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1

Eating fast food: attitudes of high-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAlarmingly consistent recent research shows that industrially produced foods such as fast food contain compounds that add to obesity and high cholesterol among young people. Less physical activity and a higher propensity to eat ready-made food (in Sweden and internationally) have aggravated the health situation for the young generation. They also have become ‘addicted’ to sugar by the consumption of

Jan Mattsson; Helge Helmersson

2007-01-01

2

Do Adolescents Who Live or Go to School Near Fast Food Restaurants Eat More Frequently From Fast Food Restaurants?  

PubMed Central

This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents’ eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2,724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adolescents and also ate at fast food restaurants more often. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographics, adolescent males living near high numbers fast food restaurants ate more frequently from these venues compared to their peers. PMID:23064515

Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

3

Eating on the Run: A Qualitative Investigation of Fast Food Student Employees and Social Network Influences on Eating Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a complex public health problem, whose influences range from genetic to lifestyle to environmental to economic factors. In this project, I will investigate how social networks influence eating behaviors. Through a series of 30—45 minute interviews with students working in fast-food restaurants, I will gather data on contextual features of eating as a fast-food worker. I will do

Catherine A. Womack

2009-01-01

4

Why eat at fast-food restaurants: reported reasons among frequent consumers.  

PubMed

A convenience sample of adolescents and adults who regularly eat at fast-food restaurants were recruited to participate in an experimental trial to examine the effect of nutrition labeling on meal choices. As part of this study, participants were asked to indicate how strongly they agreed or disagreed with 11 statements to assess reasons for eating at fast-food restaurants. Logistic regression was conducted to examine whether responses differed by demographic factors. The most frequently reported reasons for eating at fast-food restaurants were: fast food is quick (92%), restaurants are easy to get to (80%), and food tastes good (69%). The least frequently reported reasons were: eating fast food is a way of socializing with family and friends (33%), restaurants have nutritious foods to offer (21%), and restaurants are fun and entertaining (12%). Some differences were found with respect to the demographic factors examined. It appears that in order to reduce fast-food consumption, food and nutrition professionals need to identify alternative quick and convenient food sources. As motivation for eating at fast-food restaurants appears to differ somewhat by age, sex, education, employment status, and household size, tailored interventions could be considered. PMID:19027410

Rydell, Sarah A; Harnack, Lisa J; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary; Jeffery, Robert W; French, Simone A

2008-12-01

5

Fast food tips (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

6

Do adolescents who live or go to school near fast-food restaurants eat more frequently from fast-food restaurants?  

PubMed

This population-based study examined whether residential or school neighborhood access to fast food restaurants is related to adolescents' eating frequency of fast food. A classroom-based survey of racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (n=2724) in 20 secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota was used to assess eating frequency at five types of fast food restaurants. Black, Hispanic, and Native American adolescents lived near more fast food restaurants than white and Asian adolescents and also ate at fast food restaurants more often. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographics, adolescent males living near high numbers fast food restaurants ate more frequently from these venues compared to their peers. PMID:23064515

Forsyth, Ann; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-11-01

7

Eating on the run. A qualitative study of health agency and eating behaviors among fast food employees.  

PubMed

Understanding the relationship between obesity and fast food consumption encompasses a broad range of individual level and environmental factors. One theoretical approach, the health capability framework, focuses on the complex set of conditions allowing individuals to be healthy. This qualitative study aimed to identify factors that influence individual level health agency with respect to healthy eating choices in uniformly constrained environments (e.g., fast food restaurants). We used an inductive qualitative research design to develop an interview guide, conduct open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of 14 student fast food workers (aged 18-25), and analyze the data. Data analysis was conducted iteratively during the study with multiple coders to identify themes. Emergent themes included environmental influences on eating behaviors (time, cost, restaurant policies, social networks) and internal psychological factors (feelings associated with hunger, food knowledge versus food preparation know-how, reaction to physical experiences, perceptions of food options, delayed gratification, and radical subjectivity). A localized, embedded approach to analyzing the factors driving the obesity epidemic is needed. Addressing contextual interactions between internal psychological and external environmental factors responds to social justice and public health concerns, and may yield more relevant and effective interventions for vulnerable communities. PMID:22634194

Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Womack, Catherine A; Oddo, Vanessa M

2012-10-01

8

Eating Behaviors, Obesity, and Litigation: Should Casual-Food Restaurant Operators Heed the Warnings to their Fast-Food Counterparts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

McDonald's has weathered attacks over its alleged contribution to the obesity epidemic. Similar concerns may be at hand for casual restaurant operators. Students (N = 605) from a two-year college and a four-year university were surveyed to compare eating behaviors and menu selections in fast-food versus casual restaurants. Actual mean calorie consumption was significantly higher in casual restaurant meals than

Molly J. Dahm; Amy R. Shows; Aurelia V. Samonte

2010-01-01

9

Eating Healthy Ethnic Food  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents/Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to ... Aim for a Healthy Weight Pocket Guide to Eating Healthy on the Go features tips on ordering ...

10

Is fast food addictive?  

PubMed

Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

2011-09-01

11

Effect of exercising while fasting on eating behaviors and food intake  

PubMed Central

Background Alternate day fasting combined with exercise is effective for weight loss. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the behavioral adaptations that occur when ADF is combined with exercise, and to determine how these changes affect weight loss. Design Obese subjects (n?=?64) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: 1) combination (ADF?+?endurance exercise), 2) ADF, 3) exercise, or 4) control, for 12 weeks. Results Body weight decreased (P?fast days (48 ± 2%) as feed days (52 ± 2%). Percent of exercise sessions performed on fast day mornings (20 ± 6%) did not differ (P?=?0.453) from fast day afternoons (28 ± 5%). Likeliness to cheat on the fast day was not higher if the subject exercised in the afternoon (17 ± 7%) versus the morning (10 ± 5%). Hunger decreased (P?eating increased (P?eating decreased (P?

2013-01-01

12

Eating When There is Not Enough to Eat: Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Among Food-Insecure Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored differences in adolescents' eating habits, perceptions, and dietary intakes by food security status. Methods. As part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), we surveyed 4746 multiethnic middle and high school students in 31 primarily urban schools in the Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, area during the 1998–1999 academic year. Participants completed in-class surveys. We used multiple regression analysis to characterize associations between behaviors, perceptions, nutritional intake, and food security status. Results. Compared with food-secure youths, food-insecure youths were more likely to perceive that eating healthfully was inconvenient and that healthy food did not taste good. Additionally, food-insecure youths reported eating more fast food but fewer family meals and breakfasts per week than did youths who were food secure. Food-insecure and food-secure youths perceived similar benefits from eating healthfully (P = .75). Compared with those who were food secure, food-insecure youths had higher fat intakes (P < .01). Food-insecure youths were more likely to have a body mass index above the 95th percentile. Conclusions. The eating patterns of food-insecure adolescents differ in important ways from the eating patterns of those who are food secure. Policies and interventions focusing on improving the foods that these youths eat deserve further examination. PMID:19299675

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Haines, Jess; Story, Mary

2009-01-01

13

Fast-Food Consumption, Diet Quality, and Neighborhood Exposure to Fast Food  

PubMed Central

The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000–2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n?=?5,633; aged 45–84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or ?1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2–3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food ?1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%–61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%–17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful. PMID:19429879

Diez Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Jacobs, David R.; Franco, Manuel

2009-01-01

14

Automatic Dietary Assessment from Fast Food Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach for automatic dietary assessment from images captured from eating activities. We propose to directly estimate calories of fast food from its category and formulate dietary assessment as an object categorization problem. We use a modified bag of feature model for fast food categorization. We evaluate the proposed method in a database of McDonald fast

Lei Yang; Nanning Zheng; Hong Cheng; John D. Fernstrom; Mingui Sun; Jie Yang

15

Development of an intervention programme to encourage high school students to stay in school for lunch instead of eating at nearby fast-food restaurants.  

PubMed

Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. PMID:22306931

Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

2012-08-01

16

Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.  

PubMed

Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996

Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

2007-06-01

17

Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food.  

E-print Network

TDOC ,\\ Z TA245.7 8-1283 ,. B873 nO.1283 ~ utrltlon, ~ .. eight Control and Fast Food EMPLOYEO@ OMEMAKER Texas Agricultural Extension Service TpeTexas A&M University System DanielC. Pfannstiel, Director? College Station , Texas [Blank... Page in Original Bulletin] Nutrition, Weight Control and Fast Food Mary K. Sweeten* The Fast Food Trend More people are eating fewer meals at home and more snack-type meals at fast food ' restaurants. Fast food sales in 1978 in the United States...

Sweeten, Mary K.

1980-01-01

18

Fast food (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

19

Fast food: friendly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast

S Rice; E J McAllister; N V Dhurandhar

2007-01-01

20

Fast food: dietary perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to the fast food debate in the context of a healthy diet. Fast food products readily available in retail outlets in the London area are reported on. It is apparent from this exercise that consumers can make informed choices in accord with the Balance of Good Health. Quantitative ingredient declarations on packaging clearly show, which foods are

G. Jill Davies; Jennifer L. Smith

2004-01-01

21

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF FOOD AND EATING  

Microsoft Academic Search

•Abstract The study of food and eating has a long history in anthropology,begin- ning in the nineteenth century with Garrick Mallery and William Robertson Smith. This review notes landmark studies prior to the 1980s, sketching the history of the subfield. We concentrate primarily, however, on works published after 1984. We contend that the study of food and eating is important

Sidney W. Mintz; Christine M. Du Bois

2002-01-01

22

Relationship of attitudes toward fast food and frequency of fast-food intake in adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fast food and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults (94% white, 65% women, 70% married, 42% with college educated). Attitudes toward fast food was measured using an 11-item, 4-dimensional scale: perceived convenience of fast food (alpha=0.56); fast food is fun and social (alpha=0.55); fast food perceived as unhealthful (alpha=0.45); and dislike toward cooking (alpha=0.52). Frequency of fast-food intake was found to be significantly associated with age (odds ratios (OR)=0.981, P=0.001), gender (men>women), and marital status of the participants (single>married/partnered and divorced/separated/widowed). Additionally, frequency of fast-food intake was also found to be significantly associated with perceived convenience of fast food (OR=1.162, P<0.001) and dislike toward cooking (OR=1.119, P<0.001) but not with perceived unhealthfulness of fast food (OR=0.692, P=0.207). These findings suggest public education regarding the unhealthfulness of fast food may not influence fast food consumption. Interventions targeting the issue of convenience and quick or efficient preparation of nutritious alternatives to fast food could be more promising. PMID:19247277

Dave, Jayna M; An, Lawrence C; Jeffery, Robert W; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

2009-06-01

23

Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules.  

PubMed

Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eating disorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exacerbates risk for developing eating disorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a battery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disordered eating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implications for designing early interventions for disordered eating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disordered eating who also report high levels of perfectionism. PMID:23121786

Brown, Amanda Joelle; Parman, Kortney M; Rudat, Deirdre A; Craighead, Linda W

2012-12-01

24

Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity?  

PubMed Central

Objective Eating at "fast food" restaurants has increased and is linked to obesity. This study examined whether living or working near "fast food" restaurants is associated with body weight. Methods A telephone survey of 1033 Minnesota residents assessed body height and weight, frequency of eating at restaurants, and work and home addresses. Proximity of home and work to restaurants was assessed by Global Index System (GIS) methodology. Results Eating at "fast food" restaurants was positively associated with having children, a high fat diet and Body Mass Index (BMI). It was negatively associated with vegetable consumption and physical activity. Proximity of "fast food" restaurants to home or work was not associated with eating at "fast food" restaurants or with BMI. Proximity of "non-fast food" restaurants was not associated with BMI, but was associated with frequency of eating at those restaurants. Conclusion Failure to find relationships between proximity to "fast food" restaurants and obesity may be due to methodological weaknesses, e.g. the operational definition of "fast food" or "proximity", or homogeneity of restaurant proximity. Alternatively, the proliferation of "fast food" restaurants may not be a strong unique cause of obesity. PMID:16436207

Jeffery, Robert W; Baxter, Judy; McGuire, Maureen; Linde, Jennifer

2006-01-01

25

A conceptual model of how US families with athletic adolescent daughters manage food and eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health professionals concerned about the risks of adolescent obesity and disordered eating practices need greater understanding of how families with adolescents manage food in today's fast paced environment. This paper sought to gain conceptual understanding of the food and eating routines of families with a female adolescent athlete from the perspectives of mothers and daughters. Ten white, non-Hispanic mothers and

Susan Travis; Carole Bisogni; Lisa Ranzenhofer

2010-01-01

26

You Are What You Eat: Food Values and Valuing Food  

E-print Network

You Are What You Eat: Food Values and Valuing Food Tuesday, November 19, 2013 · 12:00 pm ­ 1:30 pm us for a panel presentation that will explore the values of food. Topics range from the impact of Mexican culture on food to the religious significance of kosher cooking. Panelists include: · Rachel Jones

27

Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... are open Serving Picnic Food: Keep it COLD / HOT Keeping food at proper temperatures - indoor and out - ... water as ice melts and replace ice frequently. HOT FOOD Hot food should be kept hot, at ...

28

Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special emphasis is placed on how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are relevant to understanding excess energy intake and obesity and how they provide a framework for examining factors that may influence eating and are outside of those that may regulate energy homeostasis. Methods to measure food reinforcement are reviewed, along with factors that influence the reinforcing value of eating. Contributions of neuroscience and genetics to the study of food reinforcement are illustrated by using the example of dopamine. Implications of food reinforcement for obesity and positive energy balance are explored, with suggestions for novel approaches to obesity treatment based on the synthesis of behavioral and pharmacological approaches to food reinforcement. PMID:17723034

Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

2008-01-01

29

Relationship of Attitudes Toward Fast Food and Frequency of Fast-food Intake in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the association between attitudes toward fast food and the frequency of fast-food intake in adults. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of random digit-dial telephone surveys to identify patterns of eating away from home and attitudes toward it. Participants included 530 adults (94% white, 65% women, 70% married, 42% with college educated).

Jayna M. Dave; Lawrence C. An; Robert W. Jeffery; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

2009-01-01

30

My Child Only Eats Certain Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many young children display some sort of picky eating. Although most children's diets will eventually consist of an adequate number of foods, some children's diets may not change without intervention. Children with limited diets typically have difficulty consuming new foods because they have some stomach discomfort, have limited oral-motor skills,…

Berkowitz, Merrill; Kerwin, Mary Louise; Feldstein, Melissa

2008-01-01

31

Promotion and Fast Food Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food

Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

2009-01-01

32

Fast-Food Environments and Family Fast-Food Intake in Nonmetropolitan Areas  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent–parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fast food at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eat fast food compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07,1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. Conclusions In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake. PMID:22608373

Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

2012-01-01

33

Food Safety in Fast Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that health department inspections of fast-food restaurants may not be sufficient to ensure compliance with food safety regulations, managers must be vigilant in ensuring conformity with practices that safeguard public health. This case study of one fast-food employee's experience at three different fast-food restaurants suggests that employees' training and supervision require more attention to safety procedures. Greater manager accountability

Lauren Dundes; Tamiko Swann

2008-01-01

34

Eating When There is Not Enough to Eat: Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Among Food-Insecure Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We explored differences in adolescents' eating habits, percep- tions, and dietary intakes by food security status. '• Methods. As part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), we surveyed 4746 multiethnic middle and high school students in 31 pririiarily urban schools in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, area during the 1998-1999 academic year. Participants completed in-class surveys. We used multiple regression

Rachel Widome; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Peter J. Hannan; Jess Haines

2009-01-01

35

Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. Design and subjects: In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and ?10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Results: Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00–1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Conclusion: Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing. PMID:23208414

Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

2012-01-01

36

Eating habits and behaviors  

MedlinePLUS

... to help you feel better without turning to food as a reward. Plan your meals. Know what you will eat ahead of time so you can avoid buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. ...

37

What's in the Food You Eat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How many calories are in an egg and cheese muffin? A serving of grapefruit? These are pressing questions, whether they are for personal use or for someone who might be in one of the healthcare fields. The "What's in the Food You Eat" database was created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and it contains nutrient profiles for 13,000 foods commonly eaten in the U.S. Visitors can use the online search tool to look for various food products, and they can just type in words like "orange", "yogurt", or "salmon". The engine will return a list of suggested items, and visitors can also focus their search by using food codes from the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). A guide to the FNDDS codes is also available online here for consultation.

38

Food purchasing sites. Repercussions for healthy eating.  

PubMed

Changes in the food system are associated with the increase in consumption of foods with low nutritional value in recent decades. Data on food purchasing for household consumption, collected from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE--Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) Household Budget Survey (HBS) in 2002-3, were used to describe the contribution of food purchasing sites (FPS) to the diet of Brazilian families. All the 241 distinct FPS mentioned in the HBS were grouped into ten categories, according to the nature of the products available. Food acquisitions were organized into seven groups. Supermarkets and hypermarkets accounted for 49% of the acquisitions and were the main source of six out of the seven food groups. Street markets and greengroceries stood out in the acquisitions of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 39% of this market. The large contribution of supermarkets and hypermarkets to the diet shows the need for healthy eating promotion policies aiming at these locations. Street markets and greengroceries represent important allies for healthy eating. PMID:23835229

Costa, Janaína Calu; Claro, Rafael M; Martins, Ana Paula B; Levy, Renata B

2013-11-01

39

ETH ZURICH 2012 Eating tomorrow rethinking the world food  

E-print Network

IARU GSP ETH ZURICH 2012 Eating tomorrow ­rethinking the world food system Akiko Segawa ETH: Eating tomorrow ­rethinking the world food system 1st week: lectures at Emmental 2nd and 3rd week: Food waste case study at ETH Course Data 2nd and 3rd week: Food waste case study at ETH ETH ETH CV

Miyashita, Yasushi

40

Fast food\\/organic food: Reflexive tastes and the making of 'yuppie chow'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic food consumption is one of several new trends in eating read as active opposition to industrialized food provision. While fast food consumption is characterized by compulsive gluttony, manifest in fat bodies, alternative consumption practices are seen to be driven by conscious reflexivity, such that consumers monitor, reflect upon and adapt their personal conduct in light of its perceived consequences.

Julie Guthman

2003-01-01

41

Food Rules for Toddlers May Lead to Healthy Eating Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... Food Rules for Toddlers May Lead to Healthy Eating Habits Study found telling 2-year-olds what ... specialists. "In adults and adolescents, self-regulation, emotional eating and obesity have been well-studied, but there ...

42

Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently ‘healthy’ meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together

S Stender; J Dyerberg; A Astrup

2007-01-01

43

More California Teens Consume Soda and Fast Food Each Day Than Five Servings of Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Health Interview Survey The more often adolescents eat fast foodHealth Policy Research Brief September 2005 More California Teens Consume Soda and Fast Foodfast food, although less often than daily. Source: 2003 California Health

Hastert, Theresa A.; Babey, Susan H.; Diamant, Allison L.; Brown, E. Richard

2005-01-01

44

Fast Food to Healthy Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent headline in the Nation's Restaurant News (2002) asked the question: “Should Restaurants Bear the Burden of Monitoring Americans' Diets?”. Society has grown increasingly conscientious about health care costs and the question is consistent with this trend. In light of some highly publicized cases of litigation and debates between consumer groups and food service professionals, this question is the

Susan Gregory; Carmela McTyre; Robin B. Dipietro

2006-01-01

45

Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…

Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

2002-01-01

46

Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association.

47

Eating Disorders: No Longer Trapped by Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to document disordered eating patterns and prevalence rates to assess the current extent of the problem among college students. The Undergraduate Student Health Risk Appraisal Survey, with a Disordered Eating Subscale, generated such information. A randomized stratified study (n=320) of students at a major university ascertained disordered eating patterns, documented diagnosed eating disorders, and

Sara Oswalt; Helen M. Welle-Graf

48

Peer Effects, Fast Food Consumption and Adolescent Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We first propose a social interaction model of fast food consumption using a

Bernard Fortin; Myra Yazbeck

2011-01-01

49

Body Mass Index, Neighborhood Fast Food and Restaurant Concentration, and Car Ownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic\\u000a access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who\\u000a rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations\\u000a are associated with body

Sanae Inagami; Deborah A. Cohen; Arleen F. Brown; Steven M. Asch

2009-01-01

50

Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.  

PubMed

A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

Wahlquist, Åsa K

2013-01-01

51

Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

2010-08-01

52

Availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at a fast-food restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.Given the link between eating out, poor diets, and obesity, we assessed the availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at the largest fast-food restaurant in the U.S., McDonald's.

Margo G. Wootan; Melissa Osborn; Claudia J. Malloy

2006-01-01

53

A conceptual model of how US families with athletic adolescent daughters manage food and eating.  

PubMed

Health professionals concerned about the risks of adolescent obesity and disordered eating practices need greater understanding of how families with adolescents manage food in today's fast paced environment. This paper sought to gain conceptual understanding of the food and eating routines of families with a female adolescent athlete from the perspectives of mothers and daughters. Ten white, non-Hispanic mothers and their daughters were purposively sampled from high school track and cross country teams in Upstate New York. Informants completed in-depth, qualitative interviews. Researchers used the constant comparative method to analyze transcripts for emergent themes and to build a conceptual framework that represented the many factors and processes involved in the construction of family food routines. Families varied in forms and patterns of family eating activities with mothers playing a pivotal role in these routines. Family members' individual needs and values were negotiated in constructing these routines. In this sample the daughters' involvement in sports influenced family eating routines, but mothers' employment, ethnicity, social support, income, and areas of residence also played a role. The model describes how individual participants' food choice processes interact to produce family food routines. The conceptual model can inform research and practice related to the family environments in which adolescents experience food and eating. PMID:19808070

Travis, Susan; Bisogni, Carole; Ranzenhofer, Lisa

2010-02-01

54

76 FR 21383 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating Assessment...Collection: Title: Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating Assessment...The ultimate goal is to determine to what extent the new...collection of dietary intake data. Frequency of...

2011-04-15

55

The last date food should be sold. Most foods are safe to eat  

E-print Network

foods are safe to eat after the "use-by" date IF they have been handled and stored safely (EXCEPTThe last date food should be sold. ****************************************** Most foods are safe to eat after this date IF they have been handled and stored safely (EXCEPT produce that has been washed

56

Fasting for 24 Hours Heightens Reward from Food and Food-Related Cues  

PubMed Central

Introduction We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) ‘wanting’, as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) ‘liking’, as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Methods Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m2 were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food ‘liking’ (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. Results There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of ‘liking’, and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (p<0.05). Under the FASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ significantly increased for all food categories. ‘Liking’ of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Conclusion Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED. PMID:24454949

Cameron, Jameason D.; Goldfield, Gary S.; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E.; Doucet, Eric

2014-01-01

57

Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy.  

PubMed

Do people with a high score on a scale for eating in response to negative emotions also show high food intake in response to positive emotions? We studied these effects in 60 female students that were preselected on the basis of extreme high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a between subject design we experimentally tested the difference in food intake following a mood induction designed to induce joy or sadness (the joy vs. sad mood condition). The high and low emotional eaters did not differ in their food intake, but emotional eating significantly moderated the relationship between mood condition and food intake. Whereas low emotional eaters ate similar amounts after the sad and after the joy mood condition, high emotional eaters ate significantly more after the sad mood condition than after the joy mood condition. A further finding was that a similar moderator effect for emotional eating was found for intake of sweet food but not for intake of salty food. These findings would suggest that eating in response to negative and to positive emotions refer to two different constructs. PMID:23470231

van Strien, T; Cebolla, A; Etchemendy, E; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Ferrer-García, M; Botella, C; Baños, R

2013-07-01

58

Fast Food with Slow Cookers SESSION GOALS  

E-print Network

Fast Food with Slow Cookers SESSION GOALS: Participants will learn how to use a slow cooker to help survey instrument (if needed) #12;2 Fast Food with Slow Cookers BEFORE THIS SESSION: 1. Review materials created by Cornell University Cooperative Extension. #12;3 Fast Food with Slow Cookers SESSION 1

59

Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

2009-01-01

60

Marketing Fast Food: Impact of Fast Food Restaurants in Children's Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.The objectives of this study were (1) to determine fast food restaurant prevalence in hospitals with pediatric residencies and (2) to evaluate how hospital environment affects purchase and perception of fast food. METHODS.We first surveyed pediatric residency programs regarding fast food restau- rants in their hospitals to determine the prevalence of fast food restaurants in these hospitals. We then surveyed

Hannah B. Sahud; Helen J. Binns; William L. Meadow; Robert R. Tanz

2010-01-01

61

Social Facilitation of Eating Familiar Food in Tufted Capuchins ( Cebus apella ): Does it Involve Behavioral Coordination?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social facilitation of eating familiar foods might serve to synchronize eating activities within groups. We aimed to assess whether capuchins (Cebus apella) are prompted to eat when observing other conspecifics eating a familiar food. Subjects were 8 male captive-born tufted capuchins. One pair of capuchins acted as demonstrators for the other 6 observer subjects. In the Experimental condition, the demonstrator

Amy T. Galloway; Elsa Addessi; Dorothy M. Fragaszy; Elisabetta Visalberghi

2005-01-01

62

Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.  

PubMed

Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294

Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

2011-12-01

63

Predicting the intention to eat healthier food among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate which factors predicted the intention to eat healthier food. The empirical data stem from a questionnaire survey carried out among,527 young adults aged 23-26 years living in Oslo, Norway. The study was carried out in September 1991. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as a guiding theoretical framework. The

Lisbet Øygard; Jostein Rise

1996-01-01

64

After the Bell: Calories, energy, and the food you eat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity is a growing problem in the United States, and has recently reached epidemic proportions. Part of the solution in controlling obesity is to make students aware of the amount and type of food they eat. In this activity, students will calculate the average amount of energy that a body consumes per hour, which will help them defeat obesity through education.

Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen J.

2006-02-01

65

Would Students Prefer to Eat Healthier Foods at School?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to elucidate students' perceptions of school food environments and to assess correlations between perceptions and purchasing and consumption behaviors at school. Methods: Seventh and ninth graders (n = 5365) at 19 schools in multiethnic, low-income California communities participating in the Healthy Eating Active…

Gosliner, Wendi; Madsen, Kristine A.; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B.

2011-01-01

66

Nutritional challenges and health implications of takeaway and fast food.  

PubMed

Consumption of takeaway and fast food continues to increase in Western societies and is particularly widespread among adolescents. Since food is known to play an important role in both the development and prevention of many diseases, there is no doubt that the observed changes in dietary patterns affect the quality of the diet as well as public health. The present review examines the nutritional characteristics of takeaway and fast food items, including their energy density, total fat, and saturated and trans fatty acid content. It also reports on the association between the consumption of such foods and health outcomes. While the available evidence suggests the nutrient profiles of takeaway and fast foods may contribute to a variety of negative health outcomes, findings on the specific effects of their consumption on health are currently limited and, in recent years, changes have been taking place that are designed to improve them. Therefore, more studies should be directed at gaining a firmer understanding of the nutrition and health consequences of eating takeaway and fast foods and determining the best strategy to reduce any negative impact their consumption may have on public health. PMID:23590707

Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Davies, Ian G; Stevenson, Leonard

2013-05-01

67

Cravings and food consumption in Binge Eating Disorder.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to extend existing work that examines the role of cravings in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The current study uses a case-control design to establish a relationship between cravings and food exposure, and between cravings and food consumption in individuals diagnosed with BED. Twenty-nine females with BED, 40 obese controls, and 50 normal-weight controls were first presented with a neutral cue and completed a food-craving measure. They were then presented with their favourite snack food and completed the craving measure again, after which they were allowed to consume the food. The BED group had significantly higher scores for pre- and post-craving measures, and consumed more food compared to the controls. There was, however, no significant interaction between group and craving scores. Results also showed a positive correlation between food consumption and cravings scores both before and after food exposure for individuals with BED. The findings suggest that the level of cravings prior to food exposure may be sufficient to predict overeating in BED and that treatment may want to target this as a defining feature that differentiates individuals with BED from those who do not binge eat. PMID:24183139

Ng, Longena; Davis, Caroline

2013-12-01

68

You Are What You Eat--Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief speech discusses the correlation between nutrition and health among older adults. Food habits of older people do not always fall in line with their food needs and health condition. Therefore, there is a need to establish nutrition programs to help older adults, as well as others, learn how to regulate their diet. The speaker challenges…

White, Polly

69

Eating Right. The Food Guide Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the food groups of the food guide pyramid. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words.…

Frost, Helen

70

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

2009-01-01

71

Fast food restaurant lighting and music can reduce calorie intake and increase satisfaction.  

PubMed

Recent research shows that environmental cues such as lighting and music strongly bias the eating behavior of diners in laboratory situations. This study examines whether changing the atmosphere of a fast food restaurant would change how much patrons ate. The results indicated that softening the lighting and music led people to eat less, to rate the food as more enjoyable, and to spend just as much. In contrast to hypothesized U-shaped curves (people who spend longer eat more), this suggests a more relaxed environment increases satisfaction and decreases consumption. PMID:23045865

Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert

2012-08-01

72

Caloric intake from fast food among adults: United States, 2007-2010.  

PubMed

An earlier report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that the percentage of adults eating fast food increased from the early 1990s to the mid-1990s (1). Moreover, previous studies have reported that more frequent fast-food consumption is associated with higher energy and fat intake and lower intake of healthful nutrients (1,2). This report indicates that for 2007–2010, on average, adults consumed just over one-tenth of their percentage of calories from fast food, which represents a decrease from 2003–2006 when approximately 13% of calories were consumed from fast food. During 2007–2010, the highest percentage of calories from fast food was consumed among adults who were aged 20–39 or non-Hispanic black or obese. Among young non-Hispanic black adults, more than one-fifth of their calories were consumed from fast food. PMID:23759112

Fryer, Cheryl D; Ervin, R Bethene

2013-02-01

73

Decelerated and linear eaters: Effect of eating rate on food intake and satiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

article i nfo Article history: Women were divided into those eating at a decelerated or linear rate. Eating rate was then experimentally increased or decreased by asking the women to adapt their rate of eating to curves presented on a computer screen and the effect on food intake and satiety was studied. Decelerated eaters were unable to eat at an

Modjtaba Zandian; Ioannis Ioakimidis; Cecilia Bergh; Ulf Brodin

2008-01-01

74

Fast food influences among Hispanic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fast food influences such as restaurant frequency and restaurant choice among Hispanic women residing in Houston Texas. We also evaluated associations between BMI and frequency of fast food consumption. Methods: Data was obtained from the BOUNCE program and baseline data was evaluated from mothers enrolled in the study. Descriptive analysis and

Karolina Murguia

2009-01-01

75

Observed sex differences in fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of college students.  

PubMed

Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to 24 years of age, enrolled at a Midwestern university served as subjects. The subjects completed a 12-item written questionnaire. Five and seven percent of the students typically ate lunch and dinner, respectively, at a fast-food restaurant. The predominant reasons given for eating at fast-food restaurants were "limited time," "enjoy taste," "eat with family/friends," and "inexpensive and economical." A larger (P = .0592) percentage of men than women reported eating at fast-food restaurants because they thought these restaurants were "inexpensive and economical." Most of the subjects reported eating at fast-food restaurants 1 to 3 times weekly. The frequency of eating at fast-food restaurants was significantly different for men than for women (P < .01) as was the response distribution for considering the energy content of items on a fast-food menu when making their selections (P < .0001). Body mass indices of men were significantly higher (P < .0001) than those of women. A significantly higher (P < .0001) percentage of women than men strongly agreed with the statement that "the nutrition content of food is important to me." Several sex differences were observed in the fast-food consumption and nutrition beliefs of these college students. PMID:19358931

Morse, Kristin L; Driskell, Judy A

2009-03-01

76

Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.  

PubMed

Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa. PMID:22764071

Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

2012-11-01

77

Mothers with an eating disorder: 'food comes before anything'.  

PubMed

There is little research that has presented the voices of mothers with an eating disorder (ED). The aim of this study was to clinicians present the experiences of mothers, drawn from the community, who have an ED and their perceptions regarding how their ED impacts on their children and parenting. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with nine mothers with various EDs. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, alongside member checks and inter-rater reliability, was employed to analyze data. Six themes were identified: (1) the impact of an ED on children; (2) modelling disturbed eating behaviours; (3) prioritizing food before children's needs, or as described by one participant, 'food comes before anything'; (4) children motivate recovery; (5) secrecy within families; and (6) treatment needs. Overall, mothers juggled to balance the competing demands of an ED and the needs of their children. The need for clinicians to acknowledge and support a mother's role when treating EDs is highlighted. PMID:23869653

Stitt, N; Reupert, A

2014-08-01

78

The Science ofWhatWe Eat: Can you find the chemistry in food?  

E-print Network

sleep our bodies are using energy to keep our hearts and other organs working. Food keeps our bonesThe Science ofWhatWe Eat: Can you find the chemistry in food? What's it about: What do vitamins the food you eat. Humans need food to survive. Just as our cars won't run without fuel, our bodies won

Pedersen, Tom

79

Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

2011-01-01

80

Advertising of food to children: is brand logo recognition related to their food knowledge, eating behaviours and food preferences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background There remains controversy about the contribution of food advertising targeted at children to the epidemic of childhood obesity in the UK. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the ability to recognize brand logos featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eating behaviours, food knowledge and preferences in children aged 9-11 attending six

C. A. Kopelman; L. M. Roberts; P. Adab

2007-01-01

81

Disordered eating and food cravings among urban obese African American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe prevalence of night eating syndrome (NES), binge eating disorder (BED), and bulimia nervosa (BN) and the general experience of food cravings were examined in 88 obese urban African American women.

Patricia A. Jarosz; May T. Dobal; Feleta L. Wilson; Cheryl A. Schram

2007-01-01

82

Fast Food and Neighborhood Stroke Risk  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between the number of fast food restaurants and ischemic stroke in neighborhoods. Methods This work was a pre-specified part of the Brain Attack in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Ischemic stroke cases were prospectively ascertained in Nueces County, Texas. Home addresses were geocoded and used to establish the census tract for each stroke case. Census tracts were used as proxies for neighborhoods (n=64). Using a standard definition, fast food restaurants were identified from a commercial list. Poisson regression was used to study the association between the number of fast food restaurants in the neighborhood, using a 1-mile buffer around each census tract, and the risk of stroke in the neighborhood. Models were adjusted for demographics and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Results There were 1,247 completed ischemic strokes from January 2000 through June 2003 and 262 fast food restaurants. The median number of fast food restaurants per census tract including buffer was 22 (IQR 12–33). Adjusting for neighborhood demographics and SES, the association of fast food restaurants with stroke was significant (p=0.02). The association suggested that the risk of stroke in a neighborhood increased by 1% for every fast food restaurant (RR 1.01 95% CI: 1.00–1.01). The relative risk of stroke comparing neighborhoods in the 75th to the 25th percentile of the distribution of fast food restaurants was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Interpretation Controlling for demographic and SES factors, there was a significant association between fast food restaurants and stroke risk in neighborhoods in this community-based study. PMID:19743456

Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Escobar, James D.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Hughes, Rebecca; Zuniga, Belinda G.; Garcia, Nelda; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

2009-01-01

83

Eating, food and the female body in the media and medicine: A feminist analysis of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The above quote sums up the way in which dominant conceptions of femininity filter through social practice and can become literally reflected in one's physical body and bodily habits. This essay seeks to examine how women come to embody social ideals concerning food, eating habits, appearance and 'femininity' itself. In particular it will seek to clarify how interpretations of eating

Eleanor Carey

84

Patterns and Predictors of Fast Food Consumption After Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Although fast food is affordable and convenient, it is also high in calories, saturated fat and sodium. The frequency of fast food intake at the time of, and after, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is modifiable. However, patterns of fast food intake and characteristics associated with its consumption among AMI patients are unknown. We studied fast food consumption at the time of AMI and 6 months later in 2481 patients from the prospective, 24-center TRIUMPH study of AMI patients. Fast food intake was categorized as frequent (? weekly) vs. infrequent (< weekly). Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. At baseline, 884 patients (36%) reported frequent fast food intake, which decreased to 503 (20%) 6 months after discharge (p-value <0.001). Male sex, white race, lack of college education, current employment and dyslipidemia were independently associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. In contrast, older patients and those who had coronary bypass surgery were less likely to eat fast food frequently. Documentation of discharge dietary counseling was not associated with 6-month fast food intake. In conclusion, fast food consumption by AMI patients declined 6 months after the index hospitalization, but certain populations, including younger patients, men, those currently working, and less educated patients were more likely to consume fast food, at least weekly, during follow-up. Novel interventions that go beyond traditional dietary counseling may be needed to address continued fast food consumption after AMI in these patients. PMID:21306695

Salisbury, Adam C.; Chan, Paul S.; Gosch, Kensey L.; Buchanan, Donna M.; Spertus, John A.

2011-01-01

85

Food, eating, and weight concerns of men in recovery from substance addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunctional eating patterns and excessive weight gains have been observed during recovery from drug and alcohol addictions. Yet, little is known about food choice behaviors among substance abusers and the role that food plays in their lives. The purpose of this study was to understand how men at different stages of recovery from substance addictions experienced food and eating, weight

Jennifer Cowan; Carol Devine

2008-01-01

86

Fast Food, Addiction, and Market Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many attribute the rise in obesity since the early 1980's to the overconsumption of fast food. A dynamic model of a different-product industry equilibrium shows that a firm with market power will price below marginal cost in a steady-state equilibrium. A spatial hedonic pricing model is used to test whether fast food firms set prices in order to exploit their

Timothy J. Richards; Paul M. Patterson; Stephen F. Hamilton

2007-01-01

87

The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students  

PubMed Central

Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1?km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1?km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1?km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers. PMID:23391296

2013-01-01

88

Fast Food and Nutritional Perceptions in the Age of “Globesity”: Perspectives from the Provincial Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the influence of corporate fast food expands outside of the U.S. and Europe, many of the health problems previously associated with Western eating habits and nutritional regimes are beginning to proliferate across the developing world. Significantly, their rise serves as a troubling indicator of the “globesity” that threatens to overwhelm existing health care systems worldwide. To better understand the

Ty Matejowsky

2009-01-01

89

Fast Food and Body Weight among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between consumption of fast food and sweets on overweight among U.S. adolescents; and (2) how consumption of different types of food and physical exercise is associated with parental education and other background variables. The data were based on cross-sectional, national survey study…

Ding, Cody; Parks, Sue

2007-01-01

90

Global Perspectives on Fast-Food History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fast food industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…

Smith, Andrew F.

91

Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children  

PubMed Central

The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295

Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.

2014-01-01

92

Intuitive Eating, Diet Composition, and the Meaning of Food in Healthy Weight Promotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intuitive eating (an anti-dieting, hunger-based approach to eating) has been popularized as a viable approach to healthy weight management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intuitive eating, diet composition, and the meaning of food. The convenience sample included 343 students enrolled in a general education…

Smith, TeriSue; Hawks, Steven R.

2006-01-01

93

Food and eating as social practice--understanding eating patterns as social phenomena and implications for public health.  

PubMed

Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802

Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise

2009-03-01

94

The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the health consequences of changes in the supply of fast food using the exact geographical location of fast food restaurants. Specifically, we ask how the supply of fast food affects the obesity rates of 3 million school children and the weight gain of over 1 million pregnant women. We find that among 9th grade children, a fast food

Janet Currie; Stefano DellaVigna; Enrico Moretti; Vikram Pathania

2009-01-01

95

Big Macs and Healthy Teens? Exploring Fast Food as Part of a Healthy Adolescent Lifestyle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the set of activities, explorations, and discussions described here, students apply healthy eating information when they make nutrition choices both at home and when eating out. These lessons introduce considerations such as portion size and caloric nutrients, while also exploring tools and resources for understanding both nutritional guidelines and for evaluating the nutritional value of a food. This progression of data collection and analysis culminates with students applying their knowledge as they author position statements that answer the question, "Is it possible to include fast food as part of a healthy lifestyle?"

Harms, Michael

2009-03-01

96

Bulimics' responses to food cravings: is binge-eating a product of hunger or emotional state?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the roles of hunger, food craving and mood in the binge-eating episodes of bulimic patients, and identified the critical factors involved in the processes surrounding binge-eating episodes that follow cravings. This was a prospective study of the binge-eating behaviour of 15 women with bulimia nervosa. The participants used food intake diaries and Craving Records to self-monitor their

Anne Waters; Andrew Hill; Glenn Waller

2001-01-01

97

Eating for Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... fine just eating a balanced diet of healthy meals and snacks. If you're concerned about your ... can cause serious problems, like kidney damage. Skipping meals, eliminating certain food groups, or going on fasts ( ...

98

Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES  

PubMed Central

Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors. Conclusion Although we found an independent association between fast food purchasing and access to a wider variety of fast food restaurant, density and proximity were not significant predictors. The methods used in our study are an advance on previous analyses. PMID:19473503

Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

2009-01-01

99

'Eating, eating is always there': food, consumerism and cardiovascular disease. Some evidence from Kerala, south India.  

PubMed

The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice. PMID:21153961

Wilson, Caroline

2010-12-01

100

'If the Food Looks Dodgy I Dinnae Eat It': Teenagers' Accounts of Food and Eating Practices in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how young teenagers living in socio-economically disadvantaged families perceive everyday food and eating practices within the home. From in-depth interviews with 36 Scottish teenagers aged 13-14 years, we analysed teenagers\\\\' accounts of contemporary \\\\'family meals\\\\'. We found that food and eating practices were negotiated amidst complex family arrangements with extended, resident and non-resident kin. Parents were often

Wendy J. Wills; Kathryn Backett-Milburn; Sue Gregory; Julia Lawton

2008-01-01

101

Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: Increased distraction, speeded detection, or both?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that eating disorder patients show an attentional bias for body- and food-related information. However, so far little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the attentional favoring of this particular information in eating disorder patients. In the present study, we used both a body and a food visual search task to study speeded detection and increased distraction

Elke Smeets; Anne Roefs; Eric van Furth; Anita Jansen

2008-01-01

102

Attentional bias for food cues in binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate an attentional bias toward food stimuli in binge eating disorder (BED). To this end, a BED and a weight-matched control group (CG) completed a clarification task and a spatial cueing paradigm. The clarification task revealed that food stimuli were faster detected than neutral stimuli, and that this difference was more pronounced in BED than in the CG. The spatial cueing paradigm indicated a stimulus engagement effect in the BED group but not in the CG, suggesting that an early locus in stimulus processing contributes to differences between BED patients and obese controls. Both groups experienced difficulty disengaging attention from food stimuli, and this effect was only descriptively larger in the BED group. The effects obtained in both paradigms were found to be correlated with reported severity of BED symptoms. Of note, this relationship was partially mediated by the arousal associated with food stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, as predicted by an account on incentive sensitization. PMID:24816319

Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Trentowska, Monika; Svaldi, Jennifer

2014-09-01

103

Affect Regulation and Food Intake in Bulimia Nervosa: Emotional Responding to Food Cues After Deprivation and Subsequent Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation

Birgit I. Mauler; Alfons O. Hamm; Almut I. Weike; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier

2006-01-01

104

Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Sharkey JR, Johnson CM, Dean WR, Horel SA. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults.

105

Portion Sizes and Obesity: Responses of Fast-Food Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current sizes of sodas, French fries, and hamburgers at three leading

LISA R. Y OUNG; M ARION N ESTLE

2007-01-01

106

The relationship between fast food and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public debate regarding the role of government in lowering obesity often focuses on the fact that rising obesity prevalence is evident in all states. This article focuses on the hypothesized link between obesity and fast food employment by examining data on all states over 2001–2009 and controlling for other factors that may influence obesity prevalence. Our examination indicates no support

Michael L. Marlow; Alden F. Shiers

2012-01-01

107

Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

PubMed

Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

2013-08-01

108

The availability of healthy food options in fast food outlets in six rural counties  

E-print Network

can play a role in food choice as food selection may be limited to those foods available in the environment. Rural environments may have less availability of healthy foods due to unique characteristics of these areas. Fast food establishments usually...

Creel, Jennifer Sue

2009-05-15

109

The Positive Impact of Mindful Eating on Expectations of Food Liking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive role of mindful raisin-eating in participants’ expectation of liking of raisins, other foods, and nonfood stimuli\\u000a was tested across two experiments. The present study examined the relation between mindful raisin-eating and the affective\\u000a evaluation of food and nonfood items (i.e., the degree to which individuals expect to or think they will like a food or nonfood\\u000a item). In

Phan Y. Hong; David A. Lishner; Kim H. Han; Elizabeth A. Huss

2011-01-01

110

Survey of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop data on the risk of listeriosis to support a science-based strategy for addressing Listeria monocytogenes in foods in the United States. Eight categories of ready-to-eat foods were collected over 14 to 23 months from retail markets at Maryland and northern California FoodNet sites. The product categories included luncheon meats, deli salads, fresh soft "Hispanic-style" cheeses, bagged salads, blue-veined and soft mold-ripened cheeses, smoked seafood, and seafood salads. The presence and levels of L. monocytogenes in the samples were determined by rapid DNA-based assays in combination with culture methods. Of 31,705 samples tested, 577 were positive. The overall prevalence was 1.82%. with prevalences ranging from 0.17 to 4.7% among the product categories. L. monocytogenes levels in the positive samples varied from <0.3 MPN (most probable number) per g to 1.5 x 10(5) CFU/g, with 402 samples having levels of <0.3 MPN/g, 21 samples having levels of >10(2) CFU/g, and the rest of the samples having intermediate levels. No obvious trends with respect to seasonality were observed. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between the sampling sites were found, with higher prevalences for threes categories in northern California and for two categories in Maryland. Significantly (P < 0.001) higher prevalences were found for in-store-packaged samples than for manufacturer-packaged samples of luncheon meats, deli salads, and seafood salads, while 16 of the 21 samples with higher counts were manufacturer packaged. The data collected in this study help to fill gaps in the knowledge about the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in foods, and this new information should be useful in the assessment of the risk posed by L. monocytogenes to consumers. PMID:12696677

Gombas, David E; Chen, Yuhuan; Clavero, Rocelle S; Scott, Virginia N

2003-04-01

111

The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Anderson A, Dewar J, Marshall D, Cummins S, Taylor M, Dawson J, Sparks L. The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items.

112

Eat your troubles away: electrocortical and experiential correlates of food image processing are related to emotional eating style and emotional state.  

PubMed

Emotional eating, a trait-like style of food intake in response to negative emotion states, represents an important aspect of overeating and eating related psychopathology. The mechanisms of emotional eating both on experiential and neuronal levels are not well delineated. We recorded event related potentials (ERPs) while individuals with high or low emotional eating style (HEE, n=25; LEE, n=20) viewed and rated pictures of high-caloric food during neutral state vs. negative idiosyncratic emotion induction. Craving ratings increased in HEE and decreased in LEE during negative relative to neutral states. ERPs to food pictures showed an enhanced late positive potential (LPP) over parieto-occipital regions for HEE compared to LEE. Emotional state modulated food picture evoked ERPs over right frontal regions in HEE only. This suggests that appetitive food processing is susceptible to both concurrent emotion and habitual eating style which is of relevance for overeating in healthy and abnormal eating. PMID:24361542

Blechert, Jens; Goltsche, Julia E; Herbert, Beate M; Wilhelm, Frank H

2014-02-01

113

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

114

Fast food in a Chinese provincial city: a comparative analysis  

E-print Network

More than a decade ago American fast food entered the Chinese market. Since then the number of fast food and organized chain restaurants in China has multiplied. Chinese consumers, especially those who live in large urban areas, have accepted...

Zhu, Haiying

2006-08-16

115

Dealing with problematic eating behaviour. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern.  

PubMed

This study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for problematic eating behavior. A non-clinical sample of 26 women with disordered eating behavior was randomly assigned to an 8-week MBCT-based eating intervention or a waiting list control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to controls, participants in the mindfulness intervention showed significantly greater decreases in food cravings, dichotomous thinking, body image concern, emotional eating and external eating. These findings suggest that mindfulness practice can be an effective way to reduce factors that are associated with problematic eating behaviour. PMID:22265753

Alberts, H J E M; Thewissen, R; Raes, L

2012-06-01

116

Fat Profiles of Your Favorite Fast-Food Restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast-food restaurant meals may affect the health of individuals. Data from nine popular fast-food establishments showed that sandwiches and desserts are high in fat. Saturated fat was found to be present in amounts higher than monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. Breakfast items contained more fat than lunch sandwiches. Further measures should be taken to reduce the fat content of fast-food. Fast-food

Juanita Bowens

1994-01-01

117

Consumer characteristics influencing fast food consumption in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turkish fast food industry has grown rapidly since the 1980s. There are now more than 700 fast food restaurants in Turkey. Using the data from a consumer survey, this study investigates the relationship between consumers’ fast food consumption frequency and their socio-economic\\/demographic characteristics and attitudes. Using Chi-square test of independence, the study compares consumers’ fast food consumption frequencies of

Cuma Akbay; Gulgun Yildiz Tiryaki; Aykut Gul

2007-01-01

118

Obesity and the Built Environment: Does the Density of Neighborhood Fast-Food Outlets Matter?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine variation in obesity among older adults relative to the joint influences of density of neighborhood fast-food outlets and residents' behavioral, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics. Design Cross-sectional and multilevel design. Setting Census block groups, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, within the metropolitan region's Urban Growth Boundary in Portland, Oregon. Subjects A total of 1,221 residents (mean age=65 years old) recruited randomly from 120 neighborhoods (48% response rate). Measures A Geographic Information System-based measure of fast-food restaurant density across 120 neighborhoods was created. Residents within the sampled neighborhoods were assessed with respect to their body mass index (BMI), frequency of visits to local fast-food restaurants, fried food consumption, levels of physical activity, self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables, household income, and race/ethnicity. Analyses Multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Significant associations were found between resident-level individual characteristics and the likelihood of being obese (BMI?30) for neighborhoods with a high-density of fast-food restaurants in comparison to those with a low density: odds ratios [OR] for obesity, 95% confidence interval [CI] were: 1.878 (CI=1.006-3.496) for weekly visits to local fast-food restaurants; 1.792 (CI=1.006-3.190) for not meeting physical activity recommendations; 1.212 (CI=1.057-1.391) for low confidence in eating healthy food; and 8.057 (CI=1.705-38.086) for non-Hispanic black residents. Conclusion Increased density of neighborhood fast-food outlets was associated with unhealthy lifestyles, poorer psychosocial profiles, and increased risk of obesity among older adults. PMID:19149426

Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deb

2009-01-01

119

The unit size effect of indulgent food: how eating smaller sized items signals impulsivity and makes consumers eat less.  

PubMed

In deciding how much to eat, people are influenced by environmental cues. The unit size of food (i.e., the number of units in which a given amount of food is divided) provides such a cue. Previous research showed that given equal caloric and volumetric content, smaller units of food tend to reduce food consumption. We propose that the unit size of food impacts intake as it influences perceptions of impulsiveness and appropriateness. Our analysis is based on three experimental studies, all employing between subject designs. When consuming similar amounts of chocolates in studies 1 (n?=?118) and 2 (n?=?124), both studies show that consumption of five small units of chocolates is considered to be more impulsive, excessive and less appropriate than consuming one large unit of chocolate. Results of a third study (n?=?165) indicate that about 23% less chocolate is eaten when it is presented in small unit size vs. a large unit size and this effect is mediated by perceptions of impulsivity. All three studies suggest that perceptions of impulsivity and excess eating while eating several smaller units of food compared to one large unit might be a key factor explaining consumption effects in earlier studies on this bias. PMID:24678943

van Kleef, Ellen; Kavvouris, Christos; van Trijp, Hans C M

2014-01-01

120

CONVENIENCE, ACCESSIBILITY, AND THE DEMAND FOR FAST FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the growth in demand for fast food. A distinguishing characteristic of fast food is its convenience; in today's pervasive marketplace, consumers need not travel far to find a fast food outlet. This greater availability translates into a decrease in the full price of obtaining a meal, which contributes to greater consumption. Market-level data are used to estimate

Mark D. Jekanowski; James K. Binkley; James S. Eales

2001-01-01

121

Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff,

Elvira Isganaitis; Robert H. Lustig

2010-01-01

122

A case study of middle school food policy and persisting barriers to healthful eating.  

PubMed

Decreasing access to competitive foods in schools has produced only modest effects on adolescents' eating patterns. This qualitative case study investigated persistent barriers to healthful eating among students attending an ethnically diverse middle school in a working-class urban neighborhood that had banned on campus competitive food sales. Participant observations, semi-structured interviews and document reviews were conducted. Unappealing school lunches and easily accessible unhealthful foods, combined with peer and family influences, increased the appeal of unhealthy foods. Areas for further inquiry into strategies to improve urban middle school students' school and neighborhood food environments are discussed. PMID:24735212

Jara, Eddy; Ozer, Emily J; Seyer-Ochi, Ingrid

2014-01-01

123

Course Syllabus: Food for thought: The cognitive science of eating H205 Honors Seminar (for freshmen)  

E-print Network

, and in this course we will apply the ideas and methods of cognitive science to the domain of eating behavior. WeCourse Syllabus: Food for thought: The cognitive science of eating H205 Honors Seminar (for scientists, including psychologists, anthropologists, and behavioral biologists, ask about people's thinking

Indiana University

124

Parents' influence on children's diet and eating patterns in food-insecure households  

E-print Network

modeling, positive mealtime structure, and authoritative parenting styles are more likely to eat fruits dietary modeling, mealtime structure, and parenting styles, along with other behaviors at mealtime. KeyParents' influence on children's diet and eating patterns in food- insecure households Michael

Almor, Amit

125

Development and modification of child food preferences and eating patterns: behavior genetics strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral genetics (BG) designs can offer useful strategies for studying the development of child food preferences and eating patterns. This review summarizes BG designs that tested familial influences on child eating behavior and implicated both genetic and home environmental factors. A range of BG strategies, including family and pseudo-family designs, classic twins designs, discordant sibling designs, cotwin control designs, and

M S Faith

2005-01-01

126

The relationship between eating-related individual differences and visual attention to foods high in added fat and sugar  

E-print Network

2012 Accepted 6 July 2012 Available online 16 July 2012 Keywords: Hunger Obesity Disordered eating Food with obesity, disordered eat- ing, and hunger. We tested an integrative model that simultaneously examines the association of body mass index (BMI), disordered eating and hunger with food-related visual attention

Hollingworth, Andrew

127

8 Food Webs in the Ocean: Who Eats Whom and How Much?  

E-print Network

8 Food Webs in the Ocean: Who Eats Whom and How Much? Andrew W. Trites Marine Mammal Research Unit, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Abstract Over 100 food webs have been published for marine ecosystems to describe the transfer of food energy from its source in plants, through

128

Moral Overtones of Food: Judgments of Others Based on What They Eat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether eating healthy or unhealthy foods gives rise to moral judgments about the consumer. Subjects were presented one of four bogus profiles of a person, differing only in gender and foods consumed, and rated the target on morality. Results confirmed that food choices influenced the raters' moral judgments. (RJM)

Stein, Richard I.; Nemeroff, Carol J.

1995-01-01

129

Availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at a fast-food restaurant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Given the link between eating out, poor diets, and obesity, we assessed the availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at the largest fast-food restaurant in the U.S., McDonald's. Method. In August 2004, we visited 29 of 33 (88%) of the McDonald's outlets in Washington, DC and visually inspected the premises, as well as asked cashiers or restaurant managers whether they

Margo G. Wootan; Melissa Osborn; Claudia J. Malloy

2006-01-01

130

The proportion of excessive fast-food consumption attributable to the neighbourhood food environment among youth living within 1 km of their school.  

PubMed

The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (?2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours. PMID:24669990

Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

2014-04-01

131

Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures\\u000a of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and\\u000a weekly consumption of fast-food meals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery\\u000a stores, from the 2006 Brazos

Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

2011-01-01

132

The role of emotional eating and stress in the influence of short sleep on food consumption.  

PubMed

Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status. PMID:24148250

Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J

2014-01-01

133

Body Composition, Eating Behavior, Food-Body Concerns and Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Dieting is a behavioral phenomenon which is becoming more frequent among adolescents and the search for weight loss, through dieting, may result in an unbalanced nutrition both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our study intended to look at the eating habits and behavior on a cohort of adolescent girls to verify the presence of unbalanced diets and the prevalence of eating

V. Boschi; M. Siervo; P. D’Orsi; N. Margiotta; E. Trapanese; F. Basile; G. Nasti; A. Papa; O. Bellini; C. Falconi

2003-01-01

134

It's who I am and what we eat: Mothers' food-related identities in family food choice  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.

2011-01-01

135

Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite.  

PubMed

Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior. PMID:25009514

Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

2014-01-01

136

Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast-food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (N=196, 25–51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (Model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in Model 2 but most were not significant in Model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (AHEI) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast-food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

2013-01-01

137

Consumer estimation of recommended and actual calories at fast food restaurants.  

PubMed

Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

Elbel, Brian

2011-10-01

138

Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants  

PubMed Central

Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

Elbel, Brian

2013-01-01

139

NPR: Nutrition Labels for Fast Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from National Public Radio's Morning Edition, offers a look at legislation proposed in Congress that would require fast food and other chain restaurants to provide nutritional information for their menu items. The website offers complete audio of the story, which aired earlier this month. Visitors will also find a short article on the topic, links to related stories from NPR, and a set of Web resources. The site also provides a downloadable report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest -- a sizeable document that provides in-depth information on the subject, and even includes menu mock-ups.

2007-12-12

140

Design of Health Eating System Based on Web Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the pace of life gradually accelerated nowadays, fast-food becomes more and more popular in daily life, which would lead unhealthy eating habit. In order to solve this problem, we present a proposal of healthy eating analyzing and recommender system based on web data mining, which would track your eating habit and recommend the types of foods that improve your

Xiaocheng Li; Xin Liu; Zengjie Zhang; Yongming Xia; Songrong Qian

2010-01-01

141

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are illnesses in which the people experience severe disturbances in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Those suffering from eating disorders typically become obsessed with food and their body ...

142

Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education…

Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

2007-01-01

143

Using Fast Food Nutrition Facts to Make Healthier Menu Selections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fast food nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fast food restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…

Turley, Jennifer

2009-01-01

144

Promotion and Fast Food Demand: Where's the Beef?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. This study weighs into the debate by specifying and estimating a discrete\\/continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and

Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

2007-01-01

145

Beliefs about fast food in Australia: A qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of energy-dense fast foods has been implicated as a causal factor in the development of obesity. The development of strategies to modify food choice behaviour requires an understanding of the behaviour and the driving factors. This study examined the rationale behind decisions to either choose or avoid fast foods. Drawing partly on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen,

Kirsten I. Dunn; Philip B. Mohr; Carlene J. Wilson; Gary A. Wittert

2008-01-01

146

A nonsynonymous polymorphism in cannabinoid CB2 receptor gene is associated with eating disorders in humans and food intake is modified in mice by its ligands.  

PubMed

Marijuana use activates cannabinoid receptors (CB-Rs) producing several behavioral effects related to addiction, mood, and appetite. We investigated the association between CNR2 gene, which encodes cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2-R) and eating disorders in 204 subjects with eating disorders and 1876 healthy volunteers in Japanese population. The effect of treatment with CB2-R ligands on mouse food consumption was also determined. The CB2-R ligands used suppressed food intake in a time- and strain-dependent manner when food was available ad libitum and during the 12-h fast except, AM 630-the CB2-R antagonist that stimulated food consumption in food-deprived mice. There is an association between the R63Q polymorphism of the CNR2 gene and eating disorders (P = 0.04; Odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI, (1.01-1.53). These results suggest that cannabinoid CB2-R is involved in the endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms associated with the regulation of food intake and in eating disorders. PMID:19768813

Ishiguro, H; Carpio, O; Horiuchi, Y; Shu, A; Higuchi, S; Schanz, N; Benno, R; Arinami, T; Onaivi, E S

2010-01-01

147

Food Deserts' and 'Food Swamps' in Hillsborough County, Florida: Unequal Access to Supermarkets and Fast-Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that the suburbanization of supermarkets has created `food deserts', defined as areas where socially disadvantaged individuals lack access to nutritious food outlets. Additionally, the growing presence of fast-food restaurants has created `food swamps', or areas where socially disadvantaged individuals encounter an overabundance of unhealthy food outlets. While previous studies have analyzed either `food deserts' or `food swamps'

Dana Beth Stein

2011-01-01

148

Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments

Lukar E Thornton; Rebecca J Bentley; Anne M Kavanagh

2009-01-01

149

Eat fit. Get big? How fitness cues influence food consumption volumes.  

PubMed

Fitness cues on food packages are a common marketing practice in the food sector. This study aims to find out whether and how fitness cues influence food consumption. The results of two field studies show that, even though eating fitness-cued food does not help consumers become more fit, the claims on the packaging increase both serving size and actual food consumption. This effect is mediated by serving size inferences. Also, consumers feel less guilty and perceive themselves closer to desired fitness levels after having consumed the food. The findings show that packaging cues relating to energy expenditure can increase energy intake despite the fact that consumers are not engaged in any actual physical activity while eating the food. PMID:23395603

Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Kettenbaum, Myriam; Klicker, Kristina

2013-06-01

150

Food Environments Near Home and School Related to Consumption of Soda and Fast Food  

E-print Network

of Fast Food Restaurants to Schools and Adolescent Obesity.obesity rates. 3 Furthermore, consumption of both sugar- sweetened beverages and fast foodObesity Prevention Plan suggests that local governments can implement land-use policies and zoning to limit fast food

Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

2011-01-01

151

Identification of Essential Food Skills for Skill-Based Healthful Eating Programs in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were…

Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra

2011-01-01

152

Psychometric properties of the Food Craving Inventory among obese patients with binge eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the psychometric properties of the Food Craving Inventory [FCI; White, M. A., Whisenhunt, B. L., Williamson, D. A., Greenway, F. L., & Netemeyer, R. G. (2002). Development and validation of the food-craving inventory. Obesity Research, 10 (107–114)] in a group of obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED).

Marney A. White; Carlos M. Grilo

2005-01-01

153

Be Heart Smart! Eat Foods Lower in Saturated Fats and Cholesterol  

E-print Network

Be Heart Smart! Eat Foods Lower in Saturated Fats and Cholesterol www.ext.vt.edu Produced risk for clogged arteries and heart disease. Choose foods lower in saturated fat and cholesterol? Saturated fat raises blood cholesterol the most. Over time, this extra cholesterol can clog your arteries

Liskiewicz, Maciej

154

From Homeostatic to Hedonic Theories of Eating: Self-Regulatory Failure in Food-Rich Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological theories of weight regulation are based on homeostatic feedback assumptions. They mostly attribute the cause of overweight and obesity to lowered sensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues. Based on the assumption that human food consumption in food-rich environments is increasingly driven by pleasure rather than need for calories, a goal conflict theory of hedonic eating is presented. This

Wolfgang Stroebe; Esther K. Papies; Henk Aarts

2008-01-01

155

The Pleasure of Food, and the Spiritual: Eat, Pray, Love and Babette's Feast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the significance of the enjoyment of food in relation to spirituality, as (re)presented in two texts -Elizabeth Gilbert's Eat, Pray, Love (2007) and the cinematic version of Karen Blixen's novel Babette's Feast (1987). It is argued that the pleasure derived from food occupies a crucial position in both texts, firstly in its own “hedonistic” right, but secondly

Bert Olivier

2012-01-01

156

Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain

Corinna Hawkes

2009-01-01

157

Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.  

PubMed

With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311

Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

2014-09-01

158

College Freshmen Do Not Eat Within Food Pyramid Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students may develop unhealthy eating habits during their freshman year. Poor eating habits or exercise regimens and lifestyle choices could lead to chronic disease later in life. We previously reported that 44 [18 males (41%) and 26 females (59%)] freshmen gained an average of 2.8±2.7kg (6.2±5.9?) during their first year of college, rather than the “The Freshman Fifteen” commonly

D. H. Holben; J. T. Hassell; J. P. Holcomb

1998-01-01

159

Food cravings and food cue responding across the menstrual cycle in a non-eating disordered sample.  

PubMed

The study aim was to examine changes in food cue-elicited cravings and the macronutrient content of craved foods across menstrual cycle phases in a non-eating disordered sample. Thirty-five college females attended laboratory sessions in the late follicular and late luteal phases. In each session they completed a measure of state food craving before and after exposure to preferred, high fat/high sugar chocolate candy. Candy consumption following cue exposure was measured during an ad libitum "taste test." Additionally, participants rated their desire to eat foods differing systematically and significantly in macronutrient content. Ovulation was confirmed with luteinizing hormone detection kits. Results show that whereas the food cue increased cravings, this effect did not differ between cycle phases examined. The macronutrient content of foods desired also did not differ significantly between cycle phases, however, a non-significant trend suggested that high fat/high complex carbohydrate and low fat/high protein foods were more strongly desired in the late luteal phase. Amount of chocolate candy eaten did not differ between cycle phases. These results suggest that cravings for high fat/high sugar foods do not differ between menstrual cycle phases examined, whereas cravings for other foods may fluctuate across cycle phases in non-eating disordered women. PMID:22824054

McVay, Megan Apperson; Copeland, Amy L; Newman, Hannah S; Geiselman, Paula J

2012-10-01

160

Health concern, food choice motives, and attitudes toward healthy eating: the mediating role of food choice motives.  

PubMed

This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants, a random sample of 500 undergraduate students from a national university in Taipei, Taiwan, provided a total of 456 usable questionnaires, representing a valid response rate of 91%. The average age of the respondents at the time of the survey was 21 years and 63% of respondents were females. The relationship between health concern and healthy eating attitudes was confirmed. The relationship between health concern of developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating was fully mediated by food choice motives. However, the relationship between calorie consumption health concern and healthy eating attitudes was only partially mediated by food choice motives. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18187232

Sun, Yu-Hua Christine

2008-07-01

161

PFID: PITTSBURGH FAST-FOOD IMAGE DATASET , Kapil Dhingra3  

E-print Network

the Pittsburgh Fast-Food Image Dataset. understanding of the etiology of obesity and the development of effectivePFID: PITTSBURGH FAST-FOOD IMAGE DATASET Mei Chen1 , Kapil Dhingra3 , Wen Wu2 , Lei Yang2 , Rahul://pfid.intel-research.net ABSTRACT We introduce the first visual dataset of fast foods with a total of 4,545 still images, 606 stereo

Sukthankar, Rahul

162

Obesity, fast food manufacture, and regulation: revisiting opportunities for reform.  

PubMed

Regulations have historically been able to shape public behavior in various ways. As poor dietary practices and obesity continue to pose major health and economic threats to society, attention will continue to be directed towards the ethical and legal responsibilities of fast food manufacturers as potential contributors to these problems. In light of these considerations, several opportunities emerge that may impact dietary behavior and obesity through regulation of the fast food industry. This article addresses the health consequences of fast food consumption, as well as the historical and legal contexts of fast food regulation in the United States. PMID:19999644

Ahmed, Haitham M

2009-01-01

163

Time Spent on Home Food Preparation and Indicators of Healthy Eating  

E-print Network

Assistance Program to better support healthy eating in low-income populations. 14 Acknowledgments This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (grant No. R01 DK076608). Pablo Monsivais... adapted from the NHANES FCBS16 and were phrased as: How much does your household spend on eating out in an average week, not including alcohol or tips?, and Altogether, how much does your household spend on food in an average week, excluding eating out...

Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

2014-01-01

164

Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

2010-01-01

165

Listeria in ready-to-eat and unprocessed foods produced in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between October 1998 and April 2000, 429 food samples were investigated for the presence ofListeria spp. The foodstuffs included 138 ready-to-eat foods (68 traditional hard and semi-hard Portuguese cheeses, 23 salad vegetables and 47 cooked and\\/or cured meats) and 291 uncooked foods (14 raw vegetables, 65 raw chicken and 212 raw ewe's, cow's or goat's milk). Listeria spp. were recovered

M. M. Guerra; J. McLauchlin; F. A. Bernardo

2001-01-01

166

Evaluation of a norovirus detection methodology for ready-to-eat foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent norovirus (NoV) foodborne outbreaks related to consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, a standardized assay to detect NoV in these foods is not available yet. Therefore, the robustness of a methodology for NoV detection in RTE foods was evaluated. The NoV detection methodology consisted of direct RNA extraction with an eventual concentration step, followed by RNA purification and a

Ambroos Stals; Leen Baert; Ann De Keuckelaere; Els Van Coillie; Mieke Uyttendaele

2011-01-01

167

The meaning of food and eating among home parenteral nutrition-dependent adults with intestinal failure: a qualitative inquiry.  

PubMed

Using content and interpretative phenomenological analysis, we explored the meaning of food and eating from the perspective of adults receiving home parenteral nutrition (PN). The aim of this research was to obtain a deeper understanding of how issues related to food and eating influence quality of life (QOL). Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted between May 2006 and January 2007 with 24 adults with intestinal failure and home PN dependency. The analysis revealed themes relevant to eating behaviors, hunger and thirst, strategies for dining in restaurants, and a perception of wasting money because of malabsorbed food. Three patterns of eating emerged: eating for survival, eating for health benefits, and eating for socialization. A proposed model illustrates how these eating patterns are linked to QOL. Being able to eat and enjoy food is an important ingredient for good self-reported QOL. Measurements of QOL for this population may be enhanced with inclusion of a food and eating domain. The social and emotional context of food and mealtimes is an important component to address in the nutrition care plan for PN-dependent adults. PMID:21034881

Winkler, Marion F; Wetle, Terrie; Smith, Carol; Hagan, Elizabeth; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Touger-Decker, Riva

2010-11-01

168

Genetics of food intake and eating behavior phenotypes in humans.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the research advances of the past decade regarding the role of human genetic differences in energy and nutrient intake as well as in eating behavior phenotypes and selected eating disorders. The evidence for familial aggregation and heritability based on twin and nuclear family study designs is summarized. Genome-wide linkage scans and quantitative trait loci identified to date are discussed. DNA sequence variants in candidate genes are reviewed. Single genes associated with classical eating disorders are also incorporated. Epigenetic events will need to be incorporated in future studies designed to investigate the effects of DNA variants on dietary phenotypes. Understanding the relative contribution of global genetic variation and of DNA sequence variants in specific genes is important in the effort to influence dietary habits in a healthier direction. PMID:16848714

Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

2006-01-01

169

Beliefs about fast food in Australia: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The consumption of energy-dense fast foods has been implicated as a causal factor in the development of obesity. The development of strategies to modify food choice behaviour requires an understanding of the behaviour and the driving factors. This study examined the rationale behind decisions to either choose or avoid fast foods. Drawing partly on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, (1988)), a qualitative design was employed to examine the beliefs and perceptions associated with fast-food consumption within an Australian sample. Findings provided an indication that positive affective reactions to fast food, convenience, and self-serving cognitions may override cognitive analyses of the longer-term health risks associated with frequent fast-food consumption. PMID:18430490

Dunn, Kirsten I; Mohr, Philip B; Wilson, Carlene J; Wittert, Gary A

2008-09-01

170

Emotions in overweight and normal-weight women immediately after eating foods differing in energy.  

PubMed

Immediate effects of low-, medium-, and high-energy foods on the emotional state of normal-weight and overweight women were studied experimentally. Nineteen normal-weight (body mass index [BMI]: 19-25 kg/m2) and 19 overweight women (BMI: 26-40 kg/m2) aged 18-40 years received samples of food that differed in energy content (low vs. medium vs. high energy) and rated their emotional state immediately after eating. Perceived characteristics of the foods and associations elicited by the foods were also obtained. Negative emotions (anger, fear, shame, and sadness) and sleepiness increased, while happiness decreased with energy of foods. Emotionally negative associations were more frequent, while positive emotions were less frequent the higher the energy content of the foods. Sadness, shame, fear, and sleepiness after eating high-energy food tended to be more intense in overweight women. Additional analyses demonstrated influences of eating habits, e.g., disinhibition. The higher the energy content of a food stimulus, the more it was viewed as "unhealthy" and "dangerous." It is suggested that immediate food-induced changes of emotions can be explained by activation of associative emotion networks. PMID:14637237

Macht, Michael; Gerer, Jutta; Ellgring, Heiner

2003-11-01

171

State and trait food craving in people with bulimic eating disorders.  

PubMed

In two studies, we examined trait and state food craving levels in people with a bulimic disorder (BD) (bulimia nervosa and related disorders) and healthy controls (HC) using multidimensional self-report assessments. In study 1, trait food craving was assessed in 70 people with a BD and 69 HC using the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait. Participants also completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). In study 2, 45 people with a BD and 29 HC completed the Food Craving Questionnaire-State and the EDE-Q following exposure to visual and real high-caloric food cues. The results showed that both trait and state food cravings were significantly higher in people with a BD, compared to HC. Trait food craving was associated with eating disorder symptomatology in both the HC and BD groups. State food craving was associated with eating disorder psychopathology, but only in the BD group. This research underscores the importance of food craving in the study and conceptualization of BD. PMID:23121801

Van den Eynde, Frederique; Koskina, Antonia; Syrad, Hayley; Guillaume, Sébastien; Broadbent, Hannah; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

2012-12-01

172

Fasting Leptin Is a Metabolic Determinant of Food Reward in Overweight and Obese Individuals during Chronic Aerobic Exercise Training  

PubMed Central

Changes in food reward have been implicated in exercise-induced compensatory eating behaviour. However, the underlying mechanisms of food reward, and the physiological correlates of exercise-induced changes in food reward, are unknown. Methods. Forty-six overweight and obese individuals completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. Body composition, food intake, and fasting metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week six, and postintervention. On separate days, the reward value of high-and-low-fat food (explicit liking and implicit wanting) was also assessed at baseline, week six, and postintervention. Results. Following the intervention, FM, FFM, and VO2peak improved significantly, while fasting leptin decreased. However, food intake or reward did not change significantly. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that FM (P = 0.022) and FFM (P = 0.046) were associated with explicit liking for high-fat food, but implicit wanting was associated with FM only (P = 0.005). Fasting leptin was associated with liking (P = 0.023) and wanting (P = 0.021) for high-fat food. Furthermore, a greater exercise-induced decline in fasting leptin was associated with increased liking (P = 0.018). Conclusion. These data indicate that food reward has a number of physiological correlates. In particular, fasting leptin appears to play an active role in mediating food reward during exercise-induced weight loss. PMID:24734042

Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellstrom, Per M.; Naslund, Erik; Blundell, John E.

2014-01-01

173

Fasting levels of ghrelin covary with the brain response to food pictures.  

PubMed

Ghrelin figures prominently in the regulation of appetite in normal-weighed individuals. The apparent failure of this mechanism in eating disorders and the connection to addictive behavior in general demand a deeper understanding of the endogenous central-nervous processes related to ghrelin. Thus, we investigated processing of pictures showing palatable food after overnight fasting and following a standardized caloric intake (i.e. a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and correlated it with blood plasma levels of ghrelin. Twenty-six healthy female and male volunteers viewed food and control pictures in a block design and rated their appetite after each block. Fasting levels of ghrelin correlated positively with food-cue reactivity in a bilateral network of visual processing-, reward- and taste-related regions, including limbic and paralimbic regions. Notably, among those regions were the hypothalamus and the midbrain where ghrelin receptors are densely concentrated. In addition, high fasting ghrelin levels were associated with stronger increases of subjective appetite during the food-cue-reactivity task. In conclusion, brain activation and subjective appetite ratings suggest that ghrelin elevates the hedonic effects of food pictures. Thereby, fasting ghrelin levels may generally enhance subjective craving when confronted with reward cues. PMID:22974271

Kroemer, Nils B; Krebs, Lena; Kobiella, Andrea; Grimm, Oliver; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

2013-09-01

174

Listeria spp. in Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods  

PubMed Central

Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ?103?CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, and products of plant origin). Most of the samples contaminated by L. monocytogenes had high levels of total viable bacterial counts. The results obtained may help to clarify the epidemiology of listeriosis in the country and draw the attention of the decision makers to issue hygienic regulations for food processing industries as well as street vendors in order to ensure safe street-vended ready-to-eat food. PMID:22194742

El-Shenawy, Moustafa; El-Shenawy, Mohamed; Manes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose M.

2011-01-01

175

Health: Comparing Calories in Fast Food Burgers and Chicken  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use a box and whisker plot to represent data in a comparison of hamburgers and chicken sandwiches from three leading fast-food restaurants. Then they will make conclusions about the varying number of calories in fast food.

2010-01-01

176

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exposure of children to kids meals at fast food res- taurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. Objective: We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, ie, \\

Sharon I O'Donnell; Sharon L Hoerr; Jason A Mendoza; Eugenia Tsuei Goh

177

Brand Name Logo Recognition of Fast Food and Healthy Food among Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are\\u000a well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition,\\u000a food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry\\u000a is among the leaders in

Elva Arredondo; Diego Castaneda; John P. Elder; Donald Slymen; David Dozier

2009-01-01

178

Laboratory assessment of the food intake of children and adolescents with loss of control eating12345  

PubMed Central

Background: Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth predicts excessive weight gain. However, few studies have measured the actual energy intake of children reporting LOC eating. Objective: The objective was to characterize the energy intake and macronutrient composition of “normal” and “binge” laboratory meals in nonoverweight and overweight boys and girls with LOC eating. Design: Children aged 8–17 y (n = 177) consumed 2 lunchtime meals ad libitum from a multi-item food array after being instructed to either binge eat (binge meal) or to eat normally (normal meal). Prior LOC eating was determined with a semistructured clinical interview. Results: Participants consumed more energy at the binge meal than at the normal meal (P = 0.001). Compared with youth with no LOC episodes (n = 127), those reporting LOC (n = 50) did not consume more energy at either meal. However, at both meals, youth with LOC consumed a greater percentage of calories from carbohydrates and a smaller percentage from protein than did those without LOC (P < 0.05). Children with LOC ate more snack and dessert-type foods and less meats and dairy (P < 0.05). LOC participants also reported greater increases in postmeal negative affect at both meals than did those without LOC (P ? 0.05). Secondary analyses restricted to overweight and obese girls found that those with LOC consumed more energy at the binge meal (P = 0.025). Conclusions: When presented with an array of foods, youth with LOC consumed more high-calorie snack and dessert-type foods than did those without LOC. Further research is required to determine whether habitual consumption of such foods may promote overweight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00320177. PMID:19144730

Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Yanovski, Susan Z; Kozlosky, Merel; Schvey, Natasha A; Shomaker, Lauren B; Salaita, Christine; Yanovski, Jack A

2009-01-01

179

Curbside eating : mobilizing food trucks to activate public space  

E-print Network

In the past 5 years, cities across the United States have seen the rise of a new form of street vending: the modern food truck. Nearly overnight, food trucks have become an expected and anticipated occurrence in many ...

Sheppard, Alison Marguerite

2013-01-01

180

The Ocean Book: Food Chains...Come and Eat!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)

Science Activities, 1989

1989-01-01

181

Gender in food advertising to children: boys eat first  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines advertisers’ use of gender in food advertising to children. Previous studies of gender preference in children’s advertising suggest gender bias exists. Food products are most often gender-neutral. Advertising for food products is compared to non-food advertisements. Examines measures of voice-over gender, gender of dominant product user, gender of main character, activity level, aggressive behavior level, and soundtrack volume. A

Nancy M. Childs; Jill K. Maher

2003-01-01

182

Inequality in obesigenic environments: fast food density in New York City. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New York City.

183

Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder  

SciTech Connect

Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

2011-01-13

184

‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or

Kent C. Berridge

2009-01-01

185

`Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C. Berridge  

E-print Network

`Liking' and `wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders Kent C Brainstem Parabrachial nucleus Dopamine Opioid Addiction What brain reward systems mediate motivational? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic `liking', such as the existence

Berridge, Kent

186

Eating and Breathing: Interactions Between Respiration and Feeding on Solid Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chewed solid food accumulates in the oropharynx prior to swallowing. The mechanism for preventing aspiration during this interval is unknown, but may be related to respiration. The purpose of this study was to determine how eating, especially bolus formation in the pharynx, affects respiration. We examined nasal air pressures, masseter electromyography (EMG), and videofluorography (VFG) of four normal young adults

Jeffrey B. Palmer; Karen M. Hiiemae

2003-01-01

187

Eat it or leave it: Educational differences in how mothers handle children's food dislikes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes educational differences in the extent and manner in which mothers teach their children to eat foods they dislike. A survey among 849 mothers, who cared for children aged between 4 and 14 years in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany showed that higher?educated mothers employed healthier and more consistent food rules than lower?educated mothers. While lower?educated mothers allowed

Christianne L. H. Hupkens; Ronald A. Knibbe; Anneke H. Van Otterloo; Maria J. Drop

2000-01-01

188

Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.  

PubMed

The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos. PMID:18830690

Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

2009-02-01

189

Negative affect-induced food intake in non-dieting women is reward driven and associated with restrained–disinhibited eating subtype  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans the presence of negative affect is thought to promote food intake, although widespread variability surrounds this issue. Susceptibility to negative affect-induced eating may depend on trait eating behaviours, notably ‘emotional eating’, ‘restrained eating’ and ‘disinhibited eating’, but the evidence is not consistent. In the present study, 30 non-obese, non-dieting women were given access to palatable food while in

Stephanie H. Fay; Graham Finlayson

2011-01-01

190

Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in refrigerated ready-to-eat foods in Japan.  

PubMed

The ability of L. monocytogenes to grow in a series of Japanese ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, including boiled baby sardine and Japanese pickle, was tested at two different refrigeration temperatures. In RTE foods in which L. monocytogenes can grow, growth was significantly higher at 10°C than that at 4°C during their shelf lives and growth patterns varied extensively among the different types of foods. However, growth did not occur at 4°C within the shelf life of certain RTE foods, such as broiled squid. The patterns of growth were varied extensively with different sample types. These results suggest that some types of traditional Japanese RTE foods stored at 10°C may be potential sources of listeriosis. To reduce the risk of food-borne listeriosis, studies to determine the contamination levels in RTE foods and the effects of storage temperature on their shelf lives are needed. PMID:23697335

Okada, Yumiko; Ohnuki, Izumi; Suzuki, Hodaka; Igimi, Shizunobu

2013-01-01

191

Eating Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

192

Cheesecake-eating rats and the question of food addiction  

PubMed Central

Rats given extended access to high-fat high-sugar food show behavioral and physiological changes that are similar to those caused by drugs of abuse. However, parallels between drug and food “addiction” should be drawn with caution. PMID:20421898

Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin

2011-01-01

193

Food and Culture. We Are What We Eat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enjoyment of ethnic food can be the "point de depart" for tracing the heritage of the people being studied and for broadening students' horizons. This article outlines a study of food throughout the centuries, particularly in Europe. The "gastronomic route" begins historically with the Minoans around 2000 B.C., continues with the Greeks and the…

Perkins, Cynthia

1978-01-01

194

Differential associations of fast food and restaurant food consumption with 3-y change in body mass index: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Away-from-home food consumption has rapidly in- creased,thoughlittleisknownabouttheindependentassociationsof restaurantfoodandfastfoodintakewithbodymassindex(BMI)and BMI change. Objective: The aim was to compare the associations of restaurant food and fast food consumption with current and 3-y changes in BMI. Design: Multivariate linear regression models, with control for de- mographic and lifestyle factors, were used to examine cross- sectional and longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating with BMI

Kiyah J Duffey; Penny Gordon-Larsen; David R Jacobs Jr; O Dale Williams; Barry M Popkin

195

'Liking' and 'wanting' food rewards: Brain substrates and roles in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

What brain reward systems mediate motivational ‘wanting’ and hedonic ‘liking’ for food rewards? And what roles do those systems play in eating disorders? This article surveys recent findings regarding brain mechanisms of hedonic ‘liking’, such as the existence of cubic-millimeter hedonic hotspots in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum for opioid amplification of sensory pleasure. It also considers brain ‘wanting’ or incentive salience systems important to appetite, such as mesolimbic dopamine systems and opioid motivation circuits that extend beyond the hedonic hotspots. Finally, it considers some potential ways in which ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ might relate to eating disorders. PMID:19336238

Berridge, Kent C.

2009-01-01

196

Body Mass Index, Neighborhood Fast Food and Restaurant Concentration, and Car Ownership  

E-print Network

of fast food restaurants: state- level analysis. Am J Healthfast foods and television viewing contributing? Am J Public Health.fast food and food prices: relationship with fruit and vegetable consumption and overweight among adolescents. Adv Health

Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A.; Brown, Arleen F.; Asch, Steven M.

2009-01-01

197

The study of fast-food tableware design based on semiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of economy in China and the acceleration of people's living pace, Chinese fast food came into a new stage of fast development. However, the western fast food holds most part of the market, and the situation about the development of Chinese fast food becomes even worse. Especially the tableware of Chinese fast food in present market,

Xiaoqian Ding; Zhangping Lu

2009-01-01

198

Comparison of two indices of availability of fruits/vegetable and fast food outlets.  

PubMed

Studies of food environment often examine single dimensions of areas that may not account for complexity of exposure to all food sources. With respect to the deprivation amplification hypothesis, particular needs are to assess whether relative or absolute measures of the food environment are related to characteristics of social environment. The objective of this study was to compare absolute availability (AA) of fast food outlets (FFO) and stores selling fresh fruits and vegetables (FVS) with the relative availability (RA) of the same food sources in relation to area-level poverty and ethnic diversity in 248 selected census tracts (CT) in Montreal, Canada. AA of FFO and FVS were expressed as areal densities of food sources within CTs. RA indices were calculated as the proportion of FVSs relative to total food stores and the proportion of FFOs relative to all restaurants within CTs, respectively. Whereas the AA of FFO was positively associated with area-level poverty and ethnic diversity, the RA of FFO was inversely associated with area-level poverty and not associated with ethnic diversity. Both measures of FVS were positively associated with area-level poverty and ethnic diversity. These findings do not support a model of deprivation amplification. Furthermore, results of FFO suggest that the alternate measure of RA can complement information based on AA indicators of the food environment, with potential utility in predicting eating practices. PMID:22736278

Mercille, Geneviève; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Payette, Hélène; Daniel, Mark

2013-04-01

199

Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience

Jennifer S Creel; Joseph R Sharkey; Alex McIntosh; Jenna Anding; J Charles Huber

2008-01-01

200

Development and Features EatSafe: Modular Portable Food Sensor  

E-print Network

, those with weakened immune system Team Leader: Norman Huang1 Core Members: Nick Johnsen1, Andrew Ong6 in food quality at a low cost to the market Built-in Bluetooth support to connect to your mobile devices

California at San Diego, University of

201

Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

Healthy Eating Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tips Eating healthy foods helps everyone stay well. It’s even more important for people with Alzheimer’s disease. Here are some tips for healthy eating. Buying and Preparing Food When the person with ...

202

Binge eating disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Eats even though not hungry. Eats alone (in secret). Feels guilty, disgusted, ashamed, or depressed after eating ... large amounts of high-calorie foods, often in secret. After this binge eating, they often force themselves ...

203

Fast Food, Race\\/Ethnicity, and Income A Geographic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: Using geographic information system software, all fast-food restaurants within the city limits of New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2001 were mapped. Buffers around census tracts were generated to simulate 1-mile and 0.5-mile \\

Jason P. Block; Richard A. Scribner; Karen B. DeSalvo

2004-01-01

204

Changes in the Nutrient Content of School Lunches: Results from the CATCH Eat Smart Food Service Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) tested the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention aimed at promoting a healthful school environment and positive eating and physical activity behaviors in children. The CATCH Eat Smart Program targeted the school food service staff and aimed to lower the total fat, saturated fat, and sodium content of school meals.Methods.The Eat Smart

Stavroula K. Osganian; Mary Kay Ebzery; Deanna H. Montgomery; Theresa A. Nicklas; Marguerite A. Evans; Paul D. Mitchell; Leslie A. Lytle; M. Patricia Snyder; Elaine J. Stone; Michelle M. Zive; Kathryn J. Bachman; Rochelle Rice; Guy S. Parcel

1996-01-01

205

Life and Health Insurance Industry Investments in Fast Food  

PubMed Central

Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions. PMID:20395572

McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U.; Boyd, J. Wesley

2010-01-01

206

Life and health insurance industry investments in fast food.  

PubMed

Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions. PMID:20395572

Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley

2010-06-01

207

Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Food Energy Density and Higher Consumption of Sugary and Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Methods Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ?18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Results Compared to individuals with ?1 OREB, those with ?5 OREB had a higher food energy density (? 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001) and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (? 7; 95% CI ?7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05) and of alcoholic beverages (? 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001). Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. Conclusions OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake. PMID:24204756

Munoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E.; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando

2013-01-01

208

The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

2011-01-01

209

Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

2012-03-01

210

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

211

Eat Right  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Diabetes Public Health Resource Share Compartir Eat Right On this Page What healthy food choices should ... exchange method ( www.diabetes.org ). Related Materials Eat Right - Other Resources Take Charge of Your Diabetes The ...

212

Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Before you eat, think about what goes  

E-print Network

in Shape." Makehalfyourplatefruitsandvegetables. Eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark- green, red eat, think about what goes on your plate or in your bowl. Foods like vegetables, fruits, whole grains and orange vegetables plus beans and peas. Fresh, frozen and canned vegetables all count. Choose "reduced

Oklahoma, University of

213

Food Stamp Recipients Eat More Vegetables after Viewing Nutrition Videos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study in three California counties found that food stamp recipients who viewed a videotape promoting vegetables had increased their knowledge of vegetables and greatly increased their consumption of potatoes and raw vegetables two to six weeks later. The feasibility of using videotaped nutrition instruction with low-income adults is discussed.…

Joy, Amy Block; Feldman, Nancy; Fujii, Mary Lavender; Garcia, Linda; Hudes, Mark; Mitchell, Rita; Bunch, Sybille; Metz, Diane

1999-01-01

214

Food Is More Than Just Something To Eat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet lists the major nutrients, discusses the role each plays in the body, and lists some of the foods that each nutrient can be found in. An explanation of the relationship between nutrients and energy, how the body gets the nutrients it needs from the diet, and the nutrients needed from before birth until the later years is included. A…

Grocery Manufacturers of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

215

The Demand for Healthy Eating: Supporting a Transformative Food "Movement"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To the extent that social science scholarship engages real-world developments it remains grounded and better able to resist elite agendas. With this in mind this article argues for the critical encounter with what I argue is the most significant struggle around food and agriculture today--the amorphous and broad-based movement that strives to…

Winson, Anthony

2010-01-01

216

The inverse agonist of CB1 receptor SR141716 blocks compulsive eating of palatable food.  

PubMed

Dieting and the increased availability of highly palatable food are considered major contributing factors to the large incidence of eating disorders and obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the role of the cannabinoid (CB) system in a novel animal model of compulsive eating, based on a rapid palatable diet cycling protocol. Male Wistar rats were fed either continuously a regular chow diet (Chow/Chow, control group) or intermittently a regular chow diet for 2 days and a palatable, high-sucrose diet for 1 day (Chow/Palatable). Chow/Palatable rats showed spontaneous and progressively increasing hypophagia and body weight loss when fed the regular chow diet, and excessive food intake and body weight gain when fed the palatable diet. Diet-cycled rats dramatically escalated the intake of the palatable diet during the first hour of renewed access (7.5-fold compared to controls), and after withdrawal, they showed compulsive eating and heightened risk-taking behavior. The inverse agonist of the CB1 receptor, SR141716 reduced the excessive intake of palatable food with higher potency and the body weight with greater efficacy in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. Moreover, SR141716 reduced compulsive eating and risk-taking behavior in Chow/Palatable rats. Finally, consistent with the behavioral and pharmacological observations, withdrawal from the palatable diet decreased the gene expression of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in the ventromedial hypothalamus while increasing that of CB1 receptors in the dorsal striatum in Chow/Palatable rats, compared to controls. These findings will help understand the role of the CB system in compulsive eating. PMID:23587012

Dore, Riccardo; Valenza, Marta; Wang, Xiaofan; Rice, Kenner C; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

2014-09-01

217

Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.  

PubMed

Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

2014-07-01

218

Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?  

PubMed

Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment. PMID:25027288

Macdiarmid, Jennie I

2014-08-01

219

Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation-substitution or concentration? — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and all chains combined.

220

Extending the shelf-life and proximate composition stability of ready to eat foods in vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of the proximate composition (moisture, proteins, lipids and ash) and the microbiological state of cooked ‘ready to eatfoods in vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging were examined and compared with conventionally packaged (in air) foods. The study was carried out for 7 and 29 days, during which time the food products were stored at 3°C. Vacuum or modified

M. Antonia Murcia; Magdalena Mart??nez-Tomé; M. Carmen Nicolás; Ana M Vera

2003-01-01

221

The Prime Time Diet: A Content Analysis of Eating Behavior and Food Messages in Television Program Content and Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and analyzes messages related to food and eating behavior as presented on prime time television programing and commercials. Finds that food references occur an average of 4.8 times per 30 minutes and that over half of all food references were for low nutrient beverages and sweets, which is inconsistent with healthy dietary guidelines.…

Story, Mary; Faulkner, Patricia

1990-01-01

222

Food Advertising and Eating Disorders: Marketing Body Dissatisfaction, the Drive for Thinness, and Dieting in Women's Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…

Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.

1999-01-01

223

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior Jennifer L. Harris, John A. Bargh, and Kelly D. Brownell  

E-print Network

Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior Jennifer L. Harris, John A. Bargh. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute, children view, on average, 15 TV food advertisements (Federal Trade Commission, 2007), and an overwhelming

Bargh, John A.

224

Knowledge of Fats\\/Oils and Fat Content of Foods by Fast Food Restaurant Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire was developed focusing on food preparation and types of fats\\/oils, knowledge of fats\\/oils and fat content of foods. The questionnaire was validated by a group of seven foodservice professionals and was pilot tested with ten local restaurant managers. A nationwide sample of 100 fast food restaurant chains located in the 100 largest metropolitan areas of the country was

C. Bednar; D. Czajka-Narins; F. Elahi

1998-01-01

225

Isolation and Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Ready-To-Eat Foods in Florida†  

PubMed Central

Of 3,063 ready-to-eat food samples tested, 91 (2.97%) were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, and lineage 1 strains outnumbered lineage 2 strains 57 to 34. Seventy-one isolates (78%) exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance, and an L. monocytogenes-specific bacteriophage cocktail lysed 65 of 91 (71%) isolates. Determining phage, acid, and antibiotic susceptibility phenotypes enabled us to identify differences among strains which were otherwise indistinguishable by conventional methods. PMID:16820508

Shen, Yuelian; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yifan; Cripe, Jennifer; Conway, William; Meng, Jianghong; Hall, Grace; Bhagwat, Arvind A.

2006-01-01

226

Reliability of a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge of adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutrition knowledge of adolescents and to examine its reliability.Design: A cross-sectional baseline survey. The questionnaire was self-administered to study participants twice with 7 days between each administration.Setting: A school community in Pavia, Italy.Subjects: A group of students (n=72, aged 14–17 y, both sexes) studying in a secondary school

G Turconi; M Celsa; C Rezzani; G Biino; M A Sartirana; C Roggi

2003-01-01

227

Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets  

PubMed Central

Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:? 1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:? 1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:? 0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds. PMID:22988491

Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bj?rn E.; Due, Pernille

2012-01-01

228

Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. METHODS: Data

Joseph R Sharkey; Scott Horel; Daikwon Han; John C Huber Jr

2009-01-01

229

Issues in-depth: Are you what you eat? An inside look at high-tech food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to increase the safety of food supply, create foods that are more appealing to eat and easier to produce, and increase crop yields. This article will summarize a few hot topics in food science, address what is currently known about the safety of these processes, and present resources on the subject to use with your students.

Miller, Roxanne G.

2007-04-01

230

Food deprivation and emotional reactions to food cues: implications for eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined emotional responding to food cues. In experiment 1, normal college students were assigned to 0-, 6- or 24-h of food deprivation prior to presentations of standard emotional and food-related pictures. Food deprivation had no impact on responses elicited by standard emotional pictures. However, subjective and psychophysiological reactions to food pictures were affected significantly by deprivation. Importantly, food-deprived

David J. Drobes; Erica J. Miller; Charles H. Hillman; Margaret M. Bradley; Bruce N. Cuthbert; Peter J. Lang

2001-01-01

231

L'univers des fast-foods Lorsque l'ethnologue entre dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une irrsistible envie de  

E-print Network

L'univers des fast-foods Lorsque l'ethnologue entre dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une dans un fast-food, alors se met en place une irrésistible envie de mesurer l'étendue des enjeux qui y pratique alimentaire des fast-foods est de manière incontournable liée à une certaine culture de la

Boyer, Edmond

232

Memantine reduces consumption of highly palatable food in a rat model of binge eating  

PubMed Central

Excessive consumption of highly palatable food has been linked to the development of eating disorders and obesity, and can be modeled in non-food-deprived rats by offering them a limited (2-h daily) access to an optional dietary fat. Since the glutamatergic system has recently emerged as a viable target for binge-eating medication development, we compared the effects of subchronic treatment with glutamatergic receptor antagonists to the effects of a reference appetite-suppressing agent sibutramine on highly palatable food (lard) and normal chow intake. In three separate experiments, the consumption of a standard laboratory chow and lard were measured during 12 days of medication treatment and for 6 days afterwards. Generalized estimating equations analysis demonstrated that sibutramine (7.5 mg/kg, PO) significantly decreased lard consumption, with a concurrent increase in chow consumption. Sibutramine effects disappeared after treatment discontinuation. The NMDA receptor antagonist memantine (5 mg/kg, IP) significantly decreased lard consumption and increased chow consumption, comparable to effects of sibutramine; however, memantine’s effects persisted after treatment discontinuation. The effects of the mGluR5 antagonist MTEP (7.5 mg/kg, IP) on food consumption were in the same direction as seen with memantine, but the observed differences were not significant. In an additional control experiment, sibutramine and memantine reduced unlimited (24 h) chow intake during the treatment phase. Present results provide evidence that glutamatergic neurotransmission might be involved in the regulation of excessive consumption of highly palatable foods, and suggest that NMDA receptor may be an attractive target for developing obesity and disordered eating pharmacotherapies. PMID:20571841

Kos, Tomasz; Zhang, Yulei; Bisaga, Adam

2010-01-01

233

Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. METHODS: The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File

Joseph R Sharkey; Cassandra M Johnson; Wesley R Dean; Scott A Horel

2011-01-01

234

Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country  

PubMed Central

Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (?2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

2014-01-01

235

Fast food restaurants and food stores: longitudinal associations with diet in young adults: The CARDIA Study  

PubMed Central

Background A growing body of cross-sectional, small-sample research has led to policy strategies to reduce food deserts – neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy foods – by limiting fast food restaurants and small food stores and increasing access to supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods. Methods We used 15 years of longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of U.S. young adults (n=5,115, 18–30 years at baseline), with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived food resource measures. Using repeated measures from four examination periods (n=15,854 person-exam observations) and conditional regression (conditioned on the individual), we modeled fast food consumption, diet quality, and meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations as a function of fast food chain, supermarket, or grocery store availability (counts per population) within 1 kilometer (km), 1–2.9km, 3–4.9km, and 5–8km of respondents’ homes. Models were sex-stratified, controlled for individual sociodemographics and neighborhood poverty, and tested for interaction by individual-level income. Results Fast food consumption was related to fast food availability in low-income respondents, particularly within 1–2.9km of homes among men [coefficient (95% CI) up to: 0.34 (0.16, 0.51)]. Greater supermarket availability was generally unrelated to diet quality and fruit and vegetable intake and relationships between grocery store availability and diet outcomes were mixed. Conclusions Our findings provide some evidence for zoning restrictions on fast food restaurants within 3km of low-income residents, but suggest that increased access to food stores may require complementary or alternative strategies to promote dietary behavior change. PMID:21747011

Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Popkin, Barry M.

2011-01-01

236

Simple Conceptual Model for Fast-Food Restaurant (after Robinson 2004) Problem statement: A fast-food restaurant is experiencing problems with one of its branches in its  

E-print Network

Simple Conceptual Model for Fast-Food Restaurant (after Robinson 2004) Problem statement: A fast-food that this is not the result of shortages in food, but a shortage of service personnel. Objective(s): The number of service Justification Customers Include Flow through service process Staff Service Include Required for response Food

Aickelin, Uwe

237

Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets  

PubMed Central

Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify potential targets for intervention. PMID:19040722

Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

2008-01-01

238

Determinants of US fast food consumption 1994-1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Fast food (FF) consumption increased dramatically through the 1990s in the USA, accounting for nearly 35.5 percent of total away-from-home expenditures in 1999. Given dramatic changes in food consumption, and heightened public concern about health and obesity, there is a considerable need for research to understand better the factors affecting US FF consumption. This paper aims to fill

Jasper Fanning; Thomas Marsh; Kyle Stiegert

2010-01-01

239

Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR. PMID:21266055

2011-01-01

240

Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods from supermarkets in Southern Italy.  

PubMed

The study provides data on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods from supermarkets in Southern Italy. The pathogen was detected in 105/1045 (10%) RTE food samples. In particular, it was highlighted in 4/392 (1%) pastries, 23/112 (20.5%) vacuum-packaged sliced salami samples, 2/108 (1.9%) cream cheese samples, 31/115 (27%) mayonnaise based deli salads and 45/132 (34.1%) smoked salmon samples. The mozzarella samples were L. monocytogenes negative. Given the considerable public health implications, the study confirms that surveillance of listeriosis in Europe should be improved and coordinated between European Union Member States in order to better estimate the burden of disease and to prevent foodborne outbreaks, assessing the human health risk arising from RTE foods. PMID:20954443

Di Pinto, Angela; Novello, Lucia; Montemurro, Filomena; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Tantillo, Giuseppina

2010-07-01

241

Emotional responses to food, body dissatisfaction and other eating disorder features in children, adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to assess and compare emotional responses to different foods in relationship to eating disorder and associated features, across gender and age groups. We hypothesized that negative emotional responses to images of foods would be higher in (i) those with higher body dissatisfaction and (ii) older females.Five hundred and thirty-six (18% Grade 5, 39% Grade 8 or 9, and

Caroline McNamara; Phillipa Hay; Mary Katsikitis; Anna Chur-Hansen

2008-01-01

242

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased. PMID:20305749

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

2010-01-01

243

Potential risk and sodium content of children's ready-to-eat foods distributed at major amusement parks in Korea.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to help better understand the current sodium intake of Korean children and to establish children's good eating habits through investigation of the sodium content of ready-to-eat foods collected from nine major amusement parks in Korea. The sodium content of a total of 322 products was analysed by using ICP and then the potential risk based on the recommended daily intake of sodium as described in the Korean dietary reference intakes was determined. The results showed that sodium content was the lowest in muffins (245 mg/100 g) and the highest in seasoned dried filefish (1825 mg/100 g). The average amounts of sodium per serving of seasoned dried filefish, tteokbokki and fish paste were 1150, 1248 and 1097 mg, respectively. The values were above 50% of the daily intake of sodium recommended by the Korean dietary reference intake. The ready-to-eat foods were also classified into high, medium and low sodium content on the basis of standards recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. Most snacks were classified as high sodium foods because they exceeded "300 mg (84.5% of the total daily allowance)". Furthermore, the meal substitution foods such as kimbab, tteokbokki, mandus, sandwiches and hamburgers exceeded "600 mg (90.3% of the total daily allowance)" and were also classified as high sodium foods. In addition, ready-to-eat foods in amusement parks are similar to foods eaten on streets and foods around school zones, which contain high sodium content; thus, the intake frequency might be high, which would induce high risk to children health. Koreans already consume a high amount of sodium daily via their usual diets. So, the sodium content in snacks and substitution foods needs to be reduced. Consequently, this study noted that parents and guardians should carefully consider their children's consumption of ready-to-eat foods from Korean amusement parks. PMID:23822106

Lee, N-Y; Park, S-Y; Lee, Y-M; Choi, S-Y; Jeong, S-H; Chung, M-S; Chang, Y-S; Choi, S-H; Bae, D-H; Ha, S-D

2013-01-01

244

Fatty Acid Composition of Commercial Spanish Fast Food and Snack Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid composition, total fat contents and percentages of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) and trans isomers of fatty acids (t FA) were analysed in commercial Spanish fast food and snack food by capillary gas chromatography (CGC) using a capillary column. The results obtained show a great variability in the percentages of fatty acids (g\\/100 g total fatty acids)

P. Mario Fernández; San Juan

2000-01-01

245

Evaluation of fatty acid content of some Iranian fast foods with emphasis on trans fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of com- mon fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. The most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran: sausage,

Seddigheh Asgary; Bahar Nazari; Nizal Sarrafzadegan; Sahar Parkhideh; Salbali Saberi; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Leila Azadbakht

2009-01-01

246

Modeling repurchase frequency and customer satisfaction for fast food outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although customer satisfaction and loyalty have attracted a lot of attention in service management research, relatively few studies have examined the impact of waiting time and service quality on customer satisfaction and repurchase frequency. In this study, we model the relationships between customer satisfaction, repurchase frequency, waiting time and other service quality factors in fast food outlets. The results indicate

Agnes K. Y. Law; Y. V. Hui; Xiande Zhao

2004-01-01

247

Mothers’ attitudes towards toys as fast food premiums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To explore mothers’ attitudes to fast food companies’ use of toy premiums as a marketing technique. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two focus groups and 12 individual interviews were conducted with 21 mothers of young children. Findings – The mothers considered toy premiums to be a highly effective form of marketing targeted at their children. Such purchase incentives stimulate a constant

Simone Pettigrew; Michele Roberts

2006-01-01

248

Development of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM): links with food intake among children and their mothers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop a self-report questionnaire to explore parental modelling of eating behaviours and then to use the newly developed measure to investigate associations between parental modelling with healthy and unhealthy food intake in both mothers and their children. Mothers (n?=?484) with a child aged between 18 months and 8 years completed the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM), a new, self-report measure of modelling, as well as a food frequency questionnaire. Principal components analysis of the PARM identified 15 items grouped into three subscales: verbal modelling (modelling through verbal communication); unintentional modelling (UM) (children adopting eating behaviours that parents had not actively modelled); and behavioural consequences (children's eating behaviours directly associated with parental modelling). The PARM subscales were found to be differentially related to food intake. Maternally perceived consequences of behavioural modelling were related to increased fruit and vegetable intake in both mothers and children. UM was related to higher levels of savoury snack intake in both mothers and their children. This study has highlighted three distinct aspects of parental modelling of eating behaviours. The findings suggest that mothers may intentionally model healthy food intake while unintentionally acting as role models for their children's less healthy, snack food intake. PMID:22906242

Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

2014-10-01

249

Inhibition of Opioid Transmission at the ?-Opioid Receptor Prevents Both Food Seeking and Binge-Like Eating  

PubMed Central

Endogenous opioids, and in particular ?-opioid receptors, have been linked to hedonic and rewarding mechanisms engaged during palatable food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSK1521498, a novel ?-opioid receptor antagonist, on food-seeking behavior and on binge-like eating of a highly preferred chocolate diet. Food seeking was measured in rats trained to respond for chocolate under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which prolonged periods of food-seeking behavior were maintained by contingent presentation of a reward-associated conditioned reinforcer. After reaching a stable baseline in both procedures, animals were treated with GSK1521498 (0.1, 1, and 3?mg/kg; IP) or naltrexone (NTX, 0.1, 1, and 3?mg/kg; SC). The binge eating model was characterized by four temporally contiguous phases: 1-h chow access, 2-h food deprivation, 10-min chow access, and 10-min access to either chocolate-flavoured food or standard chow. During training the rats developed binge-like hyperphagia of palatable food and anticipatory chow hypophagia (anticipatory negative contrast). Both compounds reduced binge-like palatable food hyperphagia. However, GSK1521498 reduced the impact of high hedonic value on ingestion more specifically than NTX, abolishing anticipatory chow hypophagia. GSK1521498 also dose-dependently reduced food seeking both before and after food ingestion, whereas NTX reduced food seeking only after food ingestion. Thus, while both drugs affected the hedonic value of the preferred food, GSK1521498 also directly decreased incentive motivation for chocolate. Selective ?-opioid receptor antagonism by GSK1521498 may have utility as a treatment for reducing maladaptive, palatability-driven eating behavior by reducing the motivational properties of stimuli that elicit the binge eating commonly associated with obesity. PMID:22805601

Giuliano, Chiara; Robbins, Trevor W; Nathan, Pradeep J; Bullmore, Edward T; Everitt, Barry J

2012-01-01

250

Safe Eats - Eating Out and Bringing In  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Educators Education Campaigns for the Hispanic Community Food Safety for Moms-To-Be: Safe Eats - Eating Out & ... and beyond! Also available in Spanish > En español > Food Safety for Moms-To-Be Main Page Meat, Poultry & ...

251

An Examination of Food Addiction in a Racially Diverse Sample of Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care Settings  

PubMed Central

Objective The concept of food addiction in obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) continues to be a hotly debated topic yet the empirical evidence on the relationship between addictive-like eating and clinically relevant eating disorders is limited. The current study examined the association of food addiction as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) with measures of disordered eating, dieting/weight history, and related psychopathology in a racially diverse sample of obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method A consecutive series of 96 obese patients with BED who were seeking treatment for obesity and binge eating in primary care were given structured interviews to assess psychiatric disorders and eating disorder psychopathology and a battery of self-report measures including the YFAS to assess food addiction. Results Classification of food addiction was met by 41.5% (n=39) of BED patients. Patients classified as meeting YFAS food addiction criteria had significantly higher levels of negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and eating disorder psychopathology, and lower self-esteem. Higher scores on the YFAS were related to an earlier age of first being overweight and dieting onset. YFAS scores were also significant predictors of binge eating frequency above and beyond other measures. Discussion Compared to patients not classified as having food addiction, the subset of 41.5% of BED patients who met the YFAS food addiction cut-off appear to have a more severe presentation of BED and more associated pathology. PMID:23332551

Gearhardt, Ashley N.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2012-01-01

252

Fasting during ramadan: A religious factor as a possible trigger or exacerbator for eating disorders in adolescents.  

PubMed

Culture-based contributors play a role in eating disorders (EDs). Here, we present one such factor that may play a role in triggering ED's in adolescents: Fasting during the holy period of Ramadan. Ramadan is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, and smoking, which starts from dawn lasting until sunset. For the past 2 years, we have noticed an increase in patients with disordered eating patterns that have applied to Hacettepe University, Division of Adolescent Medicine during or shortly after Ramadan. We document six of these patients, three of which were diagnosed with an ED and three that did not meet full criteria. We argue that the possible effects of a drastic change in ones diet such as that which occurs during Ramadan, play an important role in triggering ED's in adolescents with a predisposition or may exacerbate an eating pathology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014; 47:905-910). PMID:24474707

Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray Ö

2014-12-01

253

Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during 6 months of dietary energy restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine characteristics of craved foods in relation to dietary energy restriction (ER) with high (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets.Design:Assessments of food cravings before and during a randomized controlled trial of HG and LG diets provided for 6 months.Subjects:Thirty-two healthy, overweight women aged 20–42 years.Measurements:Self-reported food cravings and dietary intake, body weight, weight history and measures of eating

C H Gilhooly; S K Das; J K Golden; M A McCrory; G E Dallal; E Saltzman; F M Kramer; S B Roberts

2007-01-01

254

Food choice in disorders of eating behavior: correlations with the psychopathological aspects of the diseases.  

PubMed

Eating disorders (ED) are characterized by alterations in food choice and in the quantity and quality of nutrient intake. In a population of 124 female patients with ED (anorexia nervosa restricting subtype [AN-R, n=37]; AN bingeing-purging subtype [AN-BP, n=18]; bulimia nervosa purging subtype [BN-P, n=40]; and binge eating disorder [BED, n=29]) and healthy age-matched controls ([C], n=20) we compared food choice and macronutrient intake with psychopathologic symptoms of the disorders. Data were collected from the probands' 7-day food diaries and the scores from two assessment scales (Eating Disorder Inventory-2 [EDI-2] and Temperament and Character Inventory-revised [TCI-R]) that measure symptom domains, dimensions of personality and character dimensions, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to the nutritional data and scale scores. When compared to the values for the control group, intake of animal proteins (grams) was significantly lower for all patient groups, intake of lactoproteins was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP than BN-P and BED groups, intake of vegetal proteins was higher for the AN-R, AN-BP, BN-P and BED groups, intake of dietary fats was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP subtype groups, and intake of total carbohydrates and oligosaccharides was lower for the AN-R and AN-BP groups, and oligosaccharides also for the BED, when calculated in grams but not when expressed in percent. When studied as percent values animal proteins were lower in patients than in controls, lactoprotein in BN-P and BED, vegetal proteins higher in all the patients, fat lower in AN-R and AN-BP, while carbohydrates did not differ between patients and controls. Significant correlations emerged between food choice and TCI-R and EDI-2 scale scores. Food choice in ED might depend on alterations in neurotransmitter peptides, neuropeptides, and peripheral peptides, which regulate and are regulated by macronutrient intake and underlie psychological and temperamental alterations. PMID:24703769

Segura-García, Cristina; De Fazio, Pasquale; Sinopoli, Flora; De Masi, Roberta; Brambilla, Francesca

2014-07-01

255

Safe Eats: an evaluation of the use of social media for food safety education.  

PubMed

Many undergraduate students are cooking for the first time, and they need to learn safe food practices to reduce their risk of foodborne illness. Social media tools are being utilized to disseminate public health messages, but limited research has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of these tools for food safety education. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a social media-based intervention for young adults to improve food safety attitudes, practices, and knowledge. Preliminary surveys were conducted and online focus groups were convened to guide design of this social media intervention. College students (710) were included in treatment and control groups. Results from pretests and posttests indicate that participation in the "Safe Eats" Facebook intervention leads to improvements in food safety attitudes, practices, and knowledge. Although students reported that they learned more from the intervention than from a traditional lecture, the combination of lecture and Facebook resulted in higher knowledge scores than those resulting from the intervention alone. Participants who spent more time on the Facebook page had greater improvements in food safety attitudes and practices. PMID:22856569

Bramlett Mayer, Ashley; Harrison, Judy A

2012-08-01

256

THANKSGIVING Eating together, eating alone  

E-print Network

"fast food" entered our lexicon in 1951. Fast food connotes many things and among them is the fact complete control and freedom over our own consumption. Fast food affords independence. It also happens world. My generation was born in the early days of fast food and, along with television and tract houses

Albright, Tom

257

Fast Fats: A Nutritional Analysis of America's Obsession with Fast Foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Few will disagree that fast foods are a staple in the diets of many Americans. Even our nation's schools feature vending machines full of foods that are high in calories, short on nutrition, and all too easy to buy. With busy lifestyles and complicated schedules, what are the long term effects of a diet high in saturated fats? What about all the "good carbs" and "bad carbs" we have been hearing so much about?In this three part lesson, students will examine nutrition labels for caloric intake using various snack foods. Then, they will determine the number of calories in a food item. Finally, they will conduct a research project in which they examine the food choices of their classmates.

Rachelle Kean (AAAS;)

2008-05-01

258

Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Service Curriculum on Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Grocery Shop, Prepare Food, and Eat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Shop, Cook and Eat curriculum was designed to provide education about concepts of empowerment and assistive technology for grocery shopping, preparing food, and eating. The curriculum included examples and hands-on demonstrations of assistive technology devices for grocery shopping, food

Hermann, Janice R.; Johnston, Jan H.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Jaco, Linda

2012-01-01

259

“STOP EATING…CLEAN YOUR PLATE!”: THE EFFECTS OF PARENTAL CONTROL OF FOOD CONSUMPTION DURING CHILDHOOD ON COLLEGE FEMALES' EATING BEHAVIOR  

E-print Network

to a child?s ability to self- regulate food intake by the preschool age. Evidence from case histories, such as Bruch (1961) has argued that 5 children must learn to differentiate hunger from other cues, and that disordered eating (including anorexia... of anorexia, bingeing and vomiting in the case of bulimia, and overeating foods in the case of obesity. In addition, behavioral models support the idea that there is no underlying cause of psychological problems, but that the problems are learned over time...

Pfeffer, Amanda J.

2010-07-14

260

Food safety issues and training methods for ready-to-eat foods in the grocery industry.  

PubMed

As Americans have become more pressed for time, the use of convenient, simplified meals become a way of life. One aspect of this trend, known as Home Meal Replacement (IIMR), has increased in sales since its inception. Between 1999 and 2001, the average annual expenditure per consumer rose 5.6 pereent, and $958 per person per year was spent in 2002. Along with this growth, food safety risks may have increased. The study reported here examined efforts being undertaken by grocery and convenience stores to control the wholesomeness of INR food items. After a convenience sample of 500 grocery store executives was identified, a 32-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to the executives. The results indicate that the industry has taken food safety seriously with only 10 pereent reporting that they have no food safety training. The executives cited employee turnover as a major concern in food safety today, along with lack of food safety knowledge of the consumer and improper holding temperatures. PMID:16312253

Binkley, Margaret; Ghiselli, Richard

2005-10-01

261

Nutrient content of products served by leading Australian fast food chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared

Elizabeth Dunford; Jacqui Webster; Federica Barzi; Bruce Neal

2010-01-01

262

www.arts.canterbury.ac.nz/internships Project Title: Density of Fast Food  

E-print Network

www.arts.canterbury.ac.nz/internships Project Title: Density of Fast Food Outlets and Health of the density of fast food outlets needs to be carried out and an agreement reached on density on issues with site and academic advisers, the intern will conduct a stock take of fast food outlets in: o CBD (within

Hickman, Mark

263

Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to

Julie Henderson; John Coveney; Paul Ward; Anne Taylor

2009-01-01

264

The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets varies with neighborhood-level socioeconomic status in Edmonton, Canada. Only market area and fast food proximity predicted supermarket exposure. For fast food outlets, the odds of exposure were greater in areas with more Aboriginals, renters, lone parents, low-income households, and public transportation commuters; and lower in those with higher median

Karen E. Smoyer-Tomic; John C. Spence; Kim D. Raine; Carl Amrhein; Nairne Cameron; Vladimir Yasenovskiy; Nicoleta Cutumisu; Eric Hemphill; Julia Healy

2008-01-01

265

Home Food Availability, Parental Dietary Intake, and Familial Eating Habits Influence the Diet Quality of Urban Hispanic Children  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Methods: Hispanic children, 10–14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. Results: The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had “good” scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that “need improvement” (HEI, 51–80), and 14% had “poor” scores (HEI, <50). Children with lower HEI scores had sugar-sweetened beverages available at home and participated in family meals while watching television more frequently, when compared with children with higher HEI scores. Conclusions: Home food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health. PMID:25259675

Adams, Alexandra K.; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

2014-01-01

266

The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: An analysis by race\\/ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables

Richard A. Dunn; Joseph R. Sharkey; Scott Horel

267

Child body mass index, obesity, and proximity to fast food restaurants. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Objectives. Using a sample of elementary and middle school students, we examined the associations between body mass index (BMI), obesity, and measures of the proximity of fast food and full service restaurants to students' residences. We controlled for socioeconomic status using a novel proxy measure based on housing values. Methods. We used BMI and obesity measures based on height and weight data collected as part of a school health assessment along with geocoded data on addresses of residences and food establishments.

268

Attentional bias in restrictive eating disorders. Stronger attentional avoidance of high-fat food compared to healthy controls?  

PubMed

A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and thus subsequent craving. This study examined whether patients diagnosed with restrictive eating disorders ('restricting AN-like patients'; N=88) indeed show stronger attentional avoidance of visual food stimuli than healthy controls (N=76). Attentional engagement and disengagement were assessed by means of a pictorial exogenous cueing task, and (food and neutral) pictures were presented for 300, 500, or 1000 ms. In the 500 ms condition, both restricting AN-like patients and healthy controls demonstrated attentional avoidance of high-fat food as indexed by a negative cue-validity effect and impaired attentional engagement with high-fat food, whereas no evidence was found for facilitated disengagement from high-fat food. Within the group of restricting AN-like patients, patients with relatively severe eating pathology showed relatively strong attentional engagement with low-fat food. There was no evidence for attentional bias in the 300 and 1000 ms condition. The pattern of findings indicate that attentional avoidance of high-fat food is a common phenomenon that may become counterproductive in restricting AN-like patients, as it could facilitate their restricted food intake. PMID:22005183

Veenstra, Esther M; de Jong, Peter J

2012-02-01

269

The influence of restrained and external eating patterns on overeating.  

PubMed

Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eating behaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fast food fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fast food fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fast food fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fast food foods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent. PMID:17349717

Burton, Pat; Smit, Hendrik J; Lightowler, Helen J

2007-07-01

270

Evaluation of a norovirus detection methodology for ready-to-eat foods.  

PubMed

Despite recent norovirus (NoV) foodborne outbreaks related to consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, a standardized assay to detect NoV in these foods is not available yet. Therefore, the robustness of a methodology for NoV detection in RTE foods was evaluated. The NoV detection methodology consisted of direct RNA extraction with an eventual concentration step, followed by RNA purification and a multiplex RT-qPCR assay for the detection of GI and GII NoV and the murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), the latter used as process control. The direct RNA extraction method made use of the guanidine-isothiocyanate containing reagent (Tri-reagent®, Ambion) to extract viral RNA from the food sample (basic protocol called TriShort), followed by an eventual concentration step using organic solvents (extended protocol called TriConc). To evaluate the robustness of the NoV detection method, the influence of (1) the NoV inoculum level and (2) different food types on the recovery of NoV from RTE foods was investigated. Simultaneously, the effect of two RNA purification methods (manual RNeasy minikit (Qiagen) and automated NucliSens EasyMAG (BioMérieux)) on the recovery of NoV from these foods was examined. Finally, MNV-1 was evaluated as process control. First of all, high level GI and GII NoV inocula (~10? NoV genomic copies/10 g) could be recovered from penne salad samples (10 g) in at least 4 out of 6 PCRs, while low level GI and GII NoV inocula (~10? NoV genomic copies/10 g) could be recovered from this food product in maximally 3 out 6 PCRs, showing a significant influence of the NoV inoculum level on its recovery. Secondly, low level GI and GII NoV inocula (10? NoV genomic copies/10 g) were spiked onto 22 ready-to-eat food samples (10 g) classified in three categories (soups, deli sandwiches and composite meals). The GI and GII NoV inocula could be recovered from 20 of the 22 samples. The TriConc protocol provided better recoveries of GI and GII NoV for soups while the TriShort protocol yielded better results for the recovery of GII NoV from composite meals. NoV recovery from deli sandwiches was problematic using either protocol. Thirdly, the simultaneous comparison of two RNA purification protocols demonstrated that automated RNA purification performed equally or better compared to manual RNA extraction. Finally, MNV-1 was successfully evaluated as process control when detecting NoV in RTE foods using this detection methodology. In conclusion, the evaluated NoV detection method was capable of detecting NoV in RTE foods, although recoveries were influenced by the inoculum level and by the food type. PMID:21333370

Stals, Ambroos; Baert, Leen; De Keuckelaere, Ann; Van Coillie, Els; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2011-02-28

271

Occurrence of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in ready-to-eat food in Korea.  

PubMed

Toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ready-to-eat (RTE) food is a leading cause of foodborne illness in Korea. To monitor food contamination by S. aureus, a total of 3332 RTE food samples were selected from nationwide wholesale marts between 2003 and 2004 and examined. A total of 285 (8.6%) of the overall samples were contaminated by S. aureus. According to the analysis, 31.6% of the tested cream-cakes, 19.8% of the raw fish, and 19.3% of the rice cakes with filling were contaminated with S. aureus. Forty-seven percent of the strains isolated from the contaminated food were enterotoxigenic S. aureus. The phenotypic result of the strain isolated from food showed that 48% of the strains produced one or more toxins, such as staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, and C (SEA, SEB, and SEC). At least one SEA was produced by over 90% of the toxigenic strains. Other toxins, such as SEB, SEC, SED, SEA+SEC, and SEC+SED, were each detected. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), a causative agent of toxic shock syndrome, was detected in 13 strains of the toxigenic isolates from the food. As the result of genotyping, 22 strains with a toxin gene that was not detected in the phenotypic analysis were also detected. Sixty-nine percent of the toxigenic strains had at least one sea gene, and the most prevalent genotype was sea+seh (34.4%), followed by sea (18.8%) and sea+seg+sei (15.6%). The tst gene encoding TSST-1 was found in 13 strains (13.5%). The genes (eta and etb) encoding exfoliative toxins A and B were not detected in any of the samples. PMID:17536673

Oh, Su Kyung; Lee, Nari; Cho, Young Sun; Shin, Dong-Bin; Choi, Soon Young; Koo, Minseon

2007-05-01

272

NPY Y1 receptor is involved in ghrelin- and fasting-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake  

PubMed Central

Fasting triggers a constellation of physiological and behavioral changes, including increases in peripherally produced ghrelin and centrally produced hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY). Refeeding stimulates food intake in most species; however, hamsters primarily increase foraging and food hoarding with smaller increases in food intake. Fasting-induced increases in foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters are mimicked by peripheral ghrelin, central NPY, and NPY Y1 receptor agonist injections. Because fasting stimulates ghrelin and subsequently NPY synthesis/release, it may be that fasting-induced increased hoarding is mediated by NPY Y1 receptor activation. Therefore, we asked: Can an Y1 receptor antagonist block fasting- or ghrelin-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake? This was accomplished by injecting the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist 1229U91 intracerebroventricularly in hamsters fasted, fed, or given peripheral ghrelin injections and housed in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system coupled with simulated-burrow housing. Three foraging conditions were used: 1) no running wheel access, free food, 2) running wheel access, free food, or 3) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/pellet) for food. Fasting was a more potent stimulator of foraging and food hoarding than ghrelin. Concurrent injections of 1229U91 completely blocked fasting- and ghrelin-induced increased foraging and food intake and attenuated, but did not always completely block, fasting- and ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding. Collectively, these data suggest that the NPY Y1 receptor is important for the effects of ghrelin- and fasting-induced increases in foraging and food intake, but other NPY receptors and/or other neurochemical systems are involved in increases in food hoarding. PMID:17204592

Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J.

2007-01-01

273

Eat it or beat it. The differential effects of food temptations on overweight and normal-weight restrained eaters.  

PubMed

Dieting is difficult to maintain in an environment where cues of attractive, high-calorie food abound. Overweight and restrained eating have been associated with failures of self-regulation in response to such food cues. A subgroup of successful restrained eaters, however, have been found to activate their dieting goal in response to tempting food cues, which helps them to pursue their dieting goal in such situations. The present research extended this finding by examining the effect of tempting food cues on wanting to eat high-calorie snacks in normal-weight and overweight restrained eaters. In an Internet experiment, normal-weight and overweight participants (N=284) were unobtrusively primed with tempting food or neutral food objects. Next, wanting for high-calorie snacks was assessed with a forced-choice measure presenting pictures of high-calorie snacks and low-calorie alternatives. As predicted, exposure to attractive food cues decreased wanting for high-calorie food in normal-weight restrained eaters, but increased wanting in overweight restrained eaters. These results suggest that, in women who are successful in maintaining their weight, food temptations may trigger processes of successful self-regulation, whereas overweight restrained eaters may seem to forget about their diet goal when they are confronted with attractive food, thereby risking the chance to overeat. PMID:20433882

Ouwehand, Carolijn; Papies, Esther K

2010-08-01

274

Why Go Local? Buying and eating locally grown foods foods that  

E-print Network

there are fewer transporta- tion costs. This also can minimize environmen- tal impacts, like pollution. · Buying.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic.virginia.gov/consumer/index.html, are also good resources. Farmers markets: Get to know the people behind the food ­ the farmers! Farmers

Liskiewicz, Maciej

275

Role of quantitative risk assessment and food safety objectives in managing Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes may be found on ready-to-eat (RTE) meats, posing a public health risk. To minimize the public health impact, an appropriate level of protection (ALOP) can be established for a population with respect to L. monocytogenes, and ideally should be based on a scientific assessment of the risk, as well as societal and economic factors. Food safety systems can

Isabel Walls

2006-01-01

276

Effect of anorexic drugs on food intake and the micro-structure of eating in human subjects.  

PubMed

Human volunteer subjects of normal weight received oral doses of (+)amphetamine (10 mg) or (+/-)fenfluramine (30 mg and 60 mg) together with a placebo control according to a within-subjects design. The effects of these treatments were monitored by measuring food intake in a test meal, subjective ratings of hunger motivation and the micro-structure of eating behaviour abstracted from videotaped recordings of the test meal. Various measures of the rate of feeding were computed from these recordings. Amphetamine and fenfluramine (60 mg) showed generally similar effects on food intake and on the subjective experience of hunger, but displayed differing actions on the fine structure of eating. Amphetamine increased latency to initiation of eating and increased the rate of food ingestion, whilst fenfluramine slowed the local rate of eating and eliminated the characteristic decline in the rate of feeding across the course of a meal. These findings display certain resemblance to the results of animal experiments involving similar pharmacological manipulations and emphasise the importance of measuring rate of feeding in animal and human studies. The results of this study suggest that the micro-analysis of feeding behaviour not only provides a tool for understanding systems involved in the modulation of food consumption but also reveals information which may be helpful for the use of drugs in the treatment of obesity. PMID:119258

Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

1979-11-01

277

Phenolics and antioxidant activity of a ready-to-eat snack food prepared from the edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporous)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the total polyphenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties of a ready to-eat snack food prepared from Agaricus bisporous. A comparison of these properties with the raw, unprocessed mushroom was also carried out. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Extracts of raw and snack mushrooms (osmotically dehydrated, dried and spiced and following sensorial analysis) were analyzed

Richu Singla; Moushumi Ghosh; Abhijit Ganguli

2009-01-01

278

Time to eat: the relationship between the number of people eating and meal duration in three lunch settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an observational study of customers in three different types of lunch settings: a worksite cafeteria, a fast-food restaurant, and a moderately priced restaurant, and assessed the relationship between meal duration and the number of people eating at each table (group size). Results suggest a significant positive correlation between group size and meal duration, collapsing over eating settings. Analysis

Rick Bell; Patricia L Pliner

2003-01-01

279

Relation between changes in neural responsivity and reductions in desire to eat high-calorie foods following gastric bypass surgery.  

PubMed

Reductions in reward-related (e.g. striatal) neural activation have been noted following obesity surgery. It has been speculated that these postoperative neural changes may be related to documented postoperative changes in food preferences; however, this relation has not been previously established. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and rating scales were used to assess neural responsivity, desire to eat (i.e. wanting), and liking for high- and low-calorie food cues in 14 females one month pre- and one month post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Pre- to post-RYGB changes in all variables were assessed, and postoperative changes in neural responsivity were regressed on postoperative changes in desire to eat and liking of foods. Results revealed significant postoperative reductions in mesolimbic (e.g. striatal) neural responsivity, desire to eat (wanting), and liking for high- relative to low-calorie food cues. Postoperative reductions in mesolimbic responsivity were associated with postoperative reductions in wanting, but not liking, for high- versus low-calorie foods. Interestingly, reductions in food wanting were also related to reductions in inhibitory (e.g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) activation following RYGB. Results are consistent with the hypothesized delineation between wanting and liking, supporting the notion that wanting, but not liking, is processed through the dopaminergic reward pathway. Concurrent reductions in both reward-related and inhibitory activation-predicted reductions in desire to eat might suggest that less dietary inhibition was elicited to resist potential overconsumption as the anticipated reward value of high-calorie foods decreased following RYGB. PMID:22406414

Ochner, C N; Stice, E; Hutchins, E; Afifi, L; Geliebter, A; Hirsch, J; Teixeira, J

2012-05-01

280

Determinants of healthy eating in children and youth.  

PubMed

This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eating behaviours are identified. PMID:16042160

Taylor, Jennifer P; Evers, Susan; McKenna, Mary

2005-01-01

281

Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters or supermarkets, grocery stores, or fast food restaurants. Increasing deprivation was associated with decreasing numbers of grocery stores, mass merchandisers, dollar stores, and fast food restaurants within 3 miles. Conclusion It is important to understand not only the distance that people must travel to the nearest store to make a purchase, but also how many shopping opportunities they have in order to compare price, quality, and selection. Future research should examine how spatial access to the food environment influences the utilization of food stores and fast food restaurants, and the strategies used by low-income families to obtain food for the household. PMID:19220879

Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

2009-01-01

282

Islamic Fasting and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 h\\/day. Fasting includes avoidance of drinking liquids and eating foods. The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting. Methods: Related abstracts from 1960 to 2009 were obtained from Medline and

Fereidoun Azizi

2010-01-01

283

Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.  

PubMed

There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (?85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. PMID:21439918

Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

2011-07-01

284

The Food-Contaminant Deoxynivalenol Modifies Eating by Targeting Anorexigenic Neurocircuitry  

PubMed Central

Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders. PMID:22022538

Jdir, Rajae; Sadoud, Medhi; Thirion, Sylvie; Tardivel, Catherine; Roux, Julien; Lebrun, Bruno; Wanaverbecq, Nicolas; Mounien, Lourdes; Trouslard, Jerome; Jean, Andre; Dallaporta, Michel; Troadec, Jean-Denis

2011-01-01

285

Monitoring the Affordability of Healthy Eating: A Case Study of 10 Years of the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket  

PubMed Central

Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000–2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes. PMID:22254001

Williams, Peter

2010-01-01

286

Consumption, health attitudes and perception toward fast food among arab consumers in kuwait: gender differences.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume "double" burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their "fast food" classification. PMID:25363129

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

2014-06-01

287

A preliminary evaluation of the effect of glove use by food handlers in fast food restaurants.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine whether the levels of selected microorganisms differed on foods handled by gloved and bare hands at fast food restaurants. Three hundred seventy-one plain flour tortillas were purchased from fast food restaurants and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., coliform bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Approximately 46% of the samples were handled by workers wearing gloves compared with 52% of samples with bare hand contact. Coliform bacteria were found in 9.6% of samples handled by gloved workers and 4.4% of samples handled by bare hands, although this difference was not statistically significant. The distribution of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, a general measure of hygiene, was also higher in samples handled by gloved workers in one restaurant chain. The presence of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and S. aureus was detected in one, two, and eight samples, respectively, and there were no significant differences between samples handled by gloved or bare hands. Neither direct contact of the tortilla with the food preparation surface nor gender of the worker affected the level of any organism tested. The observed tendency of food workers to wear the same pair of gloves for extended periods and complacency might account for the apparent failure of gloves to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination. The results further suggest that glove use might be counterproductive because workers might wash their hands less frequently when gloved. PMID:15690825

Lynch, Robert A; Phillips, Margaret L; Elledge, Brenda L; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Boatright, Daniel T

2005-01-01

288

Fast food costs and adolescent body mass index: Evidence from panel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability

Lisa M. Powell

2009-01-01

289

Inequality in obesigenic environments: Fast food density in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of obesity in African American populations may be due to the food environment in residential communities, and the density of fast food restaurants is an important aspect of the restaurant landscape in US cities. This study investigated racial and socioeconomic correlates of fast food density in New York City. We found that predominantly Black areas had higher

Naa Oyo A. Kwate; Chun-Yip Yau; Ji-Meng Loh; Donya Williams

2009-01-01

290

Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation—substitution or concentration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and

Laura Macdonald; Steven Cummins; Sally Macintyre

2007-01-01

291

Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children  

PubMed Central

Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

2012-01-01

292

Assessing foods offered to children at child-care centers using the Healthy Eating Index-2005.  

PubMed

The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) has been applied primarily to assess the quality of individual-level diets but has recently been applied to environmental-level data as well. Currently, no studies have applied the HEI-2005 to foods offered in child-care settings. This cross-sectional study used the HEI-2005 to assess the quality of foods and beverages offered to preschool children (3 to 5 years old) in child-care centers. Two days of dietary observations were conducted and 120 children (six children per center) were observed at 20 child-care centers in North Carolina between July 2005 and January 2006. Data were analyzed between July 2011 and January 2012 using t tests. Mean total HEI-2005 score (59.12) was significantly (P<0.01) lower than the optimal score of 100, indicating the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children. All centers met the maximum score for milk. A majority also met the maximum scores for total fruit (17 of 20 centers), whole fruit (15 of 20 centers), and sodium (19 of 20 centers). Mean scores for total vegetable (mean=2.26±1.09), dark green/orange vegetables and legumes (mean=0.20±0.43), total grain (mean=1.09±1.25), whole grain (mean=1.29±1.65), oils (mean=0.44±0.25), and meat/beans (mean=0.44±0.25) were significantly lower than the maximum scores recommended (P<0.01). Mean scores for saturated fat (mean=3.32±3.41; P<0.01) and calories from solid fats and added sugars (mean=14.76±4.08; P<0.01) suggest the need to decrease the provision of foods high in these components. These findings indicate the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children at the centers to ensure that the foods provided contribute to children's daily nutrition requirements. PMID:23773561

Erinosho, Temitope O; Ball, Sarah C; Hanson, Phillip P; Vaughn, Amber E; Ward, Dianne Stanton

2013-08-01

293

Assessing foods offered to children at child-care centers using the Healthy Eating Index-2005  

PubMed Central

The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) has been applied primarily to assess the quality of individual-level diets, but was recently applied to environmental-level data. Currently, no studies have applied the HEI-2005 to foods offered in child-care settings. This cross-sectional study used the HEI-2005 to assess the quality of foods/beverages offered to preschool children (three-five years old) in child-care centers. Two days of dietary observations were conducted, and 120 children (six children per center) were observed, at 20 child-care centers in North Carolina between July 2005 and January 2006. Data were analyzed between July 2011 and January 2012 using t-tests. The mean total HEI-2005 score (59.12) was significantly (p<0.01) lower than the optimal score of 100, indicating the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children. All centers met the maximum score for milk. A majority also met the maximum scores for total fruit (17 of 20 centers), whole fruit (15 of 20 centers), and sodium (19 of 20 centers). Mean scores for total vegetable (mean=2.26±1.09), dark green/orange vegetables and legumes (mean=0.20±0.43), total grain (mean=1.09±1.25), whole grain (mean=1.29±1.65), oils (mean=0.44±0.25), and meat/beans (mean=0.44±0.25) were significantly (p<0.01) lower than the maximum scores recommended. Mean scores for saturated fat (mean=3.32±3.41; p<0.01), and calories from solid fats and added sugars (mean=14.76±4.08; p<0.01) suggest the need to decrease the provision of foods high in these components. These findings indicate the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children at the centers to ensure that foods provided contribute to children’s daily nutrition requirements. PMID:23773561

Erinosho, Temitope O.; Ball, Sarah C.; Hanson, Phillip P.; Vaughn, Amber E.; Ward, Dianne Stanton

2013-01-01

294

Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits.  

PubMed

Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, which can induce palatable "comfort" food consumption, may trigger or reinforce neural pathways leading to stronger reactions to highly rewarding foods. We implemented functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether chronic stress influences activation in reward, motivation and executive brain regions in response to pictures of high calorie and low calorie foods in thirty women. On separate lab visits, we also assessed food intake from a snack food buffet and circulating cortisol. In women reporting higher chronic stress (HCS), pictures of high calorie foods elicited exaggerated activity in regions of the brain involving reward, motivation, and habitual decision-making. In response to pictures of high calorie food, higher chronic stress was also associated with significant deactivation in frontal regions (BA10; BA46) linked to strategic planning and emotional control. In functional connectivity analysis, HCS strengthened connectivity between amygdala and the putamen, while LCS enhanced connectivity between amygdala and the anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex (BA10). A hypocortisolemic signature and more consumption of high calorie foods from the snack buffet were observed in the HCS group. These results suggest that persistent stress exposure may alter the brain's response to food in ways that predispose individuals to poor eating habits which, if sustained, may increase risk for obesity. PMID:23954410

Tryon, Matthew S; Carter, Cameron S; Decant, Rashel; Laugero, Kevin D

2013-08-15

295

Genotypes, antibiotic resistance, and virulence factors of staphylococci from ready-to-eat food.  

PubMed

Sixty-seven staphylococcal isolates belonging to 12 species were obtained from 70 ready-to-eat food products. Staphylococcus aureus (n=25), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=13) were dominant. Susceptibility to penicillin, oxacillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin was determined. All investigated S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and fifteen isolates were resistant to four and more antibiotics. Thirty-eight coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and seventeen to four and more antibiotics. Fifteen CNS isolates were mecA positive, and grew in the presence of 6 ?g/mL oxacillin. All S. aureus isolates were mecA-negative. Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was found in seven S. epidermidis isolates. Five S. epidermidis isolates harbored ica operon, ACME and were able to form biofilm. Three of them also possessed IS256 element and were mecA-positive. The expression of icaA gene was comparable in five ica-positive S. epidermidis isolates. One of six mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates was classified as sequence type (ST)155, one as ST110, and two as ST88. Two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermis (MRSE) belonged to new STs, that is, ST362, and ST363. Enterotoxin genes were found in 92% of S. aureus isolates. No enterotoxin gene was detected in analyzed CNS population. We show that ready-to-eat products are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CNS and potentially virulent strains of S. epidermidis, including genotypes undistinguishable from hospital-adapted clones. PMID:21988402

Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystro?, Jaros?aw; Bania, Jacek

2012-01-01

296

healthy eating CHEAP AND EASY  

E-print Network

for healthy meals. healthy eating CHEAP AND EASY For more information on healthy eating, call 1-800-667-DIET example eating healthy foods more often offering meals and snacks at regular times, and giving your kids a variety of foods at meals and snacks. children NEED HEALTHY FOOD healthy eating doesn't mean forcing kids

297

Impact of Simulated Ostracism on Overweight and Normal-Weight Youths' Motivation to Eat and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age = 13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants’ responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths’ health behaviors. PMID:21094193

Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C.; Nitecki, Lauren A.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Germeroth, Lisa J.; Roemmich, James N.

2010-01-01

298

Impact of simulated ostracism on overweight and normal-weight youths' motivation to eat and food intake.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals' abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age=13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants' responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths' health behaviors. PMID:21094193

Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Germeroth, Lisa J; Roemmich, James N

2011-02-01

299

Fast food costs and adolescent body mass index: evidence from panel data. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability of full-service restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and commercial physical activity-related facilities.

300

Measuring food access in Melbourne: access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Access to healthy food can be an important determinant of a healthy diet. This paper describes the assessment of access to healthy and unhealthy foods using a GIS accessibility programme in a large outer municipality of Melbourne. Access to a major supermarket was used as a proxy for access to a healthy diet and fast food outlet as proxy for access to unhealthy food.

301

Impacts of fast food and food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To simultaneously identify consumer segments based on individual-level consumption and community-level food retail environment data and to investigate whether the segments are associated with BMI and dietary knowledge in China. Design A multilevel latent class cluster model was applied to identify consumer segments based not only on their individual preferences for fast food, salty snack foods, and soft drinks

Zhang XiaoYong; H. Dagevos

2012-01-01

302

Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children . However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children's and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels

B Elbel; J Gyamfi; R Kersh

2011-01-01

303

The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity and Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how changes in the supply of fast food restaurants affect weight outcomes of 3 million children and 3 million pregnant women. Among ninth graders, a fast food restaurant within 0.1 miles of a school results in a 5.2 percent increase in obesity rates. Among pregnant women, a fast-food restaurant within 0.5 miles of residence results in a 1.6

Janet Currie; Stefano Della Vigna; Enrico Moretti; Vikram Pathania

2010-01-01

304

The effect of fast-food restaurants on childhood obesity: a school level analysis.  

PubMed

We analyze, using an instrumental variable approach, the effect of the number of fast-food restaurants on school level obesity rates in Arkansas. Using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument, our results suggest that exposure to fast-food restaurants can impact weight outcomes. Specifically, we find that the number of fast-food restaurants within a mile from the school can significantly affect school level obesity rates. PMID:23827821

Alviola, Pedro A; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Thomsen, Michael R; Danforth, Diana; Smartt, James

2014-01-01

305

An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

2013-01-01

306

Relationship of perceived macronutrient and caloric content to affective cognitions about food in eating-disordered, restrained , and unrestrained subjects1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive sets concerning food were examined in eating-disorder patients and in restrained and unrestrained control subjects. Subjects rated 38 common foods for preference, presence or absence of guilt and danger, preferred monthly fre- quency, and caloric, fat, and carbohydrate content. Cognitive ratings were examined based upon the individual's perceived amounts ofcalories and macronutrients. Hedonic ratings of foods perceived as high

Suzanne R Sunday; Andrea Einhorn

307

THE PREVALENCE AND NUTRITIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION AMONG HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

Background Fast food consumption has increased dramatically in the general population over the last 25 years. However, little is known about the prevalence and nutritional implications of fast food consumption among hemodialysis patients. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we obtained data on fast food consumption and nutrient intake (from four separate 24-hour dietary recalls) and nutritional parameters (from chart abstraction) for 194 randomly selected patients from 44 hemodialysis facilities in northeast Ohio. Results Eighty-one subjects (42%) reported consuming at least one fast food meal or snack in four days. Subjects who consumed more fast food had higher kilocalorie, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium intakes. For example, kilocalorie per kilogram intake per day increased from 18.9 to 26.1 with higher frequencies of fast food consumption (p=.003). Subjects who consumed more fast food also had higher serum phosphorus levels and interdialytic weight gains. Conclusion Fast food is commonly consumed by hemodialysis patients and is associated with a higher intake of kilocalories, carbohydrates, fats, and sodium and adverse changes in phosphorus and fluid balance. Further work is needed to understand the long-term benefits and risks of fast food consumption among hemodialysis patients. PMID:17586425

Butt, Saud; Leon, Janeen B.; David, Carol L.; Chang, Henry; Sidhu, Sanbir; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

2007-01-01

308

Food Addiction in a Spanish Sample of Eating Disorders: DSM-5 Diagnostic Subtype Differentiation and Validation Data.  

PubMed

Although the concept of 'food addiction' (FA) has raised growing interest because of evidence for similarities between substance dependence and excessive food intake, there is a lack of studies that explore this construct among the wide spectrum of eating disorders (EDs). Besides providing validation scores of a Spanish version of the Yale FA Scale (YFAS-S), this study examined the prevalence of 'FA' among ED subtypes compared with healthy-eating controls (HCs) and the association between 'FA' scores, eating symptomatology and general psychopathology. A sample of 125 adult women with ED, diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 criteria, and 82 healthy-eating women participated in the study. All participants were assessed with the YFAS-S, the ED Inventory-2 and the Symptom Checklist-Revised. Results showed that the internal structure of the one-dimensional solution for the YFAS-S was very good (??=?0.95). The YFAS-S has a good discriminative capacity to differentiate between ED and controls (specificity?=?97.6% and sensitivity (Se)?=?72.8%; area under receiver operating characteristic curve?=?0.90) and a good Se to screen for specific ED subtypes. YFAS-S scores were associated with higher levels of negative affect and depression, higher general psychopathology, more severe eating pathology and greater body mass index. When comparing the prevalence of 'FA' between ED subtypes, the lowest prevalence of 'FA', measured with the YFAS-S, was for the anorexia nervosa (AN) restrictive subtype with 50%, and the highest was for the AN binge-purging subtype (85.7%), followed by bulimia nervosa (81.5%) and binge eating disorder (76.9%). In conclusion, higher YFAS-S scores are associated with bingeing ED-subtype patients and with more eating severity and psychopathology. Although the 'FA' construct is able to differentiate between ED and HC, it needs to be further explored. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25139680

Granero, Roser; Hilker, Ines; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Sauchelli, Sarah; Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Dieguez, Carlos; Soriano, José; Salcedo-Sánchez, Cristina; Casanueva, Felipe F; De la Torre, Rafael; Menchón, José M; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

2014-11-01

309

Opioid-dependent anticipatory negative contrast and binge-like eating in rats with limited access to highly preferred food.  

PubMed

Binge eating and an increased role for palatability in determining food intake are abnormal adaptations in feeding behavior linked to eating disorders and body weight dysregulation. The present study tested the hypothesis that rats with limited access to highly preferred food would develop analogous opioid-dependent learned adaptations in feeding behavior, with associated changes in metabolism and anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, adolescent female Wistar rats were daily food deprived (2 h) and then offered 10-min access to a feeder containing chow followed sequentially by 10-min access to a different feeder containing either chow (chow/chow; n=7) or a highly preferred, but macronutrient-comparable, sucrose-rich diet (chow/preferred; n=8). Chow/preferred-fed rats developed binge-like hyperphagia of preferred diet from the second feeder and anticipatory chow hypophagia from the first feeder with a time course suggesting associative learning. The feeding adaptations were dissociable in onset, across individuals, and in their dose-response to the opioid-receptor antagonist nalmefene, suggesting that they represent distinct palatability-motivated processes. Chow/preferred-fed rats showed increased anxiety-like behavior in relation to their propensity to binge as well as increased feed efficiency, body weight, and visceral adiposity. Chow/preferred-fed rats also had increased circulating leptin levels and decreased growth hormone and 'active' ghrelin levels. Thus, the short-term control of food intake in rats with restricted access to highly preferred foods comes to rely more on hedonic, rather than nutritional, properties of food, through associative learning mechanisms. Such rats show changes in ingestive, metabolic, endocrine, and anxiety-related measures, which resemble features of binge eating disorders or obesity. PMID:17443124

Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina; Steardo, Luca; Zorrilla, Eric P

2008-02-01

310

Factors which influence the consumption of street foods and fast foods in South Africa-a national survey  

PubMed Central

Background Very little is known about street food and fast food consumption patterns in South Africa despite this being a large sector of the national economy in terms of employment provided and sales of food. The objective of this study was to determine the use of street foods and fast foods purchased by South Africans living in different provinces and geographic areas. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Structured interview-administered questionnaires in 11 official languages were conducted at the participants' homes. A nationally representative sample (n = 3287) was drawn from all ethnic groups, and provinces including participants 16 years and older. Logistic regression was done to evaluate factors impacting on fast food consumption. Results Frequent (2 ? times/week) street food consumption ranged from 1.8% in Northern Cape to 20.6% in Limpopo; frequent (2 ? times/week) fast food consumption ranged between 1.5% in North West Province to 14.7% in Gauteng. The highest intake of street food was in the medium socio-economic category (14.7%) while the highest intake of fast foods was in the high socio-economic category (13.2%). Overall, fruit was the most commonly purchased street food by all ethnic groups over the previous week although this practice was highest in black participants (35.8%). Purchases of soft drinks ranged from 4.8% in whites to 16.4% in blacks and savoury snacks from 2.3% to 14.5% in whites and blacks, respectively. Consumption of fast foods and street foods were influenced by a number of socio-demographic factors including ownership of major home appliances. Frequent fast food consumers had a significantly higher dietary diversity score (4.69; p < 0.0001) while frequent street food consumers had a significantly lower score (3.81; p < 0.0001). Conclusions A large percentage of the population purchase street foods and fast foods. This is of some concern when one notes the high prevalence of soft drink consumption in terms of its association with obesity and non-communicable diseases. These findings need to be taken into consideration when evaluating dietary patterns and nutritional adequacy of population diets. PMID:21967754

2011-01-01

311

Meal patterns and food choices of young African-American men: understanding eating within the context of daily life.  

PubMed

Although young African-American men are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, participation in competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American men. This study explored the activities of young African-American men to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited that included five groups of African-American men aged 15 to 22 years (N=106): high school athletes and nonathletes, college athletes and nonathletes, and nonstudents. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices during the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, nonstudent status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American men that take into consideration how school, athletics, and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods. PMID:21872697

Savoca, Margaret R; Martine, Tara L; Morton, Tiffany B; Johnson, Lakeisha T; Bell, Nancy M; Aronson, Robert E; Wallace, Debra C

2011-09-01

312

Receptivity to Television Fast-Food Restaurant Marketing and Obesity Among U.S. Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768

McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

2013-01-01

313

Effect of viscosity on food transport and swallow initiation during eating of two-phase food in normal young adults: a pilot study.  

PubMed

When eating food containing both liquid and solid phases (two-phase food), the liquid component frequently enters the hypopharynx before swallowing, which may increase the risk of aspiration. We therefore tested whether preswallow bolus transport and swallow initiation would change as the viscosity of two-phase food was increased. Fiberoptic endoscopy was recorded while 18 adult subjects ate 5 g of steamed rice with 3 ml of blue-dye water. Liquid viscosity was set at four levels by adding a thickening agent (0, 1, 2, and 4 wt%, respectively). We measured the timing of the leading edge of the food reaching the base of the epiglottis, as well as the location of the leading edge at swallow initiation. As viscosity increased, the leading edge of the food reached the epiglottis significantly later during chewing and was higher in the pharynx at swallow onset. The time after the leading edge reached the epiglottis did not vary among the viscosities of the two-phase food. This study found that the initial viscosity of two-phase food significantly altered oropharyngeal bolus flow and the timing of swallow initiation. Accordingly, increased two-phase food viscosity may delay food entry into the pharynx and be of use in dysphagic diets. PMID:22653081

Matsuo, Koichiro; Kawase, Soichiro; Wakimoto, Nina; Iwatani, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Yuji; Ogasawara, Tadashi

2013-03-01

314

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

315

Healthy Eating for Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Intolerances Autism Cancer Celiac Disease Diabetes Digestive Health Eating Disorders Fertility and Reproductive Health Heart and Cardiovascular HIV/ ... outlines essential information for people diagnosed with Celiac disease. Healthy Eating for Men Food is more than just fuel. ...

316

Determinants of fast-food consumption. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied and extended the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988) in an examination of the variables influencing fast-food consumption in an Australian sample. Four hundred and four participants responded to items measuring TPB constructs and retrospective and prospective measures of fast-food consumption. Additional independent variables included: Consideration of Future Consequences (Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994), Fear

Kirsten I. Dunn; Philip Mohr; Carlene J. Wilson; Gary A. Wittert

2011-01-01

317

Neighborhood playgrounds, fast food restaurants, and crime: relationships to overweight in low-income preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We examined the relationship between overweight in preschool children and three environmental factors—the proximity of the children's residences to playgrounds and to fast food restaurants and the safety of the children's neighborhoods. We hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods were more likely to be overweight.Methods. This was a

Hillary L Burdette; Robert C Whitaker

2004-01-01

318

The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a longitudinal survey of fast food restaurants in Texas, the authors examine the impact of recent changes in the federal minimum wage on a low-wage labor market The authors draw four main conclusions. First, the survey results indicate that less than 5 percent of fast food restaurants use the new youth subminimum wage even though the vast

Lawrence F. Katz; Alan B. Krueger

1992-01-01

319

College Students' Perceptions of Fast Food Restaurant Menu Items on Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Examining the beliefs about fast food and health, especially the consequences of fast food intake (FFI) on health, among college students will be a crucial factor in turning the tide on current morbidity and mortality statistics. Purpose: This article examines the results of a survey among Midwestern college-aged students about their…

Stockton, Susan; Baker, David

2013-01-01

320

The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Smoyer-Tomic KE, Spence JC, Raine KD, Amrhein C, Cameron N, Yasenovskiy V, Cutumisu N, Hemphill E, Healy J. The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets.

321

Dietary-induced binge eating increases prefrontal cortex neural activation to restraint stress and increases binge food consumption following chronic guanfacine.  

PubMed

Binge eating is a prominent feature of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Stress or perceived stress is an often-cited reason for binge eating. One notion is that the neural pathways that overlap with stress reactivity and feeding behavior are altered by recurrent binge eating. Using young adult female rats in a dietary-induced binge eating model (30min access to binge food with or without 24-h calorie restriction, twice a week, for 6weeks) we measured the neural activation by c-Fos immunoreactivity to the binge food (vegetable shortening mixed with 10% sucrose) in bingeing and non-bingeing animals under acute stress (immobilization; 1h) or no stress conditions. There was an increase in the number of immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stressed animals previously exposed to the binge eating feeding schedules. Because attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) medications target the mPFC and have some efficacy at reducing binge eating in clinical populations, we examined whether chronic (2weeks; via IP osmotic mini-pumps) treatment with a selective alpha-2A adrenergic agonist (0.5mg/kg/day), guanfacine, would reduce binge-like eating. In the binge group with only scheduled access to binge food (30min; twice a week; 8weeks), guanfacine increased total calories consumed during the 30-min access period from the 2-week pre-treatment baseline and increased binge food consumption compared with saline-treated animals. These experiments suggest that mPFC is differentially activated in response to an immobilization stress in animals under different dietary conditions and chronic guanfacine, at the dose tested, was ineffective at reducing binge-like eating. PMID:25158105

Bello, Nicholas T; Walters, Amy L; Verpeut, Jessica L; Caverly, Jonathan

2014-10-01

322

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using websites and interactive games students will discover how eating healthy effects their bodies. Healthy eating is important in helping our bodies function at their best! Follow the links below and then answer the questions in our Healthy Foods project folder on our class wiki! VisitDining Decisionsand play a fun game where you will load your lunch tray with healthy choices. How do your current lunch choices ...

Smith, Mrs.

2011-12-12

323

Examination of food reward and energy intake under laboratory and free-living conditions in a trait binge eating subtype of obesity  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Trait binge eating has been proposed as a “hedonic subtype” of obesity characterized by enhanced food liking and wanting, and a preference for high-fat sweet foods in the laboratory. The current study examined the influence of trait binge eating in overweight or obese women on eating behavior under laboratory and free-living conditions over a 48-h period. Methods: In a matched pairs design, 24 overweight or obese females (BMI: 30.30 ± 2.60 kg/m2; Age: 25.42 ± 3.65 years) with high or low scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BSE) were divided into one of two groups; Obese Binge (O-B) and Obese Non-binge (O-NB). Energy intake was assessed using combined laboratory energy intake measures and 24-h dietary recall procedures. Liking and wanting were assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). Results: There was a significant association between overall energy consumed, and energy consumed from snack foods under laboratory and free-living conditions. O-B exhibited a greater preference for sweet snack foods in their laboratory and free-living eating behavior. These findings were supported by greater laboratory-based measures of wanting and craving for this food type in O-B. In addition, O-B consumed significantly more energy than their estimated daily energy requirements in the laboratory suggesting that they over-consumed compared to O-NB. Conclusions: The measurement concordance between laboratory and free-living based energy intake supports the validity of laboratory-based test meal methodologies Variation in trait binge eating was associated with increased craving and wanting for high-fat sweet foods and overconsumption in the laboratory. These findings support the use of trait binge eating as a common hedonic subtype of obesity and extend the relevance of this subtype to habitual patterns of energy intake. PMID:24155732

Dalton, Michelle; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham S.

2013-01-01

324

Exploration Linking Self-Reported Disordered Eating and Wellness in Undergraduate Health Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University campus environments are conducive to the development of disordered eating in students. Busy schedules, easy access to fast food, and the transition from high school to college contribute to the development of disordered eating in university students. This researcher explored whether a relationship exists between self-reported disordered…

Owens, Pamela K.

2009-01-01

325

Mahlzeit! (Enjoy Your Meal!) German Table Manners, Menus, and Eating Establishments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of short texts focus on German eating habits and types of eating establishments. Vocabulary is glossed in the margin and each text is followed by comprehension questions. Menus from a restaurant, an inn, and a fast-food restaurant; vocabulary exercises; a word search puzzle and its solution; and directions in English for conversational…

Singer, Debbie

326

Providing Calorie Information on Fast-Food Restaurant Menu Boards: Consumer Views  

PubMed Central

Purpose To gather consumer input about approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Design We asked a subset of individuals (n = 150) in an experimental study about the influence of nutrition labeling on fast-food meal choices to evaluate calorie information on mock fast-food menus in various formats. Setting Three community sites in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area. Subjects Adolescents and adults who ate fast food at least once per week were recruited. Measures Via a series of open- and close-ended questions, participants gave feedback about several formats for providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. Analysis Means and frequencies were calculated, and ?2 tests were conducted. Results When asked to compare a menu that provided calorie information for each menu item with a menu that provided the number of minutes of running that would be required to burn the calories contained in each menu item, 71.0% of participants preferred the calorie information over the physical activity information. Participants also compared two approaches to providing caloric reference information on the menu (average daily calorie needs per day vs. per meal), and 61.3% preferred the calorie needs–per-meal format. Conclusion Our results may be useful in designing approaches to providing energy composition information for foods on fast-food restaurant menus. PMID:19928485

Fitch, Rebecca C.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.; Story, Mary T.; French, Simone A.; Oakes, J. Michael; Rydell, Sarah A.

2010-01-01

327

Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility. PMID:19758736

Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

2009-11-01

328

Fast Food and Animal Rights: An Examination and Assessment of the Industry's Response to Social Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTFast food chains such as McDonald's, KFC, and Burger King are major players in the production, marketing, and consumption of animal-derived food throughout the world. Animal rights activists are quick to point out the link between the highly efficient factory farms that supply these chains and extreme animal cruelty and environmental degradation. Strategically, fast food is well positioned to leverage

RONALD J. ADAMS

2008-01-01

329

Diet and eating after esophagectomy  

MedlinePLUS

... a feeding tube, or even when you start eating regular foods again. Notice if any specific foods ... talking to your doctor. What you should be eating: You will be drinking liquids at first. Then ...

330

It's Not Easy Eating Green  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can I eat without harming others? Motivated by this question, I ask Torontonians active in the local food movement about the food they eat and the work they do. Listening to their stories, I learn that \\

Laurel Waterman

331

The Influence of Physical and Social Contexts of Eating on Lunch-Time Food Intake among Southern Ontario, Canada, Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Among students, little is known about the physical and social context of eating lunch. The objective of this study was to determine if food intake (including the type of food and beverages and portion sizes) was associated with specific aspects of the physical and social lunch environment (location, with whom lunch was consumed, who…

Woodruff, Sarah J.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McGoldrick, Kathryn

2010-01-01

332

What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

2009-01-01

333

On the FarmOn the Farm hen you sit down to the table to eat, you want to know that your food is safe.  

E-print Network

On the FarmOn the Farm W hen you sit down to the table to eat, you want to know that your food to cause illness. Older adults, young children and people with existing health problems are more susceptible to foodborne illness and severe complications than healthy adults. Food safety plans should strive

Liskiewicz, Maciej

334

A study of determinants impacting consumers food choice with reference to the fast food consumption in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this case study is to explore and study the determinants (demographics and psychographics) impacting consumers food choice towards fast food in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Food choice variables have been explored using literature reviews and exploratory survey of young consumers in the age group of 20-40. Data obtained from the reliable sources (e.g. the World Health

Ritu Anand

2011-01-01

335

Laboratory snack food intake, negative mood, and impulsivity in youth with ADHD symptoms and episodes of loss of control eating. Where is the missing link?  

PubMed

To compare laboratory food intake, negative mood and trait impulsivity and their association with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loss of control (LOC) eating in youth (middle childhood to early adolescence). Ninety 10-14 year old youths with symptoms of ADHD, symptoms of LOC eating, and control participants took part in a laboratory snack food meal after having rated trait impulsivity. Negative mood was self-reported pre and post snack food meal, while representativeness of eating behavior and liking of the food was assessed post laboratory snack food meal. The ADHD group consumed more snack food than the other groups. Food intake was not influenced by negative mood or trait impulsivity. All groups exhibited a decrease in negative mood from pre to post food intake that was not accounted for by level of hunger or liking of the food. The greater food intake of the ADHD group compared to the other groups may contribute to the development of overweight and therefore be in accordance with the high co-morbidity reported between ADHD and obesity in youth. The influence of impulsivity and negative mood on food intake could not be shown, which corroborates a recent review on the association of negative mood and bingeing in adults but needs further assessment, particularly in the younger age groups. PMID:22251461

Hartmann, Andrea Sabrina; Rief, Winfried; Hilbert, Anja

2012-04-01

336

KOPPERT, G. & HLADIK, C.M. (1990) --Measuring food consumption. In : C.M. HLADIK, S. BAHUCHET et I. de GARINE (Eds.) Food and nutrition in the African rain forest. Unesco, Paris : 58-61.  

E-print Network

), several persons eat food from the same dish. A fast electronic scale connected to a micro computer, by studying the sharing of a communal dish. The dish is placed on a precision scale (one gramme for 30,000 g as well as individual pauems of food eating and food sharing. First results (3) specifically demonstrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Microbiological quality and safety of ready-to-eat cooked foods from a centralized school kitchen in Argentina.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological and sensory quality as well as the safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) cooked foods prepared in and distributed from a centralized kitchen to schools in Argentina. A total of 101 cooked food samples delivered as hot RTE cooked foods (group A) and as RTE cooked foods at room temperature (group B) and 140 surface swab environment samples were collected from February to November 1999. Petrifilm plates were used for aerobic (PAC), coliform (PCC), and Escherichia coli (PEC) counts. Standard methods were used to determine Enterobacteriaceae (EntC) and thermotolerant coliform counts (TCC). Samples were also tested for the presence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium perfringens. Food temperatures just before samples were put into containers ranged from 80 to 98 degrees C and from 28 to 32 degrees C for group A and group B, respectively. For group A food samples, PAC ranged from 1.04 to 3.50 log CFU/g, and PCC, PEC, TCC, and EntC were not detected. For group B food samples, PAC ranged from 3.63 to 6.48 log CFU/g, PCC ranged from 1.90 to 5.36 log CFU/g, TCC ranged from 1.30 to 3.95 log CFU/g, and EntC ranged from 3.60 to 5.46 log CFU/g. Of the foodborne pathogens, only B. cereus was isolated (63.4% of samples) in both food groups (<4 log CFU/g). The microbiological and sensory quality and the safety of group A foods were satisfactory. Large numbers of PAC and EntC detected in group B foods show that better control is needed to avoid potential foodborne diseases. PMID:11952212

Tessi, M A; Aringoli, E E; Pirovani, M E; Vincenzini, A Z; Sabbag, N G; Costa, S C; Garcia, C C; Zannier, M S; Silva, E R; Moguilevsky, M A

2002-04-01

338

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)

2006-10-31

339

Public support for restrictions on fast food company sponsorship of community events.  

PubMed

This study investigated community attitudes to fast food companies' sponsorship of community events. The aim was to inform future efforts to introduce greater restrictions on these marketing activities to reduce child obesity. While previous research has focused on the sponsorship of sporting events, the present study included all community events and gauged public support for fast food company sponsorships in general as well as specific sponsorship activities such as securing event naming rights, advertising on event premises, and distributing free items to children in the form of food and redeemable vouchers. A large and diverse sample of Western Australian adults (n=2,005) responded to a community attitudes telephone survey that included questions relating to event sponsorship. Almost half of the respondents reported that the promotion of fast foods is inappropriate at community events, and only a third considered it appropriate at events where children are likely to be present. Around two-thirds agreed that promoting fast foods at such events sends contradictory messages to children and just a quarter of respondents considered it acceptable for free fast food to be distributed at events or for children to be rewarded for participation with fast food vouchers. The results suggest that efforts to reduce child obesity that involve restrictions on the sponsorship of community events by organisations promoting unhealthy foods may be supported by a substantial proportion of the population. PMID:23017320

Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

2012-01-01

340

Food Deserts and Eating Habits of Children Participating in the WIC Program  

E-print Network

children living in food desert or non-food desert areas. The NATFAN (National Food and Nutrition Questionnaire) survey of WIC participants was compared to the USDA’s food desert location data in order to learn the impact of living in a food desert. Using...

Jewell, Kassi Kae

2013-08-07

341

Customer Health Perceptions of Selected Fast-Food Restaurants According to Their Nutritional Knowledge and Health Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though many researchers and media report about the unhealthy nature of fast foods, American people have developed a taste for fast foods. Americans also have an increased interest for nutrition in fast food, as they have become more health conscious. These studies claimed that the trend was that consumers wanted low calorie and light and low fat menu items. In

JungJin Hwang; David Cranage

2010-01-01

342

Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. OBJECTIVE: To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. METHODS: Data on median household

Philip M Hurvitz; Anne V Moudon; Colin D Rehm; Laura C Streichert; Adam Drewnowski

2009-01-01

343

Does mindfulness matter? Everyday mindfulness, mindful eating and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods among a sample of South Australian adults.  

PubMed

Serving size is a modifiable determinant of energy consumption, and an important factor to address in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The present study tested an hypothesised negative association between individuals' everyday mindfulness and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods. The mediating role of mindful eating was also explored. A community sample of 171 South Australian adults completed self-report measures of everyday mindfulness and mindful eating. The dependent measure was participants' self-reported average serving size of energy dense foods consumed in the preceding week. Participants who reported higher levels of everyday mindfulness were more mindful eaters (r=0.41, p<0.05) and reported smaller serving size estimates of energy dense foods (r=-.25, p<0.05). Mindful eating fully mediated the negative association between everyday mindfulness and serving size. The domains of mindful eating most relevant to serving size included emotional and disinhibited eating. Results suggest that mindful eating may have a greater influence on serving size than daily mindfulness. PMID:23548262

Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

2013-08-01

344

Eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behaviour. Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries like India. As Western sociocultural ideals become more widespread one may expect to see an increase in number of cases of eating disorders in non-Western societies. Etiological theories suggest a complex interaction among psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors. Patients with anorexia nervosa manifest weight loss, fear of becoming fat, and disturbances in how they experience their body weight and shape. Patients with bulimia nervosa present with recurrent episodes of binge eating and inappropriate methods of weight control such as self-induced vomiting, and abuse of diuretics and laxatives. Major complications of eating disorders include severe fluid and electrolyte disturbances and cardiac arrhythmias. The most common cause of death in anorexia nervosa is suicide. Management requires a team approach in which different professionals work together. Individual and family psychotherapy are effective in patients with anorexia nervosa and cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in bulimia nervosa. Pharmacotherapy is not universally effective by itself. Patients with eating disorders suffer a chronic course of illness. The pediatrician plays important role in early diagnosis, management of medical complications, and psychological support to the patient and the family. PMID:10773895

Patel, D R; Phillips, E L; Pratt, H D

1998-01-01

345

Fast Food Consumption, Quality of Diet, and Obesity among Isfahanian Adolescent Girls  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fast food intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fast food consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fast food intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B1 (P = 0.008), phosphorus (P = 0.0250), selenium (P < 0.001) and vitamin B2 (P = 0.012) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fast food intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fast foods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P = 0.0001) and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Fast food consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22619703

Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirseifinezhad, Maryam; Omrani, Nasrin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

2012-01-01

346

Beyond advertising: in-home promotion of “fast food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the range of potential influences on children's food choices, while suggesting that recent restrictions on advertising of some foods may not be as effective as expected. It aims to use home-delivered food promotional materials to illustrate the types of promotional activity that are not covered by recent regulatory actions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Lynne Eagle; Ross Brennan

2007-01-01

347

Assessing eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in children: new methods using food diaries in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme  

PubMed Central

Background Eating context is the immediate environment of each eating occasion (EO). There is limited knowledge on the effects of the eating context on food consumption in children, due to the difficulty in measuring the multiple eating contexts children experience throughout the day. This study applied ecological momentary assessment using food diaries to explore the relationships between eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in UK children. Methods Using 4 d unweighed food diaries, data were collected for 642 children aged 1.5-10y in two years of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2010). Participants recorded all foods and drinks consumed at each EO, where and with whom the food was consumed, whether the TV was on and if eaten at a table. Mixed logistic regression and mixed multinomial logistic regression were used to calculate associations between eating contexts and fruit and vegetables (FV) consumed by quartiles. Results Of 16,840 EOs, 73% took place at home and 31% with parents only. Frequency of eating alone and with friends increased with age. Compared to eating at home, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit at care outside home (>10-50g OR:2.39; >50-100g OR:2.12); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:3.53; >100g OR:1.88) and vegetables at school (>30-60g OR:3.56). Compared to eating with parents only, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit with friends (>10-50g OR:2.69; >50-100g OR:3.49), and with carer and other children/others (>10-50g OR:2.25); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:1.96) and vegetables with friends (>30-60g OR:3.56). Children of all ages were more likely to eat vegetables when the TV was off than on and at a table than not at table. Conclusions The use of food diaries to capture multiple eating contexts and detailed fruit and vegetable consumption data was demonstrated at a population level. Higher odds of FV consumption were seen from structured settings such as school and care outside home than at home, as well as when eating at a table and the TV off. This study highlights eating contexts where provision of fruit and vegetables could be improved, especially at home. Future research should take eating context into consideration when planning interventions to target children’s food consumption and eating behaviour. PMID:23078656

2012-01-01

348

Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment.  

PubMed

Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach-as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members-were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10-14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J

2013-08-01

349

Effect of changes to the school food environment on eating behaviours and/or body weight in children: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. PMID:25266705

Driessen, C E; Cameron, A J; Thornton, L E; Lai, S K; Barnett, L M

2014-12-01

350

Saints, sinners and non-believers: the moral space of food. A qualitative exploration of beliefs and perspectives on healthy eating of Irish adults aged 50-70.  

PubMed

Food choices can involve a moral element of which healthy eating has come to play a major part in recent years. This research aimed to explore the moral space of food for older adults in order to understand how they conceptualise and negotiate various moral demands in the context of their general food lives. In-depth interviews on the lived experience of food and eating were conducted with a purposive sample of 50 adults aged 50-70, who varied by dietary quality and health status. An inductive thematic analysis was carried out. Three major themes representing aspects of the "moral space of food" were identified. This moral space was influenced by old religious and secular moralities which have become intertwined with new moralities of "healthism", a trend towards encouraging personal responsibility for health. Participants sought to maintain moral congruence by keeping their behaviour within moral boundaries through balance and moderation. Some resisted immoral positioning by highlighting their own autonomy or by challenging healthist ideology. A fundamental tension exists between the concept of healthy eating as desirable to remain a moral person while simultaneously being equated with sacrifice of pleasure and enjoyment. Healthist ideology perpetuates this tension, problematising enjoyment of food and bodies of those outside of the "norm". Attempting to address negative moralistic undertones of healthy eating messages may help to engage public interest in nutrition. PMID:24184539

Delaney, Mary; McCarthy, Mary B

2014-02-01

351

Food Prices Are Associated with Dietary Quality, Fast Food Consumption, and Body Mass Index among U.S. Children and Adolescents123  

PubMed Central

Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994–1998) for 6759 children (2–9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10–18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals’ CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2–9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (? ± SE: ?0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (? ± SE: ?3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m2). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10–18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2–9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2–9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables. PMID:21178080

Beydoun, May A.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

2011-01-01

352

Food prices are associated with dietary quality, fast food consumption, and body mass index among U.S. children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994-1998) for 6759 children (2-9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10-18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals' CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2-9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (? ± SE: -0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (? ± SE: -3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10-18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2-9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2-9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables. PMID:21178080

Beydoun, May A; Powell, Lisa M; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

2011-02-01

353

You Are What You Eat: Genetically Modified Foods, Integrity, and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far, the moral debateconcerning genetically modified foods (GMF) hasfocused on extrinsic consequentialist questionsabout the health effects, environmental impacts,and economic benefits of such foods. Thisextrinsic approach to the morality of GMF isdependent on unsubstantiated empirical claimsand fails to account for the intrinsic moralvalue of food and food choice and theirconnection to the agent's concept of the goodlife. I develop a

Assya Pascalev

2003-01-01

354

8 Food Webs in the Ocean: Who Eats Whom and How Much?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 100 food webs have been published for marine ecosystems to describe the transfer of food energy from its source in plants, through herbivores, to carnivores and higher order predators. The webs suggest that the lengths of the chains that form food webs are typically short (3-4 links), and that ecosystems with long food chains may be less stable than

Andrew W. Trites

355

Role of Orexin-1 Receptor Mechanisms on Compulsive Food Consumption in a Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Orexins (OX) and their receptors (OXR) modulate feeding, arousal, stress, and drug abuse. Neural systems that motivate and reinforce drug abuse may also underlie compulsive food seeking and intake. Therefore, the effects of GSK1059865 (5-bromo-N-[(2S,5S)-1-(3-fluoro-2-methoxybenzoyl)-5-methylpiperidin-2-yl]methyl-pyridin-2-amine), a selective OX1R antagonist, JNJ-10397049 (N-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-N?-[(4S,5S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]urea), a selective OX2R antagonist, and SB-649868 (N-[((2S)-1-{[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]carbonyl}-2-piperidinyl)methyl]-1-benzofuran-4-carboxamide), a dual OX1/OX2R antagonist were evaluated in a binge eating (BE) model in female rats. BE of highly palatable food (HPF) was evoked by three cycles of food restriction followed by stress, elicited by exposing rats to HPF, but preventing them from having access to it for 15?min. Pharmacokinetic assessments of all compounds were obtained under the same experimental conditions used for the behavioral experiments. Topiramate was used as the reference compound as it selectively blocks BE in rats and humans. Dose-related thresholds for sleep-inducing effects of the OXR antagonists were measured using polysomnography in parallel experiments. SB-649868 and GSK1059865, but not JNJ-10397049, selectively reduced BE for HPF without affecting standard food pellet intake, at doses that did not induce sleep. These results indicate, for the first time, a major role of OX1R mechanisms in BE, suggesting that selective antagonism at OX1R could represent a novel pharmacological treatment for BE and possibly other eating disorders with a compulsive component. PMID:22569505

Piccoli, Laura; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Cifani, Carlo; Costantini, Vivian J A; Massagrande, Mario; Montanari, Dino; Martinelli, Prisca; Antolini, Marinella; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Massi, Maurizio; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Di Fabio, Romano; Corsi, Mauro

2012-01-01

356

Bats eat as many bugs as birds do  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects are fast food for birds flying through tropical forests, which munch on them all day long. But things aren't much safer for the bugs at night, two groups of scientists found out recently. It turns out that bats eat lots of insects when the sun goes down in the forests. In fact, they may eat as many insects as the birds do during the day.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-04-03

357

Cellular respiration We need energy to live, but how do we get it? We eat food and, via the process of respiration, we transfer the energy within this food to energy  

E-print Network

Cellular respiration We need energy to live, but how do we get it? We eat food and, via the process of respiration, we transfer the energy within this food to energy our bodies can use. Respiration is the chemical MEMBRANE OUTER MEMBRANE INTERMEMBRANE SPACE CYTOPLASM Respiration that uses final electron acceptors other

Rambaut, Andrew

358

A Comparison of Company Owned and Franchised Fast Food Outlet Performance: Insights from Health Inspection Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares the performance of franchised and company owned fast food outlets located within the same region in the\\u000a USA. These outlets are inspected by the same team of health inspectors who use a standardized 44 item scale derived from Federal\\u000a Drug Administration guidelines. Analysis of the health inspection scores received by the fast food outlets over approximately\\u000a two

Roy L. Beheler; Seth W. Norton; Kabir C. Sen

359

Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.  

PubMed

A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36?h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS. PMID:25349245

de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

2015-01-01

360

Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in

Elizabeth Denney-Wilson; Anthony D Okely; Louise Hardy; David Crawford; Timothy Dobbins

2009-01-01

361

TELEVISION VIEWING, FAST-FOOD CONSUMPTION, AND CHILDREN’S OBESITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity is rising in Taiwan and is becoming a major public health issue. This article examines the effect of children’s TV viewing and fast-food consumption on childhood obesity. Using a nationwide survey data in Taiwan and a two-step estimation procedure, our results show that TV viewing hours and fast-food consumption are correlated. After controlling for the endogeneity, we find

HUNG-HAO CHANG; RODOLFO M. NAYGA

2009-01-01

362

The promotion of healthy eating: food availability and choice in Scottish island communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities in rural areas are in receipt of health education messages on healthy eating aimed at the population. These messages are invariably composed without regard to where people reside, and, in particular, to the availabil- ity of, and access to, foodstuffs in rural areas. In this paper the authors present data derived from a participative health needs assessment on the

Linda McKie; Gill M. Clark; Margaret MacLellan; Sarah Skerratt

1998-01-01

363

An Experiment Analysis of the Impact of Advertising and Food Packaging on Women's Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is considered a national epidemic and is associated with increased eating behavior and decreased physical activity. Research has demonstrated biological underpinnings, but the dramatic increase in prevalence rates in recent decades (Flegal et al., 2002) suggests that environmental influences also contribute (Hill et al., 2008). This led researchers to speculate about the impact of our purported “Toxic Environment,” in

Amy S Collings

2008-01-01

364

Teaching Independent Eating to a Developmentally Handicapped Child Showing Chronic Food Refusal and Disruption at Mealtimes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A successful intervention to establish independent eating behaviors in a developmentally handicapped, autistic-like three-year-old involved teaching appropriate behavior in a hospital setting (where he was being treated for dehydration and malnutrition) and then teaching his mother to implement the strategies at home. Skills were maintained at…

MacArthur, Judy; And Others

1986-01-01

365

Influx of Enterococci and Associated Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Genes from Ready-To-Eat Food to the Human Digestive Tract?  

PubMed Central

The influx of enterococcal antibiotic resistance (AR) and virulence genes from ready-to-eat food (RTEF) to the human digestive tract was assessed. Three RTEFs (chicken salad, chicken burger, and carrot cake) were sampled from five fast-food restaurants five times in summer (SU) and winter (WI). The prevalence of enterococci was significantly higher in SU (92.0% of salad samples and 64.0% of burger samples) than in WI (64.0% of salad samples and 24.0% of burger samples). The overall concentrations of enterococci during the two seasons were similar (?103 CFU/g); the most prevalent were Enterococcus casseliflavus (41.5% of isolates) and Enterococcus hirae (41.5%) in WI and Enterococcus faecium (36.8%), E. casseliflavus (27.6%), and Enterococcus faecalis (22.4%) in SU. Resistance in WI was detected primarily to tetracycline (50.8%), ciprofloxacin (13.8%), and erythromycin (4.6%). SU isolates were resistant mainly to tetracycline (22.8%), erythromycin (22.1%), and kanamycin (13.0%). The most common tet gene was tet(M) (35.4% of WI isolates and 11.9% of SU isolates). The prevalence of virulence genes (gelE, asa1, cylA, and esp) and marker genes for clinical isolates (EF_0573, EF_0592, EF_0605, EF_1420, EF_2144, and pathogenicity island EF_0050) was low (?12.3%). Genotyping of E. faecalis and E. faecium using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the food contamination likely originated from various sources and that it was not clonal. Our conservative estimate (single AR gene copy per cell) for the influx of tet genes alone to the human digestive tract is 3.8 × 105 per meal (chicken salad). This AR gene influx is frequent because RTEFs are commonly consumed and that may play a role in the acquisition of AR determinants in the human digestive tract. PMID:17766449

Macovei, Lilia; Zurek, Ludek

2007-01-01

366

Regular consumption from fast food establishments relative to other restaurants is differentially associated with metabolic outcomes in young adults.  

PubMed

Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and plasma triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). We used 3 waves of data (exam y 7, 10, and 20) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, a prospective cohort study of black and white young adults [aged 25-42 y in 1992-93, n = 3643 (men, 1659; women, 1984)]. Individuals in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of baseline (defined as the mean of y 7 and 10) fast food consumption had higher y 20 weight [adjusted mean (95% CI): 5.6 kg (CI, 2.1, 9.2); P = 0.002], HOMA-IR [0.9 (CI, 0.4, 1.3); P < 0.001], waist circumference [5.3 cm (CI, 2.8, 7.9); P < 0.000], TG concentrations [0.25 mmol/L (CI, 0.10, 0.40), 22.7 mg/dL (CI, 9.1, 36.3); P = 0.001], and lower HDL-C concentrations [-0.014 mmol/L (CI, -0.215, -0.067), 5.4 mg/dL (CI, -8.3, -2.6); P < 0.000]. Baseline restaurant consumption was unrelated to y 20 outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant (P < 0.05) and fast food intake (P < 0.001) was associated with 13-y changes in body weight [0.09 kg (CI, 0.02, 0.17) and 0.15 kg (CI, 0.06, 0.24), respectively] and waist circumference [0.08 cm (CI, 0.02, 0.14) and 0.12 cm (CI, 0.04, 0.20), respectively]. Fast food consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes. PMID:19776183

Duffey, Kiyah J; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R; Popkin, Barry M

2009-11-01

367

Regular Consumption from Fast Food Establishments Relative to Other Restaurants Is Differentially Associated with Metabolic Outcomes in Young Adults12  

PubMed Central

Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and plasma triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). We used 3 waves of data (exam y 7, 10, and 20) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, a prospective cohort study of black and white young adults [aged 25–42 y in 1992–93, n = 3643 (men, 1659; women, 1984)]. Individuals in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of baseline (defined as the mean of y 7 and 10) fast food consumption had higher y 20 weight [adjusted mean (95% CI): 5.6 kg (CI, 2.1, 9.2); P = 0.002], HOMA-IR [0.9 (CI, 0.4, 1.3); P < 0.001], waist circumference [5.3 cm (CI, 2.8, 7.9); P < 0.000], TG concentrations [0.25 mmol/L (CI, 0.10, 0.40), 22.7 mg/dL (CI, 9.1, 36.3); P = 0.001], and lower HDL-C concentrations [?0.014 mmol/L (CI, ?0.215, ?0.067), 5.4 mg/dL (CI, ?8.3, ?2.6); P < 0.000]. Baseline restaurant consumption was unrelated to y 20 outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant (P < 0.05) and fast food intake (P < 0.001) was associated with 13-y changes in body weight [0.09 kg (CI, 0.02, 0.17) and 0.15 kg (CI, 0.06, 0.24), respectively] and waist circumference [0.08 cm (CI, 0.02, 0.14) and 0.12 cm (CI, 0.04, 0.20), respectively]. Fast food consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes. PMID:19776183

Duffey, Kiyah J.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M.; Jacobs, David R.; Popkin, Barry M.

2009-01-01

368

Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (? = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (? = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

2013-01-01

369

Depressive symptoms and self-reported fast-food intake in midlife women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the association between depressive symptoms and fast-food intake in midlife women. METHODS Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study of 626 women aged 45–54 years conducted from 2000–2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. Presence of depressive symptoms was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale and defined as a score of 16 or greater. The frequency of fast-food intake was assessed using self-reported questionnaire data, and was categorized as “at least weekly”, “at least monthly, but less than weekly” and “less than monthly”. RESULTS Approximately 25% of the study sample reported depressive symptoms; 14% consumed fast-food “at least weekly,” and 27% “at least monthly, but less than weekly”. Compared to their counterparts, women with depressive symptoms had significantly greater odds of reporting higher fast-food intake (confounder-adjusted odds ratio: 1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.06–2.25). Other covariates associated with a higher frequency of fast-food intake included black race and body mass index ?30 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS Findings from this study indicate that the presence of depressive symptoms is positively associated with fast-food intake in midlife women. These results may have important health implications given that both depression and dietary consumption patterns are risk factors for a number of diseases. PMID:21276813

Crawford, Geoffrey B.; Khedkar, Anuprita; Flaws, Jodi A.; Sorkin, John D.; Gallicchio, Lisa

2011-01-01

370

Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Recovered from Selected Ready-To-Eat Foods and Listeriosis Patients in the United States  

PubMed Central

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and serotyping were performed for 544 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes, including 502 isolates recovered from contaminated samples from 31,705 retail ready-to-eat (RTE) food products and 42 isolates recovered from human cases of listeriosis. The isolates were from Maryland (294 isolates) and California (250 isolates) and were collected in 2000 and 2001. The isolates were placed into 16 AscI pulsogroups (level of relatedness within each group, ?66%), 139 AscI pulsotypes (levels of relatedness, ?25% to 100%), and eight serotypes (serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, 4b, 4c, and 4d). The most frequently found pulsotypes belonged to either pulsogroup A (150 food isolates plus 4 clinical isolates) or pulsogroup B (104 food isolates plus 5 clinical isolates). The majority of the 502 food isolates were either serotype 1/2a (298 isolates) or serotype 1/2b (133 isolates), whereas the majority of the 42 clinical isolates were either serotype 1/2a (19 isolates) or serotype 4b (15 isolates). Additionally, 13 clinical isolates displayed pulsotypes also found in food isolates, whereas the remaining 29 clinical isolates displayed 24 unique pulsotypes. These data indicate that most (86%) of the L. monocytogenes subtypes found in the RTE foods sampled belonged to only two serotypes and that 90% of the isolates displayed 73 pulsotypes, with 107 isolates displaying pulsotype 1. These data should help define the distribution and relatedness of isolates found in RTE foods in comparison with isolates that cause listeriosis. PMID:16332793

Gilbreth, Stefanie Evans; Call, Jeff E.; Wallace, F. Morgan; Scott, Virginia N.; Chen, Yuhuan; Luchansky, John B.

2005-01-01

371

Fast-food-based hyper-alimentation can induce rapid and profound elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the effect of fast-food-based hyper-alimentation on liver enzymes and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC). Design: Prospective interventional study with parallel control group. Setting: University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. Participants: 12 healthy men and six healthy women with a mean (SD) age of 26 (6.6) years and a matched control group. Intervention: Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5–15% by eating at least two fast-food-based meals a day with the goal to double the regular caloric intake in combination with adoption of a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks. Main outcome measures: Weekly changes of serum aminotransferases and HTGC measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after the intervention. Results: Subjects in the intervention group increased from 67.6 (9.1) kg to 74.0 (11) kg in weight (p<0.001). Serum ALT increased from 22.1 (11.4) U/l at study start to an individual mean maximum level of 97 (103) U/l (range 19.4–447 U/l). Eleven of the 18 subjects persistently showed ALT above reference limits (women >19 U/l, men >30 U/l) during the intervention. Sugar (mono- and disaccharides) intake during week 3 correlated with the maximal ALT/baseline ALT ratio (r?=?0.62, p?=?0.006). HTGC increased from 1.1 (1.9)% to 2.8 (4.8)%, although this was not related to the increase in ALT levels. ALT levels were unchanged in controls. Conclusion: Hyper-alimentation per se can induce profound ALT elevations in less than 4 weeks. Our study clearly shows that in the evaluation of subjects with elevated ALT the medical history should include not only questions about alcohol intake but also explore whether recent excessive food intake has occurred. PMID:18276725

Kechagias, S; Ernersson, A; Dahlqvist, O; Lundberg, P; Lindstrom, T; Nystrom, F H

2008-01-01

372

Exposure to food advertising on television: Associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey–Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to

Tatiana Andreyeva; Inas Rashad Kelly; Jennifer L. Harris

2011-01-01

373

Effects of mindful eating training on delay and probability discounting for food and money in obese and healthy-weight individuals.  

PubMed

Obese individuals tend to behave more impulsively than healthy weight individuals across a variety of measures, but it is unclear whether this pattern can be altered. The present study examined the effects of a mindful eating behavioral strategy on impulsive and risky choice patterns for hypothetical food and money. In Experiment 1, 304 participants completed computerized delay and probability discounting tasks for food-related and monetary outcomes. High percent body fat (PBF) predicted more impulsive choice for food, but not small-value money, replicating previous work. In Experiment 2, 102 randomly selected participants from Experiment 1 were assigned to participate in a 50-min workshop on mindful eating or to watch an educational video. They then completed the discounting tasks again. Participants who completed the mindful eating session showed more self-controlled and less risk-averse discounting patterns for food compared to baseline; those in the control condition discounted similarly to baseline rates. There were no changes in discounting for money for either group, suggesting stimulus specificity for food for the mindful eating condition. PMID:23685325

Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B

2013-07-01

374

Overcoming picky eating. Eating enjoyment as a central aspect of children's eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Picky eating is a relatively common problem during childhood, and parents lack clear strategies with which to decrease picky eating. This study examined whether increasing eating enjoyment and cooking enjoyment might give opportunities to decrease picky eating. Parents (n=305), mainly mothers with children between 6 and 12 years of age (53.8% boys; 46.2% girls), completed a questionnaire on pressure and restriction, eating enjoyment, and picky eating, and cooking enjoyment. Path analyses were performed to examine the mediating role of eating enjoyment. The final model provided a good fit to the data and explained 33% variance in picky eating. A strong inverse association between eating enjoyment and picky eating was found (?=-.44). Significant direct effects were found between cooking enjoyment and picky eating (?=-.16) and restriction and picky eating (?=.18). Eating enjoyment partly mediated the association between cooking enjoyment and picky eating. Results showed pressure had only an indirect effect on picky eating through eating enjoyment. Eating enjoyment serves as an important and central factor in children's picky-eating behavior. High controlling practices might create a negative environment around food and healthy eating and so decrease eating enjoyment and increase picky eating. PMID:22245133

van der Horst, Klazine

2012-04-01

375

Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey

Brian Elbel

2011-01-01

376

Neighborhood Deprivation and Access to Fast Food Retailing A National Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed to those for access to healthier food outlets. Methods: Data were collected on

Jamie Pearce; Tony Blakely; Karen Witten; Phil Bartie

377

Household Fast Food Expenditures and Children's Television Viewing: Can They Really Significantly Influence Children's Dietary Quality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have found a strong relationship between food-away-from-home expenditures and television viewing, and children's diet. This study revisits this issue by examining the impact of household fast food expenditures and children's television viewing on children's dietary quality. Results indicate that both factors have statistically significant and negative effects. However, the elasticities of children's diet quality with respect to both

Wen You; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.

2005-01-01

378

Documentary on Fast Food Sparks Both Criticism and Intrigue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Morgan Spurlock's recent documentary and extended nutrition experiment has garnered great attention, both in the United States and abroad. By now, most people know that the documentary consists of him making his way to McDonalds and eating there several times a day for 30 days in a row. Since its release, the film has also done quite well, as it passed the 200-screen week this past week, and has already grossed over $6 million. Things continue to look positive for Spurlock as he has recently signed a tentative book deal, and has also just signed a deal to create a one-hour reality television show. All is not completely tranquil, as a number of critics and other pundits have begun to embark on their own separate projects that emphasize personal responsibility when it comes to eating habits and such matters. One such critic is Soso Whaley, an animal trainer based in Washington, DC, who is making her own documentary where she also eats at McDonald's for thirty days. The twist is that she eats the healthier options available on their menu, and as a result loses weight and her cholesterol also drops significantly. She plans to enter her film in the Sundance Film Festival as well, thereby keeping the ball rolling on the whole debate for at least another year.The first link leads to a good piece in the Guardian that talks both about the film itself and the interesting response from a number of parties, including critics of Mr. Spurlock's message and methods. The second link offers a recent interview transcript with Mr. Spurlock that includes answers to such thorny questions as: What book are you currently reading?. The third link will take visitors to the site that provides information on the documentary being made by Soso Whaley that attempts to debunk Spurlock's work. The fourth link leads to one conservative thinktank's webpage that attempts to address some of the inherent scientific problems with Spurlock's work. The fifth link (which is probably the most fun) is the link to the Super Size Me homepage, where visitors can view a trailer for the film and view stills from the movie. The sixth and final link leads to a listing of America's "fattest and fittest" cities for the year 2004, provided by Men's Health magazine. The "fattest" city, as determined by the survey, is Detroit, while the "fittest" happens to be Honolulu. [KMG

379

Association between chronotype and diet in adolescents based on food logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research revealed an association between chronotype and psychological constructs of eating behaviour. Here, we used food logs in adolescents and assessed their chronotype. We found that later bed and rise times were associated with the tendency to drink caffeinated drinks and eat fast food and to consume less dairy products. No relationship existed between chronotype and sweets, vegetables and

Daniel Fleig; Christoph Randler

2009-01-01

380

Meanings of Food, Eating and Health in Punjabi Families Living in Vancouver, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: South Asians living in western countries have increased risk for developing diet-related chronic disease compared to Caucasians of European heritage. To increase understanding of social and cultural factors associated with their food habits, this study examined the meanings of food, health and well-being embedded in the food practices…

Chapman, Gwen E; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Beagan, Brenda L

2011-01-01

381

"Eating at Us": Representations of Knowledge in the Activist Documentary Film "Food, Inc."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing on social movement learning and environmental adult education invokes particular views on knowledge that need further examination and development in relation to food social movements. Although food social movements take different forms, the paper argues that the politics of food knowledge is at the centre of many of these movements.…

Flowers, Rick; Swan, Elaine

2011-01-01

382

Anaphylaxis After Eating Italian Pizza Containing Buckwheat as the Hidden Food Allergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract A 20-year-old woman developed anaphylaxis after eating pizza on 4 different occasions in 2 restaurants. Both restaurants made their pizza dough with a mixture of wheat and buckwheat fl ours. A prick-to-prick test with buckwheat fl our was positive. Skin prick tests and specifi c immunoglobulin E responses to soybean and peanut were weakly positive while the response

E Heffl; G Guida; I Badiu; F Nebiolo; G Rolla

383

What's NOT to eat- Food adulteration in the context of human biology  

PubMed Central

Food has nutritional and non-nutritional components. The latter are not well studied despite the fact that food adulteration has been common. Food adulteration may have reached its peak in cities of western Europe and the US in the 18th and 19th centuries when foods were often purposely contaminated with additives to increase bulk, attractiveness, disguise spoilage and increase profit. Effective regulation of food began in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, today food recalls for bacterial contamination are common, while pesticides and compounds from manufacturing are detected in many foods. Foods with strong reputations for healthiness, such as salmon, may have sizable contaminant contents. The contaminant content of many foods varies by origin and season. Nearly all commercially raised salmon has higher contaminant levels than wild caught salmon. Opting out of the commercial food distribution system is an option, but the value depends on the habitat in which the food is obtained. Traditionally, the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation has depended on local fish and wildlife for their diet. Now pollution of local waterways has led to the contamination of many local foods, and levels of the contaminant PCBs in the Akwesasne Mohawk people reflect current or past dietary patterns. Many other communities in non-urban settings are exposed to contaminants through long-trail distribution of contaminants in food, air, and/or water. Human biologists considering nutrition, disease, growth, reproduction, aging, to name a few areas, may consider the non-nutritional components of food as many have the ability to alter physiological functioning. PMID:22262531

Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Cook, Katsi

2011-01-01

384

Comprehensive studies on the trans fatty acid content of Austrian foods: Convenience products, fast food and fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to reported detrimental health effects of diets high in trans fatty acids (TFA) in particular on blood lipids, convenience products, trade margarines, fats for cooking and frying and fast food products available on the Austrian market were comprehensively investigated on TFA, using gas chromatography.About half of the tested convenience products contained less than 1% TFA, one third less than

Karl-Heinz Wagner; Elisabeth Plasser; Christiana Proell; Sonja Kanzler

2008-01-01

385

Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents.  

PubMed

Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 students. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to "upsize" meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nutritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions. PMID:19786394

Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Crawford, David; Dobbins, Timothy; Hardy, Louise; Okely, Anthony D

2009-01-01

386

GS 455534 selectively suppresses binge eating of palatable food and attenuates dopamine release in the accumbens of sugar-bingeing rats.  

PubMed

Binge eating palatable foods has been shown to have behavioral and neurochemical similarities to drug addiction. GS 455534 is a highly selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitor that has been shown to reduce alcohol and cocaine intake in rats. Given the overlaps between binge eating and drug abuse, we examined the effects of GS 455534 on binge eating and subsequent dopamine release. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a sugar (experiment 1) or fat (experiment 2) binge eating diet. After 25 days, GS 455534 was administered at 7.5 and 15 mg/kg by an intraperitoneal injection, and food intake was monitored. In experiment 3, rats with cannulae aimed at the nucleus accumbens shell were maintained on the binge sugar diet for 25 days. Microdialysis was performed, during which GS 455534 15 mg/kg was administered, and sugar was available. Dialysate samples were analyzed to determine extracellular levels of dopamine. In experiment 1, GS 455534 selectively decreased sugar intake food was made available in the Binge Sugar group but not the Ad libitum Sugar group, with no effect on chow intake. In experiment 2, GS 455534 decreased fat intake in the Binge Fat group, but not the Ad libitum Fat group, however, it also reduced chow intake. In experiment 3, GS 455534 attenuated accumbens dopamine release by almost 50% in binge eating rats compared with the vehicle injection. The findings suggest that selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors may have the therapeutic potential to reduce binge eating of palatable foods in clinical populations. PMID:24603339

Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Paredes, Daniel; von Loga, Isabell; Murray, Susan M; Wang, Miaoyuan; Arolfo, Maria P; Yao, Lina; Diamond, Ivan; Avena, Nicole M

2014-04-01

387

Effects of Fast Food Branding on Young Children's Taste Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The mean±SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37±0.45 (median, 0.20; in- terquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (P.001), indicating that children preferred the tastes of foods and drinks if they thought they were from McDonald's. Moderator analysis found significantly greater effects of branding among children with more televi- sion sets in their homes

Thomas N. Robinson; Dina L. G. Borzekowski; Donna M. Matheson; Helena C. Kraemer

2007-01-01

388

Food Sustainability Education as a Route to Healthier Eating: Evaluation of a Multi-Component School Programme in English Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promising approaches to the promotion of healthier eating among children in primary school settings include the opportunity to practise practical cooking and growing, promoting the take up of healthier school meals and nutritional education. However, less is known about the potential for strategies that integrate approaches through a focus on food

Jones, M.; Dailami, N.; Weitkamp, E.; Salmon, D.; Kimberlee, R.; Morley, A.; Orme, J.

2012-01-01

389

‘We should change ourselves, but we can't’: accounts of food and eating practices amongst British Pakistanis and Indians with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s). To look at food and eating practices from the perspectives of Pakistanis and Indians with type 2 diabetes, their perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to dietary change, and the social and cultural factors informing their accounts.Method. Qualitative, interview study involving 23 Pakistanis and nine Indians with type 2 diabetes. Respondents were interviewed in their first language (Punjabi or

Julia Lawton; Naureen Ahmad; Lisa Hanna; Margaret Douglas; Harpreet Bains; Nina Hallowell

2008-01-01

390

Control Yourself or Just Eat What You Like? Weight Gain Over a Year Is Predicted by an Interactive Effect of Response Inhibition and Implicit Preference for Snack Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Previous research showed a strong relation between response inhibition, overeating and overweight. It was shown that people with ineffective response inhibition are more susceptible to the temptations of palatable food, eat more and are more often overweight or obese. In addition the results of several studies suggest that what needs to be inhibited may be an affect-driven motivation for

Chantal Nederkoorn; Katrijn Houben; Wilhelm Hofmann; Anne Roefs; Anita Jansen

2010-01-01

391

Korean space food development: Ready-to-eat Kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable, sterilized with high-dose gamma irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. It was confirmed that the space food was sterilized by an irradiation at 25kGy through incubation at 37°C for 30days. The hardness of the Space Kimchi (SK) was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON),

Beom-Seok Song; Jin-Gyu Park; Jae-Nam Park; In-Jun Han; Jae-Hun Kim; Jong-Il Choi; Myung-Woo Byun; Ju-Woon Lee

2009-01-01

392

Relationship of gender and eating disorder symptoms to reported cravings for food: construct validation of state and trait craving questionnaires in Spanish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using confirmatory factor analysis, we cross-validated the factor structures of the Spanish versions of the State and Trait Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQ-S and FCQ-T; Cepeda-Benito et al., 2000a) in a sample of 304 Spanish college students. Controlling for eating disorder symptoms and food deprivation, scores on the FCQ-T were higher for women than for men, but no sex differences were

Antonio Cepeda-Benito; Mari Carmen Fernandez; Silvia Moreno

2003-01-01

393

The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction  

PubMed Central

Background: Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Methods: Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. Results: We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). Interpretation: The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health. PMID:22508978

Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

2012-01-01

394

Eating Down in Pregnancy: Exploring Food-Related Beliefs and Practices of Pregnancy in Rural Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate nutrition during pregnancy, vital for the health of the mother and the newborn, may be influenced by pregnancy-related food beliefs. This study explores food-related beliefs and practices specifically related to reducing food intake in pregnancy in a rural community in Nepal by combining ethnographic and quantitative data collected from pregnant Nepali women.A large proportion (60%) of women reported reducing

Parul Christian; Shipra Bunjun Srihari; Andrew Thorne-Lyman; Subarna K. Khatry; Steven C. LeClerq; Sharada Ram Shrestha

2006-01-01

395

Gender differences in "luxury food intake" owing to temporal distribution of eating occasions among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal.  

PubMed

Our previous studies in developing countries have indicated that gender differences in intake of luxury foods incur risk of micronutrient deficiencies among women. As the next step, we examined the causes of gender differences in food intake by comparing eating patterns, including meal frequency (skipping) and temporal distribution of food consumption throughout the day among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal. A total of 321 adults (126 men and 195 women) aged 20 years and above were randomly selected from 94 households in three rural communities. A face-to-face questionnaire-based 24-hour dietary recall interview was conducted whereby foods eaten throughout the six eating occasions (morning snack, breakfast, lunch, daytime snack, dinner, and evening snack) were recorded and analyzed. Results shows that men frequently skipped lunch (p <0.001), they also frequently consume daytime snack (p <0.001), and consumed purchased luxury foods such as tea with sugar and milk (p = 0.008) and samosa (p = 0.049) as daytime snack. The six-eating occasion analysis revealed that gender differences in food intake of rural Nepalese adults occurred during lunch and daytime snack, attributing to gender differences in daily activity patterns. PMID:19786393

Sudo, Noriko; Sekiyama, Makiko; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Maharjan, Makhan

2009-01-01

396

Retail ready-to-eat food as a potential vehicle for Staphylococcus spp. harboring antibiotic resistance genes.  

PubMed

Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:24853524

Chaj?cka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpi?ska, Magda; Laniewska-Trokenheim, Lucja

2014-06-01

397

Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits following occasionally ingestion of animal tissue (hypothesis 3).

Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

2005-10-01

398

The Biology of Binge Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the literature on binge eating to gain a better understanding of its biological foundations and their role in the eating disorders. Method Literature review and synthesis. Results Research using animal models has revealed several factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of binge eating. These factors, including stress, food restriction, the presence of palatable foods, and environmental conditioning, parallel many of the precursory circumstances leading to binge eating in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Discussion The animal literature has opened a new avenue to aid in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of binge eating. Future endeavors examining the genetic and environmental correlates of binge eating behavior will further contribute the understanding the biological foundations of binge eating and assist with establishing diagnostic criteria and the development of novel treatments for eating disorders marked by binge eating. PMID:19501749

Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Mo, Xiaofei; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2009-01-01

399

Access and Affordability Saskatchewan Food Banks Explore the Cost of Healthy Eating  

E-print Network

basket, as determined by the 2009 Saskatchewan Food Costing Report. These case scenarios assisted healthy, nutritious food. Additionally, the Steering Committee focused on conducting a literature review/insecurity from a number of jurisdictions across Canada. A comprehensive literature review created a better

Argerami, Martin

400

Plenary 2: Eating Across the Curriculum: The Complex Roles of Food in Life and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food plays a crucial role in our lives, and studying its production, consumption, our attitudes toward it and cultural conventions about it can provide a way for students to investigate problems of sustainability, identity, nutrition, geopolitics, the importance of climate, and issues of global justice. This interdisciplinary panel proposes to look at some issues: 1) how studying food plays out

Catherine Womack; Jodi Cohen; James Hayes-Bohanan; Pamela Hayes-Bohanan; Ellen Ingmanson; Ronald Maribett

2008-01-01

401

Sex Differences in Food Preferences, Eating Frequency, and Dental Attrition of the Hadza  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation focuses on a few possible causes and consequences of the sexual division of foraging labor in the Hadza, hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. I present three separate studies; the investigation of foraging goals as reflected in food preferences, the extent of cross-sex food sharing as reflected in consumption, and the consequences as reflected in evidence of the sexual division of

Julia Colette Berbesque

2010-01-01

402

Direct Measurement of Food Intake in Man: A Method for the Objective Study of Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the direct measurement of food intake in man is described. This method provides a means for independently studying many of the variables which are thought to operate in the control of food intake. A liquid diet from a hidden reservoir was ingested through a straw during a 20-min. breakfast or lunch meal. Subjects were tested at the

HENRY A. JORDAN; WILLIAM F. WIELAND; SUSAN P. ZEBLEY; ELIOT STELLAR; ALBERT J. STUNKARD

403

Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.  

PubMed

A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

2013-09-01

404

The drive to eat: comparisons and distinctions between mechanisms of food reward and drug addiction  

PubMed Central

The growing rates of obesity have prompted comparisons between the uncontrolled intake of food and drugs; however, an evaluation of the equivalence of food- and drug-related behaviors requires a thorough understanding of the underlying neural circuits driving each behavior. Although it has been attractive to borrow neurobiological concepts from addiction to explore compulsive food seeking, a more integrated model is needed to understand how food and drugs differ in their ability to drive behavior. In this review, we will examine the commonalities and differences in the systems-level and behavioral responses to food and drugs of abuse, with the goal of identifying areas of research that would address gaps in our current understanding and ultimately identify novel treatments for obesity or drug addiction. PMID:23007187

DiLeone, Ralph J.; Taylor, Jane R.; Picciotto, Marina R.

2013-01-01

405

Fast and frugal food choices: Uncovering individual decision heuristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on food decision making is often based on the assumption that people take many different aspects into account and weight and add them according to their personally assessed importance. Yet there is a growing body of research suggesting that people's decisions can often be better described by simple heuristics—rules of thumb that people use to make choices based on

B. Scheibehenne; L. Miesler; Peter M. Todd

2008-01-01

406

Fast Food Demand, Physical Activity, Obesity and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the demand for food-away-from-home (FAFH) increases, there is a growing concern regarding its role in the increasing incidence of obesity among Americans. In this paper, we investigate the role of FAFH pricing in influencing both sides of the weight-gain equation (calories in - calories out = weight gain): FAFH demand, physical activity, health status and, ultimately, body mass index

Timothy J. Richards; Lisa Mancino

407

Effects of Fast-Food Consumption on Energy Intake and Diet Quality Among Children in a National Household Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Fast food has become a prominent feature of the diet of children in the United States and, increasingly, throughout the world. However, few studies have examined the effects of fast-food con- sumption on any nutrition or health-related outcome. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that fast-food consumption adversely affects dietary factors linked to obesity risk.

Shanthy A. Bowman; Steven L. Gortmaker; Cara B. Ebbeling; Mark A. Pereira; David S. Ludwig

408

www.irp.wisc.edu No. 162013 Fast Focus is an occasional, electronic-only supplement to Focus on recent poverty research.  

E-print Network

competition for research on food assistance programs, food choices, and obesity and other health outcomes food prices: Effects on child eating patterns, food insecurity, and overweight obesity among children.5 is increased.8 Living in areas with higher-priced fast foods and soda is as- sociated with lower body weight

Scharer, John E.

409

The association between food cravings and consumption of specific foods in a laboratory taste test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study tested the relation between food cravings and food intake in the laboratory. Participants (n=91; mean BMI=35.1kg\\/m2) completed the Food Craving Inventory to measure cravings for sweets, fats, carbohydrates, and fast food fats, and a taste test consisting of four foods (jelly beans, M&M's®, regular potato chips, and baked low-fat potato chips). Thereafter, participants could eat the items

Corby K. Martin; Patrick M. O’Neil; Gary Tollefson; Frank L. Greenway; Marney A. White

2008-01-01

410

Mood, food, traits, and restraint: an experimental investigation of negative affect, borderline personality, and disordered eating  

E-print Network

women (N = 149). In the main study, undergraduate women (N = 307) completed a baseline mood assessment, then viewed a 39-minute sad film either with or without concurrent food presentation. Participants then completed a second mood assessment...

Ambwani, Suman

2009-05-15

411

Got Your Dairy Today? 10 Tips to Help You Eat and Drink More Dairy Foods  

MedlinePLUS

... dairy foods The Dairy Group includes milk, yogurt, cheese, and fortified soymilk. They provide calcium, vitamin D, ... evaporated milk instead of cream, and try ricotta cheese as a substitute for cream cheese. choose sweet ...

412

Getting consumers to eat more whole-grains: The role of policy, information, and food manufacturers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 Dietary Guidelines were unique because they offered quantitative recommendations for consumption of whole-grains. This case study examines the hypothesis that the changed recommendations were responsible for the recent increase in retail sales and consumption of whole-grain food products. We find that release of the Dietary Guidelines and related media attention did increase availability and sales of whole-grain foods.

Lisa Mancino; Fred Kuchler; Ephraim Leibtag

2008-01-01

413

Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.  

PubMed

Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. PMID:23500173

Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

2013-04-10

414

Energy Content of U.S. Fast-Food Restaurant Offerings 14-Year Trends  

PubMed Central

Background Within the past decade there has been increasing attention to the role of fast food in the American diet, including a rise in legislative and media-based efforts that address the healthfulness of fast food. However, no studies have been undertaken to evaluate changes in the energy content of fast-food chain restaurant menu items during this period. Purpose To examine changes in the energy content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at eight of the leading fast-food chain restaurants in the U.S. between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Methods Menu offerings and nutrient composition information were obtained from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center Food and Nutrient Database. Nutrient composition information for items was updated biannually. Changes in median energy content of all lunch/dinner menu offerings and specific categories of menu items among all restaurants and for individual restaurants were examined. Data were collected between 1997 and 2010 and analysis was conducted in 2011. Results Spanning 1997/1998 and 2009/2010, the number of lunch/dinner menu items offered by the restaurants in the study increased by 53%. Across all menu items, the median energy content remained relatively stable over the study period. Examining specific food categories, the median energy content of desserts and condiments increased, the energy content of side items decreased, and energy content of entrees and drinks remained level. Conclusions While large increases in the number of menu items were observed, there have been few changes in the energy content of menu offerings at the leading fast-food chain restaurants examined in this study. PMID:23079171

Bauer, Katherine W.; Hearst, Mary O.; Earnest, Alicia A.; French, Simone A.; Oakes, J. Michael; Harnack, Lisa J.

2012-01-01

415

Purchasing Behavior and Calorie Information at Fast-Food Chains in New York City, 2007  

PubMed Central

We surveyed 7318 customers from 275 randomly selected restaurants of 11 fast food chains. Participants purchased a mean of 827 calories, with 34% purchasing 1000 calories or more. Unlike other chains, Subway posted calorie information at point of purchase and its patrons more often reported seeing calorie infomation than patrons of other chains (32% vs 4%; P<.001); Subway patrons who saw calorie information purchased 52 fewer calories than did other Subway patrons (P<.01). Fast-food chains should display calorie information prominently at point of purchase, where it can be seen and used to inform purchases. PMID:18556597

Bassett, Mary T.; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina; Silver, Lynn D.; Young, Candace; Nonas, Cathy; Matte, Thomas D.; Chideya, Sekai; Frieden, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

416

The McLawsuit: the fast-food industry and legal accountability for obesity.  

PubMed

Recent litigation brought by a group of overweight children against the McDonald's Corporation that seeks compensation for obesity-related health problems has provoked an intense public response. Many have derided this lawsuit as representing the worst excesses of the tort liability system, while others have drawn parallels to tobacco litigation. Fast-food litigation raises the question of where accountability for the economic and public health consequences of obesity properly rests. In this paper we consider the reasonableness of the claims against fast-food companies and discuss several social effects that the litigation may have irrespective of its outcome in court. PMID:14649448

Mello, Michelle M; Rimm, Eric B; Studdert, David M

2003-01-01

417

Bound phytophenols from ready-to-eat cereals: comparison with other plant-based foods.  

PubMed

Whole-grain diets are linked to reduced risk of several chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome) and all-cause mortality. There is increasing evidence that these benefits are associated with the gut microbiota and that release of fibre-related phenolic metabolites in the gut is a contributing factor. Additional sources of these metabolites include fruits and vegetables, but the evidence for their protective effects is less well established. With respect to the availability of bound phytophenols, ready-to-eat cereals are compared with soft fruits (considered rich in antioxidants) and other commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The results demonstrated that when compared with an equivalent serving of fruits or vegetables, a recommended portion of whole-grain cereals deliver substantially higher amounts of bound phytophenols, which are available for metabolism in the colon. The increased amount of these phenolic metabolites may, in part, explain the evidence for the protective effects of whole-grain cereals. PMID:23871037

Neacsu, M; McMonagle, J; Fletcher, R J; Scobbie, L; Duncan, G J; Cantlay, L; de Roos, B; Duthie, G G; Russell, W R

2013-12-01

418

Nickel levels in convenience and fast foods: In vitro study of the dialyzable fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel presence was determined in 170 samples of 43 different convenience and fast foods widely consumed in Spain. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used as analytical technique. Reliability of the procedure was checked. Ni levels ranged from 18.50 to 95.00ngg?1 (fresh weight of edible portion). The most elevated Ni concentrations were found in egg- and pork-based foods and in sauces

Carmen Cabrera-Vique; Marta Mesías; Paula R. Bouzas

2011-01-01

419

Food & Retail on Campus Never Stand Still Facilities Management  

E-print Network

) QUadranglE BUilding ­ lg Wide range of fresh, fast and tasty food. Various cuisines. The Whitehouse (C15Food & Retail on Campus Never Stand Still Facilities Management Eat, drink, shop, relax! #12;Keen place! #12;UNSW's Kensington Campus has a large variety of food and general retail services, including

New South Wales, University of

420

Time to Take a Stand against Junk Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood obesity is a social and health problem that is encouraged by junk food ads and the easy availability of unhealthful fast foods. The article provides guidance for parents to encourage healthy eating by their children; it includes a list of resources and a list of "best" processed foods. (SM)

Jacobsen, Michael

1993-01-01

421

FAST: towards safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy of persistent life-threatening food allergies  

PubMed Central

The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1) and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3), respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre-clinical testing (toxicology testing and efficacy in mouse models), SCIT with alum-absorbed hypoallergens will be evaluated in phase I/IIa and IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) clinical trials, with the DBPC food challenge as primary read-out. To understand the underlying immune mechanisms in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold for fish or peach intake, thereby decreasing their anxiety and dependence on rescue medication. PMID:22409908

2012-01-01

422

Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine demographic, behavioral and dietary correlates of frequency of fast food restaurant use in a community-based sample of 4746 adolescent students.DESIGN: A survey was administered to students in classrooms at 31 secondary schools in a large metropolitan area in Minnesota, United States. Height and body weight were measured.SUBJECTS: Students in grades 7–12 who were enrolled in participating schools,

SA French; M Story; D Neumark-Sztainer; JA Fulkerson; P Hannan

2001-01-01

423

You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.  

PubMed

Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile food quantity on adult reproductive fitness in a hemimetabolous insect. PMID:24130901

Barry, Katherine L

2013-01-01

424

You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid  

PubMed Central

Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile food quantity on adult reproductive fitness in a hemimetabolous insect. PMID:24130901

Barry, Katherine L.

2013-01-01

425

Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA  

PubMed Central

Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979

Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

2009-01-01

426

Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors  

PubMed Central

Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R2 around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.19, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that behavioral intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P < 0.01) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.56, P < 0.001). Attitude toward fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control. PMID:21556232

Seo, Hyun-sun; Nam, Soyoung

2011-01-01

427

Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors.  

PubMed

Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R(2) around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.19, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that behavioral intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P < 0.01) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.56, P < 0.001). Attitude toward fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control. PMID:21556232

Seo, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

2011-04-01

428

Light-Element Isotopes (H, C, N, and O) as Tracers of Human Diet: A Case Study on Fast Food Meals  

E-print Network

for one ubiquitous example of modern convenience food, the fast food meal. In a series of paired observations among cities in the U.S., we com- pared the isotopic composition of components of a fast food meal analysis of proteins highlighted the impact of consumer choice: patrons in a fast food restaurant consumed

Ehleringer, Jim

429

Risky Food Safety Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Bmi and Lower Healthy Eating Self-Efficacy and Intentions among African American Churchgoers in Baltimore  

PubMed Central

Background There are an estimated 9.4 million cases of foodborne illness each year. Consumers have a key role in preventing foodborne illness, but differences in the practice of food safety behaviors exist, increasing risk for certain groups in the population. Identifying groups who are more likely to practice risky food safety behaviors can assist in development of interventions to reduce the disease burden of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships of health indicators and psychosocial factors with self-reported food safety behaviors. Methods and Findings Data were collected via questionnaire from 153 African Americans who attend churches in Baltimore City. Individuals reported high overall concern with food safety (mean score: 0.80±0.49 on a scale of ?1 to +1) and practiced food safety behaviors with moderate overall frequency (mean score: 5.26±4.01 on a scale of ?12 to +12), with considerable variation in reported frequencies depending on the food safety behavior. After adjusting for demographic variables, food safety behaviors were significantly associated with BMI and psychosocial variables. Riskier food safety behaviors were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) (??=??0.141 95%CI (?0.237, ?0.044), p?=?0.004). Self-efficacy for healthy eating (standard ? [std. ?]?=?0.250, p?=?0.005) and healthy eating intentions (std. ??=?0.178, p?=?0.041) were associated with better food safety behaviors scores. Conclusions These results show important relationships between weight-related health indicators, psychosocial factors and food safety behaviors that have not previously been studied. Interventions tailored to higher-risk populations have the potential to reduce the burden of food-related illnesses. Additional studies are needed to further investigate these relationships with larger and more diverse samples. PMID:23284894

Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Silbergeld, Ellen; Summers, Amber; Chen, Lenis; Gittelsohn, Joel

2012-01-01

430

Eating up the world's food web and the human trophic level  

E-print Network

Marine Ecosystems (EME-212), 34203 Sète Cedex, France; b Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR, from primary producers to apex predators (range, 1­5). Small differen- ces in trophic level can reflect, which describes the composition of food consumed and enables comparisons of diets between species

Malhi, Yadvinder

431

Food Additives: "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy". Health and the Consumer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

432

The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women,

T. Ninuk S. Hartini; R. Siwi Padmawati; Lars Lindholm; Achmad Surjono; Anna Winkvist

2005-01-01

433

Re-embodying Eating  

PubMed Central

Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

2014-01-01

434

Measuring food access in Melbourne: Access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to healthy food can be an important determinant of a healthy diet. This paper describes the assessment of access to healthy and unhealthy foods using a GIS accessibility programme in a large outer municipality of Melbourne. Access to a major supermarket was used as a proxy for access to a healthy diet and fast food outlet as proxy for

C. M. Burns; A. D. Inglis

2007-01-01

435

Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…

Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

2000-01-01