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Sample records for eating fast food

  1. The effect of fast eating on the thermic effect of food in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Kenji; Zhao, Xifan; Kuranuki, Sachi; Oguri, Yasuo; Kashiwa Kato, Eriko; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Nakamura, Teiji

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between eating speed and the thermic effect of food (TEF) remains unclear. We investigated the difference in the TEF when meals containing the same amount of energy were eaten in 5 min (fast eating) or 15 min (regular eating). Subjects were nine non-obese young women. Following a 350 kcal (1464 kJ) meal, energy expenditure and autonomic nervous system activity were measured. The frequency of mastication was also calculated. The TEF for the 15-min period after the start of eating with fast eating was significantly lower than with regular eating (p < 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio and TEF at 5-min intervals up to 20 min after the start of eating and between total mastication frequency and TEF during ingestion. Fast eating may reduce the TEF, potentially because a decrease in mastication frequency decreases sympathetic nervous system activity. PMID:25609562

  2. EATING OUT FAST FOOD TIP SHEETS "6 GRAMS OF FAT OR LESS" MENU

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    fat dressings #12;106 MEALTIME EATING OUT ­ FAST FOOD TIP SHEETS Fresco Style = A tasty fiesta salsa made of diced tomatoes, onions, and cilantro replaces the cheese and/or sauce in the dish 15 Fresco

  3. Health Implications of Adults' Eating at and Living near Fast Food or Quick Service Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, J; Moudon, A V; Kim, S Y; Hurvitz, P M; Drewnowski, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper examined whether the reported health impacts of frequent eating at a fast food or quick service restaurant on health were related to having such a restaurant near home. Methods: Logistic regressions estimated associations between frequent fast food or quick service restaurant use and health status, being overweight or obese, having a cardiovascular disease or diabetes, as binary health outcomes. In all, 2001 participants in the 2008–2009 Seattle Obesity Study survey were included in the analyses. Results: Results showed eating ?2 times a week at a fast food or quick service restaurant was associated with perceived poor health status, overweight and obese. However, living close to such restaurants was not related to negative health outcomes. Conclusions: Frequent eating at a fast food or quick service restaurant was associated with perceived poor health status and higher body mass index, but living close to such facilities was not. PMID:26192449

  4. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  5. Eating on the run. A qualitative study of health agency and eating behaviors among fast food employees.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Womack, Catherine A; Oddo, Vanessa M

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between obesity and fast food consumption encompasses a broad range of individual level and environmental factors. One theoretical approach, the health capability framework, focuses on the complex set of conditions allowing individuals to be healthy. This qualitative study aimed to identify factors that influence individual level health agency with respect to healthy eating choices in uniformly constrained environments (e.g., fast food restaurants). We used an inductive qualitative research design to develop an interview guide, conduct open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of 14 student fast food workers (aged 18-25), and analyze the data. Data analysis was conducted iteratively during the study with multiple coders to identify themes. Emergent themes included environmental influences on eating behaviors (time, cost, restaurant policies, social networks) and internal psychological factors (feelings associated with hunger, food knowledge versus food preparation know-how, reaction to physical experiences, perceptions of food options, delayed gratification, and radical subjectivity). A localized, embedded approach to analyzing the factors driving the obesity epidemic is needed. Addressing contextual interactions between internal psychological and external environmental factors responds to social justice and public health concerns, and may yield more relevant and effective interventions for vulnerable communities. PMID:22634194

  6. Development of an Intervention Programme to Encourage High School Students to Stay in School for Lunch Instead of Eating at Nearby Fast-Food Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present…

  7. "Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

  8. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give ... black beans Salsa or picante Soft corn tortillas Healthy Weight Tip Ask your server how the menu ...

  9. The association of binge eating and neighbourhood fast-food restaurant availability on diet and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Tracey; Adamus-Leach, Heather; O’Connor, Daniel P; Mama, Scherezade; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fast-food restaurants (FFR) are prevalent. Binge eating is common among overweight and obese women. For women prone to binge eating, neighbourhood FFR availability (i.e. the neighbourhood around one’s home) may promote poor diet and overweight/obesity. The present study tested the effects of binge eating and neighbourhood FFR availability on diet (fat and total energy intake) and BMI among African American and Hispanic/Latino women. Design All measures represent baseline data from the Health is Power randomized clinical trial. The numbers of FFR in participants’ neighbourhoods were counted and dichotomized (0 or ?1 neighbourhood FFR). Participants completed measures of binge eating status and diet. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. 2 (binge eating status) × 2 (neighbourhood FFR availability) ANCOVA tested effects on diet and BMI while controlling for demographics. Setting Houston and Austin, TX, USA. Subjects African American and Hispanic/Latino women aged 25–60 years. Results Of the total sample (n 162), 48% had 1–15 neighbourhood FFR and 29% were binge eaters. There was an interaction effect on BMI (P=0·05). Binge eaters with ?1 neighbourhood FFR had higher BMI than non-binge eaters or binge eaters with no neighbourhood FFR. There were no significant interactions or neighbourhood FFR main effects on total energy or fat intake (P>0·05). A main effect of binge eating showed that binge eaters consumed more total energy (P=0·005) and fat (P=0·005) than non-binge eaters. Conclusions Binge eaters represented a substantial proportion of this predominantly overweight and obese sample of African American and Hispanic/ Latino women. The association between neighbourhood FFR availability and weight status is complicated by binge eating status, which is related to diet. PMID:24476972

  10. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746

  11. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID:26025087

  12. Does short-term fasting promote pathological eating patterns?

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Drew A; Reilly, Erin E; Anderson, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Fasting, or going a significant amount of time without eating, has been identified as a risk factor for the development of pathological eating patterns. Findings from several studies examining the impact of fasting on subsequent eating behaviors have been mixed. The current study recruited college students to record food intake, episodes of binge eating, and use of compensatory behaviors before, throughout, and following a 24-hour fast. Participants attended an initial appointment in which they completed measures of dietary restraint and disinhibition and received instructions on self-monitoring and fasting. Participants (N=122) self-monitored their eating behaviors for 96h, including a 24-hour fasting period. Participants did not demonstrate significant increases in disordered eating behaviors following the fast (e.g., objective binge episodes, self-defined excessive eating or compensatory behavior use). Baseline disinhibition predicted excessive eating as well as objective binge episodes both before and after fasting. Altogether, findings have implications for research seeking to further understand how fasting may contribute to the development of pathological eating patterns; specifically, it seems that the ED risk associated with fasting is derived from the behavior's interaction with other individual difference variables. PMID:26431904

  13. Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.

    PubMed

    Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

    2007-06-01

    Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996

  14. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  15. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  16. Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

    2007-01-01

    Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

  17. My Child Only Eats Certain Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Merrill; Kerwin, Mary Louise; Feldstein, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Many young children display some sort of picky eating. Although most children's diets will eventually consist of an adequate number of foods, some children's diets may not change without intervention. Children with limited diets typically have difficulty consuming new foods because they have some stomach discomfort, have limited oral-motor skills,…

  18. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  19. Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments.

  20. Fast-Food Menus with Calorie Counts Not Changing New Yorkers' Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fast-Food Menus With Calorie Counts Not Changing New Yorkers' Habits Affordable Care Act requires nationwide menu ... by people eating at fast-food restaurants in New York City, a new study shows. The findings ...

  1. Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Boutelle KN, Birkeland RW, Hannan PJ, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors.

  2. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  3. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... events where food is served You stop at fast-food restaurants for breakfast and choose high fat, high ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of ...

  4. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  5. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and sub-scores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t-tests and chi-square statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast food restaurants were more likely to provide nutritional information, while bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas: 13.09, fast food: 14.31, p=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs. 11.54, p=0.01) and fast food restaurants (16.27 vs. 11.60, p<.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  6. Parrots Eat Nutritious Foods despite Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Gilardi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals) and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended. Methodology/Principal Findings We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992–1993) and one wet season (January-February1994). We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content. Conclusions/Significance Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry season when food was scarce for other frugivores and granivores. PMID:22679496

  7. Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…

  8. Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989

  9. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the “Different” session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the “Same” session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the “Same” and “Different” sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the “Different” session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  10. Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association.

  11. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, M M; Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Soleymani, T; Daniel, S; Vinson, L D; Lokken, K L; Wingo, B C; Morse, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R²?=?.57) and patients (R²?=?.55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p?eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one's tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one's PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. PMID:25169880

  12. What We Eat in America Food Categories, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) Food Categories is to provide an application for analyzing foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. Each food and beverage code in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2011-2012 is sorted into one of the 150+ mutua...

  13. JCL roundtable: fast food and the American diet.

    PubMed

    Brown, W Virgil; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2015-01-01

    The availability of food quickly prepared at lower cost and with consistent quality and convenience has made a variety of restaurant chains extremely popular. Commonly referred to as the fast food industry, these companies have stores on virtually every street corner in cities large and small. Fast foods contribute to energy intake, and depending on the food choices made, provide foods and nutrients that should be decreased in the diet. As Americans have become more conscious of their risk factors for heart disease and recognized eating patterns as a contributor to blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes, the fast food industry has attempted to adjust their menus to provide more healthful choices. The Roundtable discussion in this issue of the Journal will focus on the importance of this industry as a source of foods that could help address our population-wide efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease. PMID:25670354

  14. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  15. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  16. A conceptual model of how US families with athletic adolescent daughters manage food and eating.

    PubMed

    Travis, Susan; Bisogni, Carole; Ranzenhofer, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Health professionals concerned about the risks of adolescent obesity and disordered eating practices need greater understanding of how families with adolescents manage food in today's fast paced environment. This paper sought to gain conceptual understanding of the food and eating routines of families with a female adolescent athlete from the perspectives of mothers and daughters. Ten white, non-Hispanic mothers and their daughters were purposively sampled from high school track and cross country teams in Upstate New York. Informants completed in-depth, qualitative interviews. Researchers used the constant comparative method to analyze transcripts for emergent themes and to build a conceptual framework that represented the many factors and processes involved in the construction of family food routines. Families varied in forms and patterns of family eating activities with mothers playing a pivotal role in these routines. Family members' individual needs and values were negotiated in constructing these routines. In this sample the daughters' involvement in sports influenced family eating routines, but mothers' employment, ethnicity, social support, income, and areas of residence also played a role. The model describes how individual participants' food choice processes interact to produce family food routines. The conceptual model can inform research and practice related to the family environments in which adolescents experience food and eating. PMID:19808070

  17. The Food We Eat: An Evaluation of Food Items Input into an

    E-print Network

    Connelly, Kay

    The Food We Eat: An Evaluation of Food Items Input into an Electronic Food Monitoring Application participants in a chronic kidney disease (stage 5) population input food items into an electronic intake monitoring application. Participants scanned food item barcodes or voice recorded food items they consumed

  18. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  19. Effect of fast food consumption on dietary intake and likelihood of meeting MyPyramid recommendations in adults: Results from What We Eat In America, NHANES, 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fast food (FF) consumption on food and nutrient intakes and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Adults 19-50 years of age (n=2,160) who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls in the What We ...

  20. 76 FR 21383 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating Assessment Study (FEAST) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the... Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating Assessment Study (FEAST) (NCI). Type of Information Collection Request....'' The objective of the two studies is to compare the performance of the newly developed...

  1. Gating of attention towards food stimuli in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Biehl, Stefanie; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive models of eating disorders propose that attentional biases for disorder-relevant stimuli contribute to eating disorder pathology. Empirical evidence of a contribution of attentional biases for binge eating disorder (BED) is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess attention engagement towards, and disengagement from, food stimuli in overweight females with BED (n = 25) and a group of overweight and obese women without BED (OW; n = 30). Participants completed a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm with food and neutral words as target stimuli. This task can be used to decompose an attentional bias for food stimuli into its stimulus engagement and stimulus disengagement components. Findings indicate that facilitated stimulus engagement for food stimuli over neutral stimuli was more pronounced in the BED group compared to the OW group. Conversely, there were no substantial disengagement effects in either group. Thereby, results support the idea that early attentional processes are biased in BED. PMID:26212270

  2. Food Illusion: Why We Eat More than We Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Brian Wansink, director of the Food and Brand Lab at the University of Illinois, finds that the size of a package, the shape of a glass, the words on a menu or label, proximity to food, and other invisible influences could determine the quantity of what one eat.

  3. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  4. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  5. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    PubMed

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. PMID:26585635

  6. A Device for Detecting and Counting Bites of Food Taken by a Person During Eating

    E-print Network

    Hoover, Adam

    , including helping a user with obesity, eating disorders or eating rate problems. Index Terms--Eating monitorA Device for Detecting and Counting Bites of Food Taken by a Person During Eating Yujie Dong1, Adam was recorded of subjects eating, and synchronized with our device, in order to evaluate its performance

  7. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  8. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5?lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size?=?1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

  9. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  10. `Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C. Berridge

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    `Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C Food Ingestive behavior Pleasure Anorexia Bulimia Eating disorders Nucleus accumbens Ventral pallidum `wanting' and hedonic `liking' for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders

  11. Would Students Prefer to Eat Healthier Foods at School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosliner, Wendi; Madsen, Kristine A.; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study sought to elucidate students' perceptions of school food environments and to assess correlations between perceptions and purchasing and consumption behaviors at school. Methods: Seventh and ninth graders (n = 5365) at 19 schools in multiethnic, low-income California communities participating in the Healthy Eating Active…

  12. What Do Children Think Happens to the Food They Eat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the explanations of two classes of 10-year old children about what happens to the food that they eat were explored, particularly in the context of theories about the development of children's concepts of the human body. These ideas were investigated in a number of ways: obtaining children's own writing and drawings; semi-structured…

  13. Mimicry of Food Intake: The Dynamic Interplay between Eating Companions

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, Roel C. J.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Bevelander, Kirsten E.; Herman, C. Peter; Larsen, Junilla K.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that people adjust their intake directly to that of their eating companions; they eat more when others eat more, and less when others inhibit intake. A potential explanation for this modeling effect is that both eating companions' food intake becomes synchronized through processes of behavioral mimicry. No study, however, has tested whether behavioral mimicry can partially account for this modeling effect. To capture behavioral mimicry, real-time observations of dyads of young females having an evening meal were conducted. It was assessed whether mimicry depended on the time of the interaction and on the person who took the bite. A total of 70 young female dyads took part in the study, from which the total number of bites (N?=?3,888) was used as unit of analyses. For each dyad, the total number of bites and the exact time at which each person took a bite were coded. Behavioral mimicry was operationalized as a bite taken within a fixed 5-second interval after the other person had taken a bite, whereas non-mimicked bites were defined as bites taken outside the 5-second interval. It was found that both women mimicked each other's eating behavior. They were more likely to take a bite of their meal in congruence with their eating companion rather than eating at their own pace. This behavioral mimicry was found to be more prominent at the beginning than at the end of the interaction. This study suggests that behavioral mimicry may partially account for social modeling of food intake. PMID:22312438

  14. The Food Retail Environment in School Neighborhoods and its Relation to Lunchtime Eating Behaviors in Youth from Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths’ lunchtime eating behavior, and youths’ obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13–15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fast food restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1–2, 3–4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84–2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56–4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity. PMID:23041489

  15. Eating Right. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the food groups of the food guide pyramid. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words.…

  16. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  17. Classifying foods in contexts: How adults categorize foods for different eating settings

    PubMed Central

    Blake, C.E.; Bisogni, C.A.; Sobal, J.; Devine, C.M.; Jastran, M.

    2008-01-01

    This project examined adults' food cognitions by applying schema theory to explain how adults categorized foods for different contexts. Qualitative interviews and repeated card sort activities for different eating contexts were conducted to elicit as many food categories as possible from 42 US adults. Participants labeled card sort piles with their own words, providing 991 card sort labels. Qualitative analysis of the labels resulted in the emergence of 12 category types. Personal-experience-based types were specific to the individual (e.g. Preference). Context-based types were related to situational aspects of eating episodes (e.g. Location). Food-based types were related to intrinsic properties of the foods (e.g. Physical characteristics). Different combinations of the 12 category types were used for different eating contexts. Personal-experience and context-based types were used most frequently overall. Some category types were used more frequently for specific contexts (e.g. Convenience for work contexts). Food-based taxonomic category types were used most frequently when no context was defined. Script-oriented categories were more often used in response to specific eating contexts. These findings provide a framework to consider how individuals classify foods in real-life eating contexts. Attention to personal-experience and context-based category types may help improve understanding of relationships between knowledge and food choice behaviors. PMID:17512088

  18. Nutritional challenges and health implications of takeaway and fast food.

    PubMed

    Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Davies, Ian G; Stevenson, Leonard

    2013-05-01

    Consumption of takeaway and fast food continues to increase in Western societies and is particularly widespread among adolescents. Since food is known to play an important role in both the development and prevention of many diseases, there is no doubt that the observed changes in dietary patterns affect the quality of the diet as well as public health. The present review examines the nutritional characteristics of takeaway and fast food items, including their energy density, total fat, and saturated and trans fatty acid content. It also reports on the association between the consumption of such foods and health outcomes. While the available evidence suggests the nutrient profiles of takeaway and fast foods may contribute to a variety of negative health outcomes, findings on the specific effects of their consumption on health are currently limited and, in recent years, changes have been taking place that are designed to improve them. Therefore, more studies should be directed at gaining a firmer understanding of the nutrition and health consequences of eating takeaway and fast foods and determining the best strategy to reduce any negative impact their consumption may have on public health. PMID:23590707

  19. Fast food restaurant lighting and music can reduce calorie intake and increase satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert

    2012-08-01

    Recent research shows that environmental cues such as lighting and music strongly bias the eating behavior of diners in laboratory situations. This study examines whether changing the atmosphere of a fast food restaurant would change how much patrons ate. The results indicated that softening the lighting and music led people to eat less, to rate the food as more enjoyable, and to spend just as much. In contrast to hypothesized U-shaped curves (people who spend longer eat more), this suggests a more relaxed environment increases satisfaction and decreases consumption. PMID:23045865

  20. Episodic future thinking reduces eating in a food court.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jessica; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Epstein, Leonard H

    2016-01-01

    Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the psychological process of vividly imagining a future event, and this process has been shown to reduce overeating in the laboratory. To assess the efficacy of EFT in the natural environment, twenty-nine overweight or obese women who wanted to improve their eating habits were randomly assigned to one of two smartphone-implemented interventions - EFT or control episodic recent thinking (ERT) - while they ate dinner in a public food court. Results showed a reduction in consumption of total calories, a reduction in percent calories from fat, and an increase in percent calories from protein for EFT versus ERT. These data suggest EFT may be used to modify eating habits in natural eating environments, and may show potential as a component of behavioral obesity interventions. PMID:26562686

  1. Differential mesocorticolimbic responses to palatable food in binge eating prone and binge eating resistant female rats.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Culbert, Kristen M; Gradl, Dana R; Richardson, Kimberlei A; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is a key symptom of many eating disorders (e.g. binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type), yet the neurobiological underpinnings of binge eating are poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, is likely involved because this circuit mediates the hedonic value and incentive salience of palatable foods (PF). Here we tested the hypothesis that higher propensity for binge eating is associated with a heightened response (i.e., Fos induction) of the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex to PF, using an animal model that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given intermittent access to PF (high fat pellets) 3×/week for 3weeks. Based on a pattern of either consistently high or consistently low PF consumption across these feeding tests, 8 rats met criteria for categorization as BEP, and 11 rats met criteria for categorization as BER. One week after the final feeding test, BEP and BER rats were either exposed to PF in their home cages or were given no PF in their home cages for 1h prior to perfusion, leading to three experimental groups for the Fos analysis: BEPs given PF, BERs given PF, and a No PF control group. The total number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and the cingulate, prelimbic, and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex was estimated by stereological analysis. PF induced higher Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex of BEP rats compared to No PF controls. Throughout the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, PF induced higher Fos expression in BEP than in BER rats, even after adjusting for differences in PF intake. Differences in the neural activation pattern between BEP and BER rats were more robust in prefrontal cortex than in nucleus accumbens. These data confirm that PF activates brain regions responsible for encoding the incentive salience and hedonic properties of PF, and suggest that binge eating proneness is associated with enhanced responses to PF in brain regions that exert executive control over food reward. PMID:26459117

  2. Observed sex differences in fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of college students.

    PubMed

    Morse, Kristin L; Driskell, Judy A

    2009-03-01

    Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to 24 years of age, enrolled at a Midwestern university served as subjects. The subjects completed a 12-item written questionnaire. Five and seven percent of the students typically ate lunch and dinner, respectively, at a fast-food restaurant. The predominant reasons given for eating at fast-food restaurants were "limited time," "enjoy taste," "eat with family/friends," and "inexpensive and economical." A larger (P = .0592) percentage of men than women reported eating at fast-food restaurants because they thought these restaurants were "inexpensive and economical." Most of the subjects reported eating at fast-food restaurants 1 to 3 times weekly. The frequency of eating at fast-food restaurants was significantly different for men than for women (P < .01) as was the response distribution for considering the energy content of items on a fast-food menu when making their selections (P < .0001). Body mass indices of men were significantly higher (P < .0001) than those of women. A significantly higher (P < .0001) percentage of women than men strongly agreed with the statement that "the nutrition content of food is important to me." Several sex differences were observed in the fast-food consumption and nutrition beliefs of these college students. PMID:19358931

  3. Food safety knowledge and practices in ready-to-eat food establishments.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J; Scott, W G

    2004-10-01

    Safe food handling in ready-to-eat food establishments is a basic element in the reduction of foodborne illness. The aim of this research was to investigate (using a questionnaire), knowledge and attitudes about food safety held by management and staff in ready-to-eat food establishments. Fieldwork was conducted in 2002 in Wellington City, New Zealand. Managers rated 'staff with good food safety knowledge' the most important aspect of ensuring safe food. Half of these managers were prepared to pay higher wages to staff holding a current food safety certificate. Although respondents considered that closure of the establishment was the most serious business consequence of a breakdown in safe food handling, less than half (49%) were prepared to pay an additional insurance premium to cover this risk. All food handling workers should be encouraged to obtain and maintain a current food safety certificate. Environmental health officers who inspect ready-to-eat food establishments play an important role in guiding and assisting owners and staff in improving food handling standards. PMID:15385213

  4. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  5. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account. PMID:25935739

  6. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

  7. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1?km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1?km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1?km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers. PMID:23391296

  8. Young Adults' Food Selection Patterns: Relations with Binge Eating and Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydecker, Janet A.; Palmberg, Allison A.; Hill, Katherine Vatalaro; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Binge eating is increasingly prevalent in college students (White, Reynolds-Malear, & Cordero, 2011). Binge episodes involve eating an objectively large quantity of food in a discrete amount of time and a perceived lost control over eating (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Strong negative affect commonly precedes and follows each…

  9. Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295

  10. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-05-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky-desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  11. Does personality influence eating styles and food choices? Direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In a random sample (N?=?951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. PMID:25308432

  12. Using Fast Food Restaurants for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koorland, Mark A.; Cooke, Janice C.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes how classroom discussion and field trips can be used to teach students with disabilities to engage in comparative shopping and informed choice making when they dine in fast food restaurants. (JDD)

  13. Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01

    servings of lettuce, tomatoes, onions and pickles to the hamburgers. These add nutrients and a minimum of calories. Some fast food restaurants are adding salad bars because of consumer demand. To cut calories, select one that includes this choice. Oil...873 nO.1283 ~ utrltlon, ~ .. eight Control and Fast Food EMPLOYEO@ OMEMAKER Texas Agricultural Extension Service TpeTexas A&M University System DanielC. Pfannstiel, Director? College Station , Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin...

  14. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. PMID:25310889

  15. Global Perspectives on Fast-Food History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew F.

    This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fast food industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…

  16. Fast Food and Body Weight among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Parks, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between consumption of fast food and sweets on overweight among U.S. adolescents; and (2) how consumption of different types of food and physical exercise is associated with parental education and other background variables. The data were based on cross-sectional, national survey study…

  17. "Too much of that stuff can't be good": Canadian teens, morality, and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Deborah; Chapman, Gwen E; Beagan, Brenda L

    2011-07-01

    Recently, public health agents and the popular media have argued that rising levels of obesity are due, in part, to "obesogenic" environments, and in particular to the clustering of fast food establishments in Western urban centers that are poor and working class. Our findings from a multi-site, cross-national qualitative study of teenaged Canadians' eating practices in urban and rural areas offer another perspective on this topic, showing that fast food consumption is not simply a function of the location of fast food outlets, and that Canadian teens engage in complex ways with the varied dimensions of choosing (or rejecting) fast foods. Drawing on evidence gleaned from semi-structured interviews with 132 teenagers (77 girls and 55 boys, ages 13-19 years) carried out between 2007 and 2009, we maintain that no easy relationship exists between the geographical availability of fast food and teen eating behaviors. We use critical obesity literature that challenges widely accepted understandings about obesity prevalence and etiology, as well as Lamont's (1992, 2000) concept of "moral boundary work," to argue that teen fast food consumption and avoidance is multifaceted and does not stem exclusively nor directly from spatial proximity or social class. Through moral boundary work, in which teens negotiated with moralistic notions of healthy eating, participants made and re-made themselves as "good" and successful subjects by Othering those who were "bad" in references to socially derived discourses of healthy eating. PMID:21689876

  18. Food restriction and binge eating: a study of former prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Polivy, J; Zeitlin, S B; Herman, C P; Beal, A L

    1994-05-01

    Food restriction is correlated with binge eating, but evidence that restriction leads to binge eating is scanty. In this study we investigated postwar binge eating in 67 World War II combat veterans and 198 former prisoners of war. As predicted, binge eating was relatively rare in combat veterans but was significantly more prevalent in veterans who, as prisoners in German prisoner of war camps, lost significant amounts of weight during their captivity. Our data thus support the contention that starvation or dieting seems to precede binge eating. PMID:8040513

  19. Attentional Bias to Food Cues in Youth with Loss of Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Lisa M.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Hannallah, Louise M.; Field, Sara E.; Vannucci, Anna; Bongiorno, Diana M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania; Demidowich, Andrew; Kelly, Nichole R.; Cassidy, Omni; Simmons, W. Kyle; Engel, Scott G.; Pine, Daniel S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5±2.3y; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7± .73) with (n=47) and without (n=29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p = .01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. PMID:25435490

  20. Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

  1. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Sharkey JR, Johnson CM, Dean WR, Horel SA. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults.

  2. The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Anderson A, Dewar J, Marshall D, Cummins S, Taylor M, Dawson J, Sparks L. The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items.

  3. The availability of healthy food options in fast food outlets in six rural counties 

    E-print Network

    Creel, Jennifer Sue

    2009-05-15

    chain fast food stores were more likely than other fast food stores to offer healthy options (78.9% v. 42.4%, pchain fast food stores were also more likely than other fast food stores to offer healthy breakfast options (26% v. 13.9%, p...

  4. Eating as if It Really Matters: Teaching the Pedagogy of Food in the Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    To survive, we need to eat. And yet eating is much more than just ingesting fuel to keep our bodies going. Besides being a source of sustenance, food is a cause for celebration, an inducement to temptation, a weapon for wielding power, an indicator of well-being, a catalyst for change, and a vehicle for learning. In the age of globalization, these…

  5. Eating to live or living to eat? Exploring the causal attributions of self-perceived food addiction.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Helen K; Dickson, Joanne M; Field, Matt; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. However, little is known about how the concept of 'food addiction' is defined amongst members of the lay public. The current study examined beliefs about the cognitive and behavioural manifestations of food addiction. Participants (N = 210) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire in which they indicated whether or not they perceived themselves to be a food addict and provided a brief explanation for their response. Over a quarter of participants (28%) perceived themselves to be food addicts and self-diagnosis was predicted by increased BMI and younger age, but not by gender. Thematic analysis was conducted to explore the causal attributions provided by self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. Six characteristics were identified: 1) Reward-driven eating (i.e. eating for psychological rather than physiological reasons), 2) A functional or psychological preoccupation with food, 3) A perceived lack of self-control around food, 4) Frequent food cravings, 5) Increased weight or an unhealthy diet, and 6) A problem with a specific type of food. The emergent themes, and their frequency, did not differ between self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. However, self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts reported divergent cognitions, behaviours and attitudes within each common theme. This study is the first to provide qualitative insight into beliefs about food addiction in both self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. The findings appear to reflect a view of food addiction that is identifiable through several core behaviours. PMID:26206173

  6. Obesity and the Built Environment: Does the Density of Neighborhood Fast-Food Outlets Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine variation in obesity among older adults relative to the joint influences of density of neighborhood fast-food outlets and residents' behavioral, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics. Design Cross-sectional and multilevel design. Setting Census block groups, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, within the metropolitan region's Urban Growth Boundary in Portland, Oregon. Subjects A total of 1,221 residents (mean age=65 years old) recruited randomly from 120 neighborhoods (48% response rate). Measures A Geographic Information System-based measure of fast-food restaurant density across 120 neighborhoods was created. Residents within the sampled neighborhoods were assessed with respect to their body mass index (BMI), frequency of visits to local fast-food restaurants, fried food consumption, levels of physical activity, self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables, household income, and race/ethnicity. Analyses Multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Significant associations were found between resident-level individual characteristics and the likelihood of being obese (BMI?30) for neighborhoods with a high-density of fast-food restaurants in comparison to those with a low density: odds ratios [OR] for obesity, 95% confidence interval [CI] were: 1.878 (CI=1.006-3.496) for weekly visits to local fast-food restaurants; 1.792 (CI=1.006-3.190) for not meeting physical activity recommendations; 1.212 (CI=1.057-1.391) for low confidence in eating healthy food; and 8.057 (CI=1.705-38.086) for non-Hispanic black residents. Conclusion Increased density of neighborhood fast-food outlets was associated with unhealthy lifestyles, poorer psychosocial profiles, and increased risk of obesity among older adults. PMID:19149426

  7. Fast food in a Chinese provincial city: a comparative analysis 

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Haiying

    2006-08-16

    More than a decade ago American fast food entered the Chinese market. Since then the number of fast food and organized chain restaurants in China has multiplied. Chinese consumers, especially those who live in large urban areas, have accepted...

  8. Eating in Space: Food for Thought. EG-2011-08-00005-SSC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Shearer, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the thousands of questions that need to be answered before astronauts travel to distant planets and asteroids are questions related to the astronauts themselves. How much food will they need and what foods can they take? We are fortunate on Earth to have an amazing variety of foods to eat. When astronauts do go to Mars and other…

  9. Construal levels of healthy eating. Exploring consumers' interpretation of health in the food context.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, Amber; Sijtsema, Siet J; Dagevos, Hans; de Winter, Mariët A

    2012-10-01

    Although many studies consider health and food, little is known about consumers' actual interpretation of healthy eating. This study aims to explore, operationalise, and test consumers' interpretation of healthy eating by using insights from construal level theory. In this exploratory research three consecutive studies were executed, applying focus group (n=35) and two quasi-experimental studies with, respectively 97 and 235 respondents. Respondents appeared to use different levels for their judgment of food products' healthiness. Thinking about healthy eating can take place at a concrete representation level (e.g. "an apple contains vitamins"), but also at an abstract representation level (e.g. "it depends how much you eat"). The main yield of this paper is the coding scheme with exemplary phrasings used by consumers for different representations of healthy eating. This study shows that healthy eating does not always mean the same for different individuals, it depends at least partly on the representation level they are reasoning from. Both in academic reasoning and public health interventions health and healthy eating are usually discussed as universal and univocal concepts. However, this paper argues that healthy eating is not as clear-cut for consumers, and is not understood and interpreted identically by everybody. This paper suggests to take this insight into account in both future research and in the design of any communication message on healthy eating. PMID:22641147

  10. Fast Eating Speed Increases the Risk of Endoscopic Erosive Gastritis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyung; Kim, E-Yeon; Han, Byoung-Duck; Cho, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast eating or overeating can induce gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis. However, the association between gastritis and speed of eating is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether eating speed is associated with increased risk of endoscopic erosive gastritis (EEG). Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 10,893 adults who underwent a general health checkup between 2007 and 2009. Two groups, EEG patients and EEG-free patients, were compared by using the t-test and the chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between eating speed and EEG. Results The group with EEG had a higher proportion of males, average age, body mass index, and percentages of current smokers and risky drinkers than those without EEG. After adjusting for anthropometric, social, and endoscopic parameters, the group with the highest eating speed (<5 min/meal) had 1.7 times higher risk for EEG than the group with the lowest eating speed (?15 min/meal) (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.45). Conclusion High eating speed is an independent risk factor for EEG. Our results indicate the need for further studies to clarify the role of eating speed in gastritis. PMID:26634096

  11. Restrained eating predicts effortful self-control as indicated by heart rate variability during food exposure.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Fay C M; Kleinfeldt, Anne; Kubiak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    When confronted with food, restrained eaters have to inhibit the pursuit of the short-term goal of enjoying their food for the sake of the long-term goal of controlling their weight. Thus, restrained eating creates a self-control situation. In the present study we investigated the initiation of effortful self-control by food cues in accordance with the level of restrained eating. We expected that a preceding act of self-control would moderate the association between restrained eating and effortful self-control initiated by food cues. Participants (N=111) were randomly assigned to a task requiring self-control or a task not requiring self-control. Subsequently, participants were exposed to palatable food, and effortful self-control was measured via heart rate variability (HRV). Restrained eating was associated with enhanced HRV during food exposure after exercising self-control but not after not exercising self-control. The results indicate that maintaining dieting goals results in food cues initiating effortful self-control after a preceding act of self-control. We suggest considering the effect of acts of self-control when modeling the initial steps on the path from food cues to unsuccessful restrained eating. PMID:26500202

  12. Fast-food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but are consistently poor

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Reedy, Jill; Kahle, Lisa L; Harris, Jennifer L; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate five popular fast-food chains’ menus in relation to dietary guidance. Design Menus posted on chains’ websites were coded using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies and MyPyramid Equivalents Database to enable Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores to be assigned. Dollar or value and kids’ menus and sets of items promoted as healthy or nutritious were also assessed. Setting Five popular fast-food chains in the USA. Subjects Not applicable. Results Full menus scored lower than 50 out of 100 possible points on the HEI-2005. Scores for Total Fruit, Whole Grains and Sodium were particularly dismal. Compared with full menus, scores on dollar or value menus were 3 points higher on average, whereas kids’ menus scored 10 points higher on average. Three chains marketed subsets of items as healthy or nutritious; these scored 17 points higher on average compared with the full menus. No menu or subset of menu items received a score higher than 72 out of 100 points. Conclusions The poor quality of fast-food menus is a concern in light of increasing away-from-home eating, aggressive marketing to children and minorities, and the tendency for fast-food restaurants to be located in low-income and minority areas. The addition of fruits, vegetables and legumes; replacement of refined with whole grains; and reformulation of offerings high in sodium, solid fats and added sugars are potential strategies to improve fast-food offerings. The HEI may be a useful metric for ongoing monitoring of fast-food menus. PMID:23317511

  13. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B.; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A.; Halford, Jason C. G.; Stancak, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain. PMID:25475348

  14. It’s who I am and what we eat: Mothers’ food-related identities in family food choice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

  15. Pavlovian conditioning to food reward as a function of eating disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Astur, Robert S; Palmisano, Alexandra N; Hudd, Ellie C; Carew, Andrew W; Deaton, Bonnie E; Kuhney, Franchesca S; Niezrecki, Rachel N; Santos, Melissa

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the extent to which eating disorder risk affects the strength of food-reward conditioning. Eighty food-restricted undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of two visually distinct rooms. Participants underwent multiple pairing sessions in which they were confined into one of the two rooms and explored a VR environment. Room A was paired with real-life M&Ms for three sessions, and Room B was paired with no food for three sessions. After a short delay, a test session was administered, and participants were given free access to the entire VR environment for 5 min. Participants also completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; [11]), which is a standard screening tool of eating disorder risk. Participants displayed a significant conditioned place preference for the VR room previously paired with food, and they displayed a significant explicit preference for the M&M-paired room in a forced-choice test. There was a significant positive correlation between place preference strength and scores on the dieting subscale of the EAT-26. Additionally, ratings of the no-food room were significantly lower as dieting scores increased. This suggests that components of eating disorder risk can influence basic conditioning strength to places associated with food reward. For both males and females, additional correlations between eating disorder risk subscales and conditioning variables are discussed, and implications for future research are proposed in hopes of understanding how conditioning paradigms can provide insight into treating and preventing eating disorders. PMID:26003943

  16. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    PubMed Central

    Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A.; Ohla, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior. PMID:25009514

  17. Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

  18. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    PubMed Central

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p?0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children. PMID:26652259

  19. Eat fit. Get big? How fitness cues influence food consumption volumes.

    PubMed

    Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Kettenbaum, Myriam; Klicker, Kristina

    2013-06-01

    Fitness cues on food packages are a common marketing practice in the food sector. This study aims to find out whether and how fitness cues influence food consumption. The results of two field studies show that, even though eating fitness-cued food does not help consumers become more fit, the claims on the packaging increase both serving size and actual food consumption. This effect is mediated by serving size inferences. Also, consumers feel less guilty and perceive themselves closer to desired fitness levels after having consumed the food. The findings show that packaging cues relating to energy expenditure can increase energy intake despite the fact that consumers are not engaged in any actual physical activity while eating the food. PMID:23395603

  20. Identification of Essential Food Skills for Skill-Based Healthful Eating Programs in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were…

  1. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

  2. Impact of eating frequency by adolescents on food intake and meeting MyPyramid recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adolescents’ eating frequency on their intake of food groups and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid food guidance system. Adolescents 12-19 years old (n=4,357) who completed one 24-hour dietary recall in What W...

  3. Obesity, the Economic Meltdown, and the Gut Feeling for the Foods We Choose to Eat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary recommendations typically emphasize minimizing the intake of highly palatable, energy dense foods, but this may be very difficult in some persons experiencing stress. Non-homeostatic regulation of food intake, such as habitually eating more or less in response to emotional stimuli, can affe...

  4. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education…

  5. Using Fast Food Nutrition Facts to Make Healthier Menu Selections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fast food nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fast food restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…

  6. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  7. Use of calorie information at fast-food and chain restaurants among US Adults, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Wethington, Holly; Maynard, Leah M.; Haltiwanger, Christine; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine reading and use of calorie information at fast-food/chain restaurants. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 4363 US adults using the 2009 HealthStyles survey. The outcome variable was reading calorie information when available while ordering at fast-food/chain restaurants. Among those who go to fast-food/chain restaurants, we conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between sociodemographic variables and reading calorie information when available. Among those who report reading calorie information when available, we assessed the proportion using calorie information. Results Among those who reported eating at fast-food/chain restaurants, 36.4% reported reading calorie information when available. Reading calorie information was not related to race/ethnicity, income or education. Compared with men, women had higher odds [adjusted odds ratio (OR) =1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.5–2.1] of reading calorie information when available while those who frequented fast-food/chain restaurants ?3 times/week (aOR =0.6; 95% CI =0.4–0.8) had lower odds compared with those going <4 times/month. Of those who reported reading calorie information when available, 95.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Conclusions Almost all who read calorie information when available use the information at least sometimes. Research is needed on how calorie information is being used. PMID:24263224

  8. Fast Food Consumption Pattern and Its Association with Overweight Among High School Boys in Mangalore City of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y.P., Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M.; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Context Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. Aim This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. Settings and Design This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Materials and Methods Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ? 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Results Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (p<0.001). Parental consumption of fast foods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Conclusion Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This would minimize life style disorders among children to a greater extent. PMID:26155501

  9. The specificity of restrained versus unrestrained eaters' responses to food cues: general desire to eat, or craving for the cued food?

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Ingrid; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2003-08-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to food cues increases eating, especially in restrained eaters. The present study attempted to determine whether this elevated consumption reflects a general desire to eat in response to food cues, or specific desire/craving for the cued food. Restrained and unrestrained eaters were exposed to the smell of either pizza, cookies, or no smell for 10 minutes, were asked to write their thoughts (corresponding to the smell cue) about pizza, cookies or in general, and were then presented with either pizza or cookies to 'taste and rate'. Results indicated that restrained eaters are more responsive than are unrestrained eaters to pre-eating exposure to smell and thought cues, eating significantly more after such cues. An interaction with food type, however, indicated that restrained eaters ate more only when the food presented to eat was the same as the prior food cues. Self-reported desire to eat, liking, and craving for a particular food increased somewhat for restrained eaters after exposure to the smell and thought of that food. Restrained eaters' intake of a food that differed from the pre-eating food cues did not differ from their intake following no prior exposure to food cues. Restrained eaters thus showed a highly specific response to exposure to food cues. PMID:12880616

  10. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

  11. Ecological momentary assessment of obesogenic eating behavior: combining person-specific and environmental predictors. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Obesity has been promoted by a food environment that encourages excessive caloric intake. An understanding of how the food environment contributes to obesogenic eating behavior in different types of individuals may facilitate healthy weight control efforts.

  12. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. PMID:26022802

  13. The Ocean Book: Food Chains...Come and Eat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)

  14. Curbside eating : mobilizing food trucks to activate public space

    E-print Network

    Sheppard, Alison Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    In the past 5 years, cities across the United States have seen the rise of a new form of street vending: the modern food truck. Nearly overnight, food trucks have become an expected and anticipated occurrence in many ...

  15. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  16. Restrained eating, obesity, and cumulative food intake curves during four-course meals.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Wouters, L; ten Hoor, F

    1991-04-01

    A four-course meal was presented to six obese and 18 normal weight women in which the second course was eaten ad libitum and the other three courses were fixed in amount. Eating behaviour was observed directly and intake was monitored via an electronic scale built into the table under the plate. Intake deceleration was observed in the normal weight women who scored low on the Herman-Polivy (1980) restraint questionnaire and on the cognitive restraint factor (F1) of Stunkard and Messick's (1985) questionnaire, whereas the normal weight and obese restrained women displayed linear cumulative food intake. In all groups, if deceleration occurred in the second course it was usually identical in the third and fourth courses, and constant eating rate persisted from the second course to the later courses. Food-specific eating rates were positively correlated to relative palatability, and removed deviation from linearity in cumulative intake over the four courses. PMID:2064393

  17. Mindless Eating: The 200 Daily Food Decisions We Overlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wansink, Brian; Sobal, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    How aware are people of food-related decisions they make and how the environment influences these decisions? Study 1 shows that 139 people underestimated the number of food-related decisions they made--by an average of more than 221 decisions. Study 2 examined 192 people who overserved and overate 31% more food as a result of having been given an…

  18. The uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine reduces binge-like eating, food-seeking behavior, and compulsive eating: role of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen L; Rao, Rahul R; Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Valenza, Marta; Giuliano, Chiara; Everitt, Barry J; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    Binge-eating disorder is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable consumption of palatable food within brief periods of time. The role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system in hedonic feeding is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on palatable food-induced behavioral adaptations using a rat model, which mimics the characteristic symptomatology observed in binge-eating disorder. For this purpose, we allowed male Wistar rats to respond to obtain a highly palatable, sugary diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1 h a day, under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Upon stabilization of food responding, we tested the effects of memantine on the Chow and Palatable food groups' intake. Then, we tested the effects of memantine on food-seeking behavior, under a second-order schedule of reinforcement. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of memantine on the intake of food when it was offered in an aversive, bright compartment of a light/dark conflict test. Finally, we evaluated the effects of memantine on FR1 responding for food, when microinfused into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell or core. Memantine dose-dependently decreased binge-like eating and fully blocked food-seeking behavior and compulsive eating, selectively in the Palatable food group. The drug treatment did not affect performance of the control Chow food group. Finally, intra-NAcc shell, but not core, microinfusion of memantine decreased binge-like eating. Together, these findings substantiate a role of memantine as a potential pharmacological treatment for binge-eating disorder. PMID:25381776

  19. Are You What You Eat? An inside Look at High-Tech Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2007-01-01

    If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to…

  20. Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

  1. REFRIGERATED READY-T0-EAT (RTE) FOODS: MICROBIOLOGICAL CONCERNS AND CONTROL MEASURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods contaminated with L. monocytogenes have been linked to several severe listeriosis outbreaks. The contamination was mainly traced to post-process contamination. Due to the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow at refrigerated temperatures and the non-necessity fo...

  2. ENSURING THE SAFETY OF COMPLEX READY-TO-EAT FOODS USING IRRADIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other complex RTE food products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on raw meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data...

  3. Food and Eating Practices during the Transition from Secondary School to New Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Wendy J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how the new social contexts experienced by young people after leaving school are related to everyday food practices and eating habits. Findings from in-depth interviews with 31 young people aged 16-24 years studying at a college of further education in South East England are used to explore the role of new social spaces and…

  4. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  5. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  6. Inequality in obesigenic environments: fast food density in New York City. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New York City.

  7. 'Cos girls aren't supposed to eat like pigs are they?' Young women negotiating gendered discursive constructions of food and eating.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Maxine; Day, Katy; Rickett, Bridgette; Milnes, Kate

    2012-01-01

    While psycho-medical understandings of 'eating disorders' draw distinctions between those who 'have'/'do not have' eating disorders, feminist poststructuralist researchers argue that these detract from political/socio-cultural conditions that invoke problematic eating and embodied subjectivities. Using poststructuralist discourse analysis, we examine young women's talk around food and eating, in particular, the negotiation of tensions arising from derogating aspects of hetero-normative femininities, while accounting for own 'feminine' practices (e.g. 'dieting') and subjectivities. Analysis suggested that eating/dieting was accounted for by drawing upon neo-liberalist discourses around individual choice; however, these may obscure gendered, classed and racialized power relations operating in local and wider contexts. PMID:21610010

  8. Healthy Eating for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foods to Fight Iron Deficiency scale in an apple - Eating Right Isn't Complicated Eating Right Isn' ... a Hurricane and/or Flooding scale in an apple - Eating Right Isn't Complicated Eating Right Isn' ...

  9. ‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2009-01-01

    What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or incentive salience systems important to appetite, such as mesolimbic dopamine systems and opioid motivation circuits that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots. Finally, it considers some potential ways in which ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ might relate to eating disorders. PMID:19336238

  10. Memory updating in sub-clinical eating disorder: differential effects with food and body shape words.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Olivia; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated how eating disorder (ED) relevant information is updated in working memory in people with high vs. low scores on a measure of eating disorder pathology (the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, EDE-Q). Participants performed two memory updating tasks. One was a neutral control task using digits; the other task involved food words and words relating to body-shape, and provided measures of updating speed and post-updating recall. We found that high EDE-Q participants (1) showed no sign of general memory updating impairment as indicated by performance in the control task; (2) showed a general recall deficit in the task involving ED-relevant stimuli, suggesting a general distraction of cognitive resources in the presence of ED-related items; (3) showed a relative facilitation in the recall of food words; and (4) showed quicker updating toward food words and relatively slower updating toward body-shape-related words. Results are discussed in the context of cognitive theories of eating disorders. PMID:25682363

  11. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors. PMID:26005202

  12. Perceived healthiness of food. If it's healthy, you can eat more!

    PubMed

    Provencher, Véronique; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2009-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of food-related beliefs about the healthiness of foods, restrained eating, and weight salience on actual food intake during an ad libitum snack. In a 2 (healthy vs. unhealthy) by 2 (restrained vs. unrestrained eaters) by 2 (weight salient vs. not salient) factorial design, 99 female undergraduate students were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Dietary restraint and weight salience did not influence snack intake, but participants ate about 35% more when the snack was regarded as healthy than when it was seen as unhealthy. Ratings of the snack food's "healthiness," "capacity to affect weight" and "appropriateness in a healthy menu" also indicated that the "healthy" manipulation was effective. In addition, the "weight salience" manipulation appears to influence perceptions about food differently in restrained versus unrestrained eaters, in that restrained eaters rated the snack food more negatively than unrestrained eaters did when they received weight feedback before eating. Beliefs about the healthiness of foods may thus be of great relevance to both food intake and weight gain. PMID:19071169

  13. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos. PMID:18830690

  14. Calorie Labeling, Fast Food Purchasing and Restaurant Visits

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Design and Methods Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fast food receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. Results The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Post-labeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33 percentage point (p<.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fast food visits did not change in either city over time. Conclusions While some consumer reports noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fast food visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law. PMID:24136905

  15. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes: Eat Healthy Foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... margarine in a plastic tub • Nuts, olives, and vegetable oil • Avocados. Choose these high fat foods less often. ... Cookies, and Desserts One serving is • 1 teaspoon vegetable, olive, or canola oil • 1 teaspoon tub margarine • 5 large olives or ...

  16. Environmental Microbiology: Bacteria & Fungi on the Foods We Eat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segner, Suzanne; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2007-01-01

    The near daily news reports on food-borne diseases caused by contaminated produce, dairy, or meats suggests to the public that the safety of the U.S. food supply is in jeopardy. These reports, as well as a general distrust in federal agencies due in part to mad cow disease and toxigenic forms of "E. coli" in ground beef, have resulted in an…

  17. Cognitive interference and a food-related memory bias in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Schmitz, Florian; Trentowska, Monika; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Berking, Matthias; Naumann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The present study was concerned with cognitive interference and a specific memory bias for eating-related stimuli in binge eating disorder (BED). Further objectives were to find out under which circumstances such effects would occur, and whether they are related with each other and with reported severity of BED symptoms. A group of women diagnosed with BED and a matched sample of overweight controls completed two paradigms, an n-back task with lures and a recent-probes task. The BED group generally experienced more interference in the n-back task. Additionally, they revealed selectively increased interference for food items in the recent-probes task. Findings can be reconciled with the view that control functions are generally impaired in BED, and that there is an additional bias for eating-related stimuli, both of which were related with reported severity of BED symptoms. PMID:24076410

  18. A cross-cultural comparison of eating behaviors and home food environmental factors in adolescents from São Paulo (Brazil) and Saint Paul/Minneapolis (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Estima, Camilla C.P.; Bruening, Meg; Hannan, Peter J.; Alvarenga, Marle S.; Leal, Greisse V.S.; Philippi, Sonia T.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Objective Describe cross-cultural differences in nutrition-related factors among adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil and St. Paul/Minneapolis, U.S. Design Two large- population-based studies with cross-cultural comparisons Setting 12 São Paulo and 10 St. Paul/Minneapolis high schools in 2009-2010 Participants 1148 adolescents from São Paulo; 1632 adolescents from St. Paul/Minneapolis Main outcome measure(s) Meal consumption, family meals, fast food consumption and home food availability Analysis Binomial regressions, weighted for age distributions and adjusted for gender, were used to compare identical measures from each sample. Results Generally, São Paulo adolescents reported healthier nutritional outcomes than St. Paul/Minneapolis adolescents. São Paulo adolescents were seven times less likely to report high fast food consumption than St. Paul/Minneapolis adolescents (p<0.001). While most measures of the home environment indicated healthier home environments in São Paulo, more São Paulo adolescents reported that sugar-sweetened beverages was usually available at home than St. Paul/Minneapolis adolescents (p<0.001). Conclusions and implications São Paulo youth tended to have healthier eating behaviors and home food environment factors than St. Paul/Minneapolis youth. Brazilian eating patterns tend to be healthier and support a connection with food and culture. Interventions are needed to encourage youth and their families to maintain these patterns. PMID:24656651

  19. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay healthy. ... about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  20. Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

  1. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

  2. Use of calorie information at fast food and chain restaurants among US youth aged 9–18 years, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wethington, H.; Maynard, L.M.; Blanck, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine whether youth use calorie information when it is available at fast food/chain restaurants and what factors are associated with using this information to make their food selection. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 721 youth (9–18 years) using the 2010 YouthStyles and HealthStyles surveys. The outcome measure was reported use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between sociodemographic variables and the use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Results Of those who visited fast food/chain restaurants, 42.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Girls were more likely than boys (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–2.5) and youth who were obese were more likely than those at a healthy weight (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.04–2.9) to use calorie information, and youth eating at a fast food/chain restaurant twice a week or more versus once a week or less were half as likely to report using calorie information (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8). Conclusion Public health education efforts can benefit from research to determine how to increase usage among youth so that their food choices are appropriate for their caloric needs. PMID:23697388

  3. Comparison of student's satisfaction on school food service environment by the eating place and gender

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jisook; Oh, Yu-jin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student's satisfaction with school food service environment to improve the quality of middle school meal service. A survey was conducted of 680 students (boys 246, girls 433) from 6 middle schools providing school meals from October to November 2007. The questionnaires were directly distributed to the subjects for comparison of satisfaction of school meals depending on the eating place. As for the quantity of food, classroom group (3.40) expressed significantly higher satisfaction than cafeteria group (3.16, P < 0.01), but as for the satisfaction on hygiene, classroom group (2.76) showed significantly lower satisfaction than cafeteria group (3.03, P < 0.01). About the satisfaction of school meal environment, classroom group showed more satisfaction on distribution time, eating place, eating atmosphere (P < 0.001). The classroom group showed higher satisfaction than cafeteria group in cases of quantity, diversity of types of soup, dessert, and the cost of school meal. To improve eating place and hygiene of school meal, sufficient cafeteria space and pleasant environment is needed to be established. PMID:20098582

  4. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  5. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    PubMed

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  6. The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

  7. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument.

  8. Development and Features EatSafe: Modular Portable Food Sensor

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    such as carbon monoxide monitoring, gas leak detection, long term food monitoring EVERYDAY USE BREATHALYZER, those with weakened immune system Team Leader: Norman Huang1 Core Members: Nick Johnsen1, Andrew Ong6-Board User Interface Portability / Modularity Real Time Data Logging Bluetooth Organic Detection Module Rapid

  9. Food Stamp Recipients Eat More Vegetables after Viewing Nutrition Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Amy Block; Feldman, Nancy; Fujii, Mary Lavender; Garcia, Linda; Hudes, Mark; Mitchell, Rita; Bunch, Sybille; Metz, Diane

    1999-01-01

    A study in three California counties found that food stamp recipients who viewed a videotape promoting vegetables had increased their knowledge of vegetables and greatly increased their consumption of potatoes and raw vegetables two to six weeks later. The feasibility of using videotaped nutrition instruction with low-income adults is discussed.…

  10. The Demand for Healthy Eating: Supporting a Transformative Food "Movement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winson, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    To the extent that social science scholarship engages real-world developments it remains grounded and better able to resist elite agendas. With this in mind this article argues for the critical encounter with what I argue is the most significant struggle around food and agriculture today--the amorphous and broad-based movement that strives to…

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Making Food Safer to Eat

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the past 15 years, a dangerous type of E. coli infection, responsible for the recall of millions of pounds ... Guide MedlinePlus - Foodborne Illness MedlinePlus - Salmonella Infections MedlinePlus - E.coli Infections MedlinePlus - Food Safety Top of Page Get Email ...

  12. Junk Food Not to Blame for America's Obesity Epidemic: Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... States. The researchers found that consumption of soda, candy and fast food was not linked to weight ... this study to mean that eating fast food, candy and soft drinks does not affect the health ...

  13. Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2014-08-01

    Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment. PMID:25027288

  14. All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?

    PubMed Central

    Hoi, Herbert; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially nesting European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster). We aimed to determine whether this unconsumed food is an indicator of unlimited food supply, the result of mistakes during food transfer between parents and chicks or foraging selectivity of chicks. Therefore, we investigated the amount of dropped food for each nest in relation to reproductive performance and parameters reflecting parental quality. Our data suggest that parents carry more food to the nest than chicks can eat and, hence, food is not limited. This assumption is supported by the facts that there is a positive relationship between dropped food found in a nest and the number of fledglings, nestling age, and chick health condition and that the amount of dropped food is independent of colony size. There is variation in the amount of dropped food within colonies, suggesting that parent foraging efficiency may also be an important determinant. Pairs nesting in the center of a colony performed better than those nesting on the edge, which supports the assumption that quality differences between parents are important as well. However, dropped food cannot be used as an indicator of local food availability as (1) within-colony variation in dropped food is larger than between colony variation and, (2) the average amount of dropped food is not related to colony size. PMID:25691970

  15. PEOPLE EAT FOOD, A SYMPOSIUM ON THE APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THE USDA FOODLINK DATABASE SYSTEM, SUMMARY REPORT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On November 14, 2005, the People Eat Food, a Symposium on the Applications and Future Directions for the USDA FoodLink Database System was convened in Washington, DC. Over 100 participants attended the symposium, including representatives from the food industry, several universities, government age...

  16. Eating patterns of children in the Delta: Developing a child food frequency questionnaire for this rural impoverished population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemic of obesity and health risks for children currently present challenges in estimating food intakes and developing appropriate interventions. Obtaining eating patterns is important. No child food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are specific to the Delta. Food intake data collected previous...

  17. Food Advertising and Eating Disorders: Marketing Body Dissatisfaction, the Drive for Thinness, and Dieting in Women's Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…

  18. How Emotions Expressed by Adults' Faces Affect the Desire to Eat Liked and Disliked Foods in Children Compared to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were…

  19. Restricted temporal access to food and anorexia in mice: Microstructure of eating within feeding opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Neil E; Cervantez, Melissa; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2016-01-01

    Intake and body weight were recorded in a closed economy as male and female C57BL/6 mice progressed through either fixed interval (FI) or fixed unit price (FUP) schedules of cost for 20-mg food pellets. Access to food was constrained to four 40 min food opportunities (FOs) per day, spaced 4-h apart through the dark phase. Nose poke responses and pellet deliveries were collected at 10-s resolution to allow pellet-by-pellet analysis. In the FI protocol, mice maintained adequate food intake and body weight through the study, even though at the highest FI (50-s) they spent the entire 40-min FOs engaged in eating at or near the maximum rate allowed by the schedule. In the FUP protocol, mice greatly reduced their intake and lost weight at the highest FUP (50 responses/pellet). The analysis of response and pellet distributions showed these mice were not filling the FOs with responding and ate less at dusk (FO #1) and dawn (FO #4) than at FOs #2 and 3 in the middle of the night. The principal, and unexpected, sex difference was that females tended to eat more than males despite lower body weight, but behavioral changes as a function of feeding cost or schedule were qualitatively similar in both sexes. These results show that slow eating as imposed by an FI is not sufficient to produce hypophagia and, in the FUP protocol, hypophagia cannot be explained by slowed eating due to response requirements. We discuss the role of effort or time in FUP-induced anorexia, and suggest this murine model may emulate some aspects of human anorexia nervosa better than current activity-based protocols. PMID:26589095

  20. Culturally-Based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food: Development and validation of the CHEF scale.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Rebecca R; Palmberg, Allison; Lydecker, Janet; Green, Brooke; Kelly, Nichole R; Trapp, Stephen; Bean, Melanie K

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. To address this disparity, research has begun to investigate the role of culture, ethnicity, and experiences with racism on food choices and health interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a new scale measuring the extent to which individuals' culture, as they perceive it, influences perceptions of food-related health messages. A diverse sample of 422 college students responded to the item pool, as well as surveys on race-related stress, self-efficacy in making healthy food choices, ethnic identity, and social support for health-related behaviors. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses produced a five-factor model: Connection (the extent to which food connected individuals with their culture), Authority (beliefs that health care providers were familiar with individuals' cultural foods), Unhealthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that individuals' cultural foods were perceived as unhealthy), Healthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that others perceive individuals' cultural foods to be healthy), and Social Value (the extent to which social relationships are improved by shared cultural food traditions). Authority and Healthy Food Perceptions were related to individuals' confidence in their ability to make healthy food choices. Authority was inversely correlated with negative coping with racism-related events. Ethnic identity was significantly correlated with all but Unhealthy Food Perceptions. Race/ethnicity differences were identified for Healthy Food Perceptions, Unhealthy Food Perceptions, Social Value, Connection, but not Authority. Applications and suggestions for further research using the Culturally-based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food (CHEF) Scale are proposed. PMID:26409643

  1. Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation-substitution or concentration? — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and all chains combined.

  2. Swedish students' interpretations of food symbols and their perceptions of healthy eating. An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Nicklas; Persson Osowski, Christine; Mattsson Sydner, Ylva; Fjellström, Christina

    2014-11-01

    This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an "inauthenticity discourse" where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully. PMID:25017131

  3. Caloric restriction in the presence of attractive food cues: external cues, eating, and weight.

    PubMed

    Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter; Coelho, Jennifer S

    2008-08-01

    A growing body of research on caloric restriction (CR) in many species of laboratory animals suggests that underfeeding leads to better health and longevity in the calorically-restricted animal (e.g., see [[34]. J.P. Pinel, S. Assanand and D.R. Lehman, (2000). Hunger, eating and ill health. Am Psychol, 55, 1105-1116.], for a review). Although some objections have been raised by scientists concerned about negative psychological and behavioral sequelae of such restriction, advocates of CR continue to urge people to adopt sharply reduced eating regimes in order to increase their longevity. Yet very few people are even attempting to reap the benefits of such restriction. The present paper explores one factor that may deter many humans from drastically reducing their food consumption--the presence of abundant, attractive food cues in the environment. Research on the influence of food cues on food-related behaviors is reviewed to demonstrate that the presence of food cues makes restriction of intake more difficult. PMID:18486161

  4. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boggiano, Mary M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M.; Sylvester, Maria D.; Morgan, Phillip R.; Morse, Kathryn E.; Burgess, Emilee E.

    2015-01-01

    Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills. PMID:26082744

  5. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, Mary M; Wenger, Lowell E; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M; Sylvester, Maria D; Morgan, Phillip R; Morse, Kathryn E; Burgess, Emilee E

    2015-01-01

    Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills. PMID:26082744

  6. The impact of a mental work on food preferences, eating behavior traits and satiety efficiency.

    PubMed

    Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (p<0.05), which was accompanied by an increased carbohydrate intake (p<0.05). Moreover, participants with the highest waist circumference had lower satiety efficiency (r=0.43, p<0.05) in response to mental work. These results suggest that increased energy intake in response to knowledge-based work is associated with food preference and an altered satiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference. PMID:26607234

  7. "Is It Okay to Eat a Dog in Korea...like China?" Assumptions of National Food-Eating Practices in Intercultural Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Adam; Jenks, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is a small body of research which shows how intercultural communication is constituted in and through talk-in-interaction, and can be made relevant or irrelevant by interactants on a moment-by-moment basis. Our paper builds on this literature by investigating how cultural assumptions of national food-eating practices are deployed, contested…

  8. A model of binge-like eating behavior in mice that does not require food deprivation or stress.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk, Traci A; Sahr, Allison E; Statnick, Michael A

    2010-09-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by excessive food intake during a short period of time and is often associated with obesity. Mouse models of binge-like eating behavior are lacking making it difficult to employ genetic models in the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating. We report a rapid and simple model to induce binge-like eating behavior in mice that does not require food deprivation or exogenous stressors. Weekly 24 h access to a nutritionally complete high energy diet (HED), along with continuous access to standard chow, resulted in a significant increase in HED intake following its presentation compared to mice that had continuous access to both diets. Mice exhibiting binge-like eating consumed one-third of their normal total daily caloric intake within 2.5 h of HED presentation. Moreover, total 24-h caloric intakes were increased by 50% in mice exhibiting binge-like eating. Following repeated cycles, binge-like eating of the HED was maintained over several weeks with no evidence of habituation or significant alterations in body weight and adiposity. Pharmacological evaluation of binge-like eating behavior was performed using clinically employed compounds. Interestingly, binge-like eating was dose-dependently decreased by fluoxetine, but not baclofen or topiramate. These data support clinical validation of this mouse model of binge-like eating behavior, as fluoxetine has been shown to reduce binge frequency in human subjects with BED. The availability of transgenic and knockout mice will allow for the determination of genes that are involved in the initiation and maintenance of binge-like eating behavior. PMID:20300082

  9. Should Canadians eat according to the traditional Mediterranean diet pyramid or Canada's food guide?

    PubMed

    Downs, Shauna M; Willows, Noreen D

    2008-06-01

    Eating well with Canada's food guide (CFG) was developed by Health Canada as an education tool to encourage the Canadian public to have eating habits that meet nutrient needs, promote health, and reduce the risk of nutrition-related chronic disease. It was developed in the Canadian context and reflects the food supply available to Canadians, as well as food choices made by Canadians. There are other dietary patterns that are consistent with health such as the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD), which has gained popularity in Canada. The potentially different food choices that Canadians could make if they were to follow one guide over the other might significantly influence population health. Although the two guides differ in their recommendations for red wine, fats, and meat and meat alternatives, they both promote a diet rich in grains, fruits, and vegetables. The CFG may have some advantages over the TMD for Canadians, such as focusing on vitamin D and recommending limited alcoholic beverage intake. Some shortcomings of the CFG compared with the TMD are the grouping of animal proteins with nuts, seeds, and legumes into a single category, and not recommending limits for red meat consumption. If Canadians following the CFG were to choose whole grains and vegetarian options from the meat and alternatives category more often, the CFG may be preferable to TMD for Canadians. The TMD is an alternative to the CFG for Canadians if sources of vitamin D are included in the diet and wine consumption is limited or is imbibed in moderation. PMID:18461106

  10. Combined naloxone and fluoxetine on deprivation-induced binge eating of palatable foods in rats.

    PubMed

    Hagan, M M; Holguin, F D; Cabello, C E; Hanscom, D R; Moss, D E

    1997-12-01

    Opioid antagonism and serotonergic stimulation is associated with macronutrient-specific hypophagia in animals. In the present study we evaluated their systemic effect alone, and in combination, at various doses, on the intake of sweet carbohydrate-rich and sweet fat-rich foods, tastes, and nutrients that are typical of binge-food items. Low-dose (1 mg/kg) naloxone, alone, preferentially suppressed fat-rich intake while low-dose (2.5 mg/kg) fluoxetine, alone, preferentially suppressed carbohydrate-rich intake. Each drug at these doses, combined with various doses of the other (2.5-10 mg/kg fluoxetine; 0.01-1 mg/kg naloxone) additively suppressed both kinds of the sweet foods. Naloxone and fluoxetine have therapeutic potential in treating binge-eating disorders. This animal study suggests what shortcomings and benefits might be expected when combining these two agents. PMID:9408220

  11. Tackling the true prevalence and levels of listeria monocytogenes: market basket surveys of ready-to-eat retail foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes remains a serious threat to public health due to its prevalence, persistence, and pathogenicity in our food supply, particularly when associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. For the past decade or so, considerable resources have been directed to reduce human illness attribut...

  12. Mathematical modeling the cross-contamination of food pathogens on the surface of ready-to-eat meats while slicing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The knowledge regarding food pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.) surface transfer on ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meat and the slicer used for slicing different RTE products are needed to ensure RTE food safety. The objectives of this study were to investigat...

  13. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior Jennifer L. Harris, John A. Bargh, and Kelly D. Brownell

    E-print Network

    Bargh, John A.

    Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior Jennifer L. Harris, John A. Bargh outcomes. Snacking at nonmeal times occurred in 58% of food ads during children's programming (Harrison, happiness, and being "cool" (Folta, Gold- berg, Economos, Bell, & Meltzer, 2006; Harrison & Marske, 2005

  14. Putting the pyramid into action: the Healthy Eating Index and Food Quality Score.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    Consumption patterns are changing globally. As a result both researchers and policy makers require simple, easy to use measures of diet quality. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed as a single, summary measure of diet quality. The original HEI was a ten component index based on the US Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid. Research on the HEI indicates that the index correlates significantly with the RDA's for a range of nutrients and with an individual's self-rating of their diet. The revised HEI provides a more disaggregated version of the original index based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Within each of the five major food groups, some foods are more nutrient dense than others. Nutrient Density algorithms have been developed to rate foods within food groups. The selection of the most nutrient dense foods within food groups lead to a dietary pattern with a higher HEI. The implications of using the HEI and nutrient density to develop interventions are discussed in this presentation. PMID:18296305

  15. [The perception of values in food commercials on the part of young people with and without eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Mas-Manchón, Lluís; Rodríguez-Bravo, Ángel; Montoya-Vilar, Norminanda; Morales-Morante, Fernando; Lopes, Elaine; Añaños, Elena; Peres, Rafaella; Martínez, María Eugenia; Grau, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Advertising uses stereotyped body images to promote physical ideals and unhealthy eating habits related to food products which are targeted especially at young people. The purpose of this study, carried out in Barcelona (Spain) in May 2013, was to test the perception of 139 young people of university age - with and without eating disorders - regarding 25 values in seven food commercials that did and did not use body image strategies. Results show that only the group of young people with eating disorders considered commercials using body image strategies to have a very negative influence on values such as health, well-being, family and effort. In contrast, the assessment of the two groups regarding the rest of the commercials greatly coincided. These results show that today?s university youth have accepted as normal a beauty canon based on the prevailing social and economic order, while young people in treatment for eating disorders have learned to denaturalize such messages. PMID:26418097

  16. Food, eating and taste: parents' perspectives on the making of the middle class teenager.

    PubMed

    Backett-Milburn, Kathryn C; Wills, Wendy J; Roberts, Mei-Li; Lawton, Julia

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports findings from a qualitative study of views and understandings of dietary practices in middle class families. Thirty five parents/main food providers of boys and girls aged 13/14 years, living in Eastern Scotland, were interviewed about their and their teenagers' everyday lives, food, health and family practices. One of our aims was to understand more about the social and cultural conditions which might be promoting more positive dietary health and physical well-being amongst middle class families. Most parents' accounts appeared rooted in a taken-for-grantedness that family members enjoyed good health, lived in relatively secure and unthreatening environments regarding health and resources, and were able to lead active lives, which they valued. Although controlling teenagers' eating practices was presented as an ongoing challenge, active supervision and surveillance of their diets was described, as was guiding tastes in 'the right direction'. Parents described attempts to achieve family eating practices such as commensality, cooking from scratch, and encouraging a varied and nutritional 'adult' diet and cosmopolitan tastes, though work and activities could compromise these. These middle class families might be characterized as having future oriented 'hierarchies of luxury and choice', in which controlling and moulding teenagers' food practices and tastes was assigned a high priority. PMID:20692083

  17. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify potential targets for intervention. PMID:19040722

  18. Eating Frequency, Food Intake, and Weight: A Systematic Review of Human and Animal Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Goff, Matthew R.; Poole, Seletha A.; Chen, Guoxun

    2015-01-01

    Eating frequently during the day, or “grazing,” has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF) on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism), aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies) contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1–24 eating occasions per day), lengths of experimentation (230?min to 28?weeks), and sample sizes (3–56 participants/animals per condition). Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: (1) human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; (2) human studies conducted in field settings; (3) animal studies with experimental periods <1?month; and (4) animal studies with experimental periods >1?month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5%) found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7%) finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF) influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  19. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service Surveillance of Ready-to-Eat Foods and Processing Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A panel of 501 Listeria monocytogenes obtained from Food Safety and Inspection Service monitoring of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were subtyped by multilocus genotyping (MLGT) and by sequencing the virulence gene inlA. MLGT analyses confirmed that clonal lineages associated with previous epidemic outbr...

  20. Self-reported eating traits: Underlying components of food responsivity and dietary restriction are positively related to BMI.

    PubMed

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    Self-report measures of dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, hedonic response to food and loss of control over eating have been related to over eating, overweight and obesity. Impulsivity has emerged as a potential moderator in this relationship. However, the exact relationship between these measures and obesity is poorly defined. Self-report data was collected from a student and community based sample (N = 496) of males (N = 104) and females, with a wide age (18-73yrs; M = 27.41) and BMI (15.3-43.6; M = 24.2) range. Principle component analysis was used to explore the underlying structure of the sub-scales from a variety of eating behaviour questionnaires. Two emergent components relating to 'dietary restriction' and 'food reward responsivity' were supported in the analysis. Food reward responsivity component scores positively predicted BMI, but this relationship was moderated by impulsiveness. Dietary restriction component scores positively predicted BMI but were not moderated by impulsiveness. These findings suggest that frequently used eating behaviour measures can be reduced to two underlying components. Food reward responsivity positively predicts BMI, but only when impulsiveness is also high, supporting a dual-system approach where both bottom-up food reward drives and top-down impulse control are associated with overweight and obesity. Dietary restriction is an independent, positive predictor of BMI and is likely to be reflecting repeated unsuccessful attempts at weight control. PMID:26162952

  1. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in raw and ready-to-eat foods and in a Canadian food service operation.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Diane T; Sattar, Syed A; Farber, Jeffrey M; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2008-10-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in a variety of foods from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and raw milk samples from across Canada was determined over a 2-year period. The samples consisted of 55 raw foods (chicken, pork, and beef), 126 raw milk samples from raw milk cheese manufacturers, and 135 ready-to-eat foods (meat products, salads, and raw milk cheeses). Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 4 of the 316 samples analyzed: 1 raw beef liver sample and 3 raw chicken samples. An isolation rate of 9.7% was observed among the raw chicken samples tested. This study also investigated the role of cross-contamination in disseminating Campylobacter from raw poultry within a food service operation specializing in poultry dishes. Accordingly, kitchen surfaces within a restaurant in Ottawa, Ontario, were sampled between March and August 2001. Tests of the sampling method indicated that as few as 100 Campylobacter cells could be detected if sampling was done within 45 min of inoculation; however, Campylobacter spp. were not detected in 125 swabs of surfaces within the kitchens of this food service operation. Despite the reported high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw poultry, this organism was not detected on surfaces within a kitchen of a restaurant specializing in poultry dishes. PMID:18939758

  2. Inhibition of Opioid Transmission at the ?-Opioid Receptor Prevents Both Food Seeking and Binge-Like Eating

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Chiara; Robbins, Trevor W; Nathan, Pradeep J; Bullmore, Edward T; Everitt, Barry J

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous opioids, and in particular ?-opioid receptors, have been linked to hedonic and rewarding mechanisms engaged during palatable food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSK1521498, a novel ?-opioid receptor antagonist, on food-seeking behavior and on binge-like eating of a highly preferred chocolate diet. Food seeking was measured in rats trained to respond for chocolate under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which prolonged periods of food-seeking behavior were maintained by contingent presentation of a reward-associated conditioned reinforcer. After reaching a stable baseline in both procedures, animals were treated with GSK1521498 (0.1, 1, and 3?mg/kg; IP) or naltrexone (NTX, 0.1, 1, and 3?mg/kg; SC). The binge eating model was characterized by four temporally contiguous phases: 1-h chow access, 2-h food deprivation, 10-min chow access, and 10-min access to either chocolate-flavoured food or standard chow. During training the rats developed binge-like hyperphagia of palatable food and anticipatory chow hypophagia (anticipatory negative contrast). Both compounds reduced binge-like palatable food hyperphagia. However, GSK1521498 reduced the impact of high hedonic value on ingestion more specifically than NTX, abolishing anticipatory chow hypophagia. GSK1521498 also dose-dependently reduced food seeking both before and after food ingestion, whereas NTX reduced food seeking only after food ingestion. Thus, while both drugs affected the hedonic value of the preferred food, GSK1521498 also directly decreased incentive motivation for chocolate. Selective ?-opioid receptor antagonism by GSK1521498 may have utility as a treatment for reducing maladaptive, palatability-driven eating behavior by reducing the motivational properties of stimuli that elicit the binge eating commonly associated with obesity. PMID:22805601

  3. Eating like there's no tomorrow: Public awareness of the environmental impact of food and reluctance to eat less meat as part of a sustainable diet.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Douglas, Flora; Campbell, Jonina

    2016-01-01

    Reducing meat consumption is central to many of the scientific debates on healthy, sustainable diets because of the high environmental impact of meat production. Missing from these debates are the public perspectives about eating less meat and consideration of cultural and social values associated with meat. The aim of this study was to explore public awareness of the environmental impact of food and their willingness to reduce meat consumption. Twelve focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with adults from a range of socio-economic groups living in both rural and urban settings in Scotland. Public understanding of the link between food, environment and climate change was explored, with a focus on meat and attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. Data were transcribed and analysed thematically. Three dominant themes emerged: a lack of awareness of the association between meat consumption and climate change, perceptions of personal meat consumption playing a minimal role in the global context of climate change, and resistance to the idea of reducing personal meat consumption. People associated eating meat with pleasure, and described social, personal and cultural values around eating meat. Some people felt they did not need to eat less meat because they had already reduced their consumption or that they only ate small quantities. Scepticism of scientific evidence linking meat and climate change was common. Changing non-food related behaviours was viewed as more acceptable and a greater priority for climate change mitigation. The study highlights the role meat plays in the diet for many people, beyond nutritional needs. If healthy, sustainable dietary habits are to be achieved, cultural, social and personal values around eating meat must be integrated into the development of future dietary recommendations. PMID:26476397

  4. The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hartini, T Ninuk S; Padmawati, R Siwi; Lindholm, Lars; Surjono, Achmad; Winkvist, Anna

    2005-07-01

    This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women, two in-depth interviews were held with traditional birth attendants, and four with midwives. Women were categorized as urban or rural, rich or poor, and according to rice field ownership. The women reported that before the crisis they bought more foods and cooked more meals and snacks. During the crisis, cooking methods became simpler and cooking tasty foods was more important than cooking nutritious foods. This involved using plenty of spices and cooking oil, but reducing the use of expensive nutritious foods. The herbal drink jamu was drunk by 15% of pregnant women; its consumption was lower during than before the economic crisis. Twenty-six percent of the women avoided certain foods due to food taboos, and most of these women avoided beneficial foods; this phenomenon decreased during the crisis among the rich and the rural, poor, landless women. In spite of increased prices for rice, women did not decrease their rice consumption during the crisis because rice was believed to have the highest value for survival, to provide strength during pregnancy and delivery, and to be easier to store and cook. Finally, children and husbands had highest priority in being served food, and women were the last to eat. PMID:15847972

  5. Emotional responses to images of food in adults with an eating disorder: a comparative study with healthy and clinical controls.

    PubMed

    Hay, Phillipa; Katsikitis, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Emotive responses to foods in people with eating disorders are incompletely understood in relation to whether the extent of emotional response is due to the eating disorder or non-specific emotional states. The aims of the present study were to investigate negative and positive emotive responses to food images in adults with an eating disorder, and to compare responses to a (i) healthy and a (ii) clinic (psychiatry) control group. Participants viewed 20 images (16 of foods previously found to evoke fear, disgust and happiness and 4 neutral images) at half-minute intervals and rated emotive responses on 3 visual analogue scales for each image. Participants with an eating disorder (n=26) were found to have significantly increased negative emotive (disgust and fear) responses and reduced positive (happiness) responses to the images compared to the 20 clinic and 61 healthy participants. Differences between groups remained significant when controlling for baseline levels of fear, disgust and happiness. Thus, the emotive responses to foods did not appear due to non-specific increases in anxiety or depression but rather was due to the presence of an eating disorder. PMID:25064283

  6. Irradiation of ready-to-eat foods at USDA'S Eastern Regional Reasearch Center-2003 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, Christopher; Fan, Xuetong; Niemira, Brendan; Rajkowski, Kathleen

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation is a safe and effective method for eliminating bacterial pathogens from food products and disinfestation of fruits and vegetables. Since 1980 research has been conducted at USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center pertaining to the elimination of food-borne pathogens from meat, poultry, fruit and vegetable products. Recent work has focused on elimination of pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from ready-to-eat (RTE) food products including hot dogs, bologna, lettuce, cilantro, sprouts and seeds, and frozen vegetables. The ionizing radiation dose required to eliminate those pathogens from RTE foods has been found to be commodity, formulation and temperature dependent. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from RTE food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and organoleptic quality have also been determined. A review of the studies conducted at USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center in 2002 and 2003 is presented in this article.

  7. Not eating like a pig: European wild boar wash their food.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Volker; Lowe, Adriana; Dietrich, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Carrying food to water and either dunking or manipulating it before consumption has been observed in various taxa including birds, racoons and primates. Some animals seem to be simply moistening their food. However, true washing aims to remove unpleasant surface substrates such as grit and sand and requires a distinction between items that do and do not need cleaning as well as deliberate transportation of food to a water source. We provide the first evidence for food washing in suids, based on an incidental observation with follow-up experiments on European wild boar (Sus scrofa) kept at Basel Zoo, Switzerland. Here, all adult pigs and some juveniles of a newly formed group carried apple halves soiled with sand to the edge of a creek running through their enclosure where they put the fruits in the water and pushed them to and fro with their snouts before eating. Clean apple halves were never washed. This indicates that pigs can discriminate between soiled and unsoiled foods and that they are able to delay gratification for long enough to transport and wash the items. However, we were unable to ascertain to which degree individual and/or social learning brought this behaviour about. PMID:26194413

  8. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Service Curriculum on Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Grocery Shop, Prepare Food, and Eat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice R.; Johnston, Jan H.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Jaco, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Shop, Cook and Eat curriculum was designed to provide education about concepts of empowerment and assistive technology for grocery shopping, preparing food, and eating. The curriculum included examples and hands-on demonstrations of assistive technology devices for grocery shopping, food

  9. The effect of pre-exposure to food cues on the eating behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, I C; Polivy, J; Herman, C P

    1997-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of pre-exposure to two types of food cues (olfactory and cognitive) on food intake by restrained and unrestrained eaters. Subjects were exposed to either no cue, an olfactory cue, a cognitive cue or a combination of the two types of food cues for ten minutes prior to eating. Restrained eaters ate significantly more than did unrestrained eaters after exposure to the food cues. There was no difference in food intake when there was no pre-exposure to the cues. Although baseline subjective ratings were equivalent for both groups of subjects, after cue pre-exposure, restrained subjects, in keeping with their increased consumption, indicated a significantly greater craving, liking, and desire to eat the cued food (pizza) than did the unrestrained subjects. These findings suggest that restrained eaters are more sensitive and reactive to food cues than are unrestrained eaters. The food cues appeared to generate an appetitive urge to eat in restrained eaters. PMID:9134093

  10. Social modeling of eating: a review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice.

    PubMed

    Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J

    2015-03-01

    A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571

  11. The use of Pierre Bourdieu's distinction concepts in scientific articles studying food and eating: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Gittelsohn, Joel; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Roble, Odilon José; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews and discusses scientific papers on eating practices that have used Pierre Bourdieu's concepts presented in Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It aims to synthesize and analyze theoretical and empirical studies on the theme in order to present Bourdieu's contributions to the field, advances in his theories, and directions for future research. Exclusion criteria were: not written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French; not published in a peer-reviewed journal; not analyzing food or eating; and not using Bourdieu's concepts as presented in Distinction as the main theoretical framework. In this narrative review, we found 38 articles, which were categorized main themes: food choice and provisioning, taste, social class, food symbolism, the body, and the scientific field of food and eating. The taste of luxury and the taste of necessity were broadly applied on the works found in this review and were observed among the lower and upper classes, manifesting differently in each class. These studies show that while Bourdieu's theories are still highly relevant to understanding contemporary social groups, they may be improved when combined with other frameworks and theorists. We highlight as directions for future research manners in which gender and the environment interact with the habitus and food choices. Finally, this review points to new areas of investigation that may help improve the use of Bourdieu's concepts in exploring health inequalities, such as differences in eating practices and habitus within populations with low socioeconomic status. PMID:26368578

  12. Factors Predicting Staying in School to Eat Lunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Easy access to fast-food restaurants in the immediate environment of a high school is such that a high proportion of students do not remain in school for lunch. Hence, the probability that they will eat a healthy meal is reduced. The aim of this study is to identify the behavioral determinants of "staying in school to eat lunch" among…

  13. Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger)?×?2 (portion size: small vs. big)?×?2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25934089

  14. What do children eat in the Delta: Results from development of a regional child food frequency questionnaire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemic of obesity and the fact that children are currently at risk presents challenges in both estimating current food intakes and developing appropriate interventions to address the problem. Obtaining eating patterns and nutritional intakes of children presents a first step in evaluating the ...

  15. Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    Objective Patterns of overweight and obesity are unequally distributed geographically, with elevated rates in Appalachia. Appalachian youth's perceptions toward healthy eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n=68) and moderated by experienced local residents, were conducted with participants aged 8–17. Session transcripts were coded for thematic analysis, using measures to enhance rigor and transferability. Results Participants discussed numerous internal and external factors affecting dietary choices. While expressing confidence in their own nutritional knowledge, they stressed the importance of taste preferences, cost, convenience, social influences, and advertising on diet. Conclusions and Implications Appalachian youths' awareness of the multiple influences on diet may create opportunities for multi-faceted, ecologically-based interventions. In particular, participants stressed the importance of social influences on diet and on successful nutrition programming. PMID:22269474

  16. Child body mass index, obesity, and proximity to fast food restaurants. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Objectives. Using a sample of elementary and middle school students, we examined the associations between body mass index (BMI), obesity, and measures of the proximity of fast food and full service restaurants to students' residences. We controlled for socioeconomic status using a novel proxy measure based on housing values. Methods. We used BMI and obesity measures based on height and weight data collected as part of a school health assessment along with geocoded data on addresses of residences and food establishments.

  17. Survival of Helicobacter pylori in ready-to-eat foods at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Poms, R E; Tatini, S R

    2001-02-15

    The survival of Helicobacter pylori (NCTC 11638) in various semiprocessed and fresh, ready-to-eat foods, and one raw chicken was studied at 4 degrees C and under aerobic conditions by experimentally inoculating these with 10(4) CFU. Cells were concentrated by two centrifugation cycles followed by plating onto selective blood agar medium made from Wilkins-Chalgren agar supplemented with 5% whole horse blood, and 30 mg/l colistin methanesulfonate, 100 mg/l cycloheximide, 30 mg/l nalidixic acid, 30 mg/l trimethoprim, and 10 mg/l vancomycin. H. pylori was recovered from spiked pasteurized milk and tofu samples up to 5 days and from spiked leaf lettuce and raw chicken up to 2 days. H. pylori could not be recovered from yogurt after any length of storage time. H. pylori is unlikely to grow in foods; however, it may survive in low acid-high moisture environments under refrigeration and pose a possible risk for transmission of infection via foods. PMID:11246912

  18. Sterol oxidation in ready-to-eat infant foods during storage.

    PubMed

    García-Llatas, Guadalupe; Cercaci, Luisito; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Lagarda, M Jesús; Farré, Rosaura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2008-01-23

    The effect of storage on sterol oxidation of ready-to-eat infant foods was evaluated. Two different liquid infant foods (honey or fruits flavors), prepared with milk and cereals, were stored for 0, 2, 4, 7 and 9 months at 25 degrees C. Sterol oxidation products (SOP) were isolated by cold saponification, purified by silica solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. beta-Sitosterol was the most representative sterol, followed by cholesterol and campesterol. No significant differences in the total and single SOP content (0.8-1 mg/kg of product) were observed with respect to storage time and type of sample; the main SOP found was 7-ketositosterol (<0.2 mg/kg of product). The extent of stigmasterol oxidation (2.9%) was higher than that of cholesterol (1.9%) and beta-sitosterol (1.4%). The type and quality of raw materials, as well as the processing conditions, seem to greatly influence SOP formation and accumulation in infant foods. PMID:18167071

  19. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  20. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  1. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2005-2006, Tables 1-4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four table sets include national estimates of mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns (FP) components per individual estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHAN...

  2. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumer per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-12; Tables 1-4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four table sets include national estimates of mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns (FP) components per individual estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 7,933 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES),...

  3. Eye gaze tracking reveals heightened attention to food in adults with binge eating when viewing images of real-world scenes.

    PubMed

    Popien, Avery; Frayn, Mallory; von Ranson, Kristin M; Sears, Christopher R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with eating disorders often exhibit food-related biases in attention tasks. To assess the engagement and maintenance of attention to food in adults with binge eating, in the present study, eye gaze tracking was used to compare fixations to food among non-clinical adults with versus without binge eating while they viewed images of real-world scenes. Fifty-seven participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-second presentations of scenes containing high-calorie and/or low-caloriefood items in various settings (restaurants, social gatherings, etc.). Participants with binge eating fixated on both high-calorie and low-calorie food items significantly more than controls, and this was the case when the high- and low-calorie food items were presented in the same image and in different images. Participants with binge eating also fixated on food items significantly earlier in the presentations. A time course analysis that divided each 8-second presentation into 2-second intervals revealed that participants with binge eating attended to food items more than control participants throughout the 8-second presentation. These results have implications for theory regarding the initiation and maintenance of binge eating. PMID:25888073

  4. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  5. Computerized measurement of anticipated anxiety from eating increasing portions of food in adolescents with and without anorexia nervosa: Pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Kissileff, H R; Brunstrom, J M; Tesser, R; Bellace, D; Berthod, S; Thornton, J C; Halmi, K

    2016-02-01

    Dieting and excessive fear of eating coexist in vulnerable individuals, which may progress to anorexia nervosa [AN], but there is no objective measure of this fear. Therefore, we adapted a computer program that was previously developed to measure the satiating effects of foods in order to explore the potential of food to induce anxiety and fear of eating in adolescent girls. Twenty four adolescents (AN) and ten healthy controls without eating disorders rated pictures of different types of foods in varying sized portions as too large or too small and rated the expected anxiety of five different portions (20-320 kcal). Two low energy dense (potatoes and rice) and two high energy dense (pizza and M&Ms) foods were used. The regression coefficient of line lengths (0-100 mm) marked from "No anxiety" to "this would give me a panic attack", regressed from portions shown, was the measure of "expected anxiety" for a given food. The maximum tolerated portion size [kcal] (MTPS), computed by method of constant stimulus from portions shown, was significantly smaller for high energy dense foods, whereas the expected anxiety response was greater, for all foods, for patients compared to controls. For both groups, expected anxiety responses were steeper, and maximum tolerated portion sizes were larger, for low, than high, energy dense foods. Both maximum tolerated portion size and expected anxiety response were significantly predicted by severity of illness for the patients. Those who had larger maximum tolerated portion sizes had smaller anticipated anxiety to increasing portion sizes. Visual size had a greater influence than energy content for these responses. This method could be used to quantify the anxiety inducing potential of foods and for studies with neuro-imaging and phenotypic clarifications. PMID:26631251

  6. Mechanistic mathematical model for in vivo aroma release during eating of semiliquid foods.

    PubMed

    Trelea, Ioan Cristian; Atlan, Samuel; Déléris, Isabelle; Saint-Eve, Anne; Marin, Michèle; Souchon, Isabelle

    2008-02-01

    The paper describes a mechanistic mathematical model for aroma release in the oropharynx to the nasal cavity during food consumption. The model is based on the physiology of the swallowing process and is validated with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with mass spectrometry measurements of aroma concentration in the nasal cavity of subjects eating flavored yogurt. The study is conducted on 3 aroma compounds representative for strawberry flavor (ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl hexanoate) and 3 panelists. The model provides reasonably accurate time predictions of the relative aroma concentration in the nasal cavity and is able to simulate successive swallowing events as well as imperfect velopharyngeal closure. The most influent parameters are found to be the amount of the residual product in the pharynx and its contact area with the air flux, the volume of the nasal cavity, the equilibrium air/product partition coefficient of the volatile compound, the breath airflow rate, as well as the mass transfer coefficient of the aroma compound in the product, and the amount of product in the mouth. This work constitutes a first step toward computer-aided product formulation by allowing calculation of retronasal aroma intensity as a function of transfer and volatility properties of aroma compounds in food matrices and anatomophysiological characteristics of consumers. PMID:18048371

  7. Genotypes, antibiotic resistance, and virulence factors of staphylococci from ready-to-eat food.

    PubMed

    Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystro?, Jaros?aw; Bania, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Sixty-seven staphylococcal isolates belonging to 12 species were obtained from 70 ready-to-eat food products. Staphylococcus aureus (n=25), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=13) were dominant. Susceptibility to penicillin, oxacillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin was determined. All investigated S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and fifteen isolates were resistant to four and more antibiotics. Thirty-eight coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and seventeen to four and more antibiotics. Fifteen CNS isolates were mecA positive, and grew in the presence of 6 ?g/mL oxacillin. All S. aureus isolates were mecA-negative. Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was found in seven S. epidermidis isolates. Five S. epidermidis isolates harbored ica operon, ACME and were able to form biofilm. Three of them also possessed IS256 element and were mecA-positive. The expression of icaA gene was comparable in five ica-positive S. epidermidis isolates. One of six mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates was classified as sequence type (ST)155, one as ST110, and two as ST88. Two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermis (MRSE) belonged to new STs, that is, ST362, and ST363. Enterotoxin genes were found in 92% of S. aureus isolates. No enterotoxin gene was detected in analyzed CNS population. We show that ready-to-eat products are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CNS and potentially virulent strains of S. epidermidis, including genotypes undistinguishable from hospital-adapted clones. PMID:21988402

  8. “STOP EATING…CLEAN YOUR PLATE!”: THE EFFECTS OF PARENTAL CONTROL OF FOOD CONSUMPTION DURING CHILDHOOD ON COLLEGE FEMALES' EATING BEHAVIOR 

    E-print Network

    Pfeffer, Amanda J.

    2010-07-14

    The immediate effect of maternal control of their daughter's eating is well documented. However, the longterm effect of both maternal and paternal control of eating during childhood on adults' current eating attitudes and behaviors has been a...

  9. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether reported fast-food consumption over the previous year is associated with higher childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Design Secondary analysis from a multicentre, multicountry cross-sectional study (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Phase Three). Subjects and methods Parents/guardians of children aged 6–7 completed questionnaires which included questions about their children's asthma and allergies, fast-food consumption, height and weight. Adolescents aged 13–14 completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire asked “In the past 12?months, how often on average did you (your child) eat fast-food/burgers?” The responses were infrequent (never/only occasionally), frequent (once/twice a week) or very frequent (three or more times per week). A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and fast-food consumption, adjusting for Gross National Income per capita by country, measurement type (whether heights/weights were reported or measured), age and sex. Results 72?900 children (17 countries) and 199?135 adolescents (36 countries) provided data. Frequent and very frequent fast-food consumption was reported in 23% and 4% of children, and 39% and 13% of adolescents, respectively. Children in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.15 and 0.22?kg/m2 higher than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Male adolescents in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.14 and 0.28?kg/m2 lower than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Female adolescents in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.19?kg/m2 lower than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Conclusions Reported fast-food consumption is high in childhood and increases in adolescence. Compared with infrequent fast-food consumption, frequent and very frequent consumption is associated with a higher BMI in children. Owing to residual confounding, reverse causation and likely misreporting, the reverse association observed in adolescents should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25488096

  10. "Overeating is not about the food": women describe their experience of a yoga treatment program for binge eating.

    PubMed

    McIver, Shane; McGartland, Michael; O'Halloran, Paul

    2009-09-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods study, data from 20 personal journals were analyzed to examine the experience of a 12-week yoga treatment program for binge eating among a sample of 25 women who were obese. Qualitative analysis revealed a positive shift experienced by the women during the program, summarized by a general structural description: disconnection versus connection. Women's comments suggested that the program appeared to encourage a healthy reconnection to food, as well as the development of physical self-empowerment, through cultivating present-moment awareness. Specifically, women perceived an overall reduction in the quantity of food they consumed, decreased eating speed, and an improvement in food choices throughout the program. The women also reported feeling more connected to and positive about their physical well-being. These evolving outcomes were summarized through two major themes: the way their physicality changed, and the way their food consumption changed over time. Findings provide insights relevant to therapeutic processes that might occur within eating disorder interventions that draw on meditation-based approaches. PMID:19690205

  11. I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others

    PubMed Central

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was M? = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of M? = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers’ meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. PMID:26066013

  12. I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was M? = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of M? = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers' meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. PMID:26066013

  13. Whether or not to eat: A controlled laboratory study of discriminative cueing effects on food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Ridley-Siegert, Thomas L; Crombag, Hans S; Yeomans, Martin R

    2015-12-01

    There is a wealth of data showing a large impact of food cues on human ingestion, yet most studies use pictures of food where the precise nature of the associations between the cue and food is unclear. To test whether novel cues which were associated with the opportunity of winning access to food images could also impact ingestion, 63 participants participated in a game in which novel visual cues signalled whether responding on a keyboard would win (a picture of) chocolate, crisps, or nothing. Thirty minutes later, participants were given an ad libitum snack-intake test during which the chocolate-paired cue, the crisp-paired cue, the non-winning cue and no cue were presented as labels on the food containers. The presence of these cues significantly altered overall intake of the snack foods; participants presented with food labelled with the cue that had been associated with winning chocolate ate significantly more than participants who had been given the same products labelled with the cue associated with winning nothing, and in the presence of the cue signalling the absence of food reward participants tended to eat less than all other conditions. Surprisingly, cue-dependent changes in food consumption were unaffected by participants' level of contingency awareness. These results suggest that visual cues that have been pre-associated with winning, but not consuming, a liked food reward modify food intake consistent with current ideas that the abundance of food associated cues may be one factor underlying the 'obesogenic environment'. PMID:26145752

  14. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

  15. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (?85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. PMID:21439918

  16. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Lorna K.; Edwards, Kimberly L.; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. PMID:20623025

  17. Consumption, health attitudes and perception toward fast food among Arab consumers in Kuwait: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume "double" burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their "fast food" classification. PMID:25363129

  18. The Impact of Caloric Information on College Students' Fast Food Purchasing Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmont, Victoria; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fast food establishments are available on many college campuses and, as a result, many students consume foods that are high in calories and contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Purpose: This study measured college students' knowledge of the calorie content for fast food items and whether the provision of calorie information for those…

  19. Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, Christopher H.; Boyd, Glenn

    2006-07-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other "heat and eat" multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a "frankfurter on a roll", a "beef cheeseburger on a bun" and a "vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun" was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log 10 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat" sandwich products.

  20. Expectancy violation, reduction of food cue reactivity and less eating in the absence of hunger after one food cue exposure session for overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Schyns, Ghislaine; Roefs, Anne; Mulkens, Sandra; Jansen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a single-session of food cue exposure for overweight women would decrease 'if CS then US' expectancies, cue reactivity and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). EAH was measured in a behavioural paradigm that enabled to also investigate whether the cue exposure effects were specific for exposed foods or would generalise to food items that were not present during exposure. Overweight women were randomly assigned to either the cue exposure intervention or a control intervention that focused on body image. In line with the hypotheses, results showed that cue exposure induced a significant decrease in 'if CS then US' expectancies, in contrast to the control intervention. It was also found that, compared to the control intervention, desires to eat initially increased during cue exposure while gradual extinction was observed towards the end of the intervention. No extinction of increased salivation responses was found. Regarding EAH, the intake of the exposed food item was significantly less in the exposure condition than in the control condition, whereas total caloric food intake was not different between conditions, indicating that cue exposure was effective in reducing intake but did not generalise to the intake of other food items. PMID:26649466

  1. Fast food costs and adolescent body mass index: evidence from panel data. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability of full-service restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and commercial physical activity-related facilities.

  2. Measuring food access in Melbourne: access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Access to healthy food can be an important determinant of a healthy diet. This paper describes the assessment of access to healthy and unhealthy foods using a GIS accessibility programme in a large outer municipality of Melbourne. Access to a major supermarket was used as a proxy for access to a healthy diet and fast food outlet as proxy for access to unhealthy food.

  3. Genetic influences on adolescent eating habits.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B; Gibson, Chris L

    2012-04-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed significant genetic influences on variance in an unhealthy eating habits scale (h(2) = .42), a healthy eating habits scale (h(2) = .51), the number of meals eaten at a fast-food restaurant (h(2) = .33), and the total number of meals eaten per week (h(2) = .26). Most of the remaining variance was due to nonshared environmental factors. Additional analyses conducted separately for males and females revealed a similar pattern of findings. The authors note the limitations of the study and offer suggestions for future research. PMID:21750320

  4. Food Rx: A Community-University Partnership to Prescribe Healthy Eating on the South Side of Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Goddu, Anna P.; Roberson, Tonya S.; Raffel, Katie E.; Chin, Marshall H.; Peek, Monica E.

    2013-01-01

    Patients living with diabetes in underserved communities face significant challenges to eating healthy. To support them, we need interventions that integrate community resources into the health care setting. A “prescription” for healthy food may be a promising platform for such a community-linked intervention: it can promote behavior change, provide nutrition education, include financial incentives and connect patients to local resources. We describe Food Rx, a food prescription collaboratively developed by a university research team, Walgreens, a local farmers market, and six health centers on the South Side of Chicago. We share preliminary lessons learned from implementation, highlighting how each stakeholder (university, community partners, and clinics) contributed to this multi-faceted effort while meeting research standards, organizational priorities, and clinic workflow demands. Although implementation is in early stages, Food Rx shows promise as a model for integrating community and health care resources to support the health of underserved patients. PMID:25898221

  5. Neighborhood Eating and Activity Advocacy Teams (NEAAT): engaging older adults in policy activities to improve food and physical environments.

    PubMed

    Buman, Matthew P; Winter, Sandra J; Baker, Cathleen; Hekler, Eric B; Otten, Jennifer J; King, Abby C

    2012-06-01

    Local food and physical activity environments are known to impact health, and older adults are generally more vulnerable to health-related environmental impacts due to poorer physical function and mobility impairments. There is a need to develop cost-conscious, community-focused strategies that impact local food and physical activity environment policies. Engaging older adult community residents in assessment and advocacy activities is one avenue to address this need. We describe the Neighborhood Eating and Activity Advocacy Team project, a community-based participatory project in low-income communal housing settings in San Mateo County, CA, as one method for engaging older adults in food and physical activity environment and policy change. Methods and strategies used by the "community action teams" to generate relevant neighborhood environmental data, build coalitions, prioritize complex issues, and advocate for change are presented. Advocacy groups are feasible among older adults to improve food and physical activity environments. PMID:24073118

  6. Assessing the roles of impulsivity, food-related cognitions, BMI, and demographics in the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Lewis, Robin J

    2015-08-01

    The dual pathway model is a widely accepted model of binge eating that focuses on the role of sociocultural factors, negative affect, and dietary restraint. However, less is known about demographic (e.g., gender and ethnicity) differences in the model and the role of other variables in the model. To further our understanding of the dual pathway model of binge eating, the current study examined the role of demographics (i.e., gender, race, BMI, parental education and obesity), impulsivity, and food-related cognitions in the dual pathway model. A sample of college students completed a battery of measures. Multi-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the dual pathway model separately for men and women. Results supported the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women, and also supported food-related cognitions as an important variable prior to binge eating. In other words, body shame was associated with more dietary restraint and negative affect, and in turn, dietary restraint and negative affect were associated with increased negative food-related cognitions. Then, food-related cognitions predicted binge eating. Additionally impulsivity was related to body shame, negative affect, and food-related cognitions, but was unrelated to binge eating after controlling for the other variables. Racial differences existed among women in BMI and body shame, but there were no racial differences among men. Our results suggest that the dual pathway model adequately explains binge eating among men and women, but that food-related cognitions may be an imporant anteceden to binge eating. PMID:26094134

  7. Exploration Linking Self-Reported Disordered Eating and Wellness in Undergraduate Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    University campus environments are conducive to the development of disordered eating in students. Busy schedules, easy access to fast food, and the transition from high school to college contribute to the development of disordered eating in university students. This researcher explored whether a relationship exists between self-reported disordered…

  8. Mahlzeit! (Enjoy Your Meal!) German Table Manners, Menus, and Eating Establishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Debbie

    A series of short texts focus on German eating habits and types of eating establishments. Vocabulary is glossed in the margin and each text is followed by comprehension questions. Menus from a restaurant, an inn, and a fast-food restaurant; vocabulary exercises; a word search puzzle and its solution; and directions in English for conversational…

  9. Factors which influence the consumption of street foods and fast foods in South Africa-a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Very little is known about street food and fast food consumption patterns in South Africa despite this being a large sector of the national economy in terms of employment provided and sales of food. The objective of this study was to determine the use of street foods and fast foods purchased by South Africans living in different provinces and geographic areas. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Structured interview-administered questionnaires in 11 official languages were conducted at the participants' homes. A nationally representative sample (n = 3287) was drawn from all ethnic groups, and provinces including participants 16 years and older. Logistic regression was done to evaluate factors impacting on fast food consumption. Results Frequent (2 ? times/week) street food consumption ranged from 1.8% in Northern Cape to 20.6% in Limpopo; frequent (2 ? times/week) fast food consumption ranged between 1.5% in North West Province to 14.7% in Gauteng. The highest intake of street food was in the medium socio-economic category (14.7%) while the highest intake of fast foods was in the high socio-economic category (13.2%). Overall, fruit was the most commonly purchased street food by all ethnic groups over the previous week although this practice was highest in black participants (35.8%). Purchases of soft drinks ranged from 4.8% in whites to 16.4% in blacks and savoury snacks from 2.3% to 14.5% in whites and blacks, respectively. Consumption of fast foods and street foods were influenced by a number of socio-demographic factors including ownership of major home appliances. Frequent fast food consumers had a significantly higher dietary diversity score (4.69; p < 0.0001) while frequent street food consumers had a significantly lower score (3.81; p < 0.0001). Conclusions A large percentage of the population purchase street foods and fast foods. This is of some concern when one notes the high prevalence of soft drink consumption in terms of its association with obesity and non-communicable diseases. These findings need to be taken into consideration when evaluating dietary patterns and nutritional adequacy of population diets. PMID:21967754

  10. Receptivity to Television Fast-Food Restaurant Marketing and Obesity Among U.S. Youth

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768

  11. Dietary-induced binge eating increases prefrontal cortex neural activation to restraint stress and increases binge food consumption following chronic guanfacine.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nicholas T; Walters, Amy L; Verpeut, Jessica L; Caverly, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    Binge eating is a prominent feature of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Stress or perceived stress is an often-cited reason for binge eating. One notion is that the neural pathways that overlap with stress reactivity and feeding behavior are altered by recurrent binge eating. Using young adult female rats in a dietary-induced binge eating model (30 min access to binge food with or without 24-h calorie restriction, twice a week, for 6 weeks) we measured the neural activation by c-Fos immunoreactivity to the binge food (vegetable shortening mixed with 10% sucrose) in bingeing and non-bingeing animals under acute stress (immobilization; 1 h) or no stress conditions. There was an increase in the number of immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stressed animals previously exposed to the binge eating feeding schedules. Because attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) medications target the mPFC and have some efficacy at reducing binge eating in clinical populations, we examined whether chronic (2 weeks; via IP osmotic mini-pumps) treatment with a selective alpha-2A adrenergic agonist (0.5 mg/kg/day), guanfacine, would reduce binge-like eating. In the binge group with only scheduled access to binge food (30 min; twice a week; 8 weeks), guanfacine increased total calories consumed during the 30-min access period from the 2-week pre-treatment baseline and increased binge food consumption compared with saline-treated animals. These experiments suggest that mPFC is differentially activated in response to an immobilization stress in animals under different dietary conditions and chronic guanfacine, at the dose tested, was ineffective at reducing binge-like eating. PMID:25158105

  12. Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women’s eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos’ and a patriarchal gender order that limits women’s mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women’s access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Methods Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. Results The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women’s access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Conclusions Rising food prices and resultant food insecurity due to insufficient incomes are negating the recent efforts that have increased women’s knowledge of healthy eating during pregnancy and their gendered empowerment. In order to maintain the gains in nutritional knowledge and women’s increased mobility and decision-making capacity; policy must also consider the global political economy of food in the creation of the new development goals. PMID:24069937

  13. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet

    PubMed Central

    Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population. PMID:25490960

  14. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  15. Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Energy, Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content, United States, 1996–2013

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Lorien E.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fierstein, Jamie L.; Gary, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excess intakes of energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat are associated with increased risk for cardiometabolic syndrome. Trends in fast-food restaurant portion sizes can inform policy decisions. We examined the variability of popular food items in 3 fast-food restaurants in the United States by portion size during the past 18 years. Methods Items from 3 national fast-food chains were selected: French fries, cheeseburgers, grilled chicken sandwich, and regular cola. Data on energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content were collated from 1996 through 2013 using an archival website. Time trends were assessed using simple linear regression models, using energy or a nutrient component as the dependent variable and the year as the independent variable. Results For most items, energy content per serving differed among chain restaurants for all menu items (P ? .04); energy content of 56% of items decreased (? range, ?0.1 to ?5.8 kcal) and the content of 44% increased (? range, 0.6–10.6 kcal). For sodium, the content of 18% of the items significantly decreased (? range, ?4.1 to ?24.0 mg) and the content for 33% increased (? range, 1.9–29.6 mg). Absolute differences were modest. The saturated and trans fat content, post-2009, was modest for French fries. In 2013, the energy content of a large-sized bundled meal (cheeseburger, French fries, and regular cola) represented 65% to 80% of a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet, and sodium content represented 63% to 91% of the 2,300-mg-per-day recommendation and 97% to 139% of the 1,500-mg-per-day recommendation. Conclusion Findings suggest that efforts to promote reductions in energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat intakes need to be shifted from emphasizing portion-size labels to additional factors such as total calories, frequency of eating, number of items ordered, menu choices, and energy-containing beverages. PMID:25551184

  16. College Students' Perceptions of Fast Food Restaurant Menu Items on Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Susan; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Examining the beliefs about fast food and health, especially the consequences of fast food intake (FFI) on health, among college students will be a crucial factor in turning the tide on current morbidity and mortality statistics. Purpose: This article examines the results of a survey among Midwestern college-aged students about their…

  17. The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Smoyer-Tomic KE, Spence JC, Raine KD, Amrhein C, Cameron N, Yasenovskiy V, Cutumisu N, Hemphill E, Healy J. The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets.

  18. Assessment of bacteriological quality of ready to eat food vended in streets of Silchar city, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, I; Mazumdar, J A

    2014-01-01

    A total of 37 street vended food samples were examined for bacterial and the colony forming units counts ranged from 4.5 × 10? to 1.12 × 10?. The isolates were identified as Escherichia coli (37.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.57%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.20%), Salmonella sp. (5.36%), Klebsiella sp. (10.71%), Shigella sp. (19.64%) and Enterobacter sp. (8.93%) respectively. All the 56 isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin while their susceptibility to the other drugs varied. These findings demonstrated that the ready-to-eat foods vended in Silchar city constitute an important potential hazard to human health and provision of health education to the vendors would improve quality of street foods. PMID:24713905

  19. The Influence of Physical and Social Contexts of Eating on Lunch-Time Food Intake among Southern Ontario, Canada, Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Sarah J.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McGoldrick, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who…

  20. What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

  1. "Because we missed the way that we eat at the middle of the day:" Dietary acculturation and food routines among Dominican women.

    PubMed

    Weisberg-Shapiro, Pamela; Devine, Carol M

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding of dietary change mechanisms among growing immigrant populations is needed in light of increased risk for diet-related chronic health conditions and inconsistent associations between acculturation and diet. This grounded theory research aimed to understand the lived experiences of interactions between food culture and social, economic, and physical environments in an immigrating population, Dominican women living in the Dominican Republic and New York City. Twenty-nine Dominican women participated in qualitative interviews about food and eating behaviors, life course experiences, and environments. Daily food and eating routines, framed by shopping for, preparation of, and consumption of 'la comida' or the main meal, emerged as dominant themes reflecting differences in women's economic, social, and physical environments. Routines were shaped by employment, household characteristics, and the food environment. Participating women attributed weight gain to changes in their food routines following immigration. The construction, disruption, and reconstruction of food and eating routines in response to differing economic, social, and physical environments in the sending and the receiving cultures provided new insights into the relationship between structural and cultural contexts of food and eating in an immigrant population. A food routines framework provides new insights into behavioral and weight changes with immigration. PMID:26212269

  2. Getting my child to eat the right amount. Mothers' considerations when deciding how much food to offer their child at a meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding young children successfully requires parenting skills,trust that children will eat, and nutrition and child development knowledge to ensure that foods and the amounts offered are developmentally appropriate. Mothers are often responsible for determining how much food is offered to their chil...

  3. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  4. Does access to fast food lead to super-sized pregnant women and whopper babies? — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Rise in the availability of fast-food restaurants has been blamed, at least partly, for the increasing obesity in the U.S. The existing studies of obesity have focused primarily on children, adolescents, and adults, and this paper extends the literature by raising a little-studied question and using nationally representative data to answer it. It examines the relationship between the supply of fast-food restaurants and weight gain of pregnant women and their newborns.

  5. Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed. PMID:25186250

  6. Eating on impulse: Implicit attitudes, self-regulatory resources, and trait self-control as determinants of food consumption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Qianqiu; Wang, Ya; Qiang, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Self-regulatory resources and trait self-control have been found to moderate the impulse-behavior relationship. The current study investigated whether the interaction of self-regulatory resources and trait self-control moderates the association between implicit attitudes and food consumption. One hundred twenty female participants were randomly assigned to either a depletion condition in which their self-regulatory resources were reduced or a no-depletion condition. Participants' implicit attitudes for chocolate were measured with the Single Category Implicit Association Test and self-report measures of trait self-control were collected. The dependent variable was chocolate consumption in an ostensible taste and rate task. Implicit attitudes predicted chocolate consumption in depleted participants but not in non-depleted participants. However, this predictive power of implicit attitudes on eating in depleted condition disappeared in participants with high trait self-control. Thus, trait self-control and self-regulatory resources interact to moderate the prediction of implicit attitude on eating behavior. Results suggest that high trait self-control buffers the effect of self-regulatory depletion on impulsive eating. PMID:26402043

  7. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility. PMID:19758736

  8. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: ?=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: ?=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: ?=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: ?=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interaction<0.001], but not insulin resistance [3rd tertile: ?=-0.07 (95% CI: -0.24, 0.09); 1st tertile: ?=0.09 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.26); p-interaction=0.40]. We observed no modification of fast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. PMID:26319447

  9. Exposure to 'healthy' fast food meal bundles in television advertisements promotes liking for fast food but not healthier choices in children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Kavanagh-Safran, Melissa; Halford, Jason C G

    2015-03-28

    Due to regulatory changes, fast food companies often depict healthy foods in their television advertisements to children. The present study examined how exposure to advertising for 'healthy' meal bundles to children influenced the selection of food in children. A total of fifty-nine children (thirty-seven males) aged 7-10 years (8·8 (SD 0·9) years) took part in the present study. The within-participant, counterbalanced design had two conditions: control (exposure to ten toy adverts across two breaks of five adverts each) and experimental (the middle advert in each break replaced with one for a McDonald's Happy Meal® depicting the meal bundle as consisting of fish fingers, a fruit bag and a bottle of mineral water). Following viewing of the adverts embedded in a cartoon, children completed a hypothetical menu task that reported liking for McDonald's food and fast food, in general. Nutritional knowledge, height and weight of the children were measured. There was no significant difference between the two advert conditions for the nutritional content of the meal bundles selected. However, children's liking for fast food, in general, increased after exposure to the food adverts relative to control (P= 0·004). Compared to children with high nutritional knowledge, those with low scores selected meals of greater energy content (305 kJ) after viewing the food adverts (P= 0·016). Exposure to adverts for 'healthy' meal bundles did not drive healthier choices in children, but did promote liking for fast food. These findings contribute to debates about food advertising to children and the effectiveness of related policies. PMID:25716646

  10. Beliefs about eating and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Perrin, Nancy A; Rosselli, Francine; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Debar, Lynn L; Kraemer, Helena C

    2009-08-01

    Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to agree that there are effective treatments. Two thirds of the sample reported that certain foods are addictive and also believed that strict dieting is an effective means of reducing binge eating. Therapeutic implications of these attitudes are discussed. PMID:19665098

  11. Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J.

    2013-01-01

    Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach—as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members—were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10–14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

  12. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  13. Fast Food Consumption, Quality of Diet, and Obesity among Isfahanian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirseifinezhad, Maryam; Omrani, Nasrin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fast food intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fast food consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fast food intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B1 (P = 0.008), phosphorus (P = 0.0250), selenium (P < 0.001) and vitamin B2 (P = 0.012) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fast food intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fast foods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P = 0.0001) and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Fast food consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22619703

  14. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods. PMID:22838731

  15. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Konti?, Olga; Vasiljevi?, Nadja; Trisovi?, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Laki?, Aneta; Gasi?, Miroslava Jasovi?

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  16. Microbiological quality of open ready-to-eat salad vegetables: effectiveness of food hygiene training of management.

    PubMed

    Sagoo, S K; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    During September and October 2001, a microbiological study of open, ready-to-eat, prepared salad vegetables from catering or retail premises was undertaken to determine their microbiological quality. The study focused on those salad vegetables that were unwrapped and handled either by staff or customers in the premises where the sample was taken. Examination of salad vegetables from food service areas and customer self-service bars revealed that most (97%; 2,862 of 2,950) were of satisfactory or acceptable microbiological quality, 3% (87) were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality because of Escherichia coli levels in the range of 10(2) to 10(5) colony-forming units per gram. One (<1%) sample was of unacceptable microbiological quality because of the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at 840 colony-forming units per gram. The pathogens E. coli O157, Campylobacter spp., and salmonellas were not detected in any of the samples examined. The display area for most food service and preparation areas (95%) and self-service salad bars (98%) that were visited was judged to be visibly clean by the sampling officer. Most self-service bars (87%) were regularly supervised or inspected by staff during opening hours, and designated serving utensils were used in most salad bars (92%) but in only a minority of food service areas (35%). A hazard analysis system was in place in most (80%) premises, and in 61%, it was documented. Most (90%) managers had received food hygiene training. A direct relationship was shown between increased confidence in the food business management and the presence of food safety procedures and the training of management in food hygiene. PMID:14503709

  17. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Adults: United States, 2007-2010

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by sociodemographic characteristics and weight status. Keywords: diet, calorie, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey What percentage ... consumed from fast food. Definitions Calories, kilocalories : A calorie is a measure of the energy produced as ...

  18. USDA updates nutrient values for fast food pizza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of quick service pizza has increased as Americans are spending more on food away from home. Pizza is consistently a primary Key Food in the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) because it is a contributor of more than 14 nutrients of public health significance to the...

  19. Regular consumption from fast food establishments relative to other restaurants is differentially associated with metabolic outcomes in young adults.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-11-01

    Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and plasma triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). We used 3 waves of data (exam y 7, 10, and 20) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, a prospective cohort study of black and white young adults [aged 25-42 y in 1992-93, n = 3643 (men, 1659; women, 1984)]. Individuals in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of baseline (defined as the mean of y 7 and 10) fast food consumption had higher y 20 weight [adjusted mean (95% CI): 5.6 kg (CI, 2.1, 9.2); P = 0.002], HOMA-IR [0.9 (CI, 0.4, 1.3); P < 0.001], waist circumference [5.3 cm (CI, 2.8, 7.9); P < 0.000], TG concentrations [0.25 mmol/L (CI, 0.10, 0.40), 22.7 mg/dL (CI, 9.1, 36.3); P = 0.001], and lower HDL-C concentrations [-0.014 mmol/L (CI, -0.215, -0.067), 5.4 mg/dL (CI, -8.3, -2.6); P < 0.000]. Baseline restaurant consumption was unrelated to y 20 outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant (P < 0.05) and fast food intake (P < 0.001) was associated with 13-y changes in body weight [0.09 kg (CI, 0.02, 0.17) and 0.15 kg (CI, 0.06, 0.24), respectively] and waist circumference [0.08 cm (CI, 0.02, 0.14) and 0.12 cm (CI, 0.04, 0.20), respectively]. Fast food consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes. PMID:19776183

  20. Regular Consumption from Fast Food Establishments Relative to Other Restaurants Is Differentially Associated with Metabolic Outcomes in Young Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M.; Jacobs, David R.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and plasma triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). We used 3 waves of data (exam y 7, 10, and 20) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, a prospective cohort study of black and white young adults [aged 25–42 y in 1992–93, n = 3643 (men, 1659; women, 1984)]. Individuals in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of baseline (defined as the mean of y 7 and 10) fast food consumption had higher y 20 weight [adjusted mean (95% CI): 5.6 kg (CI, 2.1, 9.2); P = 0.002], HOMA-IR [0.9 (CI, 0.4, 1.3); P < 0.001], waist circumference [5.3 cm (CI, 2.8, 7.9); P < 0.000], TG concentrations [0.25 mmol/L (CI, 0.10, 0.40), 22.7 mg/dL (CI, 9.1, 36.3); P = 0.001], and lower HDL-C concentrations [?0.014 mmol/L (CI, ?0.215, ?0.067), 5.4 mg/dL (CI, ?8.3, ?2.6); P < 0.000]. Baseline restaurant consumption was unrelated to y 20 outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant (P < 0.05) and fast food intake (P < 0.001) was associated with 13-y changes in body weight [0.09 kg (CI, 0.02, 0.17) and 0.15 kg (CI, 0.06, 0.24), respectively] and waist circumference [0.08 cm (CI, 0.02, 0.14) and 0.12 cm (CI, 0.04, 0.20), respectively]. Fast food consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes. PMID:19776183

  1. Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36?h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS. PMID:25349245

  2. Inequality in obesigenic environments: fast food density in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Yau, Chun-Yip; Loh, Ji-Meng; Williams, Donya

    2009-03-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New York City. We found that predominantly Black areas had higher densities of fast food than predominantly White areas; high-income Black areas had similar exposure as low-income Black areas; and national chains were most dense in commercial areas. The results highlight the importance of policy level interventions to address disparities in food environments as a key goal in obesity prevention efforts. PMID:18722151

  3. Meanings of Food, Eating and Health in Punjabi Families Living in Vancouver, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Gwen E; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Beagan, Brenda L

    2011-01-01

    Objective: South Asians living in western countries have increased risk for developing diet-related chronic disease compared to Caucasians of European heritage. To increase understanding of social and cultural factors associated with their food habits, this study examined the meanings of food, health and well-being embedded in the food practices…

  4. HOW MUCH WE EAT IN AMERICA--TRANSLATING FOOD PORTIONS INTO NUTRIENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete collection of food consumption data is only the first step in dietary assessment. The details about foods and amounts that are recalled by individuals must be converted into standard units for calculation of nutrients. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is a t...

  5. What's NOT to eat- Food adulteration in the context of human biology

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Cook, Katsi

    2011-01-01

    Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant PCBs in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in non-urban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning. PMID:22262531

  6. What's NOT to eat--food adulteration in the context of human biology.

    PubMed

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V; Cook, Katsi

    2012-01-01

    Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well-studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of Western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage, and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant polychlorinated biphenyls in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in nonurban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning. PMID:22262531

  7. Food Sustainability Education as a Route to Healthier Eating: Evaluation of a Multi-Component School Programme in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M.; Dailami, N.; Weitkamp, E.; Salmon, D.; Kimberlee, R.; Morley, A.; Orme, J.

    2012-01-01

    Promising approaches to the promotion of healthier eating among children in primary school settings include the opportunity to practise practical cooking and growing, promoting the take up of healthier school meals and nutritional education. However, less is known about the potential for strategies that integrate approaches through a focus on food

  8. Chemistry touches your life every day, from the air you breathe to the food you eat. The science of chemistry examines the atomic and

    E-print Network

    Miles, Will

    Chemistry Chemistry touches your life every day, from the air you breathe to the food you eat. The science of chemistry examines the atomic and molecular structure of matter and relates these structural medicine and biochemistry to plastics. The study of chemistry offers excellent undergraduate preparation

  9. The Biology of Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Mo, Xiaofei; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the literature on binge eating to gain a better understanding of its biological foundations and their role in the eating disorders. Method Literature review and synthesis. Results Research using animal models has revealed several factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of binge eating. These factors, including stress, food restriction, the presence of palatable foods, and environmental conditioning, parallel many of the precursory circumstances leading to binge eating in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Discussion The animal literature has opened a new avenue to aid in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of binge eating. Future endeavors examining the genetic and environmental correlates of binge eating behavior will further contribute the understanding the biological foundations of binge eating and assist with establishing diagnostic criteria and the development of novel treatments for eating disorders marked by binge eating. PMID:19501749

  10. How French subjects describe well-being from food and eating habits? Development, item reduction and scoring definition of the Well-Being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ©).

    PubMed

    Guillemin, I; Marrel, A; Arnould, B; Capuron, L; Dupuy, A; Ginon, E; Layé, S; Lecerf, J-M; Prost, M; Rogeaux, M; Urdapilleta, I; Allaert, F-A

    2016-01-01

    Providing well-being and maintaining good health are main objectives subjects seek from diet. This manuscript describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument assessing well-being associated with food and eating habits in a general healthy population. Qualitative data from 12 groups of discussion (102 subjects) conducted with healthy subjects were used to develop the core of the Well-being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ). Twelve other groups of discussion with subjects with joint (n = 34), digestive (n = 32) or repetitive infection complaints (n = 30) were performed to develop items specific to these complaints. Five main themes emerged from the discussions and formed the modular backbone of the questionnaire: "Grocery shopping", "Cooking", "Dining places", "Commensality", "Eating and drinking". Each module has a common structure: items about subject's food behavior and items about immediate and short-term benefits. An additional theme - "Eating habits and health" - assesses subjects' beliefs about expected benefits of food and eating habits on health, disease prevention and protection, and quality of ageing. A preliminary validation was conducted with 444 subjects with balanced diet; non-balanced diet; and standard diet. The structure of the questionnaire was further determined using principal component analyses exploratory factor analyses, with confirmation of the sub-sections food behaviors, immediate benefits (pleasure, security, relaxation), direct short-term benefits (digestion and satiety, energy and psychology), and deferred long-term benefits (eating habits and health). Thirty-three subscales and 14 single items were further defined. Confirmatory analyses confirmed the structure, with overall moderate to excellent convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. The Well-BFQ is a unique, modular tool that comprehensively assesses the full picture of well-being related to food and eating habits in the general population. PMID:26407804

  11. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

  12. Obesity and fast food in urban markets: a new approach using geo-referenced micro data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Susan Elizabeth; Florax, Raymond J; Snyder, Samantha D

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a new method of assessing the relationship between features of the built environment and obesity, particularly in urban areas. Our empirical application combines georeferenced data on the location of fast-food restaurants with data about personal health, behavioral, and neighborhood characteristics. We define a 'local food environment' for every individual utilizing buffers around a person's home address. Individual food landscapes are potentially endogenous because of spatial sorting of the population and food outlets, and the body mass index (BMI) values for individuals living close to each other are likely to be spatially correlated because of observed and unobserved individual and neighborhood effects. The potential biases associated with endogeneity and spatial correlation are handled using spatial econometric estimation techniques. Our application provides quantitative estimates of the effect of proximity to fast-food restaurants on obesity in an urban food market. We also present estimates of a policy simulation that focuses on reducing the density of fast-food restaurants in urban areas. In the simulations, we account for spatial heterogeneity in both the policy instruments and individual neighborhoods and find a small effect for the hypothesized relationships between individual BMI values and the density of fast-food restaurants. PMID:22911977

  13. Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

    2005-10-01

    Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits following occasionally ingestion of animal tissue (hypothesis 3).

  14. Eat Healthier | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    */ 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions

  15. Heating and eating: brown adipose tissue thermogenesis precedes food ingestion as part of the ultradian basic rest-activity cycle in rats.

    PubMed

    Blessing, William; Mohammed, Mazher; Ootsuka, Youichirou

    2012-02-28

    Laboratory rats, throughout the 24 hour day, alternate between behaviorally active and non active episodes that Kleitman called the basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC). We previously demonstrated that brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures and arterial pressure and heart rate increase in an integrated manner during behaviorally active phases. Studies show that eating is preceded by increases in body and brain temperature, but whether eating is integrated into the BRAC has not been investigated. In the present study of chronically instrumented, unrestrained Sprague-Dawley rats, peaks in BAT temperature occurred every 96 ± 7 and 162 ± 16 min (mean ± SE, n=14 rats) in dark and light periods respectively, with no apparent underlying regularity. With food available ad libitum, eating was integrated into the BRAC in a temporally precise manner. Eating occurred only after an increase in BAT temperature, commencing 15 ± 1 min (mean ± SE) after the onset of an increase, with no difference between dark and light phases. There were either no or weak preprandial and postprandial relations between intermeal interval and amount eaten during a given meal. Remarkably, with no food available the rat still disturbed the empty food container 16 ± 1 min (p>0.05 versus ad libitum food) after the onset of increases in BAT temperature, and not at other times. Rather than being triggered by changes in levels of body fuels or other meal-associated factors, in sedentary laboratory rats with ad libitum access to food eating commences as part of the ultradian BRAC, a manifestation of intrinsic brain activity. PMID:22115948

  16. HOW MUCH WE EAT IN AMERICA--EXPERIENCES ESTIMATING FOOD INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recalling all foods eaten the previous day and the amounts consumed are primary tasks asked of those providing 24-hr dietary recalls. The types and quantities of foods eaten are of interest because of possible relationships between diet and health issues, such as obesity. The importance of recalli...

  17. [Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians during fasting at Ramadan].

    PubMed

    Beltaifa, L; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C; Jabrane, H; El-Khadhi, A; Ben Rayana, M C; Doghri, T

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of fasting during Ramadan on nutritional intake and plasma lipoproteins in 20 healthy adults of normal weight. A 5-day food questionnaire was completed for every participant. Clinical investigations, anthropometrical measurements and laboratory analysis were also undertaken. Body weight, blood pressure and blood glucose were not influenced by fasting but there were non-significant modifications in the plasma lipid fractions. The total cholesterol remained unchanged. Total daily energy intake was comparable before, during and after Ramadan despite the decrease in meal frequency during fasting. Thus fasting in Ramadan did not affect dietary intake, clinical, anthropometrical and most biological parameters. PMID:15603043

  18. Stimulus-response compatibility tests of implicit preference for food and body image to identify people at risk for disordered eating: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saira; Petróczi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to incorporate implicit measures of relevant social cognition into eating disorder research. Fifty-three females diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED), and 41 at-risk females were recruited via ED support websites, along with 23 healthy females for comparison. Computerised online tests assessing subconscious normative ideal body image (IBI-BIAT) and personalised self-identification body image (PBI-BIAT) associations and food preferences (FP-AAT) were administered, followed by the modified version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Anthropometric data, age, need for social approval, self-reported measures of self-esteem, normative perception and body image satisfaction were recorded. Self-reported diagnosed ED status was corroborated with BMI and EDE-Q. Diagnostic performance of the implicit measures was assessed with ROC analysis. Those diagnosed with ED showed significantly stronger automatic preferences for and self-identification with thin body image, compared to healthy females, but no differences were found in food preferences. The IBI-BIAT showed better diagnostic power than PBI-BIAT, correctly classifying 87% of the diagnosed participants. No correlation was found between IBI-BIAT and the explicit measures. The results suggest that the underlying subconscious social cognitive factors of pathological eating are linked to body image, not to food items per se. PMID:25464068

  19. Getting my child to eat the right amount. Mothers' considerations when deciding how much food to offer their child at a meal.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan L; Goodell, L Suzanne; Williams, Kimberly; Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-05-01

    Feeding young children successfully requires parenting skills, trust that children will eat, and nutrition and child development knowledge to ensure that foods and the amounts offered are developmentally appropriate. Mothers are often responsible for determining how much food is offered to their children; however, the influences on mothers' decisions regarding how much to offer their children--their motivations, goals for feeding and child consumption--have not been investigated. Study aims included gathering qualitative data regarding mothers' decisional processes related to preparing a dinner meal plate for her preschooler. Low income mothers (n = 15 African American and n = 15 Latina mothers) were recruited from preschools in the Denver, CO metropolitan area to participate in semi-structured interviews. Mothers prepared a plate for their preschooler and were asked about influences on their decisions about portion sizes and their expectations for children's eating. Data were coded by 2 independent coders using a consensus coding process and analyzed by investigators. Three themes emerged: (1) portion sizes differ for children who are "good" eaters and "picky" eaters; (2) mothers know the "right amounts" to serve their child; and (3) mothers have emotional investments in their children's eating. Some influencing factors were child-centered (e.g. child's likes and dislikes, "picky" and "good" eaters, and foods previously eaten in the day) and some related to adult expectations and concerns (nutrient content and waste). Interventions focusing on portion size may be more effective if tailored to the mothers' perceptions regarding her child's eating characteristics. PMID:25510530

  20. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. PMID:23500173

  1. `You are what you eat': historical changes in ideas about food and identity*

    E-print Network

    Shapin, Steven

    -American Conference of Historians on the theme of `Food in history', Institute of Historical Research, University calories, you get fat; if you take too much sugar and refined carbohydrates, you develop diabetes; too much

  2. Mood, food, traits, and restraint: an experimental investigation of negative affect, borderline personality, and disordered eating 

    E-print Network

    Ambwani, Suman

    2009-05-15

    women (N = 149). In the main study, undergraduate women (N = 307) completed a baseline mood assessment, then viewed a 39-minute sad film either with or without concurrent food presentation. Participants then completed a second mood assessment...

  3. Effect of light intensity on food detection in captive great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Eduardo de A; Pessoa, Valdir F; Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Pessoa, Daniel M A

    2014-11-01

    Bats are known for their well-developed echolocation. However, several experiments focused on the bat visual system have shown evidence of the importance of visual cues under specific luminosity for different aspects of bat biology, including foraging behavior. This study examined the foraging abilities of five female great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus, under different light intensities. Animals were given a series of tasks to test for discrimination between a food target against an inedible background, under light levels similar to the twilight illumination (18lx), the full moon (2lx) and complete darkness (0lx). We found that the bats required a longer time frame to detect targets under a light intensity similar to twilight, possibly due to inhibitory effects present under a more intense light level. Additionally, bats were more efficient at detecting and capturing targets under light conditions similar to the luminosity of a full moon, suggesting that visual cues were important for target discrimination. These results demonstrate that light intensity affects foraging behavior and enables the use of visual cues for food detection in frugivorous bats. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25153795

  4. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  5. Time to Take a Stand against Junk Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a social and health problem that is encouraged by junk food ads and the easy availability of unhealthful fast foods. The article provides guidance for parents to encourage healthy eating by their children; it includes a list of resources and a list of "best" processed foods. (SM)

  6. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  7. Health Tip: Eating Well At Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154740.html Health Tip: Eating Well at Work Be prepared with healthy foods To use the ... challenging to eat healthier foods during a busy work day. But with some preparation, you can stay ...

  8. Re-embodying Eating

    PubMed Central

    Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-01-01

    Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

  9. Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3–7 years were shown McDonald’s and Burger King children’s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010–11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Results Premiums/tie-ins were common in children’s but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children’s ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children’s vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002). For children’s ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Children’s net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice. PMID:25738653

  10. Reach Out and Eat: Food and Beverages Depicted in Books for Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    England, Jessica L.; Linchey, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.; Patel, Anisha I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine food and beverage depictions in books for preschoolers. Methods Books for preschoolers from Reach Out and Read (ROR; n = 42), public library (n = 27), and Publisher's Weekly booklists (n = 31) were examined for nutritive and empty-calorie food and beverage depictions. Results It was found that 66% of books depicted at least I food or beverage. More books depicted nutritive items than empty-calorie items (87.5% vs 54.7%, P < .001). There was a trend toward fewer empty-calorie depictions in ROR books than in other booklists. Yet nearly half of ROR books depicted at least I empty-calorie item. ROR books also accounted for 5 of 10 books with the most empty-calorie item depictions and 3 of 4 books with branding. With regard to messaging, approximately a third of books with the most empty-calorie depictions promoted unhealthy foods. Conclusions When selecting books for ROR, it may be important to consider food and beverage depictions and messages. PMID:25715825

  11. The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    Review The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders Kent C circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain in obesity or in eating disorders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Obesity Eating Food

  12. Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and sport facility eating environments.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Vermeer, Julianne; McCargar, Linda J; Prowse, Rachel J L; Raine, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n?=?2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n?=?322) and intervention (n?=?313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p?foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items. PMID:25913684

  13. Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…

  14. Eating Behaviours of British University Students: A Cluster Analysis on a Neglected Issue

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Jina; Dodd, Lorna J.; Woodfield, Lorayne; Mabhala, Mzwandile

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy diet is a primary risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. University student populations are known to engage in health risking lifestyle behaviours including risky eating behaviours. The purpose of this study was to examine eating behaviour patterns in a population of British university students using a two-step cluster analysis. Consumption prevalence of snack, convenience, and fast foods in addition to fruit and vegetables was measured using a self-report “Student Eating Behaviours” questionnaire on 345 undergraduate university students. Four clusters were identified: “risky eating behaviours,” “mixed eating behaviours,” “moderate eating behaviours,” and “favourable eating behaviours.” Nineteen percent of students were categorised as having “favourable eating behaviours” whilst just under a third of students were categorised within the two most risky clusters. Riskier eating behaviour patterns were associated with living on campus and Christian faith. The findings of this study highlight the importance of university microenvironments on eating behaviours in university student populations. Religion as a mediator of eating behaviours is a novel finding. PMID:26550495

  15. Why eat extra floral nectar? Understanding food selection by Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of omnivorous arthropods to stabilize ecosystems makes them an invaluable resource in biological control efforts. Methods of increasing predator abundance throughout agroecoystems include the incorporation of non-prey food items, yet the influence of this on predation rates remains un...

  16. School's Out . . . Let's Eat. FRAC's Guide to Organizing a Summer Food Program. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Michael S.

    The Summer Food Program (SFP) is a federally funded program designed to feed needy children during school vacations from May through September. Children may be fed breakfasts, lunches, and suppers, plus two snacks, up to seven days a week. All meals must be served free to all children. The program provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve…

  17. Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods and intervention strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen capable of causing listeriosis, a severe illness that has a high fatality rate. It has been a significant food safety concern for decades due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment, ability to grow at refrigeration temperature, and resistance to ...

  18. Food Additives: "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy". Health and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…

  19. The United States food supply is not consistent with dietary guidance: evidence from an evaluation using the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E; Reedy, Jill; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I

    2014-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) food system is primarily an economic enterprise, with far-reaching health, environmental, and social effects. A key data source for evaluating the many effects of the food system, including the overall quality and extent to which it provides the basic elements of a healthful diet, is the Food Availability Data System. The objective of the present study was to update earlier research that evaluated the extent to which the U.S. food supply aligns with the most recent Federal dietary guidance, using the current Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 and food supply data extending through 2010. The HEI-2010 was applied to 40 years of food supply data (1970–2010) to examine trends in the overall food supply as well as specific components related to a healthy diet, such as fruits and vegetables. The HEI-2010 overall summary score hovered around half of optimal for all years evaluated, with an increase from 48 points in 1970 to 55 points (out of a possible 100 points) in 2010. Fluctuations in scores for most individual components did not lead to sustained trends. The present study continues to demonstrate sizable gaps between Federal dietary guidance and the food supply. This disconnect is troublesome within a context of high rates of diet-related chronic diseases among the population and suggests the need for continual monitoring of the quality of the food supply. Moving toward a food system that is more conducive to healthy eating requires consideration of a range of factors that influence food supply and demand. PMID:25441965

  20. Skylab 2 astronauts eat space food in wardroom of Skylab trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The three members of the prime crew of the first manned Skylab mission dine on specially prepared Skylab space food in the wardromm of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer during Skylab training at the Johnson Space Center. They are, left to right, Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, science pilot; Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, pilot; and Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander.

  1. Food Deserts and Eating Habits of Children Participating in the WIC Program 

    E-print Network

    Jewell, Kassi Kae

    2013-08-07

    , nutrition counseling, and health service referrals for low-income pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, non-breastfeeding postpartum mothers, and infants and children who are found to be at nutritional risk (13). Nationally, more than 8.7 million women... of long-term breastfeeding. Highlights of the food package revisions include: o Inclusion of fruits and vegetables 5 o Inclusion of whole grain items such as whole wheat bread, oatmeal, brown rice, and tortillas ?(both corn & whole wheat) o...

  2. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in ready-to-eat foods and raw poultry in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Moore, John E; Wilson, Tom S; Wareing, David R A; Humphrey, Tom J; Murphy, Philip G

    2002-08-01

    Although there have been numerous studies investigating the prevalence of campylobacters in animals and raw meats, there are limited data on the persistence of these organisms in ready-to-eat (RTE) foodstuffs. Although poultry is now well established as a major reservoir of thermophilic campylobacters, it is widely assumed that hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) controls in commercial and industrial settings are effective in eliminating this hazard through thorough cooking of RTE products. Therefore, it was the primary aim of this study to investigate the effectiveness of HACCP controls in eliminating campylobacters in such cooked RTE foods by attempting to isolate viable organisms from product. Concurrently, the results of this study demonstrate that local poultry is highly contaminated with campylobacters. Commercially available RTE foodstuffs (n = 2,030) consisting of 1,061 poultry-related cooked products and 969 other products were analyzed and were not found to contain thermophilic Campylobacter spp. In addition, 107 raw chickens (63 fresh birds and 44 frozen birds) were sampled, and 94% of the fresh birds and 77% of the frozen birds examined were demonstrated to be contaminated with campylobacters, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari accounting for 69, 30, and 1% of the contaminating organisms, respectively. In general, commercially available RTE foodstuffs, including cooked poultry, are not commonly contaminated with campylobacters and thus do not appear to represent a significant cause of clinical infection of Campylobacter spp. in Northern Ireland. However, raw poultry produce, including fresh and frozen chicken, frequently tested positive for campylobacters. Implementation of HACCP systems by food processors will help to minimize and/or eliminate the risk posed by this organism to the consumer. PMID:12182488

  3. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  4. Vitamin k contents of meat, dairy, and fast food in the u.s. Diet.

    PubMed

    Elder, Sonya J; Haytowitz, David B; Howe, Juliette; Peterson, James W; Booth, Sarah L

    2006-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of three forms of vitamin K [phylloquinone, dihydrophylloquinone, and menaquinone-4 (MK-4)] in representative samples (including different samples within the same food category) of meat (n = 128), dairy and eggs (n = 24), and fast foods (n = 169) common to the U.S. diet. The findings of our analysis indicate that no single food item in these categories is a rich dietary source of any one form of vitamin K. However, these foods are often consumed in large quantities; hence, they may be of importance in overall contribution to total vitamin K intake. The presence of MK-4 in meat, eggs, and dairy foods could be important as physiologic functions unique to MK-4 are identified. PMID:16417305

  5. Fast Fourier transform analysis of sounds made while swallowing various foods.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Mitsuru; Kohyama, Kaoru

    2012-10-01

    The cervical auscultation method was applied to investigate sounds generated while swallowing various foods with unique physical properties, including liquid (water), semiliquid (yogurt), and solid (konjac jelly). To study the differences among swallowing sounds for various foods, fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis was applied to signals that were attributed to the flow of a food bolus, which is a swallowable soft mass of chewed food. An FFT program was developed that enabled the calculation of a spectrum for a specified region of time domain swallowing sound signals. The intensity of spectra in the frequency range between 400 and 1000 Hz significantly differed: liquid > semiliquid > solid. The FFT spectrum in this range was suggested to represent the frequency characteristics of the swallowing sounds of various foods. PMID:23039442

  6. Eating up the world’s food web and the human trophic level

    PubMed Central

    Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dubroca, Laurent; Le Pape, Olivier; Barde, Julien; Kaplan, David M.; Chassot, Emmanuel; Nieblas, Anne-Elise

    2013-01-01

    Trophic levels are critical for synthesizing species’ diets, depicting energy pathways, understanding food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning, and monitoring ecosystem health. Specifically, trophic levels describe the position of species in a food web, from primary producers to apex predators (range, 1–5). Small differences in trophic level can reflect large differences in diet. Although trophic levels are among the most basic information collected for animals in ecosystems, a human trophic level (HTL) has never been defined. Here, we find a global HTL of 2.21, i.e., the trophic level of anchoveta. This value has increased with time, consistent with the global trend toward diets higher in meat. National HTLs ranging between 2.04 and 2.57 reflect a broad diversity of diet, although cluster analysis of countries with similar dietary trends reveals only five major groups. We find significant links between socio-economic and environmental indicators and global dietary trends. We demonstrate that the HTL is a synthetic index to monitor human diets and provides a baseline to compare diets between countries. PMID:24297882

  7. Right sizing prevention. Food portion size effects on children's eating and weight.

    PubMed

    Birch, Leann L; Savage, Jennifer S; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2015-05-01

    Experimental findings provide consistent evidence that increasing the portion size of palatable, energy dense entrees relative to an age appropriate reference portion increases children's energy intake of the entree and the meal. Most of these studies have been conducted on preschool aged children between 2 and 6 years of age, in childcare or laboratory settings, using repeated measures designs. In these studies, children's intake is compared across a series of meals, where the size of the entrée portion is varied and other aspects of the meal, including the portion size of other items on the menu, are held constant. This paper provides an overview of what we know from this research, what is not known about the effects of portion size on children's intake and weight status, and points to some of the important unanswered questions and gaps in the literature. Lastly, we discuss how individual characteristics may make someone more or less susceptible to large portions of foods and how the palatability of foods may moderate observed associations among portion size, children's intake, and weight status. Future studies that address the gaps identified in this paper are needed to inform policy and to develop effective and efficient interventions to prevent childhood obesity. PMID:25464022

  8. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in fast food: signatures of corn and confinement.

    PubMed

    Jahren, A Hope; Kraft, Rebecca A

    2008-11-18

    Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We sampled food from McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's chains, purchasing >480 servings of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches and fries within geographically distributed U.S. cities: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Detroit, Boston, and Baltimore. From the entire sample set of beef and chicken, only 12 servings of beef had delta(13)C < -21 per thousand; for these animals only was a food source other than corn possible. We observed remarkably invariant values of delta(15)N in both beef and chicken, reflecting uniform confinement and exposure to heavily fertilized feed for all animals. The delta(13)C value of fries differed significantly among restaurants indicating that the chains used different protocols for deep-frying: Wendy's clearly used only corn oil, whereas McDonald's and Burger King favored other vegetable oils; this differed from ingredient reports. Our results highlighted the overwhelming importance of corn agriculture within virtually every aspect of fast food manufacture. PMID:19001276

  9. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in fast food: Signatures of corn and confinement

    PubMed Central

    Jahren, A. Hope; Kraft, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We sampled food from McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's chains, purchasing >480 servings of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches and fries within geographically distributed U.S. cities: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Detroit, Boston, and Baltimore. From the entire sample set of beef and chicken, only 12 servings of beef had ?13C < ?21‰; for these animals only was a food source other than corn possible. We observed remarkably invariant values of ?15N in both beef and chicken, reflecting uniform confinement and exposure to heavily fertilized feed for all animals. The ?13C value of fries differed significantly among restaurants indicating that the chains used different protocols for deep-frying: Wendy's clearly used only corn oil, whereas McDonald's and Burger King favored other vegetable oils; this differed from ingredient reports. Our results highlighted the overwhelming importance of corn agriculture within virtually every aspect of fast food manufacture. PMID:19001276

  10. Craving for Food in Virtual Reality Scenarios in Non-Clinical Sample: Analysis of its Relationship with Body Mass Index and Eating Disorder Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Jose; Treasure, Janet; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran

    2015-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has been successfully used to study the influence of specific and contextual food-related cues on emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses in patients with eating disorders (ED) and healthy controls. Following this research line, the present study assesses the effect on reported food craving of the type of food (low calorie versus high calorie) and the presence or absence of other people (private versus social context) in VR environments. Relationships between craving and body mass index (BMI) and ED symptoms are also explored. Eighty-seven female students were exposed to four VR scenarios presented in random order: a low-calorie kitchen, a high-calorie kitchen, a low-calorie restaurant and a high-calorie restaurant. After 2?minutes of exposure to each virtual scenario, food craving was assessed. Repeated measures analyses of covariance were conducted to assess changes in food craving following exposure to the different VR environments. Time elapsed since the last meal was introduced as a covariate to control for responses produced by food deprivation. Correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were also conducted to assess the relationship between reported food craving and BMI and ED symptoms. Participants experienced higher levels of food craving after exposure to high-calorie foods (in both the kitchen and restaurant environments) than after exposure to low-calorie foods. Being alone in the kitchen or with friends in the restaurant had no effect on reported craving. Overall, neither BMI nor ED symptoms were related with reported food craving; only in the restaurant with low-calorie food was a significant negative correlation found between BMI and food craving. The results suggest that cue exposure in virtual environments is an effective procedure for inducing food craving in healthy controls and may be useful as a research and therapeutic tool in clinical populations. PMID:26095041

  11. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population. PMID:21326209

  12. The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Gimeno, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of fast food consumption on mean population body mass index (BMI) and explore the possible influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and BMI. Methods The within-country association between fast food consumption and BMI in 25 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development between 1999 and 2008 was explored through multivariate panel regression models, after adjustment for per capita gross domestic product, urbanization, trade openness, lifestyle indicators and other covariates. The possible mediating effect of annual per capita intake of soft drinks, animal fats and total calories on the association between fast food consumption and BMI was also analysed. Two-stage least squares regression models were conducted, using economic freedom as an instrumental variable, to study the causal effect of fast food consumption on BMI. Findings After adjustment for covariates, each 1-unit increase in annual fast food transactions per capita was associated with an increase of 0.033 kg/m2 in age-standardized BMI (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.013–0.052). Only the intake of soft drinks – not animal fat or total calories – mediated the observed association (?:?0.030; 95% CI: 0.010–0.050). Economic freedom was an independent predictor of fast food consumption (?:?0.27; 95% CI: 0.16–0.37). When economic freedom was used as an instrumental variable, the association between fast food and BMI weakened but remained significant (?:?0.023; 95% CI: 0.001–0.045). Conclusion Fast food consumption is an independent predictor of mean BMI in high-income countries. Market deregulation policies may contribute to the obesity epidemic by facilitating the spread of fast food. PMID:24623903

  13. The CCKB antagonist CI988 reduces food intake in fasted rats via a dopamine mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Frommelt, Lisa; Lembke, Vanessa; Hofmann, Tobias; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Mönnikes, Hubert; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas; Kobelt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown a reduction of food intake following peripheral and brain injection of CCK. However, it remains to be established whether endogenous central CCK is involved in the regulation of food intake. We investigated the role of central CCK in the regulation of food intake by pharmacological manipulation of the CCK(B) (CCK(2)) receptor system. Intracerebroventricularly (ICV) cannulated male Sprague Dawley rats were fasted for 24h and received an ICV injection of the CCK(B) receptor antagonist CI988 at a dose of 10 nmol or 49 nmol or vehicle. Another group received two consecutive ICV injections consisting of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 (CRF(1)) antagonist, CP376395 (3 nmol) or the CRF(2) receptor antagonist, K41498 (2 nmol) alone, or followed by CI988 (49 nmol). Lastly, another group of rats received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of the dopamine antagonist, flupentixol (~197 and ~493nmol/kg) alone, or followed by CI988 (49 nmol, ICV). Cumulative food intake was assessed for 11h. Vehicle injected rats showed a robust feeding response. CI988 at 49 nmol reduced food intake by 30% starting at 2h post injection. CP376395 and K41498 had no effect on food intake. Flupentixol injected IP at a dose of 197 and 493 nmol/kg alone did not modulate food intake whereas the higher dose blocked the CI988-induced reduction of feeding. During the dark phase, CI988 had no effect on food intake in unfasted rats. In summary, CCK(B) signaling is involved in the regulation of food intake after a fast likely by downstream dopamine signaling. PMID:23200724

  14. Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sarah J.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L.D.

    2015-01-01

    In this Special Issue, entitled “Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective”, three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling. The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some “types” of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibition and less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental) strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level. PMID:26665419

  15. Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2015-10-01

    In this Special Issue, entitled "Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective", three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling.The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some "types" of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibitiona nd less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental) strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level. PMID:26665419

  16. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  17. US adolescents and MyPyramid: Associations between fast-food consumption and lower likelihood of meeting recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to determine the effect of fast food consumption on adolescents’ food group intakes and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Two days of 24-hour recall data from 1,956 adolescents 12-19 years of age collected in What W...

  18. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who doesn’t love to get outside ... to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. If you’re eating or preparing foods outside, ...

  19. Eating Right for Kidney Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods. ? R inse canned vegetables, beans, meats, and fish with water before eating. Look for Food Labels that Say l Sodium ... or round l Poultry without the skin l Fish l Beans l Vegetables l Fruits l Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese 2 Eating Right for Kidney Health THE NEXT STEPS TO ...

  20. To eat or not to eat: the effect of AICAR on food intake regulation in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)

    PubMed Central

    Florant, Gregory L.; Fenn, Ashley M.; Healy, Jessica E.; Wilkerson, Gregory K.; Handa, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Mammals that hibernate (hibernators) exhibit a circannual rhythm of food intake and body mass. In the laboratory during the winter hibernation period, many hibernators enter a series of multi-day torpor bouts, dropping their body temperature to near ambient, and cease to feed even if food is present in their cage. The mechanism(s) that regulates food intake in hibernators is unclear. Recently, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to play a key role in the central regulation of food intake in mammals. We hypothesized that infusing an AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1 B-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into the third ventricle of the hypothalamus would stimulate yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to feed during their hibernation season. Infusion of AICAR ICV into marmots at an ambient temperature of 22°C caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in food intake. In addition, animals stimulated to feed did not enter torpor during the infusion period. Marmots ICV infused with saline did not increase food intake and these animals continued to undergo torpor at an ambient temperature of 22°C. Our results suggest that AICAR stimulated the food intake pathway, presumably by activating AMPK. These results support the hypothesis that AMPK may be involved in regulating food intake in hibernators and that there may be common neural pathways involved in regulating feeding and eliciting torpor. PMID:20511516

  1. Associations of fast food restaurant availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000-2004. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Hickson DA, Diez Roux AV, Smith AE, Tucker KL, Gore LD, Zhang L, Wyatt SB. Associations of fast food restaurant availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000-2004.

  2. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy. [and] Fast Food and the American Diet. [and] Food Additives and Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Terrence; And Others

    These three separate pamphlets provide background information, brief discussions of research findings, and guidelines and recommendations concerning selected aspects of diet. The first pamphlet discusses food additives and hyperactivity, focusing on both the Feingold theory and controlled experiments which do not support Feingold's clinical…

  3. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy...

  4. Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, whi...

  5. Intake of Energy-Dense Foods, Fast Foods, Sugary Drinks, and Breast Cancer Risk in African American and European American Women

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E.; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR=2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR=1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status. PMID:25265504

  6. Who reports noticing and using calorie information posted on fast food restaurant menus?

    PubMed Central

    Breck, Andrew; Cantor, Jonathan; Martinez, Olivia; Elbel, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Identify consumer characteristics that predict seeing and using calorie information on fast food menu boards. Methods Two separate data collection methods were used in Philadelphia during June 2010, several weeks after calorie labeling legislation went into effect: 1) point-of-purchase survey and receipt collection conducted outside fast food restaurants (N=669) and 2) a random digit dial telephone survey (N=702). Logistic regressions were used to predict the odds of reporting seeing, and of reporting seeing and being influenced by posted calorie information. Results Of the 35.1% of point-of-purchase and 65.7% of telephone survey respondents who reported seeing posted calorie information, 11.8% and 41.7%, respectively, reported that the labels influenced their purchasing decisions; of those influenced, 8.4% and 17% reported they were influenced in a healthful direction. BMI, education, income, gender, consumer preferences, restaurant chain, and frequency of visiting fast food restaurants were associated with heterogeneity in the likelihood of reporting seeing and reporting seeing and using calorie labels. Conclusions Demographic characteristics and consumer preferences are important determinants in the use of posted calorie information. Future work should consider the types of consumers this information is intended for, and how to effectively reach them. PMID:24882449

  7. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to examine the effects of two promising approaches - skill-building and price reductions - on diet amongst women. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN39432901 PMID:21936957

  8. Eating Well As You Get Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for people over age 50. Eating Well Promotes Energy Eating well helps keep up your energy level, too. By consuming enough calories -- a way to measure the energy you get from food --you give your body ...

  9. Role of 5-HT3 Receptor on Food Intake in Fed and Fasted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingjin; Shao, Dongyuan; Luo, Yungang; Wang, Pu; Liu, Changhong; Zhang, Xingyi; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and 5-HT in the brain were examined after acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR-57227 alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Food intake was significantly inhibited within 3 h after acute treatment with SR 57227 in fasted mice but not fed mice, and this inhibition was blocked by ondansetron. Immunohistochemical study revealed that fasting-induced c-Fos expression was further enhanced by SR 57227 in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and this enhancement was also blocked by ondansetron. Furthermore, the fasting-induced downregulation of POMC expression in the hypothalamus and the TH expression in the brain stem was blocked by SR 57227 in the fasted mice, and this effect of SR 57227 was also antagonized by ondansetron. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of SR 57227 on the control of feeding behavior in fasted mice may be, at least partially, related to the c-Fos expression in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as POMC system in the hypothalamus and the TH system in the brain stem. PMID:25789930

  10. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  11. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  12. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6–18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02–8.63; P for trend<0.001), 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01–7.87; P for trend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01–6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  13. Inviting consumers to downsize fast-food portions significantly reduces calorie consumption.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Janet; Riis, Jason; Elbel, Brian; Ariely, Dan

    2012-02-01

    Policies that mandate calorie labeling in fast-food and chain restaurants have had little or no observable impact on calorie consumption to date. In three field experiments, we tested an alternative approach: activating consumers' self-control by having servers ask customers if they wanted to downsize portions of three starchy side dishes at a Chinese fast-food restaurant. We consistently found that 14-33 percent of customers accepted the downsizing offer, and they did so whether or not they were given a nominal twenty-five-cent discount. Overall, those who accepted smaller portions did not compensate by ordering more calories in their entrées, and the total calories served to them were, on average, reduced by more than 200. We also found that accepting the downsizing offer did not change the amount of uneaten food left at the end of the meal, so the calorie savings during purchasing translated into calorie savings during consumption. Labeling the calorie content of food during one of the experiments had no measurable impact on ordering behavior. If anything, the downsizing offer was less effective in changing customers' ordering patterns with the calorie labeling present. These findings highlight the potential importance of portion-control interventions that specifically activate consumers' self-control. PMID:22323171

  14. Food Sources of Important Nutrients (for Vegetarians)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foods to Fight Iron Deficiency scale in an apple - Eating Right Isn't Complicated Eating Right Isn' ... a Hurricane and/or Flooding scale in an apple - Eating Right Isn't Complicated Eating Right Isn' ...

  15. The relationship between eating-related individual differences and visual attention to foods high in added fat and sugar

    E-print Network

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    to processed foods that differ in added fat/sugar level (e.g., sweets, candies, fried foods) relative significantly predicted increased vigilance for sweets and candy and increased vigilance for fried foods-level attentional biases may contribute to difficulties making healthier food choices in the current food

  16. Food, Eating and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know ... Need to Know Online Tools Top Safety Concerns Wandering Home Safety Dementia & Driving Medication Safety Safety Systems ...

  17. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient groups such as individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24906381

  18. Korean space food development: Ready-to-eat Kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable, sterilized with high-dose gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. It was confirmed that the space food was sterilized by an irradiation at 25 kGy through incubation at 37 °C for 30 days. The hardness of the Space Kimchi (SK) was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated Kimchi (IR). Also, this result was supported by the scanning electron microscopic observation. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. According to the Ames test, Kimchi sterilized with a high-dose irradiation exerted no mutagenic activity in the bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium. And, the SK was certificated for use in space flight conditions during 30 days by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems.

  19. Nickel levels in convenience and fast foods: in vitro study of the dialyzable fraction.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Mesías, Marta; Bouzas, Paula R

    2011-03-15

    Nickel presence was determined in 170 samples of 43 different convenience and fast foods widely consumed in Spain. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used as analytical technique. Reliability of the procedure was checked. Ni levels ranged from 18.50 to 95.00 ng g(-1) (fresh weight of edible portion). The most elevated Ni concentrations were found in egg- and pork-based foods and in sauces but there is a high variability inside of each one of these foods. Ni content increases in products that contain spices and aromatic herbs, whole cereals, dry fruits, cheese and mushrooms. Mean Ni dialyzable fraction estimated by in vitro assays ranged from 4.50 to 7.75%. This study shows that the probability of exposure to health risks from these foods is overall small. However, the present findings are of potential use in food composition tables and to estimate the Ni dietary intake and tolerable intake levels in accordance with the current dietary habits. PMID:21295328

  20. EFFECTS OF FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION ON ENERGY INTAKE AND DIET QUALITY AMONG CHILDREN IN A NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fast food by children increased by a remarkable five-fold, from 2% of total energy in the late 1970¿s to 10% of total energy in the mid 1990¿s. Data from the USDA¿s Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994 1996 (CSFII 1994 96) and the Supplemental Children¿s Survey to th...

  1. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  2. Consumer Awareness and Willingness to Pay for High-Pressure Processing of Ready-to-Eat Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; McDermott, Ryan; Richard, Nicole; Hoover, Dallas G.; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial, nonthermal processing of food, such as high hydrostatic-pressure processing (HPP), has increased. The safety and quality of foods produced by HPP has not been well communicated to the public. An online, nationwide consumer survey was implemented to assess awareness of alternative food processing technologies, consumer food safety…

  3. Bryan: Preeminent Food Safety Champion Most of us have experienced nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea after eating

    E-print Network

    Bryan: Preeminent Food Safety Champion 6/16/2008 Most of us have experienced nausea, vomiting and for another two decades as a food safety consultant to the food industry, universities, states, and to the WHO of this branch came from Dr. Bryan. Environmental factors in food safety were not a niche CDC had filled

  4. Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  5. A Multisite Investigation of Binge Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating

  6. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in selected retail ready-to-eat foods in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Sagoo, S K; Gillespie, I A; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2009-09-01

    Although listeriosis is a rare cause of human disease in the United Kingdom, an increase in the number of cases has been observed since 2001, almost exclusively in persons older than 60 years. This increase prompted this study on the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, which included those types potentially linked to cases of listeriosis. Between May 2006 and April 2007, 6,984 RTE foods were sampled (2,168 sliced meats, 1,242 hard cheese, 1,088 sandwiches, 878 butter, 725 spreadable cheese, 515 confectionery products containing cream, and 368 probiotic drinks). The food types with the highest prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes were sandwiches (7.0%) and sliced meats (3.7% within shelf life, 4.2% end of shelf life). L. monocytogenes at > 100 CFU/g (exceeding the European Commission's food safety criteria limit) only occurred in sandwiches (0.4%) and sliced meats (0.7% within shelf life, 1.0% end of shelf life). Contamination with L. monocytogenes at >100 CFU/g was more frequent in meats that were prepacked and/or of pack size > or = 300 g and in sandwiches that were supplied prepacked that contained salad vegetables as an ingredient. Satisfactory microbiological quality was associated with premises on which the management was trained in food hygiene and those that complied with hazard analysis and critical control point principles. This study provides important information about the microbiological safety of RTE foods and demonstrates that the control of L. monocytogenes in such foods, and in particular sandwiches and sliced meats, is essential in order to minimize the risk of this bacterium being present at levels hazardous to health at the point of consumption. PMID:19777888

  7. Overweight and obesity: Can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Schechter, Clyde B.; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Maantay, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction and consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities. PMID:23719294

  8. You are what you eat, whenever or wherever you eat it: an integrative analysis of fish food habits in Canadian and U.S.A. waters.

    PubMed

    Bundy, A; Link, J S; Smith, B E; Cook, A M

    2011-02-01

    The degree to which fish diet differs by season and area, particularly over broad scales, was examined for the first time in temperate, contiguous north-west Atlantic Ocean waters by comparing food habit data for 10 species of fishes collected concurrently during the spring and autumn surveys in the U.S.A. (Gulf of Maine proper and Georges Bank) and in the summer survey in Canada (western Scotian Shelf and Bay of Fundy). For most species, there was a general concurrence among the three seasons and four areas: summer diets had the same dominant prey items as spring and autumn diets. Although a suite of multivariate analyses did elucidate some differences in specific proportions of the diet for these species across seasons and areas, the main prey did not substantially change for most of these species. These results suggest that there are (1) minimal differences in diet across season for these species at these taxonomic resolutions, (2) there are minimal differences in diet geographically for these species and (3) differences across species, as expected, are important. Many fisheries ecosystem and multispecies models are dependent on food habit data, where resolving seasonal and spatial differences in diet remains an important consideration; however, the present work implies that amalgamated estimates of diet from seasonal surveys may be a reasonable approach when no finer seasonal resolution exists, as long as due diligence is exercised. PMID:21284632

  9. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation. PMID:25102252

  10. Toward the Reduction of Population Obesity: Macrolevel Environmental Approaches to the Problems of Food, Eating, and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faith, Myles S.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Baskin, Monica L.; Allison, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors reviewed the evidential basis of three environmental approaches to reducing population obesity: What are the effects of (a) taxing or subsidizing foods, (b) manipulating the ease of food access, and (c) restricting access to certain foods? A narrative review evaluated evidence using National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria.…

  11. Food intake and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels changes during ramadan fasting in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Lamine, Faiza; Bouguerra, Radhia; Jabrane, Jelidi; Marrakchi, Zinet; Ben Rayana, Mohamed Chiheb; Ben Slama, Claude; Gaigi, Sadok

    2006-10-01

    During the holy month of Ramadan, it is obligatory for all adult healthy Muslims to abstain from food, drink and smoking each day from dawn to sunset. The aims of our study were to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and the change of food consumption in healthy subjects. Thirty young healthy and normal weighted adults (9 males and 21 females) were evaluated during three periods: 3 weeks before Ramadan (T0); the 4th week of Ramadan (T1) and 3 weeks after the end of Ramadan (T2). Main Clinical and biological parameters investigated were: body weight, blood glucose, plasma triglycerides (TG), plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and. low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) Body weight, and blood glucose were unchanged. There was a significant increase of the mean daily caloric intake, the lipids intake particularly mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.001) and cholesterol intake (p < 0.001) during Ramadan with a decrease of the meal frequency. There was also a significant increase of plasma total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. The most striking finding was a significant increase in the HDL-Cholesterol during Ramadan +20% (p < 0.02). This increase was lost after Ramadan. Fasting Ramadan affects beneficially serum lipoprotein metabolism in young adult healthy subjects with an increase of HDL-cholesterol. PMID:17193859

  12. Density and Proximity of Fast Food Restaurants and Body Mass Index Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Seann D.; Nguyen, Nga; Cromley, Ellen K.; Strong, Larkin L.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to address current gaps in the literature by examining the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) density around the home and FFR proximity to the home, respectively, with body mass index (BMI) among a large sample of African American adults from Houston, Texas. Methods. We used generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations to examine associations of FFR density at 0.5-, 1-, 2-, and 5-mile road network buffers around the home with BMI and associations of the closest FFR to the home with BMI. All models were adjusted for a range of individual-level covariates and neighborhood socioeconomic status. We additionally investigated the moderating effects of household income on these relations. Data were collected from December 2008 to July 2009. Results. FFR density was not associated with BMI in the main analyses. However, FFR density at 0.5, 1, and 2 miles was positively associated with BMI among participants with lower incomes (P???.025). Closer FFR proximity was associated with higher BMI among all participants (P?fast food environment to affect BMI among African Americans, particularly among those of lower economic means. PMID:23678913

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…

  14. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Eating Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Eating disorders are illnesses in which the people experience severe ...

  15. Histopathological changes induced in an animal model by potentially pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains recovered from ready-to-eat food outlets in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olawale, Adetunji Kola; David, Oluwole Moses; Oluyege, Adekemi Olubukunola; Osuntoyinbo, Richard Temitope; Laleye, Solomon Anjuwon; Famurewa, Oladiran

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci have been implicated as an emerging important cause of several diseases and multiple antibiotic resistance. However, there is little information about the prevalence of pathogenic and/or antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in ready-to-eat foods in Nigeria. Here we report the pathogenic potential of three selected antibiotic-resistant E. faecalis strains isolated from food canteens and food outlets with different virulence determinant genes, including EFC 12 (with gel+, esp+, cylA+, and asa1+), EFT 148 (with gel+, ace+, and asa1+), and EFS 18 (with esp+ and cylA+) in an animal model. Enterococcemia, hematological parameters, and histopathological changes in organ tissues were examined in experimental animals. The results showed differences in enterococcemia and hematological parameters between the control group and experimental animal group. Enterococcemia was observed for 7 days, and the animal group infected with EFC 12 showed the highest growth rate, followed by EFT 148, with the lowest growth rate seen in the EFS 18-infected group. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and platelets were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the experimental animals compared with the controls. White blood cells decreased drastically during the study period in rats challenged with EFC 12 (from 7,800 to 6,120 per mm3) but levels remained higher in the control group (from 9,228 to 9,306 per mm3). Histopathological changes included areas of pronounced hemorrhage, necrosis, and distortion in liver tissues, which were more marked in rats infected with EFC 12, followed by EFT 148, then EFS 18. The results of this study suggest the presence of potentially pathogenic E. faecalis strains in food canteens and food outlets; hence, there is a need for strict adherence to good hygiene practices in the study area owing to the epidemiological significance of foods. PMID:26170700

  16. Greater anterior cingulate activation and connectivity in response to visual and auditory high-calorie food cues in binge eating: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan; Benson, Leora; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Hirsch, Joy; Carnell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Obese individuals show altered neural responses to high-calorie food cues. Individuals with binge eating [BE], who exhibit heightened impulsivity and emotionality, may show a related but distinct pattern of irregular neural responses. However, few neuroimaging studies have compared BE and non-BE groups. To examine neural responses to food cues in BE, 10 women with BE and 10 women without BE (non-BE) who were matched for obesity (5 obese and 5 lean in each group) underwent fMRI scanning during presentation of visual (picture) and auditory (spoken word) cues representing high energy density (ED) foods, low-ED foods, and non-foods. We then compared regional brain activation in BE vs. non-BE groups for high-ED vs. low-ED foods. To explore differences in functional connectivity, we also compared psychophysiologic interactions [PPI] with dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [dACC] for BE vs. non-BE groups. Region of interest (ROI) analyses revealed that the BE group showed more activation than the non-BE group in the dACC, with no activation differences in the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]. Exploratory PPI analyses revealed a trend towards greater functional connectivity with dACC in the insula, cerebellum, and supramarginal gyrus in the BE vs. non-BE group. Our results suggest that women with BE show hyper-responsivity in the dACC as well as increased coupling with other brain regions when presented with high-ED cues. These differences are independent of body weight, and appear to be associated with the BE phenotype. PMID:26275334

  17. Histopathological changes induced in an animal model by potentially pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains recovered from ready-to-eat food outlets in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olawale, Adetunji Kola; David, Oluwole Moses; Oluyege, Adekemi Olubukunola; Osuntoyinbo, Richard Temitope; Laleye, Solomon Anjuwon; Famurewa, Oladiran

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci have been implicated as an emerging important cause of several diseases and multiple antibiotic resistance. However, there is little information about the prevalence of pathogenic and/or antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in ready-to-eat foods in Nigeria. Here we report the pathogenic potential of three selected antibiotic-resistant E. faecalis strains isolated from food canteens and food outlets with different virulence determinant genes, including EFC 12 (with gel (+), esp (+), cylA (+), and asa1 (+)), EFT 148 (with gel (+), ace (+), and asa1 (+)), and EFS 18 (with esp (+) and cylA (+)) in an animal model. Enterococcemia, hematological parameters, and histopathological changes in organ tissues were examined in experimental animals. The results showed differences in enterococcemia and hematological parameters between the control group and experimental animal group. Enterococcemia was observed for 7 days, and the animal group infected with EFC 12 showed the highest growth rate, followed by EFT 148, with the lowest growth rate seen in the EFS 18-infected group. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and platelets were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the experimental animals compared with the controls. White blood cells decreased drastically during the study period in rats challenged with EFC 12 (from 7,800 to 6,120 per mm(3)) but levels remained higher in the control group (from 9,228 to 9,306 per mm(3)). Histopathological changes included areas of pronounced hemorrhage, necrosis, and distortion in liver tissues, which were more marked in rats infected with EFC 12, followed by EFT 148, then EFS 18. The results of this study suggest the presence of potentially pathogenic E. faecalis strains in food canteens and food outlets; hence, there is a need for strict adherence to good hygiene practices in the study area owing to the epidemiological significance of foods. PMID:26170700

  18. Feasibility and Use of the Mobile Food Record for Capturing Eating Occasions among Children Ages 3–10 Years in Guam

    PubMed Central

    Aflague, Tanisha F.; Boushey, Carol J.; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T.; Ahmad, Ziad; Kerr, Deborah A.; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s readiness to use technology supports the idea of children using mobile applications for dietary assessment. Our goal was to determine if children 3–10 years could successfully use the mobile food record (mFR) to capture a usable image pair or pairs. Children in Sample 1 were tasked to use the mFR to capture an image pair of one eating occasion while attending summer camp. For Sample 2, children were tasked to record all eating occasions for two consecutive days at two time periods that were two to four weeks apart. Trained analysts evaluated images. In Sample 1, 90% (57/63) captured one usable image pair. All children (63/63) returned the mFR undamaged. Sixty-two children reported: The mFR was easy to use (89%); willingness to use the mFR again (87%); and the fiducial marker easy to manage (94%). Children in Sample 2 used the mFR at least one day at Time 1 (59/63, 94%); Time 2 (49/63, 78%); and at both times (47/63, 75%). This latter group captured 6.21 ± 4.65 and 5.65 ± 3.26 mean (±SD) image pairs for Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. Results support the potential for children to independently record dietary intakes using the mFR. PMID:26043037

  19. To eat or not to eat; is that really the question? An evaluation of problematic eating behaviors and mental health among bariatric surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Miller-Matero, Lisa Renee; Armstrong, Rachel; McCulloch, Katherine; Hyde-Nolan, Maren; Eshelman, Anne; Genaw, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Problematic eating behaviors, such as emotional eating, and food addiction, may affect weight; however, little is known about these eating behaviors, especially among those seeking bariatric surgery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of problematic eating behaviors and to investigate their relationship with other eating behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and psychiatric symptoms. There were 142 patients who completed a required psychiatric evaluation prior to bariatric surgery. Of these, 16.9 % met criteria for a food addiction and 25.4-40.7 % endorsed emotional eating, depending on type of emotional eating. The number of food addiction symptoms endorsed was related to emotional eating. Both food addiction and emotional eating were related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, surprisingly, BMI was not related to a food addiction diagnosis, emotional eating scores, or psychiatric symptoms. Results from this study suggest that problematic eating behaviors are occurring among bariatric surgery candidates. Furthermore, this study may help to address the conflicting research regarding the effects of psychiatric symptoms on weight-loss outcomes. Perhaps it is the problematic eating behaviors (e.g., food addiction and emotional eating) that are associated with psychiatric symptoms that could be influencing outcomes. Future research should evaluate treatments for problematic eating behaviors and whether treatments improve weight-loss success. PMID:24878835

  20. At-Home and Away-from-Home Eating Patterns Influencing Preadolescents' Intake of Calcium-Rich Food as Perceived by Asian, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Olson, Beth; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry; Bock, Margaret A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Bruhn, Christine; Goldberg, Dena; Misner, Scottie; Wang, Changzheng; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore at-home and away-from-home eating patterns influencing Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white preadolescents' intake of calcium-rich food from a parental perspective. Design: Individual semistructured interviews. Setting: Home or community site. Participants: Convenience sample (n = 201) of self-reported Asian (n = 54),…

  1. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items. PMID:25811308

  2. Food labeling

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared mostly ...

  3. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Berner, Laura A.; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet, a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow, or a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substance of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize “food addiction” may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed. PMID:21635910

  4. Eating Well While Eating Out

    MedlinePLUS

    ... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...

  5. Profile of trans fatty acids (FAs) including trans polyunsaturated FAs in representative fast food samples.

    PubMed

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Mossoba, Magdi M; Kramer, John K G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-05-01

    The content of trans fat in foods is most commonly determined by summing the levels of individual trans fatty acids (FAs), analyzed as FA methyl esters (FAME) by gas chromatography. Current Official Methods of the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) enable quantitation of total trans fat in foods but were not designed for the determination of transFA isomeric compositions. In the present study, the content of trans fat in 32 representative fast food samples ranged from 0.1 to 3.1 g per serving, as determined according to AOCS Official Method Ce 1j-07. Further analysis of FAME using the 200 m SLB-IL111 ionic liquid column yielded quantitative results of total, trans, saturated, and cis unsaturated fat that were comparable to those of Method Ce 1j-07 and also allowed for the complementary determination of individual trans 18:1, trans 18:2, and trans 18:3 FA isomeric compositions under conditions suitable for routine sample analysis. PMID:22509790

  6. Probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating the compliance of ready-to-eat foods with new European Union safety criteria for Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos; Angelidis, Apostolos S

    2007-08-01

    Among the new microbiological criteria that have been incorporated in EU Regulation 2073/2005, of particular interest are those concerning Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to eat (RTE) foods, because for certain food categories, they no longer require zero tolerance but rather specify a maximum allowable concentration of 100 CFU/g or ml. This study presents a probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating the compliance of RTE sliced meat products with the new safety criteria for L. monocytogenes. The approach was based on the combined use of (i) growth/no growth boundary models, (ii) kinetic growth models, (iii) product characteristics data (pH, a(w), shelf life) collected from 160 meat products from the Hellenic retail market, and (iv) storage temperature data recorded from 50 retail stores in Greece. This study shows that probabilistic analysis of the above components using Monte Carlo simulation, which takes into account the variability of factors affecting microbial growth, can lead to a realistic estimation of the behavior of L. monocytogenes throughout the food supply chain, and the quantitative output generated can be further used by food managers as a decision-making tool regarding the design or modification of a product's formulation or its "use-by" date in order to ensure its compliance with the new safety criteria. The study also argues that compliance of RTE foods with the new safety criteria should not be considered a parameter with a discrete and binary outcome because it depends on factors such as product characteristics, storage temperature, and initial contamination level, which display considerable variability even among different packages of the same RTE product. Rather, compliance should be expressed and therefore regulated in a more probabilistic fashion. PMID:17557858

  7. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: a perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Layman, Donald K

    2014-07-01

    The food industry is the point of final integration of consumer food choices with dietary guidelines. For more than 40 years, nutrition recommendations emphasized reducing dietary intake of animal fats, cholesterol, and protein and increasing intake of cereal grains. The food industry responded by creating a convenient, low cost and diverse food supply that featured fat-free cookies, cholesterol-free margarines, and spaghetti with artificial meat sauce. However, research focused on obesity, aging, and Metabolic Syndrome has demonstrated merits of increased dietary protein and reduced amounts of carbohydrates. Dietary guidelines have changed from a conceptual framework of a daily balance of food groups represented as building blocks in a pyramid designed to encourage consumers to avoid fat, to a plate design that creates a meal approach to nutrition and highlights protein and vegetables and minimizes grain carbohydrates. Coincident with the changing dietary guidelines, consumers are placing higher priority on foods for health and seeking foods with more protein, less sugars and minimal processing that are fresh, natural, and with fewer added ingredients. Individual food companies must adapt to changing nutrition knowledge, dietary guidelines, and consumer priorities. The impact on the food industry will be specific to each company based on their products, culture and capacity to adapt. PMID:24384369

  8. EATING PROBLEMS NAUSEA & VOMITING

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    , grapefruit, tomato) to avoid burning. · Drink small amounts of high-calorie supplements frequently. Try frequent meals and keep snacks handy for nibbling. · Make the foods you eat count by using high-calorie, high-protein items. Try high calorie milkshakes and supplements or eggnog instead of non

  9. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    PubMed Central

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary T; Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah A

    2008-01-01

    Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. Results No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu). Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Conclusion Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change. PMID:19061510

  10. Normal Healthy Eating and Eating Disorders

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    Normal Healthy Eating and Eating Disorders WHAT IS NORMAL HEALTHY EATING? Normal healthy eating an eating disorder. The main eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AN EATING DISORDER Physical · excessive weight loss · loss of menstrual period in females · sensitivity

  11. What people buy from fast-food restaurants: caloric content and menu item selection, New York City 2007.

    PubMed

    Dumanovsky, Tamara; Nonas, Cathy A; Huang, Christina Y; Silver, Lynn D; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-07-01

    Fast-food restaurants provide a growing share of daily food intake, but little information is available in the public health literature about customer purchases. In order to establish baseline data on mean calorie intake, this study was completed in the Spring of 2007, before calorie labeling regulations went into effect in New York City. Receipts were collected from lunchtime customers, at randomly selected New York City fast-food chains. A supplementary survey was also administered to clarify receipt items. Calorie information was obtained through company websites and ascribed to purchases. Lunchtime purchases for 7,750 customers averaged 827 calories and were lowest for sandwich chains (734 calories); and highest for chicken chains (931 calories). Overall, one-third of purchases were over 1,000 calories, predominantly from hamburger chains (39%) and chicken chains (48%); sandwich chains were the lowest, with only 20% of purchases over 1,000 calories. "Combination meals" at hamburger chains accounted for 31% of all purchases and averaged over 1,200 calories; side orders accounted for almost one-third of these calories. Lunch meals at these fast-food chains are high in calorie content. Although calorie posting may help to raise awareness of the high calories in fast-food offerings, reducing portion sizes and changing popular combination meals to include lower calorie options could significantly reduce the average calorie content of purchases. PMID:19343015

  12. Nonthermal processing technologies to improve the safety of raw meat and poultry products and ready-to-eat foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly emerging nonthermal and advanced thermal processing technologies are now being adopted by the food processing industry for the purpose of providing safe and high quality food products to consumers. Scientists and engineers at USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center in Wyndmoor, PA are activel...

  13. Development and evaluation of a brief screener to estimate fast food and beverage consumption among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Melissa C.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Sweetened beverage and fast food intake have been identified as important targets for obesity prevention. However, there are few brief dietary assessment tools available to evaluate these behaviors among adolescents. The objective of this research was to examine reliability and validity of a 22-item dietary screener assessing adolescent consumption of specific caloric and non-caloric beverages (9 items) and fast food (13 items). The screener was administered to adolescents (ages 11–18 years), recruited from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metro region. One sample of adolescents completed test-retest reliability of the screener (n=33, primarily Caucasian). Another adolescent sample completed the screener along with 3 24-hour dietary recalls to assess criterion validity (n=59 Caucasian). Test-retest assessments were completed approximately 7–14 days apart, and agreement between the two administrations of the screener was substantial, with most items yielding Spearman correlations and Kappa statistics that were >0.60. When compared to the “gold standard” dietary recall data, findings indicate that the validity of the screener items assessing adolescents’ intake of regular soda, sports drinks, milk and water was fair. However, the differential assessment periods captured by the two methods (i.e., one month for the screener vs. 3 days for the recalls) posed challenges in analysis and made it impossible to assess the validity of some screener items. Overall while these screener items largely represent reliable measures with fair validity, our findings highlight the challenges inherent in the validation of brief dietary assessment tools. PMID:19328271

  14. Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Corte, Colleen; Keller, Colleen; Trabold, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:24183140

  15. I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safely I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > ... Signs of Eating Disorders How to Help About Eating Disorders Every year, thousands of teens (and adults, too) ...

  16. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  17. Determinants of Children's Use of and Time Spent in Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Alex; Kubena, Karen S.; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jan, Jie-Sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identify parental and children's determinants of children's use of and time spent in fast-food (FF) and full-service (FS) restaurants. Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Parents were interviewed by phone; children were interviewed in their homes. Participants: Parents and children ages 9-11 or 13-15 from 312 families…

  18. Brief Report: Disposable Income, and Spending on Fast Food, Alcohol, Cigarettes, and Gambling by New Zealand Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of…

  19. More Water, Madam? An ESL Curriculum for Service Helpers in Full-Service and Fast-Food Restaurants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwach, Marlin Day; Gravely, Mary Liles

    This document, which was developed as a cooperative effort between the business and education communities in Denver, presents an English-as-a-second-language curriculum for service helpers in full-service and fast food restaurants. The curriculum consists of five lessons targeted toward high intermediate to advanced nonnative speakers who work in…

  20. Nutritional Content of Foods Advertised During the Television Programs Children Watch Most

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Kristen; Marske, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to code food (nutritional content and food type and eating occasion) and character (cartoon and live action) attributes of food advertisements airing during television programs heavily viewed by children, and to represent and evaluate the nutritional content of advertised foods in terms of the nutrition facts label. Methods. Food advertisements (n=426) aimed at general and child audiences were coded for food and character attributes. “Nutrition Facts” label data for advertised foods (n=275) were then analyzed. Results. Convenience/fast foods and sweets comprised 83% of advertised foods. Snacktime eating was depicted more often than breakfast, lunch, and dinner combined. Apparent character body size was unrelated to eating behavior. A 2000-calorie diet of foods in the general-audience advertisements would exceed recommended daily values (RDVs) of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium. A similar diet of foods in the child-audience advertisements would exceed the sodium RDV and provide 171 g (nearly 1 cup) of added sugar. Conclusions. Snack, convenience, and fast foods and sweets continue to dominate food advertisements viewed by children. Advertised foods exceed RDVs of fat, saturated fat, and sodium, yet fail to provide RDVs of fiber and certain vitamins and minerals. PMID:16118368

  1. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Verbally Respond to Questions and Make Purchases in Fast Food Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Pridgen, Leslie S.; Cronin, Beth A.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-based video instruction (CBVI) was used to teach verbal responses to questions presented by cashiers and purchasing skills in fast food restaurants. A multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness of CBVI. Instruction occurred through simulations of three fast food restaurants on the computer using video…

  2. Supermarket and Grocery Store–Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Meinen, Amy M.; Nitzke, Susan A.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. Methods We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category. Results We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence. Conclusion More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed. PMID:23578398

  3. Comparison of two indices of availability of fruits/vegetable and fast food outlets. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Studies of food environment often examine single dimensions of areas that may not account for complexity of exposure to all food sources. With respect to the deprivation amplification hypothesis, particular needs are to assess whether relative or absolute measures of the food environment are related to characteristics of social environment.

  4. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chaj?cka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpi?ska, Magda; ?aniewska-Trokenheim, ?ucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25475289

  5. Eating for competing.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, G

    1987-09-01

    Many adolescent athletes take nutritional supplements in the hope that such supplements will make them better athletes. Protein supplements will not build muscles unless the athlete is not ingesting adequate amounts of protein in food. Vitamins and mineral supplements will not improve performance unless the athlete suffers from a deficiency. No nutritional supplement contains any ingredient that cannot be obtained from food. However, following the scientific principles outlined in this article, on what and when to eat foods and drink fluids, can improve athletic performance. PMID:3685660

  6. Frequency and Circadian Timing of Eating May Influence Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated with Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Marinac, Catherine R.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Natarajan, Loki; Gallo, Linda C.; Breen, Caitlin I.; Patterson, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that there is interplay between the frequency and circadian timing of eating and metabolic health. We examined the associations of eating frequency and timing with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers putatively associated with breast cancer risk in women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009–2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1) proportion of calories consumed in the evening (5pm-midnight), (2) number of eating episodes per day, and (3) nighttime fasting duration. Linear regression models examined each eating frequency and timing exposure variable with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Each 10 percent increase in the proportion of calories consumed in the evening was associated with a 3 percent increase in CRP. Conversely, eating one additional meal or snack per day was associated with an 8 percent reduction in CRP. There was a significant interaction between proportion of calories consumed in the evening and fasting duration with CRP (p = 0.02). A longer nighttime fasting duration was associated with an 8 percent lower CRP only among women who ate less than 30% of their total daily calories in the evening (p = 0.01). None of the eating frequency and timing variables were significantly associated with HOMA-IR. These findings suggest that eating more frequently, reducing evening energy intake, and fasting for longer nightly intervals may lower systemic inflammation and subsequently reduce breast cancer risk. Randomized trials are needed to validate these associations. PMID:26305095

  7. The effect of providing nutritional information about fast-food restaurant menus on parents' meal choices for their children

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Kiwon; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Soyeong; Yang, Jihye; Song, Kyung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Participants were classified into two groups: the low-calorie group (n = 41) who chose at least one of the lowest calorie meals in each menu category, and the high-calorie group (n = 201) who did not. The attributes including perceived empowerment, use of provided nutritional information, and perceived difficulties were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The low-calorie group perceived significantly higher empowerment with the nutritional information provided than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.020). Additionally, the low-calorie group was more interested in nutrition labeling (P < 0.001) and considered the nutritional value of menus when selecting restaurants for their children more than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.017). The low-calorie group used the nutritional information provided when choosing meals for their children significantly more than did the high-calorie group (P < 0.001), but the high-calorie group had greater difficulty using the nutritional information provided (P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that improving the empowerment of parents using nutritional information could be a strategy for promoting healthier parental food choices for their children at fast-food restaurants. PMID:26634057

  8. WellBee : mobile therapy for stress-related eating

    E-print Network

    Tam, Sharon W

    2011-01-01

    Stress has been shown to affect eating behavior which may lead to eating disorders. Stress may also affect health by causing the modification of behaviors such as physical exercise, smoking, or food choices. Thus, ...

  9. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: Teen Choice: Food and Fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  10. A New Method to Monitor the Contribution of Fast Food Restaurants to the Diets of US Children

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background American adults consume 11.3% of total daily calories from foods and beverages from fast food restaurants. The contribution of different types of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children is unknown. Objective To estimate the consumption of energy, sodium, added sugars, and solid fats among US children ages 4–19 y by fast food restaurant type. Methods Analyses used the first 24-h recall for 12,378 children in the 2003–2010 cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2010). NHANES data identify foods by location of origin, including stores and fast food restaurants (FFR). A novel custom algorithm divided FFRs into 8 segments and assigned meals and snacks to each. These included burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican, Asian, fish, and coffee/snack restaurants. The contribution of each restaurant type to intakes of energy and other dietary constituents was then assessed by age group (4–11 y and 12–19 y) and by race/ethnicity. Results Store-bought foods and beverages provided 64.8% of energy, 61.9% of sodium, 68.9% of added sugars, and 60.1% of solid fats. FFRs provided 14.1% of energy, 15.9% of sodium, 10.4% of added sugars and 17.9% of solid fats. Among FFR segments, burger restaurants provided 6.2% of total energy, 5.8% of sodium, 6.2% of added sugars, and 7.6% of solid fats. Less energy was provided by pizza (3.3%), sandwich (1.4%), Mexican (1.3%), and chicken restaurants (1.2%). Non-Hispanic black children obtained a greater proportion of their total energy (7.4%), sodium (7.1%), and solid fats (9.5%) from burger restaurants as compared to non-Hispanic white children (6.0% of energy, 5.5% of sodium, and 7.3% of solid fat). Conclusions These novel analyses, based on consumption data by fast food market segment, allow public health stakeholders to better monitor the effectiveness of industry efforts to promote healthier menu options. PMID:25062277

  11. Eating Disorders About eating disorders

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Eating Disorders About eating disorders There are many influences on an individual's self image, and in some cases, their lives. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder that affects 1% of young women-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes

  12. Fast-food fights: news coverage of local efforts to improve food environments through land-use regulations, 2001-2013. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Nixon, Laura; Mejia, Pamela; Dorfman, Lori; Cheyne, Andrew; Young, Sandra; Friedman, Lissy C; Gottlieb, Mark A; Wooten, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Zoning and other land-use policies are a promising but controversial strategy to improve community food environments. To understand how these policies are debated, we searched existing databases and the Internet and analyzed news coverage and legal documentation of efforts to restrict fast-food restaurants in 77 US communities in 2001 to 2013. Policies intended to improve community health were most often proposed in urban, racially diverse communities; policies proposed in small towns or majority-White communities aimed to protect community aesthetics or local businesses. Health-focused policies were subject to more criticism than other policies and were generally less successful. Our findings could inform the work of advocates interested in employing land-use policies to improve the food environment in their own communities. PMID:25602875

  13. Results from intercropping fast-growing trees and food crops at Morogoro, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Redhead, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    In Morogoro, Tanzania, agroforestry trials were set up to investigate intercropping with primarily eucalypt species. The climate in the region is very similar to Kolar, Karnataka State, India. Three crops-sorghum, bean and maize-were grown annually under Eucalyptus tereticornis at 2.5 m x 2.5 m for three years with a range of weeding practices. Plots that were intercropped with beans showed best results. Shading by the eucalypts after three years resulted in negligible crop yields in all treatments. Three tree spacings of E. camaldulensis (3 m x 3 m, 4 m x 4 m, and 5 m x 5 m) were combined with the intercropping of beans and maize. Beans gave satisfactory yields at all spacings, but the maize showed significantly depressed yields at 3 m x 3 m at 4 m x 4 m, but was similar to pure maize crop at 5 m x 5 m spacing. Overall the extra revenue from a food crop in the first and second year of tree growth increases the return from the land. The short rotation of fast growing trees depleted the soil of nutrients and, as with other crops, the fertility would have to be maintained by applying fertilizer.

  14. Evaluation of nutrient variability in highly consumed "fast foods" under the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program generates means and standard errors (S.E.) of nutrients in foods from nationally representative sample sets used in dietary assessment and consumer education. However, genetic makeup, growing/shipping/storage conditions, preparation techniques, and ...

  15. Eating at America's Table Study

    Cancer.gov

    EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), a new and improved food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs. In addition, within the overall EATS study, investigators evaluated the validity of two new short dietary assessment instruments developed by NCI staff.

  16. Eating Disorders and the Family

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sam; Sananes, Renee

    1991-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex, often chronic, biopsychosocial disorders characterized by a pursuit for control which, in interaction with familial factors, results in disturbed patterns of relating to food and its meaning. Overt and covert resistance to intervention at the family level can reflect family dynamics but can be mitigated by engaging families of adolescents with eating disorders, by using multidisciplinary teams, and by hospitalization. PMID:21228994

  17. Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-11-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, p<.001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI: $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains.  PMID:24171876

  18. Food partitioning of leaf-eating mangrove crabs ( Sesarminae): Experimental and stable isotope ( 13C and 15N) evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Ditte K.; Kristensen, Erik; Mangion, Perrine

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( ?13C and ?15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.

  19. Healthy Eating for Vegetarians: 10 Tips for Vegetarians

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Vegetables Beans and Peas Are Unique Foods Food Gallery Grains ... plant foods. Sources of protein for vegetarians include beans and peas, nuts, and soy products (such as ...

  20. Biofilm Formation and Adherence Characteristics of Listeria ivanovii Strains Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of Listeria ivanovii isolates to exist as biofilm structures. The ability of Listeria ivanovii isolates to adhere to a surface was determined using a microtiter plate adherence assay whereas the role of cell surface properties in biofilm formation was assessed using the coaggregation and autoaggregation assays. Seven reference bacterial strains were used for the coaggregation assay. The degree of coaggregation and autoaggregation was determined. The architecture of the biofilms was examined under SEM. A total of 44 (88%) strains adhered to the wells of the microtiter plate while 6 (12%) did not adhere. The coaggregation index ranged from 12 to 77% while the autoaggregation index varied from 11 to 55%. The partner strains of S. aureus, S. pyogenes, P. shigelloides, and S. sonnei displayed coaggregation indices of 75% each, while S. Typhimurium, A. hydrophila, and P. aeruginosa registered coaggregation indices of 67%, 58%, and 50%, respectively. The ability of L. ivanovii isolates to form single and multispecies biofilms at 25°C is of great concern to the food industry where these organisms may adhere to kitchen utensils and other environments leading to cross-contamination of food processed in these areas. PMID:23365535

  1. Zoning For Health? The Year-Old Ban On New Fast-Food Restaurants In South LA

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    A regulation banning new fast-food establishments for one year in Los Angeles, California, was passed unanimously by the city council in July 2008. It was motivated by health concerns and excessive obesity rates in South Los Angeles. However, it might not have had the impact that was intended. This paper reviews the empirical evidence for the regulation and whether it is likely to target the primary levers of obesity. We argue that the premises for the ban were questionable. For example, the density of fast-food chain restaurants per capita is actually higher in other parts of Los Angeles than in South LA. Other changes, such as menu calorie labeling, are likely to have a bigger impact on overweight and obesity. PMID:19808703

  2. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... individual or group-based. Some antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac), which is the only medication approved by the ... help patients who also have depression or anxiety. Fluoxetine also appears to help reduce binge-eating and ...

  3. Emotional Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fine" and head to the freezer for the ice cream. But can that pint of Rocky Road really ... eat things like pizza, while sad people prefer ice cream and cookies. Bored people crave salty, crunchy things, ...

  4. Food, eating and body image in the lives of low socioeconomic status rural Mexican women living in Queretaro State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women. PMID:24216027

  5. Survival and High-Hydrostatic Pressure Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens in Salmorejo, a Traditional Ready-to-Eat Food.

    PubMed

    Toledo Del Árbol, Julia; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; Grande, M José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2015-11-01

    Salmorejo is a traditional tomato-based creamy product. Because salmorejo is not heat-processed, there is a risk of contamination with foodborne pathogens from raw materials. Even though bacterial growth in salmorejo is strongly inhibited because of its acidic pH (close to 3.9), the growth and survival of 3 foodborne pathogens in this food has not been studied before. In this study, 3 cocktails consisting of Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes strains were inoculated in freshly prepared salmorejo. The food was treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 400, 500, or 600 MPa for 8 min, or left untreated, and stored at 4 °C for 30 d. Viable cell counts were determined on selective media and also by the triple-layer agar method in order to detect sublethally injured cells. In control samples, L. monocytogenes viable cells decreased by 2.4 log cycles at day 7 and were undetectable by day 15. S. enterica cells decreased by 0.5 or 2.4 log cycles at days 7 and 15 respectively, but still were detectable at day 30. E. coli O157 cells survived much better in salmorejo, decreasing only by 1.5 log cycles at day 30. Treatments at pressures of 400 MPa or higher reduced viable counts of L. monocytogenes and S. enterica to undetectable levels. HHP treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli counts by approximately 5.2 to 5.4 log cycles, but also yielded surviving cells that apparently were sublethally injured. Only samples treated at 600 MPA for 8 min were devoid of detectable E. coli cells during storage. PMID:26448479

  6. An Introduction to Eating and Eating

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    An Introduction to Eating and Eating Disorders Alexandra W. Logue The Psychology of Eating behavioral science and the scientific method and with an interest in understanding eating disorders. It as a scientist and as a writer. Logue did not write The Psychology of Eating and Drinking for experts in inges

  7. Increased Set Shifting Costs in Fasted Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Heather M.; Burgess, Paul W.; Gilbert, Sam J.; Serpell, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of temporary food restriction on a set shifting task requiring participants to judge clusters of pictures against a frequently changing rule. 60 healthy female participants underwent two testing sessions: once after fasting for 16 hours and once in a satiated state. Participants also completed a battery of questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]; Persistence, Perseveration and Perfectionism Questionnaire [PPPQ-22]; and Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire [EDE-Q6]). Set shifting costs were significantly increased after fasting; this effect was independent of self-reported mood and perseveration. Furthermore, higher levels of weight concern predicted a general performance decrement under conditions of fasting. We conclude that relatively short periods of fasting can lead to set shifting impairments. This finding may have relevance to studies of development, individual differences, and the interpretation of psychometric tests. It also could have implications for understanding the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders, in which impaired set shifting has been implicated. PMID:25025179

  8. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative symptoms and symptoms of an Eating Disorder. PMID:26417791

  9. Privileging physical activity over healthy eating: 'Time' to Choose?

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea; Shearer, Cindy; Pitter, Robert; Sim, Meaghan; Rehman, Laurene; Flannery, Meredith; Kirk, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity and healthy eating have long been promoted as key strategies in tackling the 'wicked problem' of obesity. Both practices are assumed to go hand-in-hand, but whether one dominates the other has largely remained unexamined. Moreover, time, a dimension beyond the socio-ecological model, is a critical factor of families' busy lives, but related challenges are rarely articulated. We conducted 47 family interviews as part of a mixed methods study examining environmental influences on youth obesity in Nova Scotia, Eastern Canada. Participants were recruited from six schools at the junior high school level (grades 7-9; age range 12-14 years) based on location (urban, suburban and rural) and neighborhood socioeconomic status (high and low socioeconomic status). Time pressure to meet the demands associated with scheduled physical activity for youth was the dominant theme across interviews from all neighborhoods. Physical activity and healthy eating were valued differently, with greater value placed on physical activity than healthy eating. The pressure to engage youth in organized physical activity appeared to outweigh the importance of healthy eating, which led to neglecting family meals at home and consuming fast food and take out options. Our findings further reinforce the need to move beyond the socio-ecological model and integrate critical dimensions such as 'time', its challenges and opportunities, to allow for a more nuanced understanding of contemporary healthy living. It appears 'timely' to focus on healthy public policy in support of families, instead of unwittingly supporting a fast food industry that profits from time-pressured families. PMID:23945086

  10. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (?12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (?7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (?22 ±5%), influence of emotions (?27±5%) and external food cues (?30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of ?-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

  11. Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy Xin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Lin, DongDong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan L.; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into “intervention” and “control” groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as “food”, but rather as a “gift” or “interesting”. The time of children’s consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents’ western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01), although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education. PMID:24983391

  12. Evaluation of fast food behavior in pre-school children and parents following a one-year intervention with nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy Xin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Ling, Dong Dong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan L; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie

    2014-07-01

    A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4-6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into "intervention" and "control" groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as "food", but rather as a "gift" or "interesting". The time of children's consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents' western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01), although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education. PMID:24983391

  13. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  14. Food jags

    MedlinePLUS

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  15. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  16. Eat-by-light fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food quality and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Grimaldi, M. F.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-06-01

    A selection is presented of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices that have been designed and tested for guaranteeing the quality and safety of typical foods, such as extra virgin olive oil, beer, and milk. Scattered colorimetry is used to authenticate various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids, which are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma that is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil is also presented. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk, is experimented.

  17. Eat-by-light: fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food safety and quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-07-01

    A selection of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices is presented designed and tested for monitoring the quality and safety of typical foods, namely the extra virgin olive oil, the beer, and the milk. Scattered colorimetry is used for the authentication of various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids that are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma is presented. It is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer is experimented for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk.

  18. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

  19. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Yang, Jae-Won; Kang, Jiwon; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls. Materials A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU) (or a placebo) was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test. Results Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour. Conclusions The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov KCT0000716 PMID:26402337

  20. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

  1. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  2. 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.

    E-print Network

    Iglesia, Enrique

    © 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders, and binge eating disorder. Genuine awareness will help you avoid judgmental or mistaken attitudes about food

  3. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role. PMID:26627090

  4. Do We Provide Meaningful Guidance for Healthful Eating? An Investigation into Consumers' Interpretation of Frequency Consumption Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lesley; Watson, Wendy L.; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Hughes, Clare; Crawford, Jennifer; Gill, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate consumers' understanding of terms commonly used to provide guidance about frequency and quantity of food consumption. Methods: A survey of 405 shoppers explored how frequently consumers thought food labeled with the terms "eat often," "eat moderately," "eat occasionally," "a sometimes food," and "an extra food" should be…

  5. Consumer Awareness of Fast-Food Calorie Information in New York City After Implementation of a Menu Labeling Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Christina Y.; Bassett, Mary T.; Silver, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed consumer awareness of menu calorie information at fast-food chains after the introduction of New York City's health code regulation requiring these chains to display food-item calories on menus and menu boards. Methods. At 45 restaurants representing the 15 largest fast-food chains in the city, we conducted cross-sectional surveys 3 months before and 3 months after enforcement began. At both time points, customers were asked if they had seen calorie information and, if so, whether it had affected their purchase. Data were weighted to the number of city locations for each chain. Results. We collected 1188 surveys pre-enforcement and 1229 surveys postenforcement. Before enforcement, 25% of customers reported seeing calorie information; postenforcement, this figure rose to 64% (P < .001; 38% and 72%, weighted). Among customers who saw calorie information postenforcement, 27% said they used the information, which represents a 2-fold increase in the percentage of customers making calorie-informed choices (10% vs 20%, weighted; P < .001). Conclusions. Posting calorie information on menu boards increases the number of people who see and use this information. Since enforcement of New York's calorie labeling regulation began, approximately 1 million New York adults have seen calorie information each day. PMID:20966367

  6. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...

  7. Diet and obesity in Los Angeles County 2007-2012: Is there a measurable effect of the 2008 "Fast-Food Ban"?

    PubMed

    Sturm, Roland; Hattori, Aiko

    2015-05-01

    We evaluate the impact of the "Los Angeles Fast-Food Ban", a zoning regulation that has restricted opening/remodeling of standalone fast-food restaurants in South Los Angeles since 2008. Food retail permits issued after the ban are more often for small food/convenience stores and less often for larger restaurants not part of a chain in South Los Angeles compared to other areas; there are no significant differences in the share of new fast-food chain outlets, other chain restaurants, or large food markets. About 10% of food outlets are new since the regulation, but there is little evidence that the composition has changed differentially across areas. Data from the California Health Interview Survey show that fast-food consumption and overweight/obesity rates have increased from 2007 to 2011/2012 in all areas. The increase in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity since the ban has been significantly larger in South Los Angeles than elsewhere. A positive development has been a drop in soft drink consumption since 2007, but that drop is of similar magnitude in all areas. PMID:25779774

  8. American fast food isn't all corn-based Understanding the significance of corn (C4) versus C3 feed-

    E-print Network

    Ehleringer, Jim

    LETTER American fast food isn't all corn-based Understanding the significance of corn (C4) versus C3 feed- stocks in today's cattle industry is particularly relevant be- cause corn contributes widely to our economy, from food to fuel. Recently Jahren and Kraft (1) made statements on the use of corn

  9. What is the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS)?

    Cancer.gov

    EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire, a new and improved food frequency questionnaire developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs.

  10. Effects of awareness that food intake is being measured by a universal eating monitor on the consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack in healthy female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J M; Dourish, C T; Higgs, S

    2015-09-01

    To date, there have been no studies that have explicitly examined the effect of awareness on the consumption of food from a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM - hidden balance interfaced to a computer which covertly records eating behaviour). We tested whether awareness of a UEM affected consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack. 39 female participants were randomly assigned to either an aware or unaware condition. After being informed of the presence of the UEM (aware) or not being told about its presence (unaware), participants consumed ad-libitum a pasta lunch from the UEM followed by a cookie snack. Awareness of the UEM did not significantly affect the amount of pasta or cookies eaten. However, awareness significantly reduced the rate of cookie consumption. These results suggest that awareness of being monitored by the UEM has no effect on the consumption of a pasta meal, but does influence the consumption of a cookie snack in the absence of hunger. Hence, energy dense snack foods consumed after a meal may be more susceptible to awareness of monitoring than staple food items. PMID:26048004

  11. Effects of awareness that food intake is being measured by a universal eating monitor on the consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack in healthy female volunteers?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J.M.; Dourish, C.T.; Higgs, S.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been no studies that have explicitly examined the effect of awareness on the consumption of food from a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM – hidden balance interfaced to a computer which covertly records eating behaviour). We tested whether awareness of a UEM affected consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack. 39 female participants were randomly assigned to either an aware or unaware condition. After being informed of the presence of the UEM (aware) or not being told about its presence (unaware), participants consumed ad-libitum a pasta lunch from the UEM followed by a cookie snack. Awareness of the UEM did not significantly affect the amount of pasta or cookies eaten. However, awareness significantly reduced the rate of cookie consumption. These results suggest that awareness of being monitored by the UEM has no effect on the consumption of a pasta meal, but does influence the consumption of a cookie snack in the absence of hunger. Hence, energy dense snack foods consumed after a meal may be more susceptible to awareness of monitoring than staple food items. PMID:26048004

  12. Depressive symptoms and observed eating in youth.

    PubMed

    Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-04-01

    Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352

  13. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or swallowing. Talk with the person’s doctor about changes in eating habits. The Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center is a service of the National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of ... disease and age-related cognitive changes. July 2012

  14. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  15. Eat for a Healthy Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found in some types of fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Check product labels for foods high in potassium (unless you’ve been advised to restrict the amount of potassium you eat). ... beans, vegetables, and whole grains. TIP: The National Heart, Lung, ...

  16. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be able to suggest a different drug. If food just isn’t appealing, vary the shape, color, and texture. Look for a new vegetable, fruit, or seafood you haven’t tried before. Are you tired of cooking or eating alone? Try cooking with a friend to make a meal you can enjoy ... the Tip Sheet ...

  17. Eating traits questionnaires as a continuum of a single concept. Uncontrolled eating.

    PubMed

    Vainik, Uku; Neseliler, Selin; Konstabel, Kenn; Fellows, Lesley K; Dagher, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Research on eating behaviour has identified several potentially relevant eating-related traits captured by different questionnaires. Often, these questionnaires predict Body Mass Index (BMI), but the relationship between them has not been explicitly studied. We studied the unity and diversity of questionnaires capturing five common eating-related traits: Power of Food, Eating Impulsivity, emotional eating, Disinhibition, and binge eating in women from Estonia (n?=?740) and Canada (n?=?456). Using bifactor analysis, we showed that a) these questionnaires are largely explained by a single factor, and b) relative to this shared factor, only some questionnaires offered additional variance in predicting BMI. Hence, these questionnaires seemed to characterise a common factor, which we label Uncontrolled Eating. Item Response Theory techniques were then applied to demonstrate that c) within this common factor, the questionnaires could be placed on a continuum of Uncontrolled Eating. That is, Eating Impulsivity focused on the milder degree, Power of Food Scale, emotional eating scales, and Disinhibition on intermediate degrees, and the Binge Eating Scale on the most severe degrees of Uncontrolled Eating. In sum, evidence from two samples showed that questionnaires capturing five common BMI-related traits largely reflected the same underlying latent trait - Uncontrolled Eating. In Estonia, some questionnaires focused on different severities of this common construct, supporting a continuum model of Uncontrolled Eating. These findings provide a starting point for developing better questionnaires of the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity, and provide a unifying perspective from which to view the existing literature. R scripts and data used for the analysis are provided. PMID:25769975

  18. Eating Behaviors and Negative Affect in College Women’s Everyday Lives

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Kristin E.; Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of research seeks to understand the relationship between mood and eating behaviors. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods provide a method for assessing these processes in natural settings. We used EMA to examine the relationship between mood and eating behaviors in everyday life among women with subclinical disordered eating behaviors. Method Participants (N=127, age M=19.6, BMI M=25.5) completed 5 daily EMA reports on palmtop computers for 1 week. Assessments included measures of negative affect (NA) and eating-related behavior during eating (eating large amounts of food, loss of control over eating, restricting food intake) and non-eating episodes (skip eating to control weight/shape). Time-lagged multi-level models tested mood-eating behavior relationships. Results Higher NA did not precede any unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors. However, NA was higher when women reported eating large quantities of food, losing control over eating, and restricting food intake during their most recent eating episode, but not after skipping eating to control weight/shape. Discussion These findings elucidate processes in daily life that may influence the development and maintenance of unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors that, in turn, can inform interventions. PMID:24797029

  19. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  20. Associations between eating occasions and places of consumption among adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jodi L; Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether places of consumption are associated with types of eating occasions. Data on dietary behaviors of 226 adults in five U.S. cities were collected in food diaries for one week. Types of eating occasions and places of consumption were recorded. Eating occasions were defined as occurrences of meal, snack, beverage, and non-fruit dessert consumption. Nearly one-third of eating occasions occurred at non-designated eating places. Repeated measure generalized linear models were used to assess the associations between types of eating occasions and places where food was consumed. Snacking on low-nutrient foods were more likely to occur in non-designated eating places. Snacking was more likely at work than at home, and sugar sweetened beverage consumption was more likely at food service outlets than at home. The finding that places of consumption were associated with different types of eating occasions suggests that contextual characteristics of a place are important in individual eating behaviors. Policies and programs aiming to promote healthy eating should leverage contextual characteristics of eating environments. PMID:25558025

  1. You are what you eat: influence of type and amount of food consumed on central dopamine systems and the behavioral effects of direct- and indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G; Daws, Lynette C; France, Charles P

    2012-01-01

    The important role of dopamine (DA) in mediating feeding behavior and the positive reinforcing effects of some drugs is well recognized. Less widely studied is how feeding conditions might impact the sensitivity of drugs acting on DA systems. Food restriction, for example, has often been the focus of aging and longevity studies; however, other studies have demonstrated that mild food restriction markedly increases sensitivity to direct- and indirect-acting DA receptor agonists. Moreover, it is becoming clear that not only the amount of food, but the type of food, is an important factor in modifying the effects of drugs. Given the increased consumption of high fat and sugary foods, studies are exploring how consumption of highly palatable food impacts DA neurochemistry and the effects of drugs acting on these systems. For example, eating high fat chow increases sensitivity to some behavioral effects of direct- as well as indirect-acting DA receptor agonists. A compelling mechanistic possibility is that the central DA pathways that mediate the effects of some drugs are regulated by one or more of the endocrine hormones (e.g. insulin) that undergo marked changes during food restriction or after consuming high fat or sugary foods. Although traditionally recognized as an important signaling molecule in regulating energy homeostasis, insulin can also regulate DA neurochemistry. Because direct- and indirect-acting DA receptor drugs are used therapeutically and some are abused, a better understanding of how food intake impacts response to these drugs would likely facilitate improved treatment of clinical disorders and provide information that would be relevant to the causes of vulnerability to abuse drugs. PMID:22710441

  2. How Television Fast Food Marketing Aimed at Children Compares with Adult Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Bergamini, Elaina; Marijnissen, Jill; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Quick service restaurant (QSR) television advertisements for children’s meals were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies to assess whether self-regulatory pledges for food advertisements to children had been implemented. Methods All nationally televised advertisements for the top 25 US QSR restaurants from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010 were obtained and viewed to identify those advertising meals for children and these advertisements were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies. Content coding included visual and audio assessment of branding, toy premiums, movie tie-ins, and depictions of food. For image size comparisons, the diagonal length of the advertisement was compared with the diagonal length of salient food and drink images. Results Almost all of the 92 QSR children’s meal advertisements that aired during the study period were attributable to McDonald’s (70%) or Burger King (29%); 79% of 25,000 television placements aired on just four channels (Cartoon Network, Nickelodeon, Disney XD, and Nicktoons). Visual branding was more common in children’s advertisements vs. adult advertisements, with food packaging present in 88% vs. 23%, and street view of the QSR restaurant present in 41% vs. 12%. Toy premiums or giveaways were present in 69% vs. 1%, and movie tie-ins present in 55% vs. 14% of children’s vs. adult advertisements. Median food image diagonal length was 20% of the advertisement diagonal for children’s and 45% for adult advertisements. The audio script for children’s advertisements emphasized giveaways and movie tie-ins whereas adult advertisements emphasized food taste, price and portion size. Conclusions Children’s QSR advertisements emphasized toy giveaways and movie tie-ins rather than food products. Self-regulatory pledges to focus on actual food products instead of toy premiums were not supported by this analysis. PMID:24015250

  3. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Pb2+ in Foods Using Disposable Screen-Printed Electrode Modified by Reduced Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Jin-Ming; Liu, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Ye-Lei; Guo, Xi-Shan; Cai, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was electrochemically deposited on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) to prepare a disposable sensor for fast detection of Pb2+ in foods. The SEM images showed that the rGO was homogeneously deposited onto the electrode surface with a wrinkled nanostructure, which provided 2D bridges for electron transport and a larger active area for Pb2+ adsorption. Results showed that rGO modification enhanced the activity of the electrode surface, and significantly improved the electrochemical properties of SPCE. The rGO modified SPCE (rGO-SPCE) was applied to detect Pb2+ in standard aqueous solution, showing a sharp stripping peak and a relatively constant peak potential in square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The linear range for Pb2+ detection was 5?200 ppb (R2 = 0.9923) with a low detection limit of 1 ppb (S/N = 3). The interference of Cd2+ and Cu2+ at low concentrations was effectively avoided. Finally, the rGO-SPCE was used for determination of lead in real tap water, juice, preserved eggs and tea samples. Compared with results from graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS), the results based on rGO-SPCE were both accurate and reliable, suggesting that the disposable sensor has great potential in application for fast, sensitive and low-cost detection of Pb2+ in foods. PMID:24077322

  4. Eating Mindfully Cancer Connections

    E-print Network

    (physical activity) and psychological factors #12;Mindful Eating Exercise *You need two pieces of chocolate for this exercise. Please raise your hand if you need more chocolate! #12;Mindful Eating Exercise Eat one piece of chocolate like normal. #12;Mindful Eating Exercise Practice eating mindfully with the second piece

  5. Financial Aid Information for Eating Club Members Undergraduate Financial Aid

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    take a University meal plan, join a food co-op, or eat independently, you will generally spend less than the budgeted amount on food. If you join an eating club, this higher board allowance will make it easier to afford a club meal plan. Keep in mind that this does not mean that financial aid will pay

  6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CATEGORIZING YOUNG CHILDREN'S EATING BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies of total dietary ingestion of common indoor contaminants have demonstrated that young children's behaviors while eating can lead to a significant source of food contamination. The difference between children eating their food items with or without their hands wh...

  7. Four Simple Food Safety

    E-print Network

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    cook all meat, poultry, sea- food and eggs before eating. · Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. DoFour Simple Steps to Food Safety Cook: To prevent listeriosis, cook to proper temperatures and use cart and in your refrigerator. Don't allow cross contamination between raw and cooked foods. · Are

  8. The Orexin Component of Fasting Triggers Memory Processes Underlying Conditioned Food Selection in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion…

  9. Super-size me: Portion size effects on young children's eating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large portions of energy-dense foods are believed to favor obesity-promoting eating behaviors in young children. The following review presents evidence on food portion size effects on children's eating behavior and eating regulation, with comparison of findings to adult studies of portion size. Indi...

  10. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a wide variety of ready-to-eat foods and their relationship to clinical strains from listeriosis outbreaks in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Montero, David; Bodero, Marcia; Riveros, Guillermina; Lapierre, Lisette; Gaggero, Aldo; Vidal, Roberto M.; Vidal, Maricel

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen transmitted through food that can cause severe infections in high-risk groups such as pregnant women, elderly, young children and immunocompromised individuals. It is a ubiquitous bacterium that can survive in harsh conditions, such as dry environments, at low temperatures, in brine conditions and at low pH values. It also has the capacity to form biofilms, which makes it particularly successful even in colonizing surfaces within food processing plants. This study analyzed the presence of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food (RTE) such as sausage, cheese, fresh salads, and other types of raw food. 850 samples of refrigerated and packaged food collected in 2008 and 2009 were analyzed. It was found that 25% of these samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes strains. Serotyping and virulence genes detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified that strains belonging to serotype 4b, and containing one or more genes encoded by pathogenicity island (LIPI-1), were significantly associated with specific food types. Furthermore, using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), it was possible to associate isolates from cheese with strains from clinical cases of listeriosis outbreaks that occurred during the same time period within the same geographic regions. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between isolates from frozen seafood and from clinical strains obtained from sporadic cases of listeriosis. In agreement with reports described in other countries, our results shown that Chilean strains of L. monocytogenes from food products include the most virulent serotypes, encoding for the main virulence genes of the LIPI-1, and were clonally related to clinical isolates from sporadic cases and outbreaks of listeriosis. In conclusion, we show that Chilean isolates of L. monocytogenes from RTE and raw food products can cause disease in humans, representing a public health risk that justifies permanent surveillance. PMID:25983727

  11. Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

  12. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    MedlinePLUS

    Healthy Eating Get your child on the path to healthy eating. Focus on the meal and each other. Your ... child’s throat—about the size of a nickel. Healthy Eating There are many ways to divide the Daily ...

  13. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  14. We Are What We Eat! But Who Controls Our Choice? An Active Learning Project on Food & Nutrition with Activities for Key Stages 1, 2, 3, and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Heather

    This activity book is designed to create awareness about all the issues attached to food supply and a healthy diet with factual information. Materials are provided for teachers to teach children about food in its entirety. The nine units include: (1) "Starting Activities: Sorting Foods and Factors Which Control Our Diet"; (2) "Food Likes and…

  15. A cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T

    1976-11-01

    Strain gage transducers were permanently implanted on the muscular stomachs of 13 turkeys, 3 great-horned owls and 2 red-tailed hawks to monitor gastric motility before, during and after eating. Following fasting, the sight of food resulted in significant increases in gastric contractile activity in all three species. Gastric motility further increased when the birds were allowed to eat. In raptors, however, a brief interruption in gastric motility occurred immediately after eating. This is apparently analogous to receptive relaxation which occurs in the stomach of mammals. PMID:1019075

  16. Changes in Trans Fat and Fatty Acids in Fast Food Menu Items

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent interest in trans fatty acid intake and subsequent recommendations included in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to decrease intake has led to extensive product reformulations of widely consumed foods high in trans fat. As part of these efforts to provide current and accurate nutrien...

  17. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Stock, William D.; Finn, Hugh; Parker, Jackson; Dods, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby’s Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158 025 seeds ha?1) over a large area (c. 15 000 ha). Carnaby’s Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented. PMID:23593413

  18. Kids Meals, Toys and TV Ads Add Up to Frequent Fast Food

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to switch their child to commercial-free TV programming to help avoid pestering for foods seen in commercials," Emond said in a journal news release. SOURCE: The Journal of Pediatrics , news release, Oct. 30, 2015 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2015 HealthDay . All rights reserved. More Health News ...

  19. Should We Go ''Home'' to Eat?: Toward a Reflexive Politics of Localism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPuis, E. Melanie; Goodman, David

    2005-01-01

    ''Coming home to eat'' [Nabhan, 2002. Coming Home to Eat: The Pleasures and Politics of Local Foods. Norton, New York] has become a clarion call among alternative food movement activists. Most food activist discourse makes a strong connection between the localization of food systems and the promotion of environmental sustainability and social…

  20. [Eating addiction - a behavioral addiction?].

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Özgür; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in DSM-5 for the first time behavioral addictions have entered the medical classification system. Food Addiction can be diagnosed with a 25-item questionnaire based on DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. Food Addiction centers between substance-based addiction and non-substance-based behavioral addiction. To date, there is no evidence for a food component displaying addictive properties similar to psychotropic substances, such as cocaine or heroin. There is a lack of valid and reliable psychiatric-diagnostic criteria that aim to characterize Eating-Addiction as a behavioral addiction. PMID:25594277

  1. Development and Preliminary Validation of Chinese Preschoolers’ Eating Behavior Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhai; Wang, Baoxi; Sun, Lijun; Shang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. Methods To assess children’s eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children’s eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers’ Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ) was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. Results The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach’s ? coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05). Differences in caregiver’s education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05). Conclusions The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers’ eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care practice and research. PMID:24520359

  2. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  3. EVALUATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN EATING IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States' Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires more accurate assessment of children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Since children have unstructured eating behaviors, their excess exposures, caused by eating activities, becomes an importan...

  4. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39–44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal misattributions. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25741294

  5. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39-44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal misattributions. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25741294

  6. Neighborhood food environment role in modifying psychosocial stress-diet relationships.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Izumi, Betty T; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Lockett, Murlisa

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item. Chronic stress was derived from five subscales; major life events was a count of nine items. The neighborhood food environment was measured as availability of large grocery stores, small grocery stores, and convenience stores, as well as proportion of restaurants that were fast food. Two-level hierarchical regression models were estimated. Snack food intake was positively associated with convenience store availability and negatively associated with large grocery store availability. The measures of chronic stress and major life events were generally not associated with either dietary behavior overall, although Latinos were less likely to eat out at high levels of major life events than African Americans. Stress-neighborhood food environment interactions were not statistically significant. Important questions remain regarding the role of the neighborhood food environment in the stress-diet relationship that warrant further investigation. PMID:23415977

  7. Genetics of Eating Behavior: Established and Emerging Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Eleanor R.; Steinle, Nanette I.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding why we eat and the motivational factors driving food choices is important to addressing the epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Eating behavior is a complex interplay of physiologic, psychological, social, and genetic factors that influence meal timing, quantity of food intake, and food preference. Here we review the current and emerging knowledge of the genetic influences of eating behavior and how these relate to obesity with particular emphasis on the genetics of taste, meal size and selection, and the emerging use of functional magnetic resonance imaging to study neural reactions in response to food stimuli in normal, overweight and obese individuals. PMID:21198635

  8. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Design Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants’ menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly selected locations of the top 11 fast food chains in New York City during lunchtime hours. Participants 7309 adult customers interviewed in 2007 and 8489 in 2009. Main outcome measures Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers’ register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. Results For the full sample, mean calories purchased did not change from before to after regulation (828 v 846 kcal, P=0.22), though a modest decrease was shown in a regression model adjusted for restaurant chain, poverty level for the store location, sex of customers, type of purchase, and inflation adjusted cost (847 v 827 kcal, P=0.01). Three major chains, which accounted for 42% of customers surveyed, showed significant reductions in mean energy per purchase (McDonald’s 829 v 785 kcal, P=0.02; Au Bon Pain 555 v 475 kcal, P<0.001; KFC 927 v 868 kcal, P<0.01), while mean energy content increased for one chain (Subway 749 v 882 kcal, P<0.001). In the 2009 survey, 15% (1288/8489) of customers reported using the calorie information, and these customers purchased 106 fewer kilocalories than customers who did not see or use the calorie information (757 v 863 kcal, P<0.001). Conclusion Although no overall decline in calories purchased was observed for the full sample, several major chains saw significant reductions. After regulation, one in six lunchtime customers used the calorie information provided, and these customers made lower calorie choices. PMID:21791497

  9. Neural Correlates to Food-Related Behavior in Normal-Weight and Overweight/Obese Participants

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index. PMID:23028988

  10. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eating problems. Anyone can have an eating disorder: boys and girls, kids, teens, and adults. Let's find out more ... to develop an eating disorder. All of these girls know their bodies are being watched ... boys develop eating disorders, it's usually because they're ...

  11. Stress and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

  12. Stress and Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsively behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

  13. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  14. [Food addiction].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, L; Correia, J C; Golay, A

    2015-03-25

    Food addiction is a common term used in everyday language by obese patients. Although the neurobiological evidence points to some similarities between addictive mechanisms and the consumption of certain foods, this diagnosis is not yet officially recognized. After a brief history of food addiction compared to other eating disorders, we review the neurobiological processes underlying this concept. A food addiction assessment tool is presented and discussed with the current literature and new classifications of the DSM-5. The concept of food addiction needs to be rethought and requires further research. PMID:26027200

  15. Nutrition Labeling and Portion Size Information on Children's Menus in Fast-Food and Table-Service Chain Restaurants in London, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Sue; Wake, Yvonne; Zick, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate meals, price, nutritional content, and nutrition and portion size information available on children's menus in fast-food and table-service chain restaurants in London, since the United Kingdom does not currently require such information but may be initiating a voluntary guideline. Methods: Children's menus were assessed…

  16. Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

  17. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach the Use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices for Ordering at Fast-Food Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Cronin, Beth

    2006-01-01

    In the study reported on here, the authors used computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach 3 high school students with moderate or severe intellectual disabilities how to order in fast-food restaurants by using an augmentative, alternative communication device. The study employed a multiple probe design to institute CBVI as the only…

  18. An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…

  19. [Cannabis poisoning after eating salad].

    PubMed

    Meier, H; Vonesch, H J

    1997-02-01

    We describe 4 patients who suffered gastrointestinal disorders and psychological effects after eating salad prepared with hemp seed oil. The concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in this oil far exceeded the recommended tolerance dose. Our observations prompted the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health to publish warnings in the press concerning consumption of this oil. We describe the symptoms of orally ingested THC and point out unresolved problems connected with food containing hemp. PMID:9157527

  20. The influence of headspace and dissolved oxygen level on growth and haemolytic BL enterotoxin production of a psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolate on potato based ready-to-eat food products.

    PubMed

    Samapundo, S; Everaert, H; Wandutu, J N; Rajkovic, A; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F

    2011-04-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the influence of the initial headspace and dissolved O(2) level and vacuum packaging on growth and diarrhoeal enterotoxin production by Bacillus weihenstephanensis on potato based ready-to-eat food products. In general, the lower the initial headspace or dissolved O(2) level the slower the maximum growth rate (?(max), log(10) CFU g(-1) d(-1)), the longer the lag phase duration (?, d) and the smaller the maximum population density (N(max), log(10) CFU g(-1)) became. The slowest ?(max), the longest ? and the smallest N(max) were generally found for growth under vacuum packaging. This implies shorter shelf-lives will occur at higher initial headspace or dissolved O(2) levels as the growth of B. weihenstephanensis to the infective dose of 10(5) CFU g(-1) in such atmospheres takes a shorter time. Significant consumption of dissolved O(2) only occurred when growth shifted from the lag to the exponential phase and growth generally transitioned from the exponential to the stationary phase when the dissolved O(2) levels fell below ca. 75 ppb. Diarrhoeal enterotoxin production (determined via detection of the L2 component of haemolytic BL) was similar for growth under initial headspace O(2) levels of 1-20.9%, and was only reduced when growth took place under vacuum packaging. The reduction in L2 production when growth took place under vacuum was most probably related to the low final cell densities observed under this condition. Both growth and L2 production were inhibited over a 32-day incubation period at 7 °C by 40% CO(2) irrespective of the headspace or dissolved O(2) levels. The results illustrate the importance of residual O(2) and CO(2) on the shelf-stability and safety of modified atmosphere packaged potato based ready-to-eat food products with regards to B. weihenstephanensis. PMID:21315987

  1. Prolonged food deprivation increases mRNA expression of deiodinase 1 and 2, and thyroid hormone receptor ?-1 in a fasting-adapted mammal

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G.; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Viscarra, Jose A.; MacKenzie, Duncan S.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and deiodinase content and activity to suppress metabolism. However, in prolonged-fasted, metabolically active elephant seal pups, TH levels are maintained, if not elevated. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox is unknown and demonstrates variability in the regulation of TH levels, metabolism and function in food-deprived mammals. To address our hypothesis that cellular TH-mediated activity is upregulated with fasting duration, we quantified the mRNA expression and protein content of adipose and muscle deiodinase type I (DI1) and type II (DI2), and TH receptor beta-1 (THr?-1) after 1, 3 and 7 weeks of fasting in northern elephant seal pups (N=5–7 per week). Fasting did not decrease the concentrations of plasma thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (tT3), free T3, total thyroxine (tT4) or free T4, suggesting that the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is not suppressed, but rather maintained during fasting. Mean mRNA expression of adipose DI1 and DI2 increased threefold and fourfold, respectively, and 20- and 30-fold, respectively, in muscle. With the exception of adipose DI1, protein expression of adipose DI2 and muscle DI1 and DI2 increased twofold to fourfold. Fasting also increased adipose (fivefold) and muscle (fourfold) THr?-1 mRNA expression, suggesting that the mechanisms mediating cellular TH activity are upregulated with prolonged fasting. The data demonstrate a unique, atypical mechanism of TH activity and regulation in mammals adapted to prolonged food deprivation in which the potential responsiveness of peripheral tissues and cellular TH activity are increased, which may contribute to their lipid-based metabolism. PMID:24307712

  2. Prolonged food deprivation increases mRNA expression of deiodinase 1 and 2, and thyroid hormone receptor ?-1 in a fasting-adapted mammal.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Viscarra, Jose A; MacKenzie, Duncan S; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-12-15

    Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and deiodinase content and activity to suppress metabolism. However, in prolonged-fasted, metabolically active elephant seal pups, TH levels are maintained, if not elevated. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox is unknown and demonstrates variability in the regulation of TH levels, metabolism and function in food-deprived mammals. To address our hypothesis that cellular TH-mediated activity is upregulated with fasting duration, we quantified the mRNA expression and protein content of adipose and muscle deiodinase type I (DI1) and type II (DI2), and TH receptor beta-1 (THr?-1) after 1, 3 and 7 weeks of fasting in northern elephant seal pups (N=5-7 per week). Fasting did not decrease the concentrations of plasma thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (tT3), free T3, total thyroxine (tT4) or free T4, suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is not suppressed, but rather maintained during fasting. Mean mRNA expression of adipose DI1 and DI2 increased threefold and fourfold, respectively, and 20- and 30-fold, respectively, in muscle. With the exception of adipose DI1, protein expression of adipose DI2 and muscle DI1 and DI2 increased twofold to fourfold. Fasting also increased adipose (fivefold) and muscle (fourfold) THr?-1 mRNA expression, suggesting that the mechanisms mediating cellular TH activity are upregulated with prolonged fasting. The data demonstrate a unique, atypical mechanism of TH activity and regulation in mammals adapted to prolonged food deprivation in which the potential responsiveness of peripheral tissues and cellular TH activity are increased, which may contribute to their lipid-based metabolism. PMID:24307712

  3. Perceived stress and eating behaviors by gender, obesity-status, and stress vulnerability: findings from the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) study

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; McGregor, Bonnie A.; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been associated with eating patterns in human studies with differences due to the type and duration of stressor, type of food, as well as individual susceptibility factors. Laboratory and smaller epidemiological studies have reported stress-associated preferences for foods high in sugar and fat; associations have been found more consistently among women and the obese. Larger studies are needed to sufficiently test these relationships. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between self-reported amount of stress and dietary nutrient intakes (% calories from fat, carbohydrates, added sugar) and dietary behaviors (number of eating occasions and servings of fruits and vegetables, high-fat snacks, fast food items, and sweetened drinks) by gender, obesity status, and stress vulnerability. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of perceived stress with eating patterns among 65,235 older adults while adjusting for demographic factors, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, number of comorbidities, and other relevant covariates. Higher perceived stress was associated with greater intake of calories from fat, high-fat snacks, and fast food items as well as lower intake of calories from carbohydrates (all p for trend <=0.002). Among those with high perceived stress vulnerability, perceived stress was associated with fewer eating occasions (p for interaction <0.0001). Although associations were small, significant relationships were found for perceived stress arising from everyday experiences among an older mostly white population. These findings have public health implications and suggest that stress may be important to consider in programs promoting healthy eating. PMID:24828150

  4. Fast food fever: reviewing the impacts of the Western diet on immunity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While numerous changes in human lifestyle constitute modern life, our diet has been gaining attention as a potential contributor to the increase in immune-mediated diseases. The Western diet is characterized by an over consumption and reduced variety of refined sugars, salt, and saturated fat. Herein our objective is to detail the mechanisms for the Western diet’s impact on immune function. The manuscript reviews the impacts and mechanisms of harm for our over-indulgence in sugar, salt, and fat, as well as the data outlining the impacts of artificial sweeteners, gluten, and genetically modified foods; attention is given to revealing where the literature on the immune impacts of macronutrients is limited to either animal or in vitro models versus where human trials exist. Detailed attention is given to the dietary impact on the gut microbiome and the mechanisms by which our poor dietary choices are encoded into our gut, our genes, and are passed to our offspring. While today’s modern diet may provide beneficial protection from micro- and macronutrient deficiencies, our over abundance of calories and the macronutrients that compose our diet may all lead to increased inflammation, reduced control of infection, increased rates of cancer, and increased risk for allergic and auto-inflammatory disease. PMID:24939238

  5. Speed of Eating as a Determinant of the Bulimic Desire to Vomit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Brooks, Jeannie; Kellen, Michael J.; Ehle, Chris; Vinas, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    A single-case controlled study found that a bulimic's desire to vomit was virtually eliminated by slowed eating, but not by rapid eating. The present study attempted to determine whether this same relation was exhibited by a larger number (N = 6) of bulimics who were instructed to eat at a fast or a slow rate in a between-subjects reversal design.…

  6. Bidirectional associations between binge eating and restriction in anorexia nervosa. An ecological momentary assessment study.

    PubMed

    De Young, Kyle P; Lavender, Jason M; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the association between restrictive eating behaviors and binge eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) using data collected in the natural environment. Women (N?=?118) with DSM-IV full or subthreshold AN reported eating disorder behaviors, including binge eating episodes, going???8 waking hours without eating, and skipping meals, during 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Time-lagged generalized estimating equations tested the following hypotheses: 1) dietary restriction would predict binge eating while controlling for binge eating the previous day; 2) binge eating would predict restriction the subsequent day while controlling for restriction the previous day. After controlling for relevant covariates, the hypotheses were not supported; however, there appeared to be a cumulative effect of repeatedly going 8 consecutive hours without eating (i.e. fasting) on the risk of binge eating among individuals who recently engaged in binge eating. In addition, skipping meals was associated with a lower risk of same day binge eating. The relationship between binge eating and dietary restriction appears to be complex and may vary by type of restrictive eating behavior. Future research should aim to further clarify the nature of the interaction of binge eating and restrictive eating among individuals with AN in order to effectively eliminate these behaviors in treatment. PMID:25134738

  7. Evaluation of two fast and easy methods for pesticide residue analysis in fatty food matrixes.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovská, Katerina; Yun, Seon Jong

    2005-01-01

    Two rapid methods of sample preparation and analysis of fatty foods (e.g., milk, eggs, and avocado) were evaluated and compared for 32 pesticide residues representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. One method, dubbed the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for pesticide residue analysis, entailed extraction of 15 g sample with 15 mL acetonitrile (MeCN) containing 1% acetic acid followed by addition of 6 g anhydrous magnesium sulfate and 1.5 g sodium acetate. After centrifugation, 1 mL of the buffered MeCN extract underwent a cleanup step (in a technique known as dispersive solid-phase extraction) using 50 mg each of C18 and primary secondary amine sorbents plus 150 mg MgSO4. The second method incorporated a form of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), in which 0.5 g sample plus 2 g C18 and 2 g anhydrous sodium sulfate was mixed in a mortar and pestle and added above a 2 g Florisil column on a vacuum manifold. Then, 5 x 2 mL MeCN was used to elute the pesticide analytes from the sample into a collection tube, and the extract was concentrated to 0.5 mL by evaporation. Extracts in both methods were analyzed concurrently by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The recoveries of semi-polar and polar pesticides were typically 100% in both methods (except that basic pesticides, such as thiabendazole and imazalil, were not recovered in the MSPD method), but recovery of nonpolar pesticides decreased as fat content of the sample increased. This trend was more pronounced in the QuEChERS method, in which case the most lipophilic analyte tested, hexachlorobenzene, gave 27 +/- 1% recovery (n=6) in avocado (15% fat) with a<10 ng/g limit of quantitation. PMID:15859091

  8. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using ?2-test or t-test. RESULTS The group that had more frequent family dinners (? 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (? 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P < 0.001), and not eating only what he or she likes (P < 0.05). Those who had more frequent family dinners also consumed healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P < 0.001), and fruits (P < 0.01). However, unhealthy eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. CONCLUSIONS Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals. PMID:25489408

  9. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10?g for fermented seal fat to 424?g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189?g and 70?g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663?g and 572?g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59?g, 59?g, 106?g, 59?g, and 46?g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  10. A Fast, Reliable, and Sensitive Method for Detection and Quantification of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Products by MPN-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Pasquale; Botticella, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Massa, Salvatore; Spano, Giuseppe; Beneduce, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we developed a MPN quantitative real-time PCR (MPN-qPCR) method for a fast and reliable detection and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in minimally processed vegetables. In order to validate the proposed technique, the results were compared with conventional MPN followed by phenotypic and biochemical assays methods. When L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were artificially inoculated in fresh-cut vegetables, a concentration as low as 1?CFU?g?1 could be detected in 48 hours for both pathogens. qPCR alone allowed a limit of detection of 101?CFU?g?1 after 2 hours of enrichment for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7. Since minimally processed ready-to-eat vegetables are characterized by very short shelf life, our method can potentially address the consistent reduction of time for microbial analysis, allowing a better management of quality control. Moreover, the occurrences of both pathogenic bacteria in mixed salad samples and fresh-cut melons were monitored in two production plants from the receipt of the raw materials to the early stages of shelf life. No sample was found to be contaminated by L. monocytogenes. One sample of raw mixed salad was found positive to an H7 enterohemorrhagic serotype. PMID:24949460

  11. Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50-75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon.

  12. College Students' Judgment of Others Based on Described Eating Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Rebecca; Young, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: The literature available on attitudes toward eating patterns and people choosing various foods suggests the possible importance of "moral" judgments and desirable personality characteristics associated with the described eating patterns. Purpose: This study was designed to replicate and extend a 1993 study of college students'…

  13. Correlates and Predictors of Binge Eating among Native American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie Dorton; Winterowd, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight, as determined by body mass index (BMI), each continues to be of concern for many Native American/American Indians (NA/AI). According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," binge eating is excessive eating or consuming large quantities of food over a short period of time and has been associated…

  14. Eating and Emotions in Obese Toddlers: Facilitating Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoor, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Infants and young children have the ability to regulate their food intake according to their energy needs, and parents play an important role in facilitating their children's self-regulation. When overweight children learn to eat in accordance with feelings of hunger and fullness and learn to soothe themselves without eating, they will reduce…

  15. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.10 Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. (a) No establishment offering food,...

  16. Eating Attitudes among Japanese and American Elementary Schoolgirls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Takayo; McCloskey, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    Examined familial and peer correlates of eating attitudes in 38 American and 70 Japanese preadolescent girls. Responses showed correlates of eating attitudes shared by American and Japanese girls were self-perception of being overweight, number of friends dieting, and frequency of talking with mother about food and diet. Japanese girls were more…

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. Triggers of Eating in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci; Comer, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the triggers of eating in everyday life is crucial for the creation of interventions to promote healthy eating and to prevent overeating. Here, the proximal predictors of eating are explored in a natural setting. Research from laboratory settings suggests that restrained eaters overeat after experiencing anxiety, distraction, and the presence of positive or negative moods, but not hunger; whereas the only factor that triggers eating in unrestrained eaters is hunger. In this study, 137 female participants reported hourly for two days on these potential predictors and their eating using electronic diaries, allowing us to establish the relationships between these factors while participants went about their normal daily activities. The main outcome variables were the number of servings eaten and whether or not food was eaten. Contrary to findings from laboratory settings, in everyday life restrained eaters (1) did not overeat in response to anxiety; (2) ate less in the presence of positive or negative moods; and (3) ate more in response to hunger. The relationships between these factors and eating among unrestrained eaters were closer to those found in laboratory settings. In conclusion, predictors of eating must be studied in everyday life to develop successful interventions. PMID:18773931

  19. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... isn't enough to keep pets safe. Holiday Food Scraps May Prove Too Tempting Genetically Engineered Salmon Safe to Eat Research shows it's as ... nutritious as any non-GE Atlantic salmon. Genetically Engineered Salmon Safe to Eat National Healthy ... Product Approvals Drugs @ FDA Device Approvals & Clearances Biologics ...

  20. Sociodemographic Differences in Selected Eating Practices Among Alternative High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background Students attending alternative high schools are an at-risk group of youth for poor health behaviors and obesity, however little is known about their dietary practices. Objective To examine associations between gender, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and selected dietary practices, that included consumption of sweetened beverages, high fat foods, and fruits and vegetables and fast food restaurant use among students attending alternative high schools (AHS). Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Subjects/setting A convenience sample of adolescents (n=145; gender: 52% male; age: 63% <18 years; race/ethnicity: 39% white, 32% black, and 29% other/multiracial) attending six alternative high schools in the St. Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed a survey. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life) pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention trial. Statistical analyses performed Descriptive statistics were used to describe dietary practices. Mixed model multivariate analyses were used to assess differences in dietary practices by gender, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Results Regular soda was consumed ? 5-6 times per week by more than half of students. One-half of the students reported eating or drinking something from a fast food restaurant at least 3-4 times a week. Black students had the highest consumption of sweetened beverages (p=0.025), high fat foods (p=0.002) and highest frequency of fast food restaurants (p<0.025). Mean fruit/vegetable intake was 3.6 servings/day; there were no sociodemographic differences in fruit/vegetable consumption. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a higher consumption of regular soda (p=0.027). Conclusion Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the consumption of regular soda, high fat foods, and fast food restaurant use among AHS students underscores the importance of implementing health promotion programs in alternative high schools. PMID:19394468