral modulators of appetite in acute patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Until more recently the role of most of the appetite modulators in the control of eating behavior was conceptualized solely in terms of their influence on homeostatic control of energy balance. However, it is becoming more and more evident that appetite modulators also affect the non-homeostatic cognitive, emotional and rewarding component of food intake as well as non food-related reward, and, recently, AN and BN have been pathophysiologically linked to dysfunctions of reward mechanisms. Therefore, the possibility exists that observed changes in appetite modulators in acute AN and BN may represent not only homeostatic adaptations to malnutrition, but also contribute to the development and/or the maintenance of aberrant non-homeostatic behaviors, such as self-starvation and binge eating. In the present review, the evidences supporting a role of leptin, ghrelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and endocannabinoids in the homeostatic and non-homeostatic dysregulations of patients with AN and BN will be presented. The reviewed literature is highly suggestive that changes in the physiology of these modulators may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of eating disorders by providing a possible link between motivated behaviors, reward processes, cognitive functions and energy balance. PMID:23313276
... We can prevent Listeria infections by Identifying outbreaks fast by using special laboratory tests and disease detectives . Rapidly finding and removing contaminated food before people eat it. Using lessons from outbreaks, including environmental investigations, ...
Whether eating out or buying carry-out, Americans are consuming more and more of their calories from full-service and fast-food restaurant fare. The share of daily caloric intake from food purchased and/or eaten away from home increased from 18 percent to...
For its annual symposium in 1984, the Food and Nutrition Board posed the key nutritional question: 'What is America eating.' This resultant volume explains dietary habits, examines the impact of fast-food proliferation and the changing role of women as it...
The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through FastFood (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.
Fraser, Lorna K.; Edwards, Kimberly L.; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P.
The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through FastFood (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. PMID:20623025
Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberly L; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P
Fastfood consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fastfood among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fastfood, median household income, and fastfood restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fastfood consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fastfood was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fastfood consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115
Fastfood consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fastfood among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fastfood, median household income, and fastfood restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fastfood consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fastfood was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fastfood consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents.
The results of a two-phase program in which the first phase included the successful use of heat reclamation equipment and energy conservation techniques at a typical fast-food restaurant are described. The project's second phase involved the engineering, designing, installation and interfacing of a solar collector system at the facility. The report will help to serve as a guide for other restaurants around the state, and possibly the nation, which wish to install energy saving systems, or adopt energy-saving techniques, geared to their special needs and equipment.
Obesity has become a major health problem and epidemic. However, much of the current debate has been fractious and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior or fastfood, personality issues, depression, addiction, or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for epidemic obesity is food addiction, which is associated with both substance-related disorder and eating disorder. Accumulating
Yijun Liu; Karen M. von Deneen; Firas H. Kobeissy; Mark S. Gold
BACKGROUND: Previous research has established that poor diets and eating patterns are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. This study explored the relationships between two specific eating behaviours (daily junk food consumption and irregular eating) and self-reported physical and mental health of secondary school children, and their association with perceived parenting and child health. METHODS: 10?645 participants aged between 12 and 16 completed measures of junk food consumption, irregular eating, parental style, and mental and physical health through the use of an online survey implemented within 30 schools in a large British city. RESULTS: 2.9% of the sample reported never eating regularly and while 17.2% reported daily consumption of junk food. Young people who reported eating irregularly and consuming junk food daily were at a significantly greater risk of poorer mental (OR 5.41, 95% confidence interval 4.03-7.25 and 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.99-3.78) and physical health (OR 4.56, 95% confidence interval 3.56-5.85 and 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.63-2.47). Authoritative parenting was associated with healthier eating behaviours, and better mental and physical health in comparison to other parenting styles. DISCUSSION: A worrying proportion of secondary school children report unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly daily consumption of junk food, which may be associated with poorer mental and physical health. Parenting style may influence dietary habits. Interventions to improve diet may be more beneficial if also they address parenting strategies and issues related to mental and physical health. PMID:23594136
Access to healthy food can be an important determinant of a healthy diet. This paper describes the assessment of access to healthy and unhealthy foods using a GIS accessibility programme in a large outer municipality of Melbourne. Access to a major supermarket was used as a proxy for access to a healthy diet and fastfood outlet as proxy for access to unhealthy food.
Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…
Background: Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who…
Woodruff, Sarah J.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McGoldrick, Kathryn
University campus environments are conducive to the development of disordered eating in students. Busy schedules, easy access to fastfood, and the transition from high school to college contribute to the development of disordered eating in university students. This researcher explored whether a relationship exists between self-reported disordered…
A series of short texts focus on German eating habits and types of eating establishments. Vocabulary is glossed in the margin and each text is followed by comprehension questions. Menus from a restaurant, an inn, and a fast-food restaurant; vocabulary exercises; a word search puzzle and its solution; and directions in English for conversational…
This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fastfood prices and fastfood restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability of full-service restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and commercial physical activity-related facilities.
Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.
Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fastfoods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15–19 years who are in and out of formal schooling and who are randomly representing upper, central and lower Isan. All were asked about their knowledge of fast-food health risks and their attitudes towards, and consumption of, fastfood and traditional food. As well, we used several focus groups to obtain qualitative data to complement the information derived from the questionnaire. Some three quarters of sampled youth were aware that fastfood causes obesity and half knew of the link to heart disease. About half consumed fastfood regularly, induced by the appeal of ‘modern’ lifestyles, social events and marketing, as well as by the convenience, speed and taste. Nearly two-thirds thought that local foods should be more popular and these beliefs were more likely to be found among children from educated and urban families. Local foods already constitute a cultural resistance to fast-food uptake. We propose several methods to boost this resistance and protect the youth of Thailand against fastfood and its many adverse health consequences.
Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian
Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fastfoods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15-19 years who are in and out of formal schooling and who are randomly representing upper, central and lower Isan. All were asked about their knowledge of fast-food health risks and their attitudes towards, and consumption of, fastfood and traditional food. As well, we used several focus groups to obtain qualitative data to complement the information derived from the questionnaire. Some three quarters of sampled youth were aware that fastfood causes obesity and half knew of the link to heart disease. About half consumed fastfood regularly, induced by the appeal of 'modern' lifestyles, social events and marketing, as well as by the convenience, speed and taste. Nearly two-thirds thought that local foods should be more popular and these beliefs were more likely to be found among children from educated and urban families. Local foods already constitute a cultural resistance to fast-food uptake. We propose several methods to boost this resistance and protect the youth of Thailand against fastfood and its many adverse health consequences. PMID:21547247
Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian
Objective?This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children.?Method?Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade).?Results?A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls.?Conclusion?A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade.
Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.
Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fastfoods, fastfoods industry, fastfoods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)
IMPORTANCE Since 2009, quick-service restaurant chains, or fast-food companies, have agreed to depict healthy foods in their advertising targeted at children. OBJECTIVE To determine how children interpreted depictions of milk and apples in television advertisements for children's meals by McDonald's and Burger King (BK) restaurants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Descriptive qualitative study in a rural pediatric practice setting in Northern New England. A convenience sample of 99 children (age range, 3-7 years) was shown depictions of healthy foods in fast-food advertisements that aired from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. The images from McDonald's and BK showed milk and apples. Children were asked what they saw and not prompted to respond specifically to any aspect of the images. EXPOSURE Two still images drawn from advertisements for healthy meals at McDonald's and BK. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Children's responses were independently content coded to food category by 2 researchers. RESULTS Among the 99 children participating, only 51 (52%) and 69 (70%) correctly identified milk from the McDonald's and BK images, respectively, with a significantly greater percentage correct (P?=?.02 for both) among older children. The children's recall of apples was significantly different by restaurant, with 79 (80%) mentioning apples when describing the McDonald's image and only 10 (10%) for the BK image (P?.001). The percentage correct was not associated with age in either case. Conversely, although french fries were not featured in either image, 80 children (81%) recalled french fries after viewing the BK advertisement. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Of the 4 healthy food images, only depiction of apples by McDonald's was communicated adequately to the target audience. Representations of milk were inadequately communicated to preliterate children. Televised depictions of apple slices by BK misled the children in this study, although no action was taken by government or self-regulatory bodies. PMID:24686476
Bernhardt, Amy M; Wilking, Cara; Gottlieb, Mark; Emond, Jennifer; Sargent, James D
Background Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have aberrant cognitions about food and altered activity in prefrontal cortical and somatosensory regions to food images. However, differential effects on the brain when thinking about eatingfood between healthy women and those with AN is unknown. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examined neural activation when 42 women thought about eating the food shown in images: 18 with AN (11 RAN, 7 BPAN) and 24 age-matched controls (HC). Results Group contrasts between HC and AN revealed reduced activation in AN in the bilateral cerebellar vermis, and increased activation in the right visual cortex. Preliminary comparisons between AN subtypes and healthy controls suggest differences in cortical and limbic regions. Conclusions These preliminary data suggest that thinking about eatingfood shown in images increases visual and prefrontal cortical neural responses in females with AN, which may underlie cognitive biases towards food stimuli and ruminations about controlling food intake. Future studies are needed to explicitly test how thinking about eating activates restraint cognitions, specifically in those with restricting vs. binge-purging AN subtypes.
Brooks, Samantha J.; O'Daly, Owen; Uher, Rudolf; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael; Williams, Steven C. R.; Schioth, Helgi B.; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C.
We analyze, using an instrumental variable approach, the effect of the number of fast-food restaurants on school level obesity rates in Arkansas. Using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument, our results suggest that exposure to fast-food restaurants can impact weight outcomes. Specifically, we find that the number of fast-food restaurants within a mile from the school can significantly affect school level obesity rates. PMID:23827821
Alviola, Pedro A; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Thomsen, Michael R; Danforth, Diana; Smartt, James
Background: Larger portion sizes of foods and beverages could affect overall energy intake at meals and promote overeating. Objective: We investigated trends in portion sizes of energy-dense foods and energy intakes at eating occasions in US children and adolescents. Design: Four US nationally representative surveys from 1977 to 2006 were analyzed (n = 31,337). We measured trends in portion sizes (kcal, g, and mL) of selected foods [sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, and Mexican fastfoods] and energy intake (kcal) at eating occasions during which selected foods were consumed. Trends were reported by age group (2–6-, 7–12-, and 13–18-y-olds), sex, and socioeconomic status. Results: In 2003–2006, the selected foods accounted for 38% of daily energy intake in 13–18-y-olds, 35% of the daily energy intake in 7–12-y-olds, and 28% of the daily energy intake in 2–6-y-olds. In all age groups, larger portion sizes of pizza coincided with higher energy intakes at eating occasions during which pizzas were consumed. In 7–12- and 13–18-y-olds, higher energy intakes at meals coincided with larger portion sizes of SSBs, French fries, or salty snacks. In all age groups, nonsignificant larger portions of Mexican fastfoods were related to higher energy intakes at meals. Adolescent boys consumed larger portion sizes of the selected foods and had higher energy intakes at meals for all periods than did girls (P < 0.01). The percentage of kilocalories from pizza within a meal increased more sharply in non-Hispanic African Americans, in Hispanics, and in the group with a low household education than in the other groups. Conclusions: Adolescents are more susceptible to increased portion sizing than are younger children. The group of non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics and individuals with a lower education represents key concerns for public health policies.
Background Very little is known about street food and fastfood consumption patterns in South Africa despite this being a large sector of the national economy in terms of employment provided and sales of food. The objective of this study was to determine the use of street foods and fastfoods purchased by South Africans living in different provinces and geographic areas. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Structured interview-administered questionnaires in 11 official languages were conducted at the participants' homes. A nationally representative sample (n = 3287) was drawn from all ethnic groups, and provinces including participants 16 years and older. Logistic regression was done to evaluate factors impacting on fastfood consumption. Results Frequent (2 ? times/week) street food consumption ranged from 1.8% in Northern Cape to 20.6% in Limpopo; frequent (2 ? times/week) fastfood consumption ranged between 1.5% in North West Province to 14.7% in Gauteng. The highest intake of street food was in the medium socio-economic category (14.7%) while the highest intake of fastfoods was in the high socio-economic category (13.2%). Overall, fruit was the most commonly purchased street food by all ethnic groups over the previous week although this practice was highest in black participants (35.8%). Purchases of soft drinks ranged from 4.8% in whites to 16.4% in blacks and savoury snacks from 2.3% to 14.5% in whites and blacks, respectively. Consumption of fastfoods and street foods were influenced by a number of socio-demographic factors including ownership of major home appliances. Frequent fastfood consumers had a significantly higher dietary diversity score (4.69; p < 0.0001) while frequent street food consumers had a significantly lower score (3.81; p < 0.0001). Conclusions A large percentage of the population purchase street foods and fastfoods. This is of some concern when one notes the high prevalence of soft drink consumption in terms of its association with obesity and non-communicable diseases. These findings need to be taken into consideration when evaluating dietary patterns and nutritional adequacy of population diets.
Background Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies. Objective To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR). Design Two samples of college students who exhibit HDR, which is a group likely to use behavioral strategies to manage intake, were selected in a prescreening session. Participants were told how fast or slow to eat (Variation 1) or allowed to eat at their own pace (Variation 2). Self-reported satiety during the meal and amount consumed was recorded. The types of foods, macronutrient intakes, weights of foods, order of food intakes, and the dimensions of foods were held constant between groups to control for group differences in the sensory and hedonic qualities of the meals. Results Eating slower enhanced mid-meal satiety ratings, but only when instructions were given to eatfast or slow (Variation 1). In both variations, eating slower did not reduce amount consumed in the meal, although each variation had sufficient power to detect differences. Conclusion Eating slower is not likely to be an effective strategy to control intake in a meal among those exhibiting HDR.
Privitera, Gregory J.; Cooper, Kathryn C.; Cosco, Alexis R.
What are Eating Disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely ... participants with eating disorders . Share Science News About Eating Disorders 9 Eating Disorders Myths Busted Biology, Not Just ...
Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach-as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members-were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10-14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452
Picky eating is a relatively common problem during childhood, and parents lack clear strategies with which to decrease picky eating. This study examined whether increasing eating enjoyment and cooking enjoyment might give opportunities to decrease picky eating. Parents (n=305), mainly mothers with children between 6 and 12 years of age (53.8% boys; 46.2% girls), completed a questionnaire on pressure and restriction, eating enjoyment, and picky eating, and cooking enjoyment. Path analyses were performed to examine the mediating role of eating enjoyment. The final model provided a good fit to the data and explained 33% variance in picky eating. A strong inverse association between eating enjoyment and picky eating was found (?=-.44). Significant direct effects were found between cooking enjoyment and picky eating (?=-.16) and restriction and picky eating (?=.18). Eating enjoyment partly mediated the association between cooking enjoyment and picky eating. Results showed pressure had only an indirect effect on picky eating through eating enjoyment. Eating enjoyment serves as an important and central factor in children's picky-eating behavior. High controlling practices might create a negative environment around food and healthy eating and so decrease eating enjoyment and increase picky eating. PMID:22245133
Smoyer-Tomic KE, Spence JC, Raine KD, Amrhein C, Cameron N, Yasenovskiy V, Cutumisu N, Hemphill E, Healy J. The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fastfood outlets.
Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the
Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290
Obese individuals tend to behave more impulsively than healthy weight individuals across a variety of measures, but it is unclear whether this pattern can be altered. The present study examined the effects of a mindful eating behavioral strategy on impulsive and risky choice patterns for hypothetical food and money. In Experiment 1, 304 participants completed computerized delay and probability discounting tasks for food-related and monetary outcomes. High percent body fat (PBF) predicted more impulsive choice for food, but not small-value money, replicating previous work. In Experiment 2, 102 randomly selected participants from Experiment 1 were assigned to participate in a 50-min workshop on mindful eating or to watch an educational video. They then completed the discounting tasks again. Participants who completed the mindful eating session showed more self-controlled and less risk-averse discounting patterns for food compared to baseline; those in the control condition discounted similarly to baseline rates. There were no changes in discounting for money for either group, suggesting stimulus specificity for food for the mindful eating condition. PMID:23685325
This study addresses calls in the literature for the external validation of Western-based marketing concepts and theory in the East. Using DINESERV, the relationships between service quality, overall service quality perceptions, customer satisfaction, and repurchase intentions in the Malaysian fastfood industry are examined. A questionnaire was administered to Malaysian fastfood consumers at a large university, resulting in findings
As the fastfood restaurant industry grows in the Western industrialized world, it has also become increasingly competitive. In such an environment, marketers are concerned about how to increase or maintain market share through better service quality and effective segmentation strategies. This paper reports a two-phase exploratory study conducted to determine the dimensions of service quality in the fastfood
This paper studies how best to estimate the market potential of a fast-food outlet based on customer traveling distance profiles. We selected two outlets from a fast-food chain in Hong Kong, one located in a business district, the other in an urban area, as typical demonstrations. According to the hourly sales indices of either outlet, sales can be categorized into
A NIOSH alert bulletin on the prevention of electrocutions of workers in fastfood restaurants (SIC-5812) is presented. The alert was prompted by the electrocution of an 18 year old male in a fastfood restaurant while on the job, on June 30, 1984. The wo...
Contamination of ready-to-eat products with Listeria monocytogenes may occur at several stages before consumption. Accessibility to the public and relatively limited control interventions at retail and food service establishments (compared with the processing sector of the food industry) and the lack of a specific regulatory framework increase the likelihood of introduction of this pathogen into some foods in these establishments. This review is a compilation of available information on the incidence and transmission of L. monocytogenes through ready-to-eat products at the retail and food service level. The potential transmission of L. monocytogenes within retail and food service operations has been indicated in epidemiological investigations and by survey data. Potential sources of the organism in these operations include the environment, food handlers, and incoming raw ingredients or processed products that have become contaminated after the lethality treatment at the manufacturing facility. L. monocytogenes may be present at retail and food service establishments in various ready-to-eat products, both prepackaged and those packaged in the store, and occasionally at high concentrations. This issue dictates the need for development and application of effective control measures, and potential control approaches are discussed here. Good manufacturing practices, appropriate cleaning, sanitation and hygiene programs, and temperature control required for prevention or inhibition of growth of the pathogen to high levels are critical for control of L. monocytogenes in the retail and food service sector. A comprehensive food safety system designed to be functional in retail and food service operations and based on the philosophy of hazard analysis and critical control point systems and a series of sound prerequisite programs can provide effective control of L. monocytogenes in these environments. However, competent delivery of food safety education and training to retail and food service managers and food handlers must be in place for successful implementation of such a system. PMID:17900099
Rise in the availability of fast-food restaurants has been blamed, at least partly, for the increasing obesity in the U.S. The existing studies of obesity have focused primarily on children, adolescents, and adults, and this paper extends the literature by raising a little-studied question and using nationally representative data to answer it. It examines the relationship between the supply of fast-food restaurants and weight gain of pregnant women and their newborns.
This article examines determinants and patterns of African American men's dietary practices. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze data from nine exploratory focus groups conducted with 83 urban, middle-aged and older African American men from southeast Michigan. The men distinguished between healthy and unhealthy foods and "meals" versus other instances of eating. Eating patterns and content differed depending on the meal, work and family schedules, food availability, and whether it was a weekday or weekend. When eating alone or outside the home, men prioritized convenience and preferences for tasty, unhealthy foods. Men often reported skipping breakfast or lunch and grabbing snacks or fastfood during the day. They emphasized sharing dinner with their spouses and families-usually a home-cooked, "healthy" meal. On weekends, spouses often cooked less and men snacked and dined out more frequently. Sunday dinners involving favorite, unhealthy comfort foods were the highlight of men's eating practices. African American men tended not to follow healthy eating recommendations because of their busy lives, reliance on spouses to prepare food, and preferences for unhealthy foods. These findings suggest that healthy eating interventions must consider how the contexts of African American men's lives shape their eating practices. PMID:22773618
Griffith, Derek M; Wooley, Alana M; Allen, Julie Ober
... Listeria , if it were in the food. Good manufacturing and handling practices must be followed during food ... Cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm. If you use recipes in which eggs remain ...
This study reports the results of evaluation of acrylamide levels in some foods that are common on the Italian market. Three foods commonly found in the national diet (rice, tomato sauce and fastfood), were examined with the gas chromatograph (GC)\\/mass spectrometer (MS) analytical method. Results show that rice differs from risotto with respect to acrylamide levels: values of less
Thirty-four 5- to 11-year-old children, classified as concrete or preoperational on a conservation task, were asked questions during individual interviews about food and snacks, the changes food undergoes, and the effects of food on their bodies. Implications for nutrition curriculum and instruction based on the findings are discussed. (DS)
Objectives:Health Canada proposes to allow manufacturers to add vitamins and minerals to a wide variety of foods at their discretion, a practice that has long been permitted in the United States and Europe. With Health Canada's proposed exclusion of staple and standardized foods from discretionary fortification, questions arise about the nutritional quality of the foods that remain eligible for fortification.
Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fastfood viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fastfood consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fastfood advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fastfood consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fastfood consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fastfood advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility. PMID:19758736
Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne
In this study, we investigated the presence of enteric viruses such as norovirus (NoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), and adenovirus (HAdV), in vegetables available on the Italian markets. For this aim, 110 national and international "ready to eat" samples were collected and analyzed by biomolecular tests and positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. All samples (100 %) were negative for HAV, HEV, and HAdV, while 13.6 % (15/110) were positive for NoV. Actually there is not a formal surveillance system for NoV infections in Italy but we clearly demonstrated a potential risk associated with the consumption of "ready to eat" vegetables. This study confirmed for the first time in Italy the presence of norovirus in semi-dried tomatoes by PCR technique. PMID:23412835
Serracca, Laura; Rossini, Irene; Battistini, Roberta; Goria, Maria; Sant, Serena; De Montis, Gabriella; Ercolini, Carlo
Objective To examine the literature on binge eating to gain a better understanding of its biological foundations and their role in the eating disorders. Method Literature review and synthesis. Results Research using animal models has revealed several factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of binge eating. These factors, including stress, food restriction, the presence of palatable foods, and environmental conditioning, parallel many of the precursory circumstances leading to binge eating in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Discussion The animal literature has opened a new avenue to aid in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of binge eating. Future endeavors examining the genetic and environmental correlates of binge eating behavior will further contribute the understanding the biological foundations of binge eating and assist with establishing diagnostic criteria and the development of novel treatments for eating disorders marked by binge eating.
Background: The relation between body weight and energy-dense foods remains unclear. Objective: We estimated the effects of genetic and environmental factorsoncognitiveandemotionalaspectsofdietingbehavior,body massindex(BMI),andresponsestofattyfoodsandontheirrelations. Design: A total of 1326 adult twin persons (aged 17-82 y; 17% M and 83% F) from the United Kingdom and Finland completed the revised version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ- R18)andreportedthelikinganduse-frequencyof4sweet-and-fatty and salty-and-fatty food items (6
Kaisu Keskitalo; Hely Tuorila; Tim D Spector; Lynn F Cherkas; Antti Knaapila; Jaakko Kaprio; Karri Silventoinen; Markus Perola
Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant PCBs in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in non-urban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning.
Our previous studies in developing countries have indicated that gender differences in intake of luxury foods incur risk of micronutrient deficiencies among women. As the next step, we examined the causes of gender differences in food intake by comparing eating patterns, including meal frequency (skipping) and temporal distribution of food consumption throughout the day among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal. A total of 321 adults (126 men and 195 women) aged 20 years and above were randomly selected from 94 households in three rural communities. A face-to-face questionnaire-based 24-hour dietary recall interview was conducted whereby foods eaten throughout the six eating occasions (morning snack, breakfast, lunch, daytime snack, dinner, and evening snack) were recorded and analyzed. Results shows that men frequently skipped lunch (p <0.001), they also frequently consume daytime snack (p <0.001), and consumed purchased luxury foods such as tea with sugar and milk (p = 0.008) and samosa (p = 0.049) as daytime snack. The six-eating occasion analysis revealed that gender differences in food intake of rural Nepalese adults occurred during lunch and daytime snack, attributing to gender differences in daily activity patterns. PMID:19786393
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To optimize the sanitation treatment of ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate-moisture foods (IMF), the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A (CIP 103575), L. innocua (NTC 11288), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (CECT 443), and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CECT 4972) following treatment with electron-beam irradiation has been studied. As food matrixes, three RTE vacuum-packed products (Iberian dry-cured ham, dry beef [cecina], and smoked tuna) were used. Although an irradiation treatment is not necessary when the 10(2) colony-forming units/g microbiological criterion for L. monocytogenes is applied, a treatment of 1.5 kGy must be applied to IMFs to meet the food safety objective in the case of the "zero tolerance" criterion for the three strains. The IMF products presented negligible modifications of color (L*, a*, and b*), sensory (appearance, odor, and flavor), and rheology (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and breaking strength) parameters at doses lower than 2 kGy. Therefore, the treatment of 1.5 kGy warrants safe IMF with sensory properties similar to those of the genuine products. PMID:22551071
Cambero, María I; Cabeza, María C; Escudero, Rosa; Manzano, Susana; Garcia-Márquez, Irene; Velasco, Raquel; Ordóñez, Juan A
Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:24853524
This study applied and extended the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988) in an examination of the variables influencing fast-food consumption in an Australian sample. Four hundred and four participants responded to items measuring TPB constructs and retrospective and prospective measures of fast-food consumption. Additional independent variables included: Consideration of Future Consequences (Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994), Fear of Negative Evaluation (Leary, 1983), and Self-Identification as a Healthy Eater Scale (Armitage & Conner, 1999a). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine predictors of consumption. SEM indicated that the TPB successfully predicted fast-food consumption. Factor analyses assisted in the definition of constructs that underlay attitudes towards fastfoods. These constructs were included in an 'extended' TPB model which then provided a richer source of information regarding the nature of the variables influencing fast-food consumption. Findings suggest that fast-food consumption is influenced by specific referent groups as well as a general demand for meals that are tasty, satisfying, and convenient. These factors reflect immediate needs and appear to override concerns about longer-term health risks associated with fastfood. Results are discussed in the context of possible applications. PMID:21683749
Dunn, Kirsten I; Mohr, Philip; Wilson, Carlene J; Wittert, Gary A
This study investigated community attitudes to fastfood companies' sponsorship of community events. The aim was to inform future efforts to introduce greater restrictions on these marketing activities to reduce child obesity. While previous research has focused on the sponsorship of sporting events, the present study included all community events and gauged public support for fastfood company sponsorships in general as well as specific sponsorship activities such as securing event naming rights, advertising on event premises, and distributing free items to children in the form of food and redeemable vouchers. A large and diverse sample of Western Australian adults (n=2,005) responded to a community attitudes telephone survey that included questions relating to event sponsorship. Almost half of the respondents reported that the promotion of fastfoods is inappropriate at community events, and only a third considered it appropriate at events where children are likely to be present. Around two-thirds agreed that promoting fastfoods at such events sends contradictory messages to children and just a quarter of respondents considered it acceptable for free fastfood to be distributed at events or for children to be rewarded for participation with fastfood vouchers. The results suggest that efforts to reduce child obesity that involve restrictions on the sponsorship of community events by organisations promoting unhealthy foods may be supported by a substantial proportion of the population. PMID:23017320
Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen
Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fastfoods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994-1998) for 6759 children (2-9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10-18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals' CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fastfood consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2-9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (? ± SE: -0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (? ± SE: -3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10-18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2-9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2-9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables. PMID:21178080
Beydoun, May A; Powell, Lisa M; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa
Though many researchers and media report about the unhealthy nature of fastfoods, American people have developed a taste for fastfoods. Americans also have an increased interest for nutrition in fastfood, as they have become more health conscious. These studies claimed that the trend was that consumers wanted low calorie and light and low fat menu items. In
...against ill or infected employees preparing food, a hand- washing regimen, and a blanket prohibition against bare hand...interventions to prevent or minimize that risk (e.g., hand washing, hand sanitizers, disposable gloves, no bare hand...
Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits following occasionally ingestion of animal tissue (hypothesis 3).
When an infant is brought home to the family, it is often a time of emotional, economic and physical stress due to the extra demands placed on parents. Household food security means "access at all times to enough and nutritionally appropriate food to provide the energy and nutrients needed to maintain an active and healthy life". Questions about food security were asked of 1376 Pacific Island mothers (as part of the Pacific Island Family Study) approximately six weeks after the birth of their baby. Due to lack of money food sometimes ran out in 39.8% of households and in a further 3.8% food often ran out. Variety of foods was limited by lack of money in 39.3%. Foods that were still bought when money was limited included bread (97%), milk (95%), meat and chicken (91%), vegetables and fruit (83%), rice or pasta (82%), breakfast cereals (69%), fish or shellfish (50%) and biscuits or chips (44%). Alcohol (1%), soft drinks (11%), ice cream (12%) and fruit juice (21%) were the least often bought. Energy density (MJ/kg) and nutrient-density of typical foods limited by lack of money were analysed. Rice, bread and fatty meats provided the most calories per dollar and fruit and vegetables the least. The best protein-value for money was from minced beef, chicken and tinned tuna and the most fibre-rich foods included baked beans and mixed vegetables. Food security is a major problem for Pacific families. The environment of food availability, choice and cost requires attention to help close the health gap. PMID:17704026
Background: Pricing strategies are an important component in the marketing mix and may also be useful in stimulating healthier food choices. However, due to competing interests and feasibility problems, the introduction of pricing strategies is complicated. For successfully introducing food pricing strategies, it is essential to explore incentives that are not only promising but also realizable and being approved by
Wilma E. Waterlander; Ingrid H. M. Steenhuis; Vet de E. W. M. L; Albertine J. Schuit; Jacob C. Seidell
Previously we have shown that food-deprived male and female rats inhibit food consumption when presented with a discrete conditioned stimulus that signals danger. Here, in a series of three experiments, we examined whether contextual conditioned stimuli can exert the same effect. Experiment 1 paired a distinct context with footshocks, to examine food intake in food-deprived rats upon re-exposure to the context. Experiment 2 used a discrimination protocol with two alternating contexts; rats were given food in one, and received footshocks in the other. This protocol allowed us to monitor food consumption during training in a context never associated with footshocks, and to evaluate consumption at test in a context that had been previously paired with footshocks. Experiments 1 and 2 compared experimental groups to controls that never received footshocks. Experiment 3 used a within-subjects design to assess the specificity of the inhibition by the contextual cues, separate from any generalized effects due solely to the prior experience of footshocks. Our results demonstrate that similar to discrete cues, contextual cues previously associated with aversive events can inhibit feeding in food-deprived animals. These findings are important for our understanding of environmental contributions to the control of food intake. PMID:23770208
Reppucci, Christina J; Kuthyar, Meghana; Petrovich, Gorica D
This dissertation focuses on a few possible causes and consequences of the sexual division of foraging labor in the Hadza, hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. I present three separate studies; the investigation of foraging goals as reflected in food preferences, the extent of cross-sex food sharing as reflected in consumption, and the consequences as reflected in evidence of the sexual division of
LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify nutrition education strategies that influence food choices of young adults.A key to bridging the gap between nutrition knowledge and application is the presentation of nutrition messages in accessible and usable forms. The purpose of this project was to positively influence the food choices made by students in a university residence hall cafeteria. Two intervention strategies were
E. H. Joyce; C. F. Hanson; L. L. Ebro; W. D. Ward; C. A. Fair
Thought–shape fusion (TSF) is a cognitive distortion that can be induced experimentally and is associated with eating pathology. The current study was conducted in order to elucidate the effects of TSF induction in females with eating disorders (n=35), as well as in restrained eaters (n=38) and unrestrained eaters (n=39). It was hypothesized that TSF induction would result in anxiety, guilt,
Jennifer S. Coelho; Jacqueline C. Carter; Traci McFarlane; Janet Polivy
The growing rates of obesity have prompted comparisons between the uncontrolled intake of food and drugs; however, an evaluation of the equivalence of food- and drug-related behaviors requires a thorough understanding of the underlying neural circuits driving each behavior. Although it has been attractive to borrow neurobiological concepts from addiction to explore compulsive food seeking, a more integrated model is needed to understand how food and drugs differ in their ability to drive behavior. In this Review, we will examine the commonalities and differences in the systems-level and behavioral responses to food and to drugs of abuse, with the goal of identifying areas of research that would address gaps in our understanding and ultimately identify new treatments for obesity or drug addiction. PMID:23007187
DiLeone, Ralph J; Taylor, Jane R; Picciotto, Marina R
Two hundred sixty eight samples of ready-to-eatfoods from retail shops were screened for the presence of Cronobacter by selective enrichment followed by plating on three chromogenic agars (ESIA, ESPM and DFI). Cronobacter was isolated from 14/23 samples of sprouts and fresh herbs/salads (60.9%), 7/26 samples of spices and dried herbs (26.9%) and 3/42 confectionery samples (7.1%). In cases where repeat samples were available, foods positive for Cronobacter were retested twice. In total, 54 Cronobacter isolates from 24 foods were recovered and genetic fingerprint patterns generated using PFGE. Identical PFGE-profiles were generated for Cronobacter isolates from five samples of two confectionery products obtained from a particular bakery shop over a period of 11 months. This may indicate a persistent contamination of the production site. For all other isolates, no clustering by phylogenetic analysis of PFGE-profiles was observed, indicating the sporadic nature of Cronobacter in ready-to-eatfoods. Enterobacterial counts varied from a maximum value of 2.9 x 10(7) CFU/g (in dill) to a minimum value of <10 CFU/g (in confectionery and dried herbs/spices). There was no correlation between Enterobacterial count and the presence of Cronobacter. Cronobacter may be regularly imported into private households via ready-to-eatfoods. PMID:19419789
Baumgartner, Andreas; Grand, Marius; Liniger, Marianne; Iversen, Carol
Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fastfoods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fastfoods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fastfoods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fastfood companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fastfood composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fastfoods.
Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fastfood intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fastfood consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fastfood intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B1 (P = 0.008), phosphorus (P = 0.0250), selenium (P < 0.001) and vitamin B2 (P = 0.012) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fastfood intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fastfoods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P = 0.0001) and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Fastfood consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings.
This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fastfood prices and fastfood restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability of full-service restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and commercial physical activity-related facilities. The longitudinal individual-level fixed effects results confirm cross-sectional findings that the price of fastfood but not the availability of fastfood restaurants has a statistically significant effect on teen BMI with an estimated price elasticity of -0.08. The results suggest that the cross-sectional model over-estimates the price of fastfood BMI effect by about 25%. There is evidence that the weight of teens in low- to middle-socioeconomic status families is most sensitive to fastfood prices. PMID:19732982
Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fastfood intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fastfood consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fastfood intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B(1) (P = 0.008), phosphorus (P = 0.0250), selenium (P < 0.001) and vitamin B(2) (P = 0.012) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fastfood intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fastfoods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P = 0.0001) and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Fastfood consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22619703
Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fastfood (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and plasma triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). We used 3 waves of data (exam y 7, 10, and 20) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, a prospective cohort study of black and white young adults [aged 25-42 y in 1992-93, n = 3643 (men, 1659; women, 1984)]. Individuals in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of baseline (defined as the mean of y 7 and 10) fastfood consumption had higher y 20 weight [adjusted mean (95% CI): 5.6 kg (CI, 2.1, 9.2); P = 0.002], HOMA-IR [0.9 (CI, 0.4, 1.3); P < 0.001], waist circumference [5.3 cm (CI, 2.8, 7.9); P < 0.000], TG concentrations [0.25 mmol/L (CI, 0.10, 0.40), 22.7 mg/dL (CI, 9.1, 36.3); P = 0.001], and lower HDL-C concentrations [-0.014 mmol/L (CI, -0.215, -0.067), 5.4 mg/dL (CI, -8.3, -2.6); P < 0.000]. Baseline restaurant consumption was unrelated to y 20 outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant (P < 0.05) and fastfood intake (P < 0.001) was associated with 13-y changes in body weight [0.09 kg (CI, 0.02, 0.17) and 0.15 kg (CI, 0.06, 0.24), respectively] and waist circumference [0.08 cm (CI, 0.02, 0.14) and 0.12 cm (CI, 0.04, 0.20), respectively]. Fastfood consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes. PMID:19776183
Duffey, Kiyah J; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R; Popkin, Barry M
... 05 significance level with the appropriate degrees of freedom. To test for linear trends among ordinal groups, ... Vinyard BT. Fastfood consumption of U.S. adults: Impact on energy and nutrient intakes and overweight status. ...
This thesis examines how an integrative and preventative healing center is necessary for the wellness of our society and military personnel by understanding how food can react positively or negatively to someone's health depending on their blood type and ...
United States Department of Agriculture Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion FAT ... back on foods high in solid fats, added sugars, and salt. find out what you need Get your personalized plan by using the ...
The introduction of several Not-Ready-to-Eat (NRTE) products, beginning in 2007, has resulted in several recalls and has caused serious concerns about their safe-cooking in microwave ovens. These products are not fully-thermally processed prior to sale but depend upon the consumer to finish cooking them to the safe minimum temperatures, defined by the USDA, in order to destroy any sources of foodborne illnesses. While microwave ovens are a primary means of this finish-cooking step, they are known to cook foods unevenly in terms of temperature distribution, especially from a frozen state, and this may cause parts of the food to be below the required safe-temperature. Hence there are concerns regarding how reliably microwave ovens can provide the minimum required safe temperatures in order to avoid the possibility of foodborne illnesses. To determine this, temperature profiling tests were preformed upon three frozen NRTE entrées, heating them in eight new brand-name 1100-watt and 1200-watt microwave ovens in order to evaluate how well the minimum temperatures were reached throughout the products. By comparison, these same tests were repeated using three "smart" microwave ovens in which internal computer-control makes them user-independent. In addition, a comparison was also made of the microwave output power claimed by the manufacturers of these ovens to that determined using the IEC procedures. PMID:24779134
Food-borne Listeria monocytogenes is a serious threat to human health, and new strategies to combat this opportunistic pathogen in foods are needed. Bacteriophages are natural enemies of bacteria and are suitable candidates for the environmentally friendly biocontrol of these pathogens. In a comprehensive set of experi- ments, we have evaluated the virulent, broad-host-range phages A511 and P100 for control of
Susanne Guenther; Dominique Huwyler; Simon Richard; Martin J. Loessner
Opioid antagonism and serotonergic stimulation is associated with macronutrient-specific hypophagia in animals. In the present study we evaluated their systemic effect alone, and in combination, at various doses, on the intake of sweet carbohydrate-rich and sweet fat-rich foods, tastes, and nutrients that are typical of binge-food items. Low-dose (1 mg\\/kg) naloxone, alone, preferentially suppressed fat-rich intake while low-dose (2.5 mg\\/kg)
M. M Hagan; F. D Holguin; C. E Cabello; D. R Hanscom; D. E Moss
The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fastfood restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fastfood density in New York City. We found that predominantly Black areas had higher densities of fastfood than predominantly White areas; high-income Black areas had similar exposure as low-income Black areas; and national chains were most dense in commercial areas. The results highlight the importance of policy level interventions to address disparities in food environments as a key goal in obesity prevention efforts. PMID:18722151
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Yau, Chun-Yip; Loh, Ji-Meng; Williams, Donya
Food insecurity is linked to higher weight gain in pregnancy, as is dietary restraint. We hypothesized that pregnant women exposed to marginal food insecurity, and who reported dietary restraint before pregnancy, will paradoxically show the greatest weight gain. Weight outcomes were defined as total kilograms, observed-to-recommended weight gain ratio, and categorized as adequate, inadequate or excessive weight gain based on 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A likelihood ratio test assessed the interaction between marginal food insecurity and dietary restraint and found significant. Adjusted multivariate regression and multinomial logistic models were used to estimate weight gain outcomes. In adjusted models stratified by dietary restraint, marginal insecurity and low restraint was significantly associated with lower weight gain and weight gain ratio compared to food secure and low restraint. Conversely, marginal insecurity and high restraint was significantly associated with higher weight gain and weight gain ratio compared to food secure and high restraint. Marginal insecurity with high restraint was significantly associated with excessive weight gain. Models were consistent when restricted to low-income women and full-term deliveries. In the presence of marginal food insecurity, women who struggle with weight and dieting issues may be at risk for excessive weight gain. PMID:23402720
Laraia, Barbara; Epel, Elissa; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria
Food insecurity is linked to higher weight gain in pregnancy, as is dietary restraint. We hypothesized that pregnant women exposed to marginal food insecurity, and who reported dietary restraint before pregnancy, will paradoxically show the greatest weight gain. Weight outcomes were defined as total kilograms, observed-to-recommended weight gain ratio, and categorized as adequate, inadequate or excessive weight gain based on 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A likelihood ratio test assessed the interaction between marginal food insecurity and dietary restraint and found significant. Adjusted multivariate regression and multinomial logistic models were used to estimate weight gain outcomes. In adjusted models stratified by dietary restraint, marginal insecurity and low restraint was significantly associated with lower weight gain and weight gain ratio compared to food secure and low restraint. Conversely, marginal insecurity and high restraint was significantly associated with higher weight gain and weight gain ratio compared to food secure and high restraint. Marginal insecurity with high restraint was significantly associated with excessive weight gain. Models were consistent when restricted to low-income women and full-term deliveries. In the presence of marginal food insecurity, women who struggle with weight and dieting issues may be at risk for excessive weight gain.
Soft drink and fastfood are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fastfood consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in
Elizabeth Denney-Wilson; Anthony D Okely; Louise Hardy; David Crawford; Timothy Dobbins
Purpose – Aims to investigate the effect of communicating corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to young consumers in the UK on their fast-food purchasing with reference to McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Focus groups were conducted to clarify themes and inform a questionnaire on fast-food purchasing behaviours and motives. Attitude statements were subjected to an exploratory factor
This work was performed to investigate the effect of duration of fasting in the responses of chickens peripherally injected with histamine on the regulation of food intake. The animals were 16-week-old male chickens from layer-strain and the doses of histamine used were 500 and 1000 ?g\\/kg of body weight. The non fasted chickens showed no effect of histamine on the food
Whole-grain diets are linked to reduced risk of several chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome) and all-cause mortality. There is increasing evidence that these benefits are associated with the gut microbiota and that release of fibre-related phenolic metabolites in the gut is a contributing factor. Additional sources of these metabolites include fruits and vegetables, but the evidence for their protective effects is less well established. With respect to the availability of bound phytophenols, ready-to-eat cereals are compared with soft fruits (considered rich in antioxidants) and other commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The results demonstrated that when compared with an equivalent serving of fruits or vegetables, a recommended portion of whole-grain cereals deliver substantially higher amounts of bound phytophenols, which are available for metabolism in the colon. The increased amount of these phenolic metabolites may, in part, explain the evidence for the protective effects of whole-grain cereals. PMID:23871037
Neacsu, M; McMonagle, J; Fletcher, R J; Scobbie, L; Duncan, G J; Cantlay, L; de Roos, B; Duthie, G G; Russell, W R
Processed foods are an insufficiently characterized source of chemical mutagens for consumers. Here, we evaluated the genotoxicity of selected food products in Finland. Mutagenicity was determined by the standard plate incorporation assay followed by methylcellulose overlay and treat-and-wash assays, using the Salmonella strains TA 100 and 98 with and without metabolic activation. Generally, the mutagenic activity of food samples was low, but exhibited lot-wise variation. Cold cuts of cold-smoked beef, grilled turkey, and smoked chicken (a single batch of each) were mutagenic in all three assays with the TA 100 strain with and without metabolic activation, indicating the mutagenic effect was not secondary to histidine release from the food products. However, none of the food extracts showing mutagenic potential induced DNA damage in vitro using the Comet Assay. Our findings imply that in Finland today, there are still products the production methods of which should be refined to reduce the potential risk of mutagenicity to consumers. PMID:24874377
The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…
Childhood obesity is a social and health problem that is encouraged by junk food ads and the easy availability of unhealthful fastfoods. The article provides guidance for parents to encourage healthy eating by their children; it includes a list of resources and a list of "best" processed foods. (SM)
Despite big differences in culture, types of food, retail environments and the brands on offer, the loyalty of Australian and Taiwanese consumers to fastfood outlets is nearly identical. In both countries, a third of buyers purchase from the same branded outlet twice in a row, while two thirds buy from a different outlet, usually of a bigger brand. This
Purpose – The objective of this study is to modify the SERVPERF scale by incorporating the additional dimension of recoverability, and to empirically test and refine the modified SERVPERF instrument using survey data from China. The study aims to assess the potential antecedents of customer satisfaction in the fastfood industry in China. The antecedents include service quality, food quality,
Purpose – This study aims to explore the potential dimensions of service quality, and examine the relationship among service quality, food quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions in fast-food restaurants (FFRs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The construct reliability and validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was employed to estimate the relationship among
There is an increasing need for applications in food and environmental areas able to cope with a large number of analytes in very complex matrices. The new analytical procedures demand sensitivity, robustness and high resolution within an acceptable analysis time. The purpose of this review is to describe new trends based on fast liquid chromatography applied to the food and
Oscar Núñez; Héctor Gallart-Ayala; Claudia P. B. Martins; Paolo Lucci
This paper presents a new method of assessing the relationship between features of the built environment and obesity, particularly in urban areas. Our empirical application combines georeferenced data on the location of fast-food restaurants with data about personal health, behavioral, and neighborhood characteristics. We define a 'local food environment' for every individual utilizing buffers around a person's home address. Individual food landscapes are potentially endogenous because of spatial sorting of the population and food outlets, and the body mass index (BMI) values for individuals living close to each other are likely to be spatially correlated because of observed and unobserved individual and neighborhood effects. The potential biases associated with endogeneity and spatial correlation are handled using spatial econometric estimation techniques. Our application provides quantitative estimates of the effect of proximity to fast-food restaurants on obesity in an urban food market. We also present estimates of a policy simulation that focuses on reducing the density of fast-food restaurants in urban areas. In the simulations, we account for spatial heterogeneity in both the policy instruments and individual neighborhoods and find a small effect for the hypothesized relationships between individual BMI values and the density of fast-food restaurants. PMID:22911977
Chen, Susan Elizabeth; Florax, Raymond J; Snyder, Samantha D
Morgan Spurlock's recent documentary and extended nutrition experiment has garnered great attention, both in the United States and abroad. By now, most people know that the documentary consists of him making his way to McDonalds and eating there several times a day for 30 days in a row. Since its release, the film has also done quite well, as it passed the 200-screen week this past week, and has already grossed over $6 million. Things continue to look positive for Spurlock as he has recently signed a tentative book deal, and has also just signed a deal to create a one-hour reality television show. All is not completely tranquil, as a number of critics and other pundits have begun to embark on their own separate projects that emphasize personal responsibility when it comes to eating habits and such matters. One such critic is Soso Whaley, an animal trainer based in Washington, DC, who is making her own documentary where she also eats at McDonald's for thirty days. The twist is that she eats the healthier options available on their menu, and as a result loses weight and her cholesterol also drops significantly. She plans to enter her film in the Sundance Film Festival as well, thereby keeping the ball rolling on the whole debate for at least another year.The first link leads to a good piece in the Guardian that talks both about the film itself and the interesting response from a number of parties, including critics of Mr. Spurlock's message and methods. The second link offers a recent interview transcript with Mr. Spurlock that includes answers to such thorny questions as: What book are you currently reading?. The third link will take visitors to the site that provides information on the documentary being made by Soso Whaley that attempts to debunk Spurlock's work. The fourth link leads to one conservative thinktank's webpage that attempts to address some of the inherent scientific problems with Spurlock's work. The fifth link (which is probably the most fun) is the link to the Super Size Me homepage, where visitors can view a trailer for the film and view stills from the movie. The sixth and final link leads to a listing of America's "fattest and fittest" cities for the year 2004, provided by Men's Health magazine. The "fattest" city, as determined by the survey, is Detroit, while the "fittest" happens to be Honolulu. [KMG
The total Brazilian market of hotel and restaurant equipment reached about $120 million in 1992, of which $28.5 million were imports. The fastest growing segment of the sector is the fastfood and restaurant equipment, in view of the growth of the fast fo...
The influx of enterococcal antibiotic resistance (AR) and virulence genes from ready-to-eatfood (RTEF) to the human digestive tract was assessed. Three RTEFs (chicken salad, chicken burger, and carrot cake) were sampled from five fast-food restaurants five times in summer (SU) and winter (WI). The prevalence of enterococci was significantly higher in SU (92.0% of salad samples and 64.0% of burger samples) than in WI (64.0% of salad samples and 24.0% of burger samples). The overall concentrations of enterococci during the two seasons were similar ( approximately 10(3) CFU/g); the most prevalent were Enterococcus casseliflavus (41.5% of isolates) and Enterococcus hirae (41.5%) in WI and Enterococcus faecium (36.8%), E. casseliflavus (27.6%), and Enterococcus faecalis (22.4%) in SU. Resistance in WI was detected primarily to tetracycline (50.8%), ciprofloxacin (13.8%), and erythromycin (4.6%). SU isolates were resistant mainly to tetracycline (22.8%), erythromycin (22.1%), and kanamycin (13.0%). The most common tet gene was tet(M) (35.4% of WI isolates and 11.9% of SU isolates). The prevalence of virulence genes (gelE, asa1, cylA, and esp) and marker genes for clinical isolates (EF_0573, EF_0592, EF_0605, EF_1420, EF_2144, and pathogenicity island EF_0050) was low (< or =12.3%). Genotyping of E. faecalis and E. faecium using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the food contamination likely originated from various sources and that it was not clonal. Our conservative estimate (single AR gene copy per cell) for the influx of tet genes alone to the human digestive tract is 3.8 x 10(5) per meal (chicken salad). This AR gene influx is frequent because RTEFs are commonly consumed and that may play a role in the acquisition of AR determinants in the human digestive tract. PMID:17766449
... of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa , bulimia nervosa , and binge eating disorder . People with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa tend ... kidney problems • Severe dehydration from purging of fluids Binge Eating Disorder Presently, the criteria for binge eating disorder are ...
One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.
The dietary intake of children in the United Kingdom and other minority world countries is an area that is causing increasing concern. These concerns are often expressed around the high levels of childhood obesity and the early onset of dental caries. In this review of the literature, I examine a range of approaches to the study of food and…
The Summer Food Program (SFP) is a federally funded program designed to feed needy children during school vacations from May through September. Children may be fed breakfasts, lunches, and suppers, plus two snacks, up to seven days a week. All meals must be served free to all children. The program provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve…
The three members of the prime crew of the first manned Skylab mission dine on specially prepared Skylab space food in the wardromm of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer during Skylab training at the Johnson Space Center. They are, left to right, Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, science pilot; Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, pilot; and Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander.
An understanding of foraging behavior is crucial to understanding higher level community dynamics; in particular, there is\\u000a a lack of information about how different species discover food resources. We examined the effect of forager number and forager\\u000a discovery capacity on food discovery in two disparate temperate ant communities, located in Texas and Arizona. We defined\\u000a forager discovery capacity as the
Jessica M. C. Pearce-Duvet; Martin Moyano; Frederick R. Adler; Donald H. Feener Jr
Results: The mean±SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37±0.45 (median, 0.20; in- terquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (P.001), indicating that children preferred the tastes of foods and drinks if they thought they were from McDonald's. Moderator analysis found significantly greater effects of branding among children with more televi- sion sets in their homes
Thomas N. Robinson; Dina L. G. Borzekowski; Donna M. Matheson; Helena C. Kraemer
Background: Several fastfood companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fastfood chains. Methods: Data on salt content for products served by six fastfood chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. Results: We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). Interpretation: The salt content of fastfoods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fastfood companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health.
This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, (408) 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet/physical activity mediators at baseline. After randomization, they were asked to log onto either the intervention or the control condition website weekly for 8 weeks to review web content and set goals to improve dietary and physical activity behaviors. Post-test occurred after 8 weeks. Logistic regression analyses and one-way analyses of covariance were used in the analyses. At post, more intervention group adolescents reported eating three or more daily vegetable servings in the past week compared with the control group (P < 0.05); both groups reported significant increases in physical activity (P < 0.001) and significant decreases in TV watching (P < 0.01). Average log on rate was 75% over the 8 weeks; there was no difference by condition. The website enabled adolescents to improve vegetable intake and daily physical activity, reduce sedentary behavior and had a high log on rate. Future research should identify effective methods for disseminating this website to wider audiences. PMID:23748162
This activity is on page 10 (continued on the right side of page 11) of the pdf, part of the Forest Animals Discovery Box. In this game, learners act out the food web. They are introduced to the idea of the food chain in the "Who Eats What" book and then divide into two groups. Learners pretend to be either a bear, deer, or grass and play a game like "Rock, Paper, Scissor" to simulate how the bear eats the deer and the deer eats the grass. Learners compete to "win."
A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fastfood outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fastfood outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fastfood outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fastfood outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445
Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D
An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...
Trophic levels are critical for synthesizing species’ diets, depicting energy pathways, understanding food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning, and monitoring ecosystem health. Specifically, trophic levels describe the position of species in a food web, from primary producers to apex predators (range, 1–5). Small differences in trophic level can reflect large differences in diet. Although trophic levels are among the most basic information collected for animals in ecosystems, a human trophic level (HTL) has never been defined. Here, we find a global HTL of 2.21, i.e., the trophic level of anchoveta. This value has increased with time, consistent with the global trend toward diets higher in meat. National HTLs ranging between 2.04 and 2.57 reflect a broad diversity of diet, although cluster analysis of countries with similar dietary trends reveals only five major groups. We find significant links between socio-economic and environmental indicators and global dietary trends. We demonstrate that the HTL is a synthetic index to monitor human diets and provides a baseline to compare diets between countries.
Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dubroca, Laurent; Le Pape, Olivier; Barde, Julien; Kaplan, David M.; Chassot, Emmanuel; Nieblas, Anne-Elise
Trophic levels are critical for synthesizing species' diets, depicting energy pathways, understanding food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning, and monitoring ecosystem health. Specifically, trophic levels describe the position of species in a food web, from primary producers to apex predators (range, 1-5). Small differences in trophic level can reflect large differences in diet. Although trophic levels are among the most basic information collected for animals in ecosystems, a human trophic level (HTL) has never been defined. Here, we find a global HTL of 2.21, i.e., the trophic level of anchoveta. This value has increased with time, consistent with the global trend toward diets higher in meat. National HTLs ranging between 2.04 and 2.57 reflect a broad diversity of diet, although cluster analysis of countries with similar dietary trends reveals only five major groups. We find significant links between socio-economic and environmental indicators and global dietary trends. We demonstrate that the HTL is a synthetic index to monitor human diets and provides a baseline to compare diets between countries. PMID:24297882
Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dubroca, Laurent; Le Pape, Olivier; Barde, Julien; Kaplan, David M; Chassot, Emmanuel; Nieblas, Anne-Elise
Although U.S. obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes. PMID:24800064
Robles, Brenda; Smith, Lisa V; Ponce, Mirna; Piron, Jennifer; Kuo, Tony
Although US obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes.
Background. Fastfood has become a prominent feature of the diet of children in the United States and, increasingly, throughout the world. However, few studies have examined the effects of fast-food con- sumption on any nutrition or health-related outcome. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that fast-food consumption adversely affects dietary factors linked to obesity risk.
Shanthy A. Bowman; Steven L. Gortmaker; Cara B. Ebbeling; Mark A. Pereira; David S. Ludwig
U.S. consumer expenditures on meals outside the home have been increasing for several decades. Between 1960 and 1994, the proportion of total food expenditures spent on food away from home increased from just over 26 percent to nearly 50 percent. Over much of this period, fastfood has been the most rapidly growing segment of the food away from home
Franchising is a fast growing sector in Brazil. Total revenues in 1992 reached $5.0 billion (excluding the fuel distribution, automobile distribution and beverage bottling segments). This represents a growth of 33.5% over the 1991 figures. In 1992 the num...
... defiant, you may just start an unnecessary war. Children mimic adult behavior, and if another family member will not eat new foods, you cannot expect your child to experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. ...
Rise in the availability of fast-food restaurants has been blamed, at least partly, for the increasing obesity in the U.S. The existing studies of obesity have focused primarily on children, adolescents, and adults, and this paper extends the literature by raising a little-studied question and using nationally representative data to answer it. It examines the relationship between the supply of fast-food restaurants and weight gain of pregnant women and their newborns. I study prenatal weight gain because excessive weight gain has been linked to postpartum overweight/obesity and I study both tails of the birthweight distribution because the origin of obesity may be traced to the prenatal period and both tail outcomes have been associated with obesity later in life. I merge the 1998 and 2004 Natality Detail Files with the Area Resource File, and County Business Patterns, which provide data on the number of fast-food restaurants in the metropolitan area where the mother resides. The empirical model includes an extensive list of MSA characteristics and MSA fixed effects to control for factors that may be correlated with both health outcomes and restaurants' location decision. Results reveal that the fast-food and weight gain relationship is robust to the inclusion of these controls but these controls greatly mitigate the fastfood-infant health relationship. Greater access to fast-food restaurants is positively related to mothers' probability of excessive weight gain but it does not share a statistically significant relationship with birthweight. These relationships hold in all the socioeconomic and demographic subgroups studied. PMID:21807570
The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fastfood chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fastfood stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fastfood restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fastfood restaurants. PMID:22019449
The Australian food-services business is worth an estimated AUD$24 billion, of which the fast-food industry is one of the fastest-growing segments. The industry is dominated by a number of fiercely competitive multinational chains, and price is a common strategy to increase market share. However, in view of changing customer expectations and the growing multicultural market, the industry is becoming aware
Tajulurrus Mohammad; Sunita Barker; Jay Kandampully
1. Growing male chickens of broiler and layer strains were allowed to eat either a high?protein food (HP) or a low?protein food (LP) for 10 min after an overnight fast and then offered a choice between HP and LP. During the next hour they ate significandy more of the food other than die initial meal. Similar results were obtained when
During a 10-year inspection survey (2001-2010), a microbiological study of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and ready-to-bake frozen pastries from 15 canteens of the university campus was undertaken to determine their microbiological quality. The cumulative study revealed that the aerobic colony counts for the RTE product groups were as follows: from 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/g for 50% of sandwiches; under the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) for 88.6% of oven baked pastries; <10(5) CFU/g for 86.5% of desserts oven baked; from 10(3) to 10(9) CFU/g for desserts with dairy cream. The highest mean Enterobacteriaceae counts were recorded for desserts with dairy cream. The highest percentages of foodborne pathogens were: 20% Listeria monocytogenes and 12.5% Staphylococcus aureus in desserts with dairy cream; 17.5% Salmonella spp. and 8.5% presumptive Escherichia coli O157 in sandwiches; 14.6% Bacillus cereus in oven baked pastries. Aerobic colony counts were in the range 10(7)-10(8) CFU/g for 48.8% of frozen pastries; whereas Enterobacteriaceae counts between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/g were detected in 35.3%. Foodborne pathogens prevalences for frozen pastries were as follows: B. cereus, 31.8%; Salmonella spp., 28.6%; presumptive E. coli O157, 25%; S. aureus, 8.7%; L. monocytogenes, 8.7%. Improved sanitary conditions in the processing plants and precautionary measures are necessary for consumer protection. PMID:23541200
The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1) and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3), respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre-clinical testing (toxicology testing and efficacy in mouse models), SCIT with alum-absorbed hypoallergens will be evaluated in phase I/IIa and IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) clinical trials, with the DBPC food challenge as primary read-out. To understand the underlying immune mechanisms in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold for fish or peach intake, thereby decreasing their anxiety and dependence on rescue medication.
Background Both insufficiency and resistance to the actions of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin promote hunger, increased food intake, and greater body weight. Some studies suggest adults reporting binge eating have increased serum leptin compared to those without binge eating, even after adjusting for the greater adiposity that characterizes binge eaters. Pediatric binge or loss of control (LOC) eating are prospective risk factors for excessive weight gain and may predict development of metabolic abnormalities, but whether LOC eating is associated with higher leptin among children is unknown. We therefore examined leptin and LOC eating in a pediatric cohort. Methods A convenience sample of 506 lean and obese youth (7–18y) was recruited from Washington, DC and its suburbs. Serum leptin was collected after an overnight fast. Adiposity was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or air displacement plethysmography. LOC eating was assessed by interview methodology. Results Leptin was strongly associated with fat mass (r=.79, p<.001). However, even after adjusting for adiposity and other relevant covariates, youth with LOC eating had higher serum leptin compared to those without LOC episodes (15.42±1.05 vs. 12.36±1.04 ng/mL, p<.001). Neither reported amount of food consumed during a recent LOC episode nor number of LOC episodes in the previous month accounted for differences in leptin (ps>.05). The relationship between LOC eating and leptin appeared to be significant for females only (p=0.002). Conclusions Reports of LOC eating were associated with higher fasting leptin in youth, beyond the contributions of body weight. Prospective studies are required to elucidate if LOC eating promotes greater leptin or if greater leptin resistance may promote LOC eating.
Miller, Rachel; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Field, Sara E.; Hannallah, Louise; Reina, Samantha A.; Mooreville, Mira; Sedaka, Nicole; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.
Fastfood is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fastfood consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fastfood consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fastfood consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fastfood consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fastfood consumption behaviors with relatively high R2 around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fastfood consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.19, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that behavioral intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P < 0.01) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.56, P < 0.001). Attitude toward fastfood consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fastfood consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fastfood consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fastfood consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control.
This study is aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of ready-to-eatfoods in Pemba island. A total of 300 food samples have been analysed: 66 household preparations, 115 samples of raw cow milk, and 119 fried sea-foods. The thermotolerant coliforms have been detected in 34% sea-foods, 58% household meals, and 98% milk samples; the coliforms count is 5 x 10(2), 10(3), and 3 x 10(4) cfu/g, respectively. E. coli is the species most frequently isolated: 60 on 100 strains agglutinate one of the tested polyvalent antisera. Salmonella spp. have been found exclusively in cow milk (11%); in 15% sea-foods V. alginolyticus has been isolated. The prevalence of faecal contamination is extremely high in cow milk, a critical vehicle for the transmission of pathogens, probably for a lacking thermal treatment (pasteurization). Salmonella spp., V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus have not been isolated from boiled or fried foodstuffs, but in any case the cooked foods are faecally contaminated: their contamination occurs likely after preparation and before consumption. The identification of risk factors for the faecal contamination could be helpful to plan educational programmes involving food operators and may be an effective preventive measure, especially in settings where financial resources are lacking for the construction of adequate infrastructures. PMID:18210770
Viganò, A; Pellissier, N; Hamad, H J; Ame, S A; Pontello, M
Order a free hardcopy En Español What are eating disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes ... population. 5 What are the different types of eating disorders? Anorexia nervosa Anorexia nervosa is characterized by: Extreme ...
Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association. PMID:22300594
Emotional eating affects many individuals and can lead to food overconsumption. The present research provides a theoretical\\u000a foundation for examining the influence of food advertising, social norms, and related mediating influences on emotional eating.\\u000a Insight offered through interviews with emotional eaters and an emotional eating conceptual model demonstrate that emotional\\u000a eating is heavily influenced by food advertising, which can incite
This article reports tests for differences in prices charged by fast-food restaurants that serve markets with customers of widely divergent incomes and ethnic backgrounds. The data contain detailed prices on items sold at over 400 Burger King, Wendy's, KFC, and Roy Rogers restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania locations. I find significant differences in price based on the race and
The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in the United Kingdom for catering and fastfood equipment; to examine growth trends in United Kingdom end-user industries over the next few years; to identify sp...
The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in the United Kingdom for catering and fastfood equipment; to examine growth trends in the United Kingdom end-user industries over the next few years; to identif...
The global teenager hypothesis suggests that communication technology advances have served to homogenize the values, fashion preferences, and attitudes of the world's teenagers. This study examines attitudes towards fast-food brands in general among Chinese, Japanese, and American teenagers. The purpose of the study was to examine similarities and differences in such attitudes across these three markets. The results show that
R. Stephen Parker; Allen D. Schaefer; Charles M. Hermans
Brand buying patterns such as portfolio loyalty and double jeopardy are well established in many markets where panel data are available. This study uses a small set of survey data from the FastFood category to show that many loyalty related measures can be revealed through analysis of just two purchases. The management implications are that if two purchase records
The aim was to select the most effective method for fast cooling of baked foods in order to promote the conservation of energy. The investigation was based on a survey of relevant literature and experimentation. The overall time used in the baking process...
The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in France for hotel, restaurant and fastfood equipment; to examine growth trends in French end-user industries over the next few years; to identify specific prod...
This paper examines optimal product positioning strategies of asymmetric firms in the context of retail outlet locations in the fastfood industry. The relationships between profits and product differentiation reveal that both McDonald's and Burger King are better off avoiding close competition if the market area is large enough. However, in small market areas, McDonald's would prefer to be located
This paper examines empirical issues of pricing and price dispersion within franchised restaurant and fast-food chains. Given the per se illegality of resale price maintenance (RPM) under current U.S. Antitrust laws, and the fact that franchised outlets are independent businesses under the law, franchisors must delegate the power to set prices to franchisees whereas corporate chains can control downstream prices
The obesity rate has risen to epidemic proportions in the United States. Fastfood restaurants have recently come under scrutiny for their contribution to the growth of America’s waistlines. Communities across the country, recognizing obesity as a issue of serious public health concern, are looking for innovative ways to halt the increasing rate of obesity. One such method is the
Recent societal changes toward heightened interest in health and nutrition indicate consumers' health- and nutrition-related attitudes and behaviors may be important for segmenting the market for fast-food restaurants (FFR's). This research conducted a recent survey of 387 consumers to investigate the extent to which these variables, as well as demographics, predict patronage of FFR's. Findings indicate that consumers who do
A worker at a fastfood restaurant located in West Virginia was fatally electrocuted while inserting an electrical plug into a power receptacle mounted in a floor box. The worker was an 18 year old man employed part time at this site for the past 15 month...
More and more colleges are building fancy residence halls and improving their grounds to stand out in an increasingly competitive market for freshmen. Colleges are also finding that they must upgrade their dining halls because students are going off campus for pizza and other fastfood. (MLW)
This module, one of ten competency based modules developed for vocational home economics teachers, is based on a job cluster in fastfood services. It is designed for a variety of levels of learners (secondary, postsecondary adult) in both school and non-school settings. Focusing on the specific job titles of bus attendant, counter…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between grade point average (GPA), body mass index (BMI), and fastfood intake, and to test five different hypotheses regarding these target variables. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 57 American and 72 Japanese college students are recruited from two different universities and the participants provide their gender, age, weekly
A model was developed for the Simulation and Animation of the Drive-Thru (DT) and the lobby sections of a fastfood restaurant. A discrete, non continuous, parallel simulation of the operation using animation in the Witness environment has made it possible to utilize real time data or forecasted data to optimize scheduling and maximize operation efficiency. Performance measures such as
Kambiz Farahmand; Alejandro Francisco Garza Martinez
A model was developed for the Simulation and Animation of the Drive-Thru (DT) and the lobby sections of a fastfood restaurant. A discrete, noncontinuous, parallel simulation of the operation using animation in the Witness environment has made it possible to utilize real time data or forecasted data to optimize scheduling and maximize operation efficiency. Performance measures such as the
This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eatfoods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eatfood samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections.
Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Odjadjare, Collins E.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.
Objective A major concern is the ubiquitous presence of fastfood and takeaway outlets within easy walking distance of schools, particularly in the light of the increasing burden of childhood obesity. Here, the associations between the schoolchildren's weights, their consumption of fastfood and takeaway outlets were examined in a deprived inner London Borough. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants 193 schoolchildren (aged between 11 and 14?years old) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) percentiles specific for age and gender were obtained. Frequency of food and drinks purchased from fastfood outlets and takeaway outlets over a weekly period and preferred types of drinks and food products usually consumed were measured. Results More than 50% of the children in our survey purchased food or drinks from fastfood or takeaway outlets twice or more a week, with about 10% consuming fastfood or drinks from these outlets daily. About 70% of these children from Black ethnic groups and 54% of Asians purchased fastfood more than twice a week. BMI has a significantly inverse relationship to fastfood consumption. However, when age and gender are accounted, the BMI age–gender percentile is no longer significantly related to fastfood consumption. Conclusions This study revealed a very high frequency of fastfood consumption among the schoolchildren. Taste, quick access and peer influence were major contributing factors. These schoolchildren are exposed to an obesogenic environment, and it is not surprising that in this situation, many of these children are already overweight and will likely become obese as adults.
This study empirically examined whether franchisors' brand name capital and competency significantly differentiate costs associated with fast-food franchise affiliation. The study's purpose was to identify the effect of franchisors' brand name capital and competency on the costs of fastfood franchise systems. Proxy variables were developed to measure fran chisor brand name capital and competency followed by a series of
To help multinationals meet consumer needs in the People's Republic of China (PRC), this paper provides basic information about culture and consumer behavior with respect to fastfood. A joint effort of researchers from two countries resulted in two PRC surveys and one USA survey using East-, East\\/West-, and West-influenced instruments, respectively. Results explain the frequency of purchasing fastfood
Summary Consumption of fastfood, which have high energy densities and glycemic loads, and expose customers to excessive portion sizes, may be greatly contributing to and escalating the rates of overweight and obesity in the USA. Whether an association exists between fastfood consumption and weight gain is unclear. Sixteen studies (six cross sectional, seven prospective cohort, three experimental) meeting
Objectives. Using a sample of elementary and middle school students, we examined the associations between body mass index (BMI), obesity, and measures of the proximity of fastfood and full service restaurants to students' residences. We controlled for socioeconomic status using a novel proxy measure based on housing values. Methods. We used BMI and obesity measures based on height and weight data collected as part of a school health assessment along with geocoded data on addresses of residences and food establishments. We constructed a proxy measure of socioeconomic status from public records of residential property assessments. These data were used to estimate logistic regression models of overweight and ordinary least squares models of BMI. Results. Students residing in homes with higher assessment values were significantly less likely to be obese, and had significantly lower BMIs. Upon controlling for socioeconomic status and other characteristics, the associations of BMI and obesity with proximity to food service establishments were reduced. Nonetheless, students who resided within one-tenth or one-quarter of a mile from a fastfood restaurant had significantly higher values of BMI. The proximity of full service restaurants to residences did not have a significant positive association with either BMI or overweight. Conclusion. Public health efforts to limit access to fastfood among nearby residents could have beneficial effects on child obesity. Public data on property value assessments may serve as useful approximations for socioeconomic status when address data are available. PMID:20429736
Mellor, Jennifer M; Dolan, Carrie B; Rapoport, Ronald B
Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to examine the effects of two promising approaches - skill-building and price reductions - on diet amongst women. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN39432901
HIV and poor nutrition destroys the immune system. A well-nourished HIV infected person is less likely to develop an opportunistic infection than those with poor nutrition. Emotional stress and opportunistic infections can decrease one's appetite. Eating can become difficult and painful in persons with oropharyngeal infections. HIV-related wasting reduces protein and fat reserves. Vitamin A maintains a healthy immune system. Adding nuts, oil, mashed fish, dark green or orange fruits and vegetables, or fruit juice and replacing some water with fresh milk or coconut milk makes porridge more energy-rich. Fermenting or malting porridge makes it thinner, easier to swallow, and more nutritious. Fermentation allows for increased absorption of some nutrients (e.g., iron and zinc). The diet for persons with HIV-related infections should increase their appetite, and they should ingest enough nutrients to help the gastrointestinal tract manage and recover from diarrhea and to regain weight and strength lost during illness. All HIV-infected persons should eat as much as possible, particularly easy-to-eat and easily-absorbed foods. Those with mouth sores should avoid spicy and peppery foods. Those with a poor appetite should eat small amounts more often than usual. Those with diarrhea should eat easily digestible foods (e.g., soups) and, in some cases, avoid fatty or oily foods and milk. They should drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration. HIV-infected pregnant women should eatfoods rich in vitamin A (dark green leaves or orange fruits and vegetables, liver, or egg yolk) and iron. Maternal vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of vertical HIV transmission 3-4 fold. Breast milk is the best food for all infants, particularly during diarrhea. In some communities, nongovernmental organizations provide those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS with food, food production maintenance, and nutrition counseling through their home care services. PMID:12290562
Promising approaches to the promotion of healthier eating among children in primary school settings include the opportunity to practise practical cooking and growing, promoting the take up of healthier school meals and nutritional education. However, less is known about the potential for strategies that integrate approaches through a focus on food sustainability issues--such as the promotion of awareness about local, seasonal, organic, fair trade and higher animal welfare foods. This paper presents an evaluation of the Food for Life Partnership, a multi-component programme that sought to address both the health and sustainability aspects of food. The study consisted of a two-stage cross-sectional survey of Years 5 and 6 students (ages 9-11) in 30 primary schools at enrolment and after 18-24 months, combined with an analysis of programme delivery. Higher self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption in the second stage survey was associated with a range of indicators of school participation in the programme. These included the reform of school meal procurement and preparation; experiential food growing, cooking and farm-based education and improved opportunities for stakeholder engagement. The study therefore develops a case for multilevel programmes that incorporate sustainability issues alongside experiential food education in primary school settings. PMID:22355199
Human enteric viruses are currently recognized as one of the most important causes of food-borne disease. Implication of enteric viruses in food-borne outbreaks can be difficult to confirm due to the inadequacy of the detection methods available. In this study, a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) method was developed in a multiplex format for the specific, simultaneous, and rapid detection of epidemiologically relevant human enteric viruses. Three previously reported primer sets were used in a single reaction for the amplification of RNA target fragments of 474, 371, and 165 nucleotides for the detection of hepatitis A virus and genogroup I and genogroup II noroviruses, respectively. Amplicons were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by electrochemiluminescence and Northern hybridization. Endpoint detection sensitivity for the multiplex NASBA assay was approximately 10?1 reverse transcription-PCR-detectable units (or PFU, as appropriate) per reaction. When representative ready-to-eatfoods (deli sliced turkey and lettuce) were inoculated with various concentrations of each virus and processed for virus detection with the multiplex NASBA method, all three human enteric viruses were simultaneously detected at initial inoculum levels of 100 to 102 reverse transcription-PCR-detectable units (or PFU)/9 cm2 in both food commodities. The multiplex NASBA system provides rapid and simultaneous detection of clinically relevant food-borne viruses in a single reaction tube and may be a promising alternative to reverse transcription-PCR for the detection of viral contamination of foods.
Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fastfood six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population.
Studies have shown a reduction of food intake following peripheral and brain injection of CCK. However, it remains to be established whether endogenous central CCK is involved in the regulation of food intake. We investigated the role of central CCK in the regulation of food intake by pharmacological manipulation of the CCK(B) (CCK(2)) receptor system. Intracerebroventricularly (ICV) cannulated male Sprague Dawley rats were fasted for 24h and received an ICV injection of the CCK(B) receptor antagonist CI988 at a dose of 10 nmol or 49 nmol or vehicle. Another group received two consecutive ICV injections consisting of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 (CRF(1)) antagonist, CP376395 (3 nmol) or the CRF(2) receptor antagonist, K41498 (2 nmol) alone, or followed by CI988 (49 nmol). Lastly, another group of rats received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of the dopamine antagonist, flupentixol (~197 and ~493nmol/kg) alone, or followed by CI988 (49 nmol, ICV). Cumulative food intake was assessed for 11h. Vehicle injected rats showed a robust feeding response. CI988 at 49 nmol reduced food intake by 30% starting at 2h post injection. CP376395 and K41498 had no effect on food intake. Flupentixol injected IP at a dose of 197 and 493 nmol/kg alone did not modulate food intake whereas the higher dose blocked the CI988-induced reduction of feeding. During the dark phase, CI988 had no effect on food intake in unfasted rats. In summary, CCK(B) signaling is involved in the regulation of food intake after a fast likely by downstream dopamine signaling. PMID:23200724
Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of fastfood consumption on mean population body mass index (BMI) and explore the possible influence of market deregulation on fastfood consumption and BMI. Methods The within-country association between fastfood consumption and BMI in 25 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development between 1999 and 2008 was explored through multivariate panel regression models, after adjustment for per capita gross domestic product, urbanization, trade openness, lifestyle indicators and other covariates. The possible mediating effect of annual per capita intake of soft drinks, animal fats and total calories on the association between fastfood consumption and BMI was also analysed. Two-stage least squares regression models were conducted, using economic freedom as an instrumental variable, to study the causal effect of fastfood consumption on BMI. Findings After adjustment for covariates, each 1-unit increase in annual fastfood transactions per capita was associated with an increase of 0.033 kg/m2 in age-standardized BMI (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.013–0.052). Only the intake of soft drinks – not animal fat or total calories – mediated the observed association (?:?0.030; 95% CI: 0.010–0.050). Economic freedom was an independent predictor of fastfood consumption (?:?0.27; 95% CI: 0.16–0.37). When economic freedom was used as an instrumental variable, the association between fastfood and BMI weakened but remained significant (?:?0.023; 95% CI: 0.001–0.045). Conclusion Fastfood consumption is an independent predictor of mean BMI in high-income countries. Market deregulation policies may contribute to the obesity epidemic by facilitating the spread of fastfood.
This study reports the results of evaluation of acrylamide levels in some foods that are common on the Italian market. Three foods commonly found in the national diet (rice, tomato sauce and fastfood), were examined with the gas chromatograph (GC)\\/mass spectrometer (MS) analytical method. Results show that rice differs from risotto with respect to acrylamide levels: values of less
ObjectiveSocial science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fastfood restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school
Non-human animal studies demonstrate relationships between stress and selective intake of palatable food. In humans, exposure to laboratory stressors and self-reported stress are associated with greater food intake. Large studies have yet to examine chronic stress exposure and eating behavior. The current study assessed the relationship between stress (perceived and chronic), drive to eat, and reported food frequency intake (nutritious food vs. palatable non-nutritious food) in women ranging from normal weight to obese (N = 457). Greater reported stress, both exposure and perception, was associated with indices of greater drive to eat— including feelings of disinhibited eating, binge eating, hunger, and more ineffective attempts to control eating (rigid restraint; r’s from .11 to .36, p ’s < .05). These data suggest that stress exposure may lead to a stronger drive to eat and may be one factor promoting excessive weight gain. Relationships between stress and eating behavior are of importance to public health given the concurrent increase in reported stress and obesity rates.
Despite the best intentions of many public health educators and concerned parents, the obesity problem in the United States continues to grow. A number of organizations have been interested in looking at the role of advertising as a part of this process, and this particular 31-page report on the subject will be of interest to many. Jointly published by the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network and the Consumers Union (the organization which publishes Consumer Reports), the report looks at the rather ubiquitous nature of advertising by the food, beverage, and restaurant industries as compared to the relatively small amount spent on communicating the importance of eating five or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day. The report contains a number of helpful graphs and charts, along with a set of policy recommendations at the conclusion of the report.
... use animal products or byproducts, and eats only plant-based foods. In addition to not eating meat, ... D is not found in most commonly eaten plant foods; the best dietary sources are fortified dairy ...
... use animal products or byproducts, and eats only plant-based foods. In addition to not eating meat, ... D is not found in most commonly eaten plant foods; best dietary sources are fortified dairy products. ...
Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. It was confirmed that the space food was sterilized by an irradiation at 25 kGy through incubation at 37 °C for 30 days. The hardness of the Space Kimchi (SK) was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated Kimchi (IR). Also, this result was supported by the scanning electron microscopic observation. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. According to the Ames test, Kimchi sterilized with a high-dose irradiation exerted no mutagenic activity in the bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium. And, the SK was certificated for use in space flight conditions during 30 days by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems.
Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon
Archaeobotanical remains of ground cereals from prehistoric northern Greece are discussed in this paper within the context\\u000a of ethnographic and textual evidence for similar food preparations encountered in countries of the Mediterranean and the Middle\\u000a East. The archaeobotanical remains consist of ground einkorn and barley grain, stored in this form, from the sites of Mesimeriani\\u000a Toumba and Archondiko respectively, located
Background Mixed findings have been reported on the association between Western fast-food restaurants and body weight status. Results vary across study contexts and are sensitive to the samples, measures and methods used. Most studies have failed to examine the temporally dynamic associations between community exposure to fast-food restaurants and weight changes. Methods Bayesian hierarchical regressions are used to model changes in body mass index, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR) as a function of changes in Western fast-food restaurants in 216 communities for more than 9000 Chinese adults followed up multiple times between 2000 and 2009. Results Number of Western fast-food restaurants is positively associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR among rural population. More fast-food restaurants are positively associated with a future increase in WHpR for urban women. Increased availability of fastfood between two waves is related to increased WHtR for urban men over the same period. A past increase in number of fast-food restaurants is associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR for rural population. Conclusions The associations between community exposure to Western fastfood and weight changes are temporally dynamic rather than static. Improved measures of exposure to community environment are needed to achieve more precise estimates and better understanding of these relationships. In light of the findings in this study and China’s rapid economic growth, further investigation and increased public health monitoring is warranted since Western fastfood is likely to be more accessible and affordable in the near future.
The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating…
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.
This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…
Malnutritionis associated with defects in connective tissue metabolism such as altered growth and wound healing. Because collagen is the major protein in most tissues, we determined the threshold for induction of altered collagen production by partial food restriction in rats. Groups of animals were fasted 2 or 4 d or were fed 20-100% of a predetermined food intake for 4
ROBERT SPANHEIMER; NKO ZLATEV; GUILLERMO ÃœMPIERREZ; MARIO DiGIROLAMO
Overweight appear one of the serious problem in European region WHO today. Obesity is polyetiological disease and result of different factors. The aim of the current studies was investigation of connection between consumption confectionary, fastfood stuffs and soft drinks and body-mass index (BMI). At the beginning, was inspection of 434 schoolchildren 7-18 age old. As a result, was determined, that confectionary, fastfood stuffs and soft drinks mach more popular, than ever stuffs. At the same time, was determined, that mean significance BMI was reliable above for children, who used confectionary, fastfood stuffs and soft drinks frequently. PMID:20369626
Kon', I Ia; Volkova, L Iu; Sannikova, N E; Dzhumagaziev, A A; Aleshina, I V; Toboleva, M A; Korosteleva, M M
A multiple-case study approach was used focusing on how U.S. franchise firms have adapted their domestic business practices to the Canadian, Japanese, and Russian markets. Special focus is on the degree to which these firms have modified franchise objectives, expansion strategies, marketing mix elements, control systems, and support services. A principal finding of this research project is that fast-food companies